Table of contents

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT...............................................2 First of all, we are Thankful to Allah Almighty, The most gracious and the most merciful whose blessings were with us throughout our work and are with our life. ................................................................................................................................2 We are also thankful to Sir. Muhammad Amir who helped us a lot for our project & provided his guidance.........................................................................................2 We are also thankful to our lecturer & instructor Sir. A. K Durrani whose guidance helped us throughout our project.............................................................2 I am also thankful to our parents & family who provided us help & suggestions.. .2 ABSTRACT...................................................3 In this project work, we attempt to construct a small and simple model of and Automatic sliding door System, which uses a sensor, a control unit & drive unit to open & close doors at the entrance of a public building..........................................3 Chapter 1:................................................................................................................5 1.1 Information of project.......................................................................................5 As a result of enhanced civilization and modernization, the human nature demands more comfort to his life. The man seeks ways to do things easily and which saves time. So thus, the Automatic Gates are one of the examples that human nature invent to bring comfort and ease in its daily life.....................................................6 1.2 General information:.........................................................................................6 1.3 Our project:.......................................................................................................7 Chapter # 2:...........................................................................................................10 2.1 Selected project:..............................................................................................10 2.2 Working mechanism.......................................................................................11 2.3 Block diagram................................................................................................11 2.4 Real time mechanism .....................................................................................12 Chapter #3:............................................................................................................14 3.1 Circuit Diagram ..............................................................................................14 3.2 Circuit Description..........................................................................................17 3.3 Software :........................................................................................................19 3.3 Components used:...........................................................................................21 3.4 Cost Estimation...............................................................................................25 3.5 Fabricated circuit pic:......................................................................................26 ..............................................................................................................................27

1

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all, we are Thankful to Allah Almighty, The most gracious and the most merciful whose blessings were with us throughout our work and are with our life. We are also thankful to Sir. Muhammad Amir who helped us a lot for our project & provided his guidance. We are also thankful to our lecturer & instructor Sir. A. K Durrani whose guidance helped us throughout our project.. I am also thankful to our parents & family who provided us help & suggestions.

2

ABSTRACT
In this project work, we attempt to construct a small and simple model of and Automatic sliding door System, which uses a sensor, a control unit & drive unit to open & close doors at the entrance of a public building.

The primary aim of this project is to learn in details about how the automatic door system works and to understand to concepts involved. The secondary aim is to fabricate a simple circuit model to show how the system works. The main activities involved in this project are the search done on how the automatic door works, sketching a detailed circuit of the gates, programming & then fabrication of circuit. We were able to learn a lot from this project such as team work, innovation & concepts taught in class into a practical object. 3

4

Chapter 1: 1.1 Information of project

1.1.1 Aim of the project
The aim of this project is to learn in detail about how the Automatic Sliding Door works, to understand the concepts involved and to fabricate a simple model to show the system works.

1.1.2 Automatic door
Automatic door is an automated movable barrier installed in the entry of a room or building to restrict access or provide visual privacy.

1.1.3 History of the Automatic door
A $100 investment by s college student in Toledo, Ohio, in 1974 planted the seed from which have grown one of the most successful garage door and automatic gate system companies. When George Elbe placed $100 advertisement in the local newspaper offering 13 automatic door openers, they were all sold and installed. This was the beginning of a company whose business philosophy included exceptional customer service, with a sharp focus on customer needs and satisfaction. That philosophy also features direct access to all management personal by phone or e-mail and it’s a credo that continues to this day. In 1981, after seven years of dramatic growth in Toledo, the decision was made to add a second location. Naples, FL, was chosen as a perfect setting, since it combined a great with a rapidly expanding business environment. Utilizing the same business tenets that were so successful in Toledo, Action Door and Gate welcomed its first customer.

1.1.4 Need of Automatic door:
5

As a result of enhanced civilization and modernization, the human nature demands more comfort to his life. The man seeks ways to do things easily and which saves time. So thus, the Automatic Gates are one of the examples that human nature invent to bring comfort and ease in its daily life.

