INTRODUCTION Programmable logic controllers provide dependable, high speed control and

monitoring demanded by a wide variety of automated applications. Before the automotive industry discovered the advantages of PLC, the process of modifying relay circuitry was a difficult. In the past, annual car model changes forced plant engineers to constantly modify production equipment managed by relay circuitry. In some cases, the engineers had to scrap entire relay controlled panels and replace them with completely redesigned systems. Now, PLC’s allow engineers to implement numerous manufacturing changes with relative ease, which reduces changeover costs and downtime. Basically, it's a solid-state, programmable electrical/electronic interface that can manipulate, execute, and/or monitor, at a very fast rate, the state of a process or communication system. It operates on the basis of programmable data contained in an integral microprocessor based system. A PLC is able to receive (input) and transmit (output) various types of electrical and electronic signals and can control and monitor practically any kind of mechanical and/or electrical system. Therefore, it has enormous flexibility in interfacing with computers, machines, and many other peripheral systems or devices. It's usually programmed in relay ladder logic and is designed to operate in an industrial environment. To know how the PLC works, it is essential that we have an understanding of its central processing unit's (CPU's) scan sequence. The methodology basically is the same for all PLC’s. However, as special hardware modules are added into the system, additional scanning cycles are required.



The objective of this project is to: 1. Understand PLC’s terminology, configuration, I/O modules addressing and types of PLC memory devices, 2. Program instructions that perform logical operations and ladder logic programs, 3. Program the control of outputs using the timer instruction control bits, 4. Apply the PLC counter function and associated circuitry to control systems, 5. Install hardware components used in PLC systems. 6. Understand, design and develop PLC program. 7. Assemble and test run the correct components, circuits and program in PLC system.
8. Safety practices in PLC laboratory; PLC components and functions;

Programming language; Step displacement diagrams; Circuit assembly for pneumatics and electric for single and sequence actuation; Timer and counter.



In the end of this experiment we found that: • • • Student able to draw a basic electro-pneumatic circuit with PLC, install and test run it to move an actuator. Student able to design, construct, and troubleshoot of this PLC circuits. Student able to identify and operate a few types of electro pneumatic components including relay and its contactors.



1. Never disconnect electro pneumatic lines or disassemble electro pneumatic equipment when the pneumatic system power motor is running. 2. Make sure I/O and extension connector are installed correctly. 3. Use the PLC in an environment that meets the general specification contained in this manual. 4. Make sure all external load connected to output does NOT exceed the rating of output module. 5. Install a safety circuit external to the PLC that keeps the entire system safe even when there are problems with the external power supply or PLC module. Otherwise, serious trouble could result from erroneous output or erroneous operation. 6. Never manually actuate switches, solenoids, relays, or valves on pneumatic systems under pressure unless you are competent and qualified to perform these actions. 7. All personnel taking part in and observing operation of power equipment must remain alert, keep clear of moving parts, and be thoroughly familiar with the safety precautions applicable to that equipment. At no time should skylarking be allowed in the vicinity of operating power equipment. 8. Never use electrical or electronic equipment known to be in poor condition.
9. Use the right voltage. Most pneumatic devices are powered by air and

controlled with an electronic control valve. 10. Check and secure all of the mountings, fittings, piping, tubing, connectors and connections before connecting any electro pneumatic components or systems to a power supply.



