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Electrostatic Precipitation %26 Electrostatic Precipitator

Electrostatic Precipitation %26 Electrostatic Precipitator

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Published by: sidrahafeez on Feb 24, 2010
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Submitted To: Mr. A. N. Tabish Group Name: Fantastic Four Group Members: Iqra Sarfraz Amna Iqbal Sidra Hafeez Jawaeria Altaf 08-BPK-66 08-BPK-75 08-BPk -76 08-BPK-77

Department of Chemical Engineering UET, City Campus (KSK), Lahore

“Electrostatic precipitation is defined as the use of an electrostatic field for precipitating or removing charged solid or liquid particles from a gas stream in which the particles are carried in suspension.”

Principles of Electrostatic Precipitation [1]:
Basic Principle states that particles in a precipitation system are charged, transported, neutralized, and removed.

Process of Precipitation [3]:
Process may occur within a single zone or be distributed into two zones: • Charging Zone (intended to charge the particles). • Collecting Zone (designed to settle the particles).

Efficiency of the Process [2]:
Electrostatic precipitation as practiced can remove some 98-99% of airborne dusts and smokes, and about the same percentages of mould spores, but against the smaller bacterial cells they are rather less effective, in the range of 95-97%.

Description of Mechanism [4]:
When particles in a gas are exposed to gaseous ions they become electrically charged, this charge makes them mobile under the influence of an electric field. They then drift toward an oppositely charged or grounded collector plate where they have their charge neutralized. This is illustrated by the figure. Depending on the size of the particle and the amount of charge it collects from the ions, the particle drift velocity may be from 0.1 to over 1.0 ft/sec. Once the charge is neutralized at the collector plate, the solid particles can be either shaken or washed off under the influence of gravity. Electrostatic

precipitation uses these principles to remove particles of liquids and solids from gas streams. Thus, the electrostatic precipitator must have: , • • • A method for ionizing the carrier gas. Directed flow of the feed gas through the ionizing region. An electric field to cause particle drift to the collecting electrode.

The charge to the carrier gas is supplied by a high voltage direct current corona generated by a non-uniform electric field. A corona is the local electrical breakdown of a uniform gas into electrically charged gaseous ions due to the high voltage. It is made possible by the non-uniformity of the field, which is very strong in the vicinity of thin wires or sharp uniformity which points, but weakens with distance from these regions. If the same voltage were applied as a uniform field between flat electrodes, no breakdown would occur, it would not be localized. In this case continuous breakdown would occur and would cause sparks between the plates rather than a corona The common techniques for generating a non-uniform field are to use either a thin non uniform wire or a rod equipped with many very sharp points as the discharge electrode. The thin wire gives a relatively weak corona from the few small sharp imperfections in the wire. wire On the other hand, the sharp points intentionally placed on the rod literally spray a corona into the gas phase. A number of different electrodes sharps have been tested to increase corona discharge from sharp edges and points. However, if the percent of particles escaping precipitation is plotted against corona power input per unit of gas flow, all the

data fall on a single correlating line. Thus, corona power input determines collection efficiency for electrostatic precipitators.

“An electrostatic precipitator is a large, industrial emission-control unit. It is An emission designed to trap and remove dust particles from the exhaust gas stream of an industrial process. “ Electrostatic precipitators are used for the collection of dusts, mists, and fumes. These are defined as follows: • • • Dust----solid particles from 0.1 to 100 µm in diameter. solid Mist----liquid droplets suspended in a gas. liquid Fume----solid or liquid particles formed by condensation from a vapor. solid

Construction of a Precipitator [8]:
The basic ESP comprises a casing with inlet transition, gas distribution devices, devices outlet transitions, dust collection, hoppers and support steel. The casing encloses and supports the internal equipment such as collection surfaces, discharge electrodes and rapping devices.

The most common material of construction for the casing and internal equipment is mild steel, stainless steel and PVC materials are also used in special applications. applications

Working of a Precipitator [7]:
Working of an ESP comprises of s activities as follows: six • • • • • • Ionization - Charging of particles Migration - Transporting the charged particles to the collecting surfaces Collection - Precipitation of the charged particles onto the collecting surfaces Charge Dissipation - Neutralizing the charged particles on the collecting surfaces Particle Dislodging - Removing the particles from the collecting surface to the hopper Particle Removal - Conveying the particles from the hopper to a disposal point

Designs of Electrostatic Precipitators:
• Wire-in-Plates Designs Plates The plate type units are the most common designs for dry dust removal from the gas (air).

Wire-in-Pipe Designs Pipe Pipe designs are mainly used for the removal of liquid or sludge particles and volatilized fumes.

Division of Precipitators [4]:
Electrostatic precipitators are divided into two broad classes, depending on whether the ionizing and collecting functions are combined or separated, in the single-stage unit the central wire ionizing electrode is also one of the electrodes establishing the field that th causes the particle drift. In two-stage unit the ionizing electrodes and the drift field electrodes are of widely different diameters so that corona discharge and ionization occur only in the vicinity of the small diameter portion of the central electrode. This type of central two-stage unit is used industrially with a negative corona and washing of the collector stage plates is done to recover the particles.