1.2 General information: Automatic doors are powered open and closed, a door fitted with a spring to close it is not an automatic door.

1.2.1 Methods For Activation:
There are three methods by which an automatic door is activated. 1 - A sensor detects traffic is approaching. Sensors for automatic doors are generally: A pressure sensor - a floor mat which reacts to the pressure of someone standing on it. An infra-red curtain or beam which shines invisible light onto sensors; if someone or something blocks the beam the door can open. A motion sensor which uses low-power microwave radar. An electronic sensor (e.g. based on infra red or radio waves) can be triggered by something that someone carries, or is installed inside a vehicle. These are popular for garage doors. 2 - A switch is operated manually, perhaps after security checks. This can be a push button switch or a swipe card. 3 - The user pushes, or pulls the door, once the door detects the movement it completes the open and close cycle. These are also known as power-assisted doors. In addition to activate sensors automatic doors are generally fitted with safety sensors. These are usually an infra-red curtain or beam, but can be a pressure mat fitted on the swing side of the door. The purpose of the safety sensor is to prevent the door opening or slow its speed if an object is detected in its path whilst opening and to prevent the door closing or reactivate it if an object is detected in its path.

1.2.2 Types of automatic doors:
i. ii. iii. Sliding door Swinging door Revolving door 6

iv.

Telescopic door

1.3 Our project: We’ve selected automatic sliding door for project. 1.4 Similar projects: Apart from automatic sliding doors, similar projects could be on (i) Automatic Swinging Doors: An automatic door swing door has special hinges that allow it to open either outwards or inwards & is operated automatically.

(ii) Automatic Telescopic Doors Telescopic sliding doors have each of the leaves slide with a different speed sideways. Telescopic sliding doors are used for narrow openings, where unusually wide opening widths and small space requirement is necessary.

(iii)Revolving Automatic Doors

7

The revolving automatic door is designed for everyday use, so is an ideal alternative for buildings with a large number of visitors. Open or closed, the revolving door has another major advantage; no draught: the revolving door saves energy and ensures a uniform climate inside the building.

(iv) Balanced Doors The balanced door has incorporated the advantages of both conventional swing doors and normal sliding doors. Constraints of safety and reliability with many door installations often lead to the balanced door being the only natural solution. Wherever there is only minimal space for a door leaf that swings open, there is no other alternative than the balanced door. (v) Automatic parking barrier: An automatic barrier is used for reserving personal parking spaces - or keeping unauthorized vehicles from office parking areas. Operated by remote control from the safety and comfort of a vehicle

(vi) Automatic Solar Gate Systems In simple terms, we operate an automatic gate using battery power, the battery is charged by the solar panel during all daylight hours. The battery then works the automated gate day and night. (vii) Automatic doors for elevator

8

(viii) Automatic doors for cars

9

Chapter # 2: 2.1 Selected project: We’ve selected sliding automatic door for the project.

2.1.1 lab Demonstration:
In lab, mostly sliding door is being designed for students for their better understanding of both electrical and mechanical constraints.

2.1.2 Mechanical Design:
Rack-In Pinion mechanism is commonly used for sliding the doors, and is easily available in the market, in both plastic and iron form. Gears of different sizes can be used for driving the rack in pinion, but the teeth ratio of both the gear and pinion should be the same. Toys, DC motors can be used for this purpose. Unless the load specification requires the geared motor to drive the pinion mechanism. Speed of opening and closing must be fair enough for better security reasons. Aluminum frames can be used due to their light weight quality.