Task: Operating a Charge and Discharge Process Charge and discharge of a reservoir is a common process in industry as well as a need for mixing two or more substances. By using automated valves, this process can be completely automated. Let us say that fluid used in the example is water, and that a reservoir has to be filled up and emptied four times. When you push T1 on the operating panel, valve V1 opens and a reservoir starts filling up with water. At the same time, motor M of the mixer starts working. When the reservoir fills up, water level goes up and reaches the level set by a sensor S1. V1 valve closes and motor of the mixer stops. Valve V2 opens then and a reservoir start emptying. When water level falls below the level set by a sensor S2, valve V2 closes. By repeating the same cycle four times, lamp that indicates end of a cycle is activated. Pressing T1 key will start a new cycle. Both types of differentiators are used in this example. You can get an idea of what their role is from picture below. Level S1 and S2 sensors provide information on whether fluid level goes beyond a specified value. This type of information is not important when you wish to know whether fluid level goes up or down in a certain sequence. Mainly, event of approaching the upper level, or a moment when fluid that fills up a reservoir goes beyond upper level and activates sensor S1 is detected in segment 3 of a ladder diagram. Brief activation of IR200.02 output has a consequence a turn off of an output V1 (valve for water, prevents further flow of water but also motor operation in the mixer). Moment prior to this (segment 5) valve V2 turns on which marks a beginning of fluid outflow. Other two differentiators (in segments 6 and 7) have a task of registering events such as closing a valve MV2 and drop in fluid level below allowed minimum.

1.1 input/output assignment

I/P DEVICE Push button Push button Push button


IP NO 000001 000002 000003




IP NO 000101 000102 000103


 Ladder diagram

 electrical circuit

1-1IC1 IN0 IN1

1-1OC1 %I1/0 OUT0 %I1/1 OUT1 %I1/2 OUT2 %I1/3 OUT3 %I1/4 OUT4 %I1/5 OUT5 %I1/6 OUT6 %I1/7 OUT7 COM
LED_V2 m otor LED_V1


 Input component: Push Button 1 (PB 1) and Push Button (PB 2)

 Output component: Motor, LED 1, LED 2

• •

First, PLC circuit was created according to the task given and was installed into the PLC trainer by double acting cylinder. Second, all the input such as push button (PB1 and PB2) was connecting to 24V and the output (negative) all input device was connecting to 0V (COMM) Third, all output device such as motor and LED 2 and LED 2 was connecting 0V (positive) and 24V (negative).

 Device installation

Sensor 1&2



The diagram above showed a PLC circuit. This circuit install in PLC trainer according to the task given. For build this diagram, we used four two button (PB), one motor and two LED.

The diagram above shown about, when we pressed push button PB1 the internal relay (IR1) was activated and it will energize all contact IR1. Valve V1 will activate by contact IR1 and a reservoir starts filling up water. The motor also activate by contact IR1. After the water level reach level set by sensor 1, so the valve V1 will close and valve V2 open then and a reservoir start emptying. The counter also activate by contact IR2, so the counter will count 4 times to finish this process.

After finish this cycle by repeating four times, the LED 2 will activated and the four times cycle fulfill ready. Then we can press PB2 as a key to start new cycle.



Every system or machine has a controller. Depending on the type of technology used, controllers can be divided into pneumatic, hydraulic, electrical and electronic controllers. Frequently, a combination of different technologies is used. Furthermore, differentiation is made between hard-wired programmable (e.g. wiring of electromechanical or electronic components) and programmable logic controllers. The first is used primarily in cases, where any reprogramming by the user is out of the question and the job size warrants the development of a special controller. Typical applications for such controllers can be found in automatic washing machines, video cameras, and cars. However, if the job size does not warrant the development of a special controller or if the user is to have the facility of making simple or independent program changes, or of setting timers and counters, then the use of a universal controller, where the program is written to an electronic memory, is the preferred option? The PLC represents such a universal controller. It can be used for different applications and, via the program installed in its memory, provides the user with a simple means of changing, extending and optimizing control processes.



Finally we success in develop PLC programming and able to solve the problems. With commitment among group members and the lecture the work done easily. We understand PLC terminology, configuration, I/O modules addressing and types of PLC memory devices, and program instructions that perform logical operations and ladder logic programs. We able apply the PLC counter function and associated circuitry to control systems and Install hardware components used in PLC systems. In the project assemble and test run the correct components, circuits and program in PLC system.


1. S. Brian Morriss, 2000, Programmable Logic Control, Prentice-Hall Inc. 2. http//www.wikipedia.com/programmable logic controller

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