Types of Electrostatic Precipitators: f
There are two types of electrostat precipitators, dry, and wet. electrostatic


Dry Electrostatic precipitator [9]:
The dry ESP is the most common It collects and removes the particulate matter in a common. oves

dry state, such as cement and ash.

Operation [9]: A dry electrostatic precipitator is used for removing dust particulates from a flowing gas stream and comprises of an upright cylindrical vessel, each of precipitator stages have particulate charging electrodes and associated collector electrodes, arranged in a controlled flow path. A dust hopper located beneath each stage; and dust chutes extending from the hoppers to discharge outlets at the bottom of the vessel. The particles will be drawn towards plates hanging on the side of the device, where they will collect. Periodically, the plates will be struck by a hammer, or something like it, or vibrated, causing the particles, now discharged, to fall off. They are then collected, and disposed of accordingly. Applications [10]: Some of the usual applications of dry ESP are: 1. Removal of dirt from flue gases in steam plants. 2. Cleaning of air to remove fungi and bacteria in establishments producing antibiotics and other drugs, and in operating rooms. 3. Cleaning of air in ventilation and air conditioning systems.


Wet Electrostatic Precipitator:
Wet precipitators are used to strip gasses of "wet" particles, such as resin, oil, paint,

tar, acid, or anything that can't be handled well dry. Principle: It operates on the principle of uni-polar particle charging in the corona discharge and particle precipitation under the field of their own space charge.

Operation [11]: In WESP, the dust is removed by continuous or periodic irrigation of the collection plates by water sprays or a water film.

Some systems use very little water and produce sludge like residue others use a clarifier and solid concentrator. Sometimes with pH adjustment and with flocculation aids ment the primary target for the WESP is the submicron particular focus on heavy metals and he soot. Applications: 1. Incinerators for industrial waste. 2. Incinerators for municipal waste. 3. Boilers, melting furnaces, desulfurizing systems. elting

Precipitator Selection [12]:
In the selection process the engineer specifies the particular applications, the gas flow, temperature, pressure, dust concentration, efficiency required, residual permissible, altitude, and as much other pertinent data as are available to him. In some cases it is recognized that data on dust chemistry, fore example, may not exist. The efficiency of electrostatic precipitators can be increased by: reased

• •

Larger collection surface areas and lower air flow rates give more time and area for dust particle to collect. Increased speed of dust particles towards collection electrodes.

Advantages of Electrostatic Precipitation [5]:
1. High removal efficiency of fine particles/droplets. 2. Collection of either dry powder materials or wet fumes/mists. 3. Substances of a wide range of gas temperature up to approx 700 degree C. 4. Low operating costs, except at very high removal efficiencies.

Disadvantages of Electrostatic Precipitation [5]:
1. High capital costs. 2. Unable to collect gaseous pollutants. 3. Large space requirement. 4. Inflexibility of operating conditions.

Applications of Electrostatic Precipitation [6]:
The earliest applications were to the smelting and sulfuric acid industries and at cement mills. Other important applications include removal of tar from coke-oven gases; removal of acid fumes in petroleum refineries and chemical plants; recovery of such industrially valuable materials as the oxides of tin and copper.

Expected Future Developments [13]:
The following trends and emphasis in electrostatic precipitator development are forecast over the next few years. 1. Use of additives for gas conditioning to reduce the high resistivity problem. 2. Use of computer models for precipitator design and performance analysis. 3. Use of wet precipitators in controlling fine particles.

1. Lawrence K Wang, and Norman C. Pereira, “Hand Book of Environmental Engineering: Air and Noise Pollution Control”, Vol. 1, Ed. 1979, the Humana Press Inc., pp. 103 and 104. 2. Lawrence K. Wang, Norman C. Pereira, Yung-Tse Hung, “Handbook of Environmental Engineering: Air Pollution Control Engineering”, Vol. 1, Ed. 2004, the Humana Press Inc., pp. 154. 3. Mazen Abdel-Salam, “High Voltage Engineering: Theory and Practice”, Ed. 2, Macrel Dekker Inc., pp. 645-646 4. Robert B. Long, “Separation Processes in Waste Minimization”, Ed. 1995, Marcel Dekker Inc., pp. 278-280. 5. Lawrence K. Wang, Norman C. Pereira, Yung-Tse Hung, “Handbook of Environmental Engineering: Air Pollution Control Engineering”, Vol. 1, Ed. 2004, the Humana Press Inc., pp.154. 6. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/184043/electrostatic-precipitation
7. http://www.neundorfer.com/knowledge_base/electrostatic_precipitators.aspx 8. William L Heumaan, “Industrial Air Pollution Control Systems”, Ed. 1997,

Macrel Dekker Inc., pp. 472-474.
9. http://everything2.com/title/Electrostatic+Precipitator

10. http://www.ppcesp.com/ppcart.html 11. Walter R. Niessen, “Combustion and Incineration Processes”, Ed. 2002, pp. 575-576. 12. John. J. McKetta, “Unit Operations Handbook: Mechanical Separation and Materials Handling”, Vol. 2, Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, pp. 339. 13. Lawrence K Wang, and Norman C. Pereira, “Hand Book of Environmental Engineering: Air and Noise Pollution Control”, Vol.1, Ed.1979, the Humana Press Inc., pp.141.

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