2.1.3 Circuit Design:
Circuit Design includes H-bridge developed by the Transistors of N-Type. Current rating of transistor is selected according to the load specification. For this case transistor of mA can be used, for driving the toy motors. Control of the door is heavenly depends upon the customer requirements. Remote control, motion control, light control etc can be installed at the door. But for lab demonstration Transmitter & Receiver circuit is being commonly used. It also has an impact on the cost factor. As an additional part, security system can also be installed, for example, alarming system, fire detecting system etc, increasing the cost. 2.2 Working mechanism The first basic component of the circuit is the door sensing unit. It comprises of transmitter and receiver. As soon as some one enters the range of detection the Ultrasonic Wave sent by transmitter are reflected by the object and the signal is not sent to the receiver. This whole sensing unit is connected with the control unit. Along with the control unit are attached the limit switches to control the rotation of movement of motor

10

controlling the doors. Control unit sends the signal to the driving unit after which the driving unit switches on and off the motor. For how long the motor is to be driven and kept shut down is done using limit switches. Two limit switches are attached at the centre where doors meet upon closure and are used to specify the extent to which the motors should move in the reverse direction to close the door. When the door is closed completely the switches are in ground position and signal is send to the microcontroller which stops the motors. Similarly, two limit switches are present at the two extremes specifying the extent to which door could open. When the door reaches the maximum limit of opening, these two switches at extreme become ground and signal is sent to the microcontroller which stops the motors. A power supply is attached to the door sensing unit, control unit, drive unit and the motor.

2.3 Block diagram

11

2.4 Real time mechanism

In real time mechanism sensing unit is used as shown in fig .In this sensing unit transmitter is sending the ultrasonic signals and receiver is receiving the signals. When an object is present at the door the signals send by transmitter is reflected by object and receiver does not receive the signals. This sensing unit is connected with control unit. Control unit will control the closing and opening of the door. Door will remain open until the signals send by transmitter is not received by receiver. As the receiver will again receive the ultrasonic signals the door will close.

Sensing Unit

12

13

Chapter #3: 3.1 Circuit Diagram

M1

14

3.2 Circuit Description An automatic door control system, used with a moveable door system wherein doors are moved between closed and opened positions by means of the rotary drive of an electric motor, comprises of: An ultra sonic sensor to detect the object Two bi-directional multi-speed rotary drive motor coupled to the each door A microcontroller coupled to the motors Two motor drive circuits, each coupled to the microcontroller Four transistors in each H-bridge configuration

3.2.1 H-Bridge Working
H-Bridge is a main unit which controls the motor directly. It is driven by microcontroller. It would be useful to be able to run a motor in either direction. That's simple with a motor of the type that's been used in the experiments thus far. Reverse the DC power connections on such a motor and its shaft will rotate in the opposite direction.

M2

S1

S2

S4

S3

This configuration is called an H-Bridge due to its shape. Turn on switch A and switch C and the motor will run forward. Turn on switch B and switch D and it will run in reverse.

15

The following truth table shows all of the possibilities for the original circuit diagram. A ‘1’means a transistor is on and a‘0’ means it's off: Q1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Q2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Q3 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Q4 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 M1 STATE Off Off Off Off Off Off Clockwise Off Off Counter-clockwise Off Off Off Off Off Off Q5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Q6 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Q7 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Q8 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 M2 STATE Off Off Off Off Off Off Clockwise Off Off Counter-clockwise Off Off Off Off Off Off

3.2.2 Working details of whole circuit
A feature of this invention is the use of four transistors and the motor in an H-bridge configuration. This configuration allows the drive transistors to be used. The input to the microcontroller is given through P1.0/T2, Port 1 driver. Input is an activate signal, generated by an ultrasonic sensor, to signal the automatic door control system to open the door. The output Port 2 is a control signal to drive motor. It is connected to the motor drive circuit. The main part of the automatic door control system is a motor drive circuit that includes the eight drive transistors Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4, Q5, Q6, Q7 & Q8 configured as an H-bridge

16

circuit. An H-bridge circuit is a control circuit where four transistors and a load motor are arranged in the form of the letter H with the load being connected to the middle of the H. When used for DC motor control, it can control both speed and direction of the motor. Two H-bridge circuits are used. One circuit is for door1 and other for door 2. Through ports of Port 1 limit switches are connected. When the object is detected through ultrasonic sensor, signal is sent to transistors through microcontroller. For door 1, Q2 & Q3 get 1 while Q1 & Q4 are 0. This causes the motor to rotate in a clockwise direction for opening the door. For door 2, Q6 & Q7 get 1 while Q5 & Q8 are 0. The motor will continue rotating until S1 & S3 get ground. Now when the door needs to be closed, the motor’s direction is reversed. For door 1, now Q2 & Q3 get 0 while Q1 & Q4 are 1. This causes the motor to rotate in anticlockwise direction. For door 2, Q6 & Q7 get 0 while Q5 & Q8 are 1. The motor will continue rotating until S2 & S4 get ground and the door gets closed. 3.3 Software :

3.3.1 Programme For Automatic Door Operation
# include<reg51.h> sw1 sbit P1^4 sw2 sbit P1^5 sw4 sbit P1^6 sw3 sbit P1^7 usw sbit P1^0 int fwd; int stop; int rev; void main () { Fwd=0xAA; Stop=0; Rev=x55; while(1) { If (us) { while (sw1 && sw3) { P2=fwd; } P2=stop; while(us); while(sw2 && sw4) { P2=rev; 17

} P2=stop; } } } KEY sw us sbit int fwd rev 1^4 P limit switch ultrasonic sensor bit assigned integer forward reverse 1.4 port

3.3.2 Program description:
In the programs, firstly bits are assigned to the limit switches. Bit P1.4 is assigned to switch 1, 1.5 to switch 2, 1.6 to switch4, 1.7 to switch3. The bit assigned to ultrasonic sensor is 1.0. Three integers fwd, stop, rev are taken to move the door forward, stop it and to move the door in the reverse direction with the help of motors. The integer ‘fwd’ is assigned code 0xAA in hexagonal decimal system. The code in binary system will be 10011001 i.e. to move door in fwd direction points Q2 and Q3 will be in ON position. The code for one door is 1001 and for both doors is 10011001. The integer ‘stop’ is assigned code 0 and for reverse direction rotation of motors the code in hexagonal system is x55. In binary it becomes01100110 i.e. for reverse rotation Q2 and Q3 will be OFF and Q1 and Q4 will be ON. The while (sw1 && sw3) loop shows that when the switches sw1 and sw3 remain off the port 2 will move the door in forward direction. When they become ON the port 2 will stop moving the door in forward direction. This will happen while the ultrasonic sensor remains ON. In while (sw2 && sw4) loop the port 2 will move door in reverse direction. When they will be ON the movement in reverse direction will stop. This process will happen while ultrasonic sensor sends off signal i.e. no person is entering through the door. 3.2.3 Compiler used for Programming

18

A kill is professional software to compile C code into HEX fi

3.3 Components used:

3.3.1 Microcontroller
It is a low-power, high-performance 8-bit microcomputer with 8K bytes of programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The device is manufactured using high density memory technology. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional memory programmer.

19

3.3.2 Limit switch
It is a type of mechanical sensor that requires physical contact to detect the presence or absence of an object. Limit switches are the first type of sensor to be used. Switches are commonly employed as input devices to indicate the presence or absence of a particular condition in a system or process that is being monitored and/or controlled. In motorized electromechanical systems, limit switches provide the function of making and breaking electrical contacts and consequently electrical circuits. A limit switch is configured to detect when a system's element has moved to a certain position. A system operation is triggered when a limit switch is tripped.

3.3.3 Field Efect Transistor
FEATURES Fast switching Low thermal resistance

20

APPLICATIONS Motor Drivers T.V. and computer monitor power supplies

3.3.4 Ultrasonic sensor

a-Transmitting waves to Object

b-Receiving waves after Reflection

An ultrasonic sensor utilizes a transducer that produces an electrical output in response to received ultrasonic energy. An ultrasonic sensor is used as an obstacle detection sensor for detecting obstacle by transmitting and receiving an ultrasonic wave. A typical ultrasonic sensor is designed to emit an ultrasonic pulse toward an object to be detected to receive a reflected wave, which is reflected on the object, to measure a period of time from the ultrasonic pulse emitting time to the reflected wave receiving time to detect the object. An ultrasonic sensor comprises at least one ultrasonic transducer which transforms electrical energy into sound and, in reverse, sound into electrical energy, a housing enclosing the ultrasonic transducer or transducers, an electrical connection and, and an electronic circuit for signal processing also enclosed in the housing. The ultrasonic sensor has a piezoelectric vibrator. The piezoelectric vibrator vibrates to transmit an ultrasonic wave and receives a reflected wave from an obstacle, so that an obstacle can be detected.

3.3.5 DC Mototrs

21

Its a motor that will do some work if you feed it some DC voltage. Reversing the dc supply voltage polarity will make it run in a reverse direction

3.3.6 Bread board
A breadboard is used to build and test circuits quickly before finalizing any circuit design. The breadboard has many holes into which circuit components like ICs and resistors can be inserted. A typical breadboard is shown below:

3.3.7 LED
LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices. The LED is based on the semiconductor diode. When a diode is forward biased (switched on),electrons are able to recombine with holes within the device, releasing energy in the form ofphotons.

3.3.8 Wires
A short length of wire used to make a connection, usually temporarily, between terminals or to bypass a component

22

3.4 Cost Estimation

3.4.1 Mechanical Equipment
Sr No 1. . 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Description Acrylic Sheet (Transparent) 3×3 Piece (4mm) DC Motor Aluminum U- Channel Rack in pinion Gears Rivets Qty 1 1 2 6 3 4 36 Unit Price 700 300 250 20 30 15 2 Total Total 700 300 500 120 90 60 72 Rs.1842

3.4.2 Electrical Equipment
Sr No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Description Resistor & Capacitors (1K, 10K, 220,470Ω) Jumper Wire IRF540 Micro Controller IC base Bread board Universal Programmer Motors Limit Switches Qty 50 Unit Price 5 Total 250 500 440 75 50 100 4000 700 100 Rs. 6215

01 02 01 01 02 04 350 25 Total

23

3.4.3 Decoration Cost
Rs.1500

3.4.4 Total Cost
Rs. 7715 In Case of Real time Door Automation like a Bank door then only pairs of motors should replaced with large load motors then estimated pries should be, Total Cost = 7715 +1500 =9215

3.5 Fabricated circuit pic:

24

3.6 Safety Standard BS7036 For Automatic Sliding Door:
Safety during the opening cycle: - Where practicable, one of the following should be fitted A) A suitable barrier, The distance between the barrier and the fully open door should be greater than 25mm and less than 100mm. B) A pocket screen of minimum height 1500 mm C) Presence sensors In order to minimise body traps: - If the gap between the face of the door and the structure across which it slides is less than 100 mm, the gap between the rear edge of the door in the fully open position and the fixed structure should be greater than 200 mm. - If the gap between the face of the door and the structure across which it slides is greater than 100 mm, the gap between the rear edge of the door in the fully open position and the fixed structure should be greater than 500 mm. During the opening of a sliding door

25

a) When the door is fully open there should be a gap of at least 25mm between the strike and the jambs. b) The clearance between the face of the jambs and the face of the leaf glazing should be greater than 25mm. c) The door should be stopped a minimum of 25mm short of a mullion or structural return. When a folding door is in the open position there should be a gap of at least 25mm between the hinge and the leading strike.

Safety during the closing cycle - One of the following means should be used to prevent doors shutting on traffic during the opening cycle: - A) A hold-open beam positioned between the jambs at a height between 300mm and 600mm above the finished floor level. - B) Safety mats or presence sensing safety devices should be used. Means of Escape: - If powered doors are intended as a means of escape from a building then the doors should be either: - A) Capable of manual breakout in the direction of escape - B) Should be linked to the fire alarm system in order to open the door on activation of the alarm. - The resistance to breakout should not be greater than 220N at the leading or meeting stile.

26

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful