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An Index to Information on Installing Windows 98

Copyright by Ray Woodcock 2000

Introduction
This is a front end for the 326-page document entitled How I Spent Three
Months Installing Windows 98. (Ill refer to that huge document as the Epic
here.) Point links in this document (e.g., point 100) will take you to sections of
the Epic, while reference links (e.g., PartitionMagic) will let you jump around
among the headings in this document. Bear in mind that How I Spent Three
Months contains errors as well as insights, and that this front end echoes some of
those errors because they still provide useful information.
Note the following:

Because of the size of How I Spent Three Months, links may not work right on
the first try.
Links in this document, which is a complete document, supersede links in the
Three Months document, which was a first draft. That is, you may obtain
useful information by following those links, but be sure to check back here.
You may have better luck getting right to a specific point in Three Months if
you set your browser so that it does not refresh every webpage you visit,
every time you visit it. In Internet Explorer, thats under Tools | Internet
Options | General | Settings. Note that the | symbol divides a command,
menu option, or other choice from the next one. In that example, click on
Tools, look for Internet Options, then look for the General tab, and finally for
the Settings button.
Entries here are generally not redundant. That is, important entries about
one item may appear only under another, and you may find them only by
pursuing the links that appear under the first item. So you may have to use
the See also links and also the links that appear in the individual entries,
because I would remove an item from See also as soon as I wrote an actual
(usually non-redundant) entry that mentioned it. Be sure to click on the
individual word that matters to you, because a single entry may contain links
to several different items.
Although I have tried to arrange the main headings in a logical order, the
quantity of material here can quickly overwhelm you. The links are there to
help. Dont let them take you into deep water when its not really where you
want to be.
It was impossible to arrange everything by precise logic. There are just too
many cross-references.

Note, finally, that I have abbreviated items in some places. For instance, when
HP appears under the Hardware Profile heading, it does not refer to
Hewlett-Packard.

Where To Obtain Files


This document refers to many different programs. Some are commercial
programs on which you can obtain competitive prices through CNET.com or
pricewatch.com. A few are batch files I wrote myself. Some come with
Windows; you can find out which by using Find File. You can probably obtain
most of the others by using the following sources, some of which offer somewhat
useful reviews and/or ratings of the programs: ZDnet.com, Tucows.com,
CNET.com. To search for obscure files, try AltaVista, Fast FTP, Lycos, or Filez. If
you cant get online at present, work through the following steps until you reach
the point where weve got you hooked up and online.
*****
Before Turning the Computer On: A Few Fundamental Hardware Issues
Using Two Computers requires you to configure two sets of hardware items. It
doesnt require twice as much time for software installation, however, because
you can mostly use the same setup on both machines. Having a second
computer, even an inexpensive one, can greatly shorten your downtime when
your main computer fails; this way, you have a way of going online to find out
whats wrong with the main computer. Your second computer can also handle
some tasks that would otherwise tie up your main computer, and can give you a
place to try out questionable software.
If you decide to build one or more computers rather than buy them, you may
save yourself from endless hardware and software headaches over the next few
years by buying a mainstream, highly recommended Motherboard and
Processor. For information on your Processor, try a program like WCPUID.
Also, each time you open your computer, blow out the dust with some
compressed air. Be sure to blow out the dust that collects around the cooling fan
on the Processor. Blowing dust around with your mouth can help some, but you
risk spitting on things; and even if youre really windy, you wont have the same
blowpower. Trust me; I know some people who really blow.

Finally, by Overclocking your CPU and learning how to tinker with your basic
hardware in other ways, you may be able to make a noticeable improvement in
both your computers speed and its risk of malfunctioning.
Using Two Computers
See also AMD, PENTIUM.
Swapped Drives containing DriveImage files to restore Win98: point 58.
PENTIUM
One of the two computers used in testing these various programs.
See also AMD.
AMD
One of the two computers used in testing these various programs.
See also PENTIUM.
Motherboard
See also USB, DMA, Overclocking, AGP, Diamond SupraMax 56i PCI Modem,
PCI Communication Device, IRQ Routing, BIOS, Sound Card, Card, ISA, Soyo,
WCPUID.
Used the Soyo 5EHM in this case; same motherboard comes in different versions:
point 107(a).
Recently replaced: point 59.
Store sold me motherboard with not-for-sale ROM: point 107(a).
Downloadable AGP Driver: point 107(c).
Used the ETEQ 82C6638AT/6629 AGP chipset: point 107(d).
Online manual: point 107(d).
Only needed IRQ Routing Driver and AGP Driver: point 107(g).
Audio effect of positioning Sound Card in slot: point 157.
Had the recommended CE build: point 107(d).
Older motherboards can use newer Drivers: point 107.
Decided I did not need DOS All-in-One Driver: point 107(g).
Upgrading motherboard can cause Disk Translation problem: point 59.
CPU
See Processor.
Processor
Same as CPU.
Different from Word Processor.
See also Intel Processor Frequency ID Utility, WCPUID, Cache, Overclocking.
Use unknown Performance Monitor to decide if you need a faster processor:
point 160.

Intel Processor Frequency ID Utility


See also WCPUID.
Useful only on Intel CPUs: point 245.
Extremely slow installation: point 245.
Provided details about Processor: point 245.
My Processor was too primitive for it: point 245.
Overclocking
Refers to tinkering with Motherboard settings to run CPU faster.
Required a time investment to yield a faster computer: point 134(v).
Would reduce system stability: point 134(v).
Might not yield enough time savings to justify the effort: point 134(v), point 288.
System clock frequency information from WCPUID: point 248.
Could make a real difference in Performance: point 288.
Motherboard was built for it: point 288.
Imposed some additional expense and risk of damage to computer: point 288.
Source of new system bugs: point 288.
Might be fun when I could gamble with the hardware: point 288.
Compressed Air
Highly recommended for cleaning out the inside of the computer whenever you
open it: point 184.
Soyo
See also PCI Communication Device.
Manufactured my Motherboard, the Soyo 5EHM: point 107(d).
No working E-mail address on Soyo website: point 107(g).
Website unclear as to which Drivers I needed: point 107.

Turning on the Computer: What You Notice Before Windows


When you turn on a PC, its BIOS kicks in. The BIOS is based in the ROM on the
Motherboard. Your computer probably gives you a way to go into the BIOS
Setup menu, although you may have to read your owners manual to find out
how to do that if the instructions dont automatically appear on your screen
when you turn the computer on.
BIOS
See also CTBIOS, TweakBIOS, Command Prompt Mode.
Short (I think) for Basic Input/Output System.
Change options through BIOS Setup.
Information available during Startup: point 107(a).
Pause key allows copying information during Startup: point 107(a).
4

BIOS upgrade can affect Disk Translation: point 59.


Hard Disk problem may trigger CMOS checksum error: point 82.
Update by using downloads from Motherboard manufacturers site: point
107(a).
Common reasons to update BIOS: New Hardware, fix bugs that prevent Win98
from running properly, or enable Plug-N-Play features: point 107(a).
BIOS update might prevent CD-ROM Drive / Audio crashes: point 113(f).
BIOS Setup
See also USB, DMA, Hewlett-Packard ScanJet IIcx, BIOS.
PNP/PCI Configuration option: point 232.
How to change: point 9, point 179.
Contains Power Management setting for Modem IRQ: point 206, point 232, point
281.
Tells computer to look for Startup commands on Floppy or other Drive: point 9.
May not always observe your instructions re disk to boot from: point 9, point 77,
point 79, point 84.
Hard Disk will intervene and not let CD boot if Win98 is bootable from Hard
Disk: point 87.
Will try to boot CD-ROM Drive if no program files on Hard Disk: point 114.
Place to indicate which Drive is primary master: point 81.
Contains Plug-N-Play settings: point 99.
Setting to make bootup faster and riskier: point 118.
Can boot into Real DOS by setting BIOS to boot from Bootable Floppy: point
120(al).
PNP/PCI Configuration settings: point 232.
Advice to leave ACPI setting alone: point 232.
Changed ACPI anyway: point 281.
Legacy settings as opposed to Plug-N-Play: point 281.
Changed settings make system barely able to reboot: point 281.
TweakBIOS
See also Freeware.
Allows you to configure your BIOS: point 134(v).
Reports suggested it might really improve Performance: point 134(v).
Decided it would require more time and instability than I could justify: point
134(v).
ROM
Short for Read-Only Memory.
See also Motherboard.
For practical purposes, not really related to CD-ROM Drive.

Setting Up Your Hard Disk Before Installing Windows


You can make life easier for yourself by setting up a couple of Partitions for
different purposes on your Hard Disk before installing Windows. The classic
program for this purpose is the FDISK program, which is a standard DOS utility.
A better tool is PartitionMagic, which can do things that FDISK cant. For
instance, PartitionMagic can change the sizes of your Partitions without harming
your data. PartitionMagic, too, can run in DOS. After creating a Partition with
FDISK, you need to use Format to make it usable; PartitionMagic includes a
built-in formatting capability.
If you dont yet have DOS installed because, say, its a brand-new Hard Disk,
you will find that the Win98 installation process allows you to create a Win98
Emergency Boot Disk. Using this Floppy Disk with the appropriate BIOS Setup,
you can start your system in a basic DOS mode and can run these DOS-based
tools. Running these programs does not require you to know much about DOS;
the programs tend to simplify things. Your initial run of the Win98 installation
process can be temporary and/or incomplete, if all you want from it is to collect
these tools for setting up the Hard Disk for the real Win98 installation.
Hard Disks rarely fail physically, but their logical layouts can become hopeless
messed up. The Norton Utilities software can cause a lot of problems on a
Windows system, but the longtime favorite Norton Disk Doctor may be superior
to the ScanDisk program that comes with Win98. Either program is able to sort
out at least some of the confusion that might appear in the basic logical structure
of a Hard Disk. SpinRite may be superior to both, but I cannot personally attest
to that, since I have not used it.
You should take a run through a used Hard Disk with some such disk utility
program before beginning to build a new system on it. In the process, you may
come across disk problems that require the use of tools like DISKEDIT or
PARTINFO.EXE. Later, your efforts to recover data from a Hard Disk gone bad
may require an investment in a program like Lost & Found. You may also have
Disk Translation errors calling for special solutions. Finally, if you want to run
Win98 with another Operating System, such as Linux, now is the time to look
into Drive Overlay software like BootMagic, which you may prefer in some cases
to the LILO program that comes with Linux. I think you may still be able to get
BootMagic bundled in with PartitionMagic and perhaps other PowerQuest
programs.
Hard Disk

See also Partition, Defragmenting, Linux, Disk Translation, Real DOS, RAM
Drive, Lost & Found, many other headings.
System Information | Components | Storage calls hard disk generic: point
106.
System allows two primary and two secondary IDE Drives, one of each a master
and the other a slave device: point 171.
Tape Backup Drive used one of the secondary IDE slots: point 171.
DMA settings under Disk Drives: point 113(f).
Used dentists mirror to find model number: point 173.
Proper Driver would eliminate generic Hard Disk indicator: point 107.
Files on Hard Disk are vulnerable to operator error or program malfunction:
point 28.
Not as tough in cold and humidity as a CD: point 28.
Tougher than a CD in direct sunlight: point 28.
Thrashing stopped by rebooting into DOS: point 269(m).
Physical damage may come from power failure or may signify failing disk: point
84.
Lost data might be recoverable by someone who knows what theyre doing:
point 59.
Not sure whether I needed to drill holes through Hard Disk to make it
nonaccessible: point 256(b).
Bad HD source of many freezes: point 81, point 82.
Manufacturers HD diagnostics: point 242(g).
Recommended to use faster hard disk to hold Win98 files: point 256.
Weird experiences with Western Digital: point 256(b).
May have to change jumpers when installing HD: point 256(c).
Weak power supply was probably the cause of HD malfunction: point 256(e).
Error: Cannot copy OMI9: Access is denied: point 258(b).
Zero Fill Utility tests HD and wipes private data: point 290.
Partition
Part or all of a Hard Disk. Partitioning software (e.g., PartitionMagic or FDISK)
divides Hard Disk into one or more primary or extended partitions; extended
partitions contain one or more logical disk Drives. Example: on primary Hard
Disk in my computer, there is a primary partition containing Drive (i.e.,
partition) C and an extended partition, and the extended partition contains two
logical Drives D and E.
See also Drive H (SWAP), Recycle Bin, Hidden Partition, FAT32.
Sizes of Partitions: see MSINFO32.
Minimum Partition size larger in FAT32 than in FAT: point 256(c).
FDISK
See also PartitionMagic, Partition.

Same general GoBack problems as PartitionMagic.


An essential DOS Hard Disk utility: point 5.
Used to check disk: point 19.
Used to set partition active: point 22.
Included on Win98 Emergency Boot Disk.
Used to remove all partitions: point 81.
Used to create logical Drive in extended partition: point 242(e).
Stalled on bad disk with verifying integrity message: point 242(e).
Maybe different results with Win98 version of FDISK: point 242(f).
Reported Type 44 partition as non-DOS: point 256(d).
Used to create FAT16 primary partition: point 256(e).
Used to delete logical Drive with no volume name: point 258(c).
Works in Real DOS only: point 262(b).
Used to create primary partition: point 334.
PartitionMagic
See also Partition, Hidden Partition, Norton AntiVirus 2000, Norton Disk Doctor,
PowerQuest.
Recommended: point 2, point 115.
Created partitions without affecting existing data: point 2.
Provided files worth having on Floppy: point 5(h).
Minimum FAT32 partition size = 260 MB: point 11, point 242(f).
Floppy form: point 16.
Allowed partitioning any time: point 32.
Came with multipurpose Mouse Driver: point 58.
Had to use FDISK instead: point 60, point 81, point 258(c).
Resized partition on the fly: point 60, point 237.
Balked at resizing primary partition: point 60.
Included in the programs in DOS_UTIL folder on Bootable CD: point 64.
Inadequate check of bad disk: point 66.
Hung up on bad disk: point 66.
Provided information on partition sizes: point 77, point 135, point 156(a)
Problem with write-protected Floppy: point 78.
Came with DOS version: point 81, point 115.
Freeze in possible weak power supply situation: point 81.
Required Real DOS: point 82.
May not be able to move itself: point 84.
Very slow at handling bad partition: point 84, point 114.
Used to create BADSPACE partition to isolate bad blocks: point 84.
Had to use Norton Disk Doctor to get PM to work: point 114.
Couldnt cancel out once stuck on bad Drive: point 114.
First non-Microsoft utility installed on new system: point 115.
Came with MagicMover: point 115.

Confusing MagicMover installation: point 115.


Installation of DriveImage and PartitionMagic required 20 MB: point 115.
Could rearrange partitions on the fly: point 168.
Could trash disk if used with Norton AntiVirus 2000: point 195.
Upgrade from version 4.0 may fix NAV 2000 Conflict: point 208.
Didnt fix boot record problem: point 214.
Couldnt use while GoBack was active: point 228, point 237.
Special AUTOEXEC makes DOS version the only option: point 237, point 269(f).
Could hide and unhide partitions: point 239.
Extremely slow in bad sector: point 239.
Could create Linux or HPFS partition: point 242(a).
Created partition in slightly wrong place: point 242(d).
Preferred to use FDISK instead: point 242(f).
GoBack blocked PM even on screwed-up disk: point 256(b).
Must Uninstall GoBack before using PM: point 256(c).
Reported disk locked by GoBack as Type 44: point 256(d).
GoBack (or possibly PM) corrupted a partition: point 256(f), point 258(d).
Froze instead of handling free space after last partition: point 258(c).
Could do numerous things all at once: point 258(c).
Corrupt Directory after PM/GoBack combination: point 258(d).
Had finished when it said it hadnt: point 258(d).
PM killed GoBack historical records: point 269(g).
Error: Partition table error # 108 -- Linux or Disk Translation error: point 59.
Error trying to create batch file: point 60.
Error # 600: Error trying to create batch file: point 78.
Error # 45: CRC error in data -- on bad disk: point 83, point 84.
Partition table error # 121 found: point 114.
Error: Write fault: point 242(d).
Error: The file could not be opened: point 258(d).
Win98 Emergency Boot Disk
See also FDISK, Bootable Floppy, ZIP.
Also known as EBD, Windows Startup Floppy.
Created during Win98 install or from third tab in Add/Remove Programs: point
8.
Files apparently stored in C:\Windows\Command\EBD: point 314(e).
Created RAM Drive as temporary place to hold its utilities: point 65, point
269(l).
Didn't enable the Mouse: point 64.
Didnt fully understand how that floppy worked: point 64.
Incorporated numerous utilities and Drivers: point 57.
I added other utilities: point 57.
Decided against advice of removing Drivers from EBD: point 57.

Ready-made to work with wide variety of CD-ROM Drives: point 8, point 57.
Creates a RAM Drive containing many DOS utilities: point 8.
Problem creating RAM Drive: point 204.
May want to add utilities to EBD: point 8, point 57.
Doesnt contain XCOPY, but maybe thats not important: point 13, point 57.
Was able to make system recognize Yamaha CD-ROM Drive but not boot from it:
point 189.
Norton
See Symantec, Norton Utilities, Norton Disk Doctor, Norton AntiVirus 2000,
Norton SpeedDisk.
Avoided using Norton software generally as source of crashes: point 16, point
300(e).
Made an exception for their No-Install Programs, especially Norton Disk Doctor,
and for Norton AntiVirus 2000.
Norton Disk Doctor
See also GoBack, PartitionMagic, Norton.
Is a No-Install Program.
One of the Norton Utilities: point 78.
Error: Do you want to revive this partition?: point 256(d).
Error: Damaged beyond repair: point 256(f).
Error: Boot Record Program is invalid: point 214.
Detected bad Floppy: point 107(g).
Better in-depth tool than ScanDisk: point 78.
Offered to revive free space not yet assigned to Partition: point 84.
Preferred to use PartitionMagic rather than NDD to revive free space: point 84.
Wasnt sure what effect NDD would have on free space: point 84.
NDD finds and fixed numerous problems and marks many bad blocks: point 84.
Apparently marks bad blocks in a way ScanDisk can detect: point 84.
Unlike ScanDisk, did not offer to move data away from risky part of disk: point
84.
Identified location of bad blocks to be stored in Hidden Partition: point 114.
Made Drive accessible to PartitionMagic: point 114, point 177.
Faster and better than PartitionMagic at scrutinizing bad sectors: point 240.
Had failed to detect problems on a decaying disk: point 114.
Thorough test could take many times longer than standard test: point 176.
Couldnt figure out how to mark whole section of disk as bad: point 240.
Doesnt work just on portions of a partition: point 240.
Had slight problem with Partition that was too small: point 256(c).
DOS version of NDD not comfortable with FAT32 Drive: point 256(e).
Fixed lost cluster and free space problems: point 269(o).
Takes an hour and a half to examine a large partition: point 240.

10

Hidden Partition
See also Norton Disk Doctor.
Can create using PartitionMagic: point 84.
Doesnt disturb order of other Hard Disk letters: point 84.
Used to keep bad disk areas away from active Partitions: point 84, point 114.
Converting to visible Partition: point 242(a).
Symantec
Company that bought Norton Utilities from Peter Norton and, in my opinion,
degraded the quality of a formerly fine set of system tools.
See Symantec WinFax, Norton.
Norton Utilities
See also Norton, Dismantling Drive C.
Avoided using NU because of problems associated with it: point 240.
Might never have installed NU if I had researched complaints first: point 141(d).
Removed from system to keep it from invading everything: point 176.
NU adds troublesome lines to the Registry: point 123.
Performed unwanted operations on disk I was trying to preserve: point 30.
Preferred to use Maintenance Wizard to try to get away from using Norton:
point 105(g).
Norton CrashGuard got lots of complaints from users: point 139(b).
Full installation used 69 MB: point 240.
NU Help doesnt advise on using DISKEDIT: point 240.
Installation process creates emergency boot floppies: point 78.
Emergency boot floppies contain Norton Disk Doctor: point 78.
Some utilities seem to change system workings even when run as Standalones:
point 240.
Run from CD option limited to Norton Disk Doctor, WinDoctor, UnErase, and
WipeInfo: point 240.
NU Standalones: NDIAGS, DISKEDIT, NDD, UNERASE, and UNFORMAT:
point 240.
Nortons System Checker replaced by CHECKLINKS.EXE: point 119(a).
Image option created unwanted Image files on each partition: point 170.
Could not use InCtrl4 to track changes made by NU installation: point 240.
Nortons WIPEINFO removes data from disks: point 256(b).
SpinRite
See also OptOut.
Might have been able to solve special disk problem: point 242(g).
ScanDisk

11

See also GoBack, DriveImage, MSINFO32, Disk Defragmenter, Bootable Floppy,


SCANDSKW, FAT32.
Failed at first to cure DriveImage error # 2005: point 67, point 78.
Runs automatically after improper Shutdown: point 81.
Froze, perhaps due to Registry problem caused by another program: point 125.
Ran very slowly: point 269(o).
Stalled during check of File System: point 84.
Used Norton Disk Doctor instead of SD for faster and better results: point 84.
Offered to move data to safe place but could not do it: point 84.
Might change settings in SCANDISK.INI to do better quality test: point 124.
Task Scheduler runs SD thorough exam on each Partition separately: point
105(g).
Command Line options: point 19, point 84.
Surface scan: point 78.
Custom option: point 78.
Custom option allows you to examine cluster repeatedly: point 124.
Custom option cant coexist with some other Command Line options: point 125.
SD ran a long time: point 78.
Said it fixed the Directory structure: point 78.
Hard Disk problems not detected in ScanDisk: point 78.
Sat for a long time on one cluster: point 84.
Error: encountered a data error while reading the FAT entry for cluster: point
84.
Error: Hard Disk has sustained physical damage: point 84, point 114.
DOS version of SD nearly stalls at same place as Win98 version: point 114.
Increased number of bad clusters in SD suggests that Hard Disk is dying: point
114.
Error: Write fault error reading drive C: point 114.
Ignoring advice to use SD on Partition Formatted by Windows Explorer: point
242(g).
System freezes after running SD on troubled Hard Disk: point 256(d).
Repeated SD freezes suggest the problem is not just a Win98 problem: point 81.
SCANDSKW
Version of ScanDisk designed to run in DOS Box: point 124.
Reformatting
See Format.
Format
See also Bootable Floppy, Disk Translation, GoBack, Windows Explorer, Context
Menu, Norton Utilities, Links Toolbar, FAT32, SYS.COM, ScanDisk, Disk Format,
DIR Command.

12

Format.com is a Command Line program that prepares disks.


Can prepare nonworking Partitions to work with DOS and Windows: point 5(d).
Format.com uses SYS.COM to make a partition bootable: point 5(d).
Wipes out everything on the specified disk: point 5(a), point 86.
Can make disk bootable: point 14.
Determine disk Format through Context Menu option for Properties: point
242(f).
CD Formats: see DriveImage, Easy CD Creator, DirectCD, CD,
File Formats: see PowerDesk, Twain, TIF, JPG, GIF, Help, ZIP, UNZIP, Graphics,
Icon.
Audio Formats: see MP3, WAV, Encoder, Audio CD.
Command Line options for Format.com: point 19.
Format.com error: Trying to recover allocation unit: point 242(e).
Format.com error: Not ready. Format terminated: point 242(e).
Format.com error: Invalid media type: point 242(g).
DISKEDIT
See also DOS Commands.
A DOS utility included with Norton Utilities: point 240.
PARTINFO.EXE
See also MORE.EXE.
Included with PowerQuest products: point 59.
Interesting program; provided information on Hard Disk problems: point 59.
Put a copy of this program onto Super Boot Floppy: point 59.
Lost & Found
Free demo available from PowerQuest website: point 59.
Claims to recover almost any file from any Hard Disk that is still spinning: point
59.
Demo is Shareware; just shows you how it would fix the problem: point 59.
Program that will actually fix the problem costs $70: point 59.
Runs in Windows to create DOS floppies: point 59.
Display reacted weirdly when I first used their floppies: point 59.
Required another Drive to which it would save recovered data: point 59.
Crashed with a "general protection fault" error: point 59.
Finally ran; took half-hour; sure enough, it showed the names of my "lost" files:
point 59.
Disk Translation
See PartitionMagic, BIOS.
The process that allows computer to see Hard Disk larger than 500MB: point 59.
Uses an interface between Hard Disk and BIOS: point 59.

13

Changing DT requires Hard Disk Reformatting: point 59.


Changing DT without Reformatting causes partition table errors: point 59.
Moving Hard Disk to another system can cause DT problem: point 59.
Partition table error may be sign of DT problem: point 59.
Invalid media type error may be sign of DT problem: point 59.
Invalid system disk error may be sign of DT problem: point 59.
Re-detecting Hard Disk can cause DT problem: point 59.
Mis-jumpering Hard Disk might cause DT problem: point 59.
BootMagic
See also PowerQuest.
Allowed me to choose to choose between Win98 and Linux: point 59.
Disk overlay software; runs before Operating System begins: point 59.
Like Drive Overlay software: point 59.
No longer appearing on problem disk: point 59.
Ideas for testing whether BootMagic is the problem: point 59.
Drive Overlay
Also known as disk management software.
Software that allows Operating System to use Hard Disks larger than BIOS
would permit: point 59.
Can cause Disk Translation problem: point 59.
Disk Manager
See Drive Overlay.
Operating System
See DOS, Win98, Linux, MSDOS.SYS, BootMagic, DOS Modes, Drive Overlay,
Real DOS, BOOT_MGR.BAT, Bootable Floppy, X-Setup.
Text files containing printouts of Registry showing current state of system: point
149(b).
Disliked Win98 as an OS: point 342.
From an OS, I wanted clarity, structure, and flexibility: point 342.
I wanted to reinstall OS without having to reinstall everything else: point 342.
Wanted to have all of the files related to a program located in one place: point
342.
Wanted to be able to form a list of files that would change: point 342.
Wanted to stick with a relatively mature OS rather than being on the forefront:
point 344.
Guessed that Microsofts future OS would continue to be somewhat chaotic:
point 345.
I would upgrade to a newer Microsoft OS only when I saw a real benefit from it:
point 345.

14

Linux
See also PartitionMagic, BootMagic.
An Operating System: point 59.
Linux experiment messed up Hard Disk: point 59.
Problem may have been due to bad Hard Disk: point 79.
Ran Win98 on Drive C and Linux on Drive D: point 59.
Decided that I would probably be going towards Linux sometime in the future:
point 59.
Couldnt justify Linux yet; too much Windows-based software that I liked and
needed: point 59.
Linux Partition would have been invisible to Win98: point 242(a).
PowerQuest
See also Mouse.
Makers of BootMagic, PartitionMagic, MagicMover, DriveImage, Lost & Found,
PARTINFO.EXE.
Using their website and tech support: point 59.

Recommended Hard Disk Partitions for Win98


One of the Original Ideas was to put Win98 on Drive C and to put all my other
program files on Drive D. I liked this advice because I had the impression that
Linux was capable of putting different kinds of program files on different Drives.
In the Win98 context, this does not work. Even if you use a specialty program
like X-Setup (which we will get to a bit later) to tell the system to put program
files in D:\Program Files, you will find that some program files still land in
C:\Program Files instead. This means that you can have duplicate folders and
that the main program will be on one Drive while the update lands on the other.
A better approach is to set up Drive D to hold certain folders, mostly unused,
and combine all of your Operating System and program files on Drive C. The
ordinary Win98 installation creates several folders that may become more
familiar as you tinker with your system more. These include
C:\Windows\Command, the C:\WINDOWS\TEMP Directory, the
C:\Windows\INF Folder, and C:\Windows\System.
One of the most important things going on Drive D will be the \WIN98 Folder.
This folder gets used during the initial installation and at times when you are
installing other things. It doesnt change, and it doesnt need to be regularly
backed up, so theres no point putting it on Drive C. As you go on, there may be
a few other examples of items that belong on D.

15

You wont be doing Defragmenting with a program like Disk Defragmenter at


this point. But the knowledge that you will be Defragmenting later may
influence your decisions about Partitions now. For my own purposes, I use a
number of other Partitions. I call them GOBACK, BURNING, AUDIO, DATA,
and SWAP. We will get to the relevant subjects in more detail shortly, but heres
a brief introduction: GoBack is a program that can roll your system back to
where it was a few minutes, hours, or days before. It requires space for the large
file that remembers all this stuff. I put that file in a separate Partition and try to
insulate it from the Disk Defragmenter. BURNING is the size of a CD disc -around 700-800 MB -- and frees me from the need to defragment the stuff that
Im burning onto a CD. I keep Data and Audio separate because Audio files
screw up GoBack while Data files (e.g., word processing files, spreadsheets)
dont, and also because the two require somewhat different Backup treatment.
Finally, Drive H (SWAP) doesnt really need Defragmenting or Backup and can
speed up the system, especially (I believe) if its on a third Hard Disk of its own.

Original Ideas
Reasons for writing this document: point 333.
Putting Windows 98 on a separate partition: point 2.
Having Win98 on its own Partition was supposed to make reinstalling easier:
point 154(d).
Installing important programs first rather than concentrating on stable programs:
point 68.
C:\Program Files
See D:\Program Files, Windows Update, MagicMover, Path.
D:\Program Files
See also Excel 97, MagicMover, FrontPage 2000, FrontPage Express, Windows
Update, Outlook Express.
Tried to steer program file installation to this folder on D instead of C: point 94.
Wanted to arrange files to make it easier to find program files: point 115.
Installation here worked for most programs point 94.
Installation in non-default location confused Excel 97: point 94.
Office 97 insisted on installing many files in C:\Program Files anyway: point
103, point 166(c).
X-Setup steers program file installations to preferred folder: point 103, point
137(m).
Outlook 98 found previous installation in this folder: point 166(b).
Copy of WAB in D:\Program Files doesnt cure error: point 166(a).
Creation of this folder, and moving files to it, was a mistake: point 341.

16

C:\Windows\Command
See also CONFIG.SYS, Win98 Startup Floppy.
Contains System Files and essential utilities: point 5(c), point 5(g).
Contains XCOPY: point 21.
Contains EXTRACT.EXE: point 134(e).
Contains more recent versions of some old utilities: point 139(b).
Combined contents with DOS_UTIL: point 141(q).
Wanted entire contents on Bootable CD: point 141(q).
Is on Path: point 269(h).
Dupeless says EBD subfolder contains duplicates of programs: point 314(d).
Folder contains duplicates of programs found in \WIN98 Folder: point 319.
C:\WINDOWS\TEMP Directory
Used as temporary holding place for TMP Files and Tilde Files: point 120(e).
Used MAINT_WK.BAT to clear it out using DELTREE: point 105(h).
Reasons for clearing out this Directory: point 105(h).
Sometimes contains subfolders that Disk Cleanup does not remove: point 105(h).
Dont clean out when Win98 is active: point 105(h).
Clear out before creating Disk Image File: point 111.
Advice to clear out before Defragmenting: point 122.
C:\Windows\INF Folder
See also Video Card, INF Files.
Common Driver location: point 255(c).
File previously found in this folder vanishes: point 241.
System may not realize that files it needs are in this folder: point 255(c).
C:\Windows\System
See Path, Screen Saver, Process.
\WIN98 Folder
See also Registry.
Also known as Setup Folder: point 137(n).
Copy files from Win98 Upgrade CD to this folder before installing: point 31.
Contains duplicates of programs found elsewhere: point 319.
Distinct from the \WIN98 folder that may exist on some Floppy disks: point
255(c).
Restore Win98 by deleting all else and re-installing from here: point 34.
Installation proceeds by typing SETUP at DOS Prompt: point 35.
Installation requires nothing else except Product Key number: point 35.
Installation of Win98 Upgrade also requires evidence of previous product: point
35.

17

Can supply evidence of previous product by copying \WIN95 folder: point 35.
Files in \WIN98 not affected by downloads and updates: point 50.
Files seemingly copied directly from \WIN98: point 85(a).
Consists mostly of CAB Files: point 85(a), point 319.
X-Setup can set location of \WIN98 Folder after installation: point 137(n).
Subfolders containing useless junk: point 319.
ISP information in OLS subfolder outdated: point 319.
Drive H (SWAP)
See also ScanReg, Properties.
Primarily serves to hold Temporary Internet Files, WIN386.SWP, Cool Edit
Temporary Files, Word 97 AutoRecover files, and other non-permanent
information.
Good role in which to test an iffy disk without endangering files: point 256.
Its place in the overall Partition scheme: point 32.
Would not be backed up: point 145(p).
Putting it last allows putting it on a third Hard Disk: point 44.
Problems on this Partition yield Invalid media type error at Startup: point
242(f).
Disk Defragmenter
See also GoBack, WinBench 99, Power Management, Defragmenting,
DEFRAC.BAT, Norton SpeedDisk, MAINTWIN.BAT.
Improved efficiency: point 306.
Could not run on disks on which programs were running: point 306.
Could slow computer way down: point 306.
Reduce fragmentation by putting Temporary Internet Files in other partition:
point 44.
Found advice regarding DD in Resource Kit Book Online: point 300(b).
Resource Kit Book Online says edit Registry to prevent defrag of certain files:
point 300(f).
Command-line syntax: point 300(g).
Keeps restarting if other programs arent disabled first: point 162.
Syntax for: see Resource Kit Book Online.
Run immediately on reboot: see DEFRAG.REG.
Programs including Screen Saver or e.g., Norton AntiVirus 2000 can interfere:
point 122.
Doesnt work properly: point 122.
Nearly froze up: point 122.
System froze while running DD: point 269(p).
Suggestion to run only in Safe Mode: point 122.
Normal Mode would allow too many other programs to interfere with DD:
point 123.

18

Did not run in Real DOS: point 123.


Suggestion not to make changes automatically: point 122.
Decision that DD had to work automatically: point 123.
Set to work on each disk separately: point 122.
Suggestion to run ScanDisk first: point 122.
Timing difficulty re making ScanDisk work with DD: point 127.
Creating a Screen Saver that wont interfere with DD: point 145(k).
Registry edit to shut off Screen Saver while running DD: point 300(c).
Shutting down processes that might interfere: point 264.
Error: Windows cannot defragment this drive: point 269(o).
Was not clear that I could ever make DD work: point 306.
Defragmenting
See also WinBench 99, Power Management, Temporary Internet Files, Recycle
Bin, C:\WINDOWS\TEMP Directory, WIN386.SWP, Cool Edit 2000.
Popular defragmenters include Disk Defragmenter and Norton SpeedDisk.
Problems with: see GoBack.
Reducing with Cache settings: point 137(n).
Balked if I had other things running at the same time: point 123.
Keeping the disk nearly totally defragged requires less downtime: point 105(g).
Have to run defragmenter every night to keep disk defragged: point 127, point
141(l).
Theory that DOS defragmenters will mess up Hard Disk: point 123.
While burning CD: point 263.
Norton SpeedDisk
See also GoBack, Defragmenting, Norton.
Balked if I had other things running at the same time: point 123.
More efficient than Disk Defragmenter: point 300(e).

The Win98 Core


There is virtually no end to the number of things we can (and will) say about
Win98, but to keep things on a very simple basis at the start, lets just start with
Win98 itself. The Win98 Upgrade is, of course, a Microsoft product. This index
does not attempt to track all of the references that might conceivably be relevant
to Microsoft, Windows, Win98, or other all-purpose topics.
The core of Win98 includes Internet Explorer. This is not because everyone
always needs the one to run the other. Its just that updates to the one tend to
include some updates to the other. You need Internet Explorer anyway to get
online and update Win98, so I decided to include an introduction to both

19

programs together here. (Updating Win98 and Internet Explorer from the
Windows Update website requires, of course, an online connection, which
requires a connection to an ISP.)
Note, also, that the Epic occasionally mentions Windows 3.1, not because its
important, but because its interface and handling of file names can be a little
different, and because some programs that we may be using are still written for
it.

Microsoft
Too many entries: relevant to the entire document. A few exceptions:
See especially Operating System.
Vaguely concerned that Microsoft could pull the plug on Outlook 98 at any time:
point 98.
Spelling and grammar errors: point 166, point 241.
Guessing at Microsofts future: point 345.
Windows
Windows 98 ordinarily referred to in this document as Win98.
Win98
Occurs too frequently; citations here merely to some interesting items.
Abbreviated name for Windows 98. Similarly, Win95.
See also Windows Explorer, Internet Explorer, Downloader, Uninstall
Information Folder.
Disk partition structure for W98: point 338.
Needed 600 MB of disk space: point 338.
Previous Windows Updates not the same as those now offered: point 71.
List of files in Win98: point 166(d).
How to save size and location of an open window: point 120(aa).
Save space by deleting unnecessary AVI files: point 320.
CD contains DOS tools: point 141(q).
Uninstalling: point 178.
Does constant reading and writing of certain files: point 12.
Ordinarily can't run from a CD: point 12.
Includes Windows Scripting files: point 137.
All this effort could not extricate some Win98 users from the quagmire: point
341.
I dislike Win98: point 342.
Deciding to make the best of it until something better comes along: point 344,
point 345.
Problems can exist submerged for some time: point 227.

20

Win98 Upgrade
See also \WIN98 Folder.
Apparently allows Win95 files to remain on disk: point 166(d).
Upgrade CD installation seeks proof that you had a previous version of
qualifying software: point 14.
Preferably dont install upgrade on top of Win95: point 14.
TweakUI utilities on Win98 Upgrade CD: point 71.
Recommended not to use TweakUI version found on this CD: point 117.
Explorer
Not the same as Internet Explorer or Windows Explorer
See also AdSubtract, Cold Reboot, Monitor.
Killing Explorer in unresponsive system via Ctrl-Alt-Del revives Start Button:
point 141(q).
One of the most basic programs for a working Win98 system: point 122.
Error: illegal operation: point 105(k).
Error indicating that Explorer was shutting down, but system hadnt crashed:
point 144.
Windows 3.1
Interface: see WinBench 99, Clean System Directory.
May require DOS-style folder names: point 141(o).
I mostly skipped Windows 3.1: point 345.
Internet Explorer
See also Windows Explorer; Favorites; Power Tools; Power Toys; Web Suite; XSetup; Scraps; OptOut; Registry; Offline Browser; Context Menu; MSINFO32,
Temporary Internet Files, Adobe PhotoDeluxe, Cache, URL Batch Files, Mouse.
Latest version comes through download: point 15.
Clearing out IE's History and Temporary folders: point 16.
Platinum WorldView addition: point 20.
Moving Temporary Internet Files folder: point 37.
IE started Internet Connection Wizard: point 37.
Ctrl-L opens up box to type a URL into: point 223.
Adjusting IE toolbars and other options: point 37, point 38, point 105(e).
Deleting Temporary Internet Files folder with DELTREE: point 38.
Deleting History folder with DELTREE: point 120(ag).
Setting History option: point 38.
Changing location of IE icon under Start Menu: point 42.
Putting Temporary Internet Files folder into separate partition: point 44.
Subsequent IE updates change previous settings: point 51.
Previous IE updates not the same as those now offered: point 71.

21

IE downloads automatically provide Power Tools: point 71.


Microsoft treated IE and Win98 as two heads, one body: point 72.
Outlook 98 insists on installing old version of IE: point 98.
Outlook 98 actually installs just a few files from the old version: point 98.
Some people upgrade IE after installing Outlook 98: point 98.
Telling OL98 to upgrade only newer avoids installing old IE version: point 98.
Office 97 installation adds ancient IE 3.01 Shortcut: point 105(b).
Go button in IE: point 105(e).
Shut off AutoComplete option in IE to improve speed: point 105(i).
Turn AutoComplete back on because I appreciate it: point 109(i), point 145(a).
Subscriptions now called Offline Viewing: point 109(b).
I decided to keep QuickSearch and Toggle Images programs: point 109(g).
Later decided that I didnt have much use for QuickSearch: point 109(g).
Apt to use IE with several other programs simultaneously: point 113(e).
Change options with TweakUI: point 117.
Update IE Context Menu with IE 5 Web Accessories: point 119(b).
IE 5 Web Accessories duplicate existing functions: point 119(b).
IE 5 Web Accessories clog up Context Menu: point 119(b).
Power Toys was add-on for IE version 4: point 119(b).
Can decorate IE toolbar with IE 5 Toolbar Wallpaper: point 119(b).
Reasons not to use IE 5 Toolbar Wallpaper: point 119(b).
IE 5 Power Tweaks seemed useful: point 119(b).
Web Developer Accessories has useful View Partial Source option: point 119(b).
Web Developer Accessories option for Document Tree confusing: point 119(b).
Cant drag document Scrap from IE to Desktop: point 120(r).
Unable to move History folder: point 120(ag).
IE crashes and I lose my place: point 137.
IE crashes wipe out most traces of sites found after long research: point 297.
Removing Links Folder causes IE malfunctions: point 142.
Synchronize feature downloads all pages cited in website: point 271.
Ctrl-N to open another Browser session: point 307(b).
IE Offline Viewing allows Scheduled downloads of websites: point 307(c).
Offline Viewing allows downloads of websites linked to the target: point 307(c).
Offline Viewing sends E-mail when target website changes: point 307(c).
Synchronize feature downloads hits from search engine: point 307(g).
Synchronizer was fastest way to examine search engine hits: point 307(j).
Synchronizer could not dial automatically unless auto-dial always on: point 322.
IE gets updated through Windows Update website: point 165(e).
Error: Unable to establish a connection: point 200.
ISP
The company that connects you to the Internet.
See also NetLaunch, DUNCE, Connection Keeper, Modem, Password.

22

Short for Internet Service Provider: point 41.


Eager to shut down inactive Internet Connection: point 134(r).
Check pages manually during long downloads to maintain connection: point 48.
Blamed ISP for frequent disconnections: point 113(g).
Set Modem to stay connected to ISP despite carrier interruption: point 265(c).
Did not show all postings to a Newsgroup: point 292.
Using local access number with HyperTerminal: point 113(g).
Internet Connection Wizard
See also Internet Explorer.
Configured Internet Connection through my ISP: point 37.
Ran Hardware Installation Wizard to configure Modem: point 37.
Gave the option of signing up for an Internet mail account: point 37.
Required me to delete existing Dial-Up account so it could re-create it: point 100.
I found answers to some Wizard questions by looking at other computer: point
37.
Outlook 98 ran me through ICW: point 100.
Windows Update
See also Internet Explorer, Updates.com, Fatal Exception, Go!Zilla, Win98,
Windows Media Player, Start | Programs, NetMeeting.
Same as Critical Update: point 165(e).
Source of downloads and upgrades for Win98: point 15, point 49.
Source of DirectX 7.0a update: point 165(e).
Distinct from Windows Update Setup Files: point 215.
Link to WU under Start Menu: point 15.
Probes your Win98 installation for missing items: point 241.
List of updates seems to change after you download one of them: point 48.
Full set of updates for Win98 takes 6 hours to download: point 48.
X-Setup sets system so it appears to be registered for WU: point 137(r).
Registry edit adds multiple WU icons to Start Menu: point 146(e).
Could not remove WU icon from Start | Settings: point 146(e).
Comparison of Registry entries shows change to WU reset counter: point 150.
Updates seemed to be the primary suspect for system instability: point 220.
System freezes right after downloading updates: point 222.
Downloads seemed to have caused problems in Outlook 98: point 225.
Redownloaded updates at least three times: point 229.
After multiple redownloads, updates no longer seem to cause slowdown: point
229.
Decided I needed Outlook Express one time, but not another: point 241, point
242(c).
WU said I had Outlook Express despite thorough attempts to Uninstall it: point
242(c), point 242(h).

23

Uninstalled Outlook 98 to get WU to realize I didnt have Outlook Express:


point 242(c).
WU created duplicate files by apparently reinstalling to C:\Program Files
despite X-Setup instructions to install to D:\Program Files: point 314(c).
Windows Update Setup Files
See also Windows Update.
Something created multiple folders for these files: point 317.
Trying to move these folders: point 317.

Win98 Modes
There is much to know about different ways to run and fix Win98. This subject
of Modes is just an introduction to one of the terms that people use occasionally.
Mode
There are two types of Operating System modes. The Win98 modes are Normal
Mode and Safe Mode. There are also several DOS Modes, including one that
exists only under Win98.
The term mode also gets used in numerous other ways.
See also BIOS.
Normal Mode
The normal operating mode for Win98.
See also Mode, BIOS, Disk Defragmenter, BOOT_MGR.BAT, Startup Menu.
Safe Mode
See also Mode, PCI Communication Device, Monitor, Cold Reboot, Desktop,
Monitor, CD-ROM Driver, WIN Command, Reboot Toolbar, BOOT_MGR.BAT,
File List.
Part of Win98s self-healing process: point 119(c).
Couldnt figure out how to run Disk Defragmenter automatically in SM: point
123.
Might fix problem with vanishing Icons in System Tray: point 316.
Computer sometimes prefers to boot in SM when something went wrong
previously: point 72.
Sometimes boot in SM before Normal Mode just to make sure things are right:
point 84.
Presence of WNBOOTNG.STS Signature file apparently makes system boot in
Safe Mode: point 85(a).
Enter by hitting F8 at Startup Menu: point 105(k).

24

Boot into SM to avoid system reconfiguration for temporary change of hardware:


point 225.
Suggestion to free IRQs by deleting Modem and Communications Ports in SM:
point 234.
A more limited mode than Normal Mode: point 262(b).
Generally intended for Troubleshooting: point 262(b).
Would not allow some aspects of system to run: point 262(b).

Files and Folders


Win98 uses Folders to hold files. DOS calls them Directories instead of Folders.
Either way, the concept is that you start at the Root (which is, perversely, the top)
level of a Drive, and you have folders or directories branching off from there,
each containing zero or more files.
Windows Explorer is the most commonly used Win98 tool for manipulating and
browsing among files and folders. PowerDesk also has an explorer that imitates
and improves upon Windows Explorer. It is an optional add-on to your system - it is not essential -- and the only reason I mention it here is that it is so similar to
Windows Explorer. That, and the fact that it is what I use to ZIP and UNZIP
files, which is something that I had to do one way or another at this stage in the
game.

Folder
Too general to bother cataloging in full detail.
Dragging things to a folder: point 120(s).
Win98 sometimes remembered open folders and recreated them on Reboot:
point 138(c).
Root
Short for root folder or root Directory. Means the beginning folder on a
Partition or disk. Example: the root folder on Drive C appears at the DOS
Prompt as C:\> where the > symbol just means type your command here; the
actual root address in that case is C:\
Different from Rooted Folders: see Windows Explorer.
Windows Explorer
See also Easy CD Creator, PowerDesk, Context Menu, DELTREE, Network
Neighborhood, Start | Settings, Graphics.
Basic file manipulation utility supplied with Windows. Very important.
Not the same as Internet Explorer.

25

View Hidden Files: point 5(a).


Right-click Start Button to open WE, pointing to Start Menu: point 43, point
145(i).
Set to open Start | Programs menu structure: point 146(m).
Toolbar provides arrows allowing back and forward navigation: point 120(aa).
Customizing WE re: file types, views, toolbar: point 43.
System froze when using WE to move files to troubled Hard Disk: point 81.
Status bar indicated size of files in partition: point 103.
Typically used with Office 97 programs: point 113(e).
Might use two sessions of WE for Audio Editing: point 113(e).
Can use to view thumbnail versions of Graphics files: point 113(h).
Cant get thumbnails of documents: point 113(h).
Allows Quick View option on Context Menu: point 113(h).
WE is distinct from Explorer: point 109(d).
Control Panel option on Context Menu: point 112(e).
SendTo option on Context Menu: point 113(c).
Rename file or folder option on Context Menu: point 113(e).
Properties of file or folder option on Context Menu: point 113(e).
Empty Recycle Bin option on Context Menu: point 116(c).
Formatting Disk option on Context Menu: point 242(g).
Use X-Setup to create DOS Prompt Here option: point 137(d).
DOS Prompt Here option on Context Menu: point 141(o).
Making DOS Prompt Here open a bigger window: point 146(k).
Refused to work on failing computer: point 116(k).
Drop-down File Lists when typing new entries: point 118.
Clearing the Most Recently Used (MRU) File Lists: point 118.
Double-clicking on programs in WE runs them: point 119(a).
Find File: point 120(e), point 120(z).
File open option on Context Menu: point 120(m).
Select the View option on menu to set file associations: point 120(m).
Select View option to create option to open TXT file in Word: point 120(m).
Couldnt right-click on Desktop Folder to Create Shortcut: point 120(n).
Doesn't provide selective list of folders: point 120(u).
WE opens automatically in rooted folders: point 120(aa).
Options on how WE opens: point 120(aa).
WEs Explorer View and Open View: point 120(aa).
No immediate need for Rooted Folders: point 120(aa).
Could not get Rooted Folders to work as I wanted: point 120(aa).
Could not move Internet Explorers History folder: point 120(ag).
Copy option works where cut and Paste doesnt: point 120(ag).
Can add Context Menu options via X-Setup: point 137(d).
Didnt succeed where PowerDesk Explorer failed: point 141(q).
Adjusting New (Context Menu Option): point 145(f), point 146(c).

26

Removing Settings from Start Menu removes from WE too: point 146(e).
Changing Context Menu options: point 146(k), point 146(l), point 146(m).
Changing Context Menu for folders required Registry edit: point 146(k).
WE is a Directory shell: point 146(l).
Couldnt delete unwanted Context Menu options: point 146(m).
Deleting unwanted Context Menu items required Registry edit: point 146(m).
Couldnt delete folder while WE was looking at it: point 154(b).
Couldnt see tracks on Audio CDs without CDFS.VXD: point 157(c).
Can copy Audio CD tracks via CDFS.VXD: point 157(c).
File Types option sets default TIF editor: point 224(c).
Added WE to Files Toolbar: point 310.
Error copying file: point 84.
Error: Drive not accessible: point 242(f).
Error: Sharing violation: point 120(ag).
PowerDesk
See also DriveImage, Windows Explorer, DIR Command, Network
Neighborhood, PKZIP.
Has ZIP and UNZIP feature: point 25, point 70, point 135.
Some imperfections; generally pleased with program: point 25.
Has optional DES high-security encryption: point 27, point 135.
Not recommended for backing up entire Hard Disks: point 29.
Used to back up entire Hard Disk: point 269(c).
Have to buy ZipMagic to have command-line ZIP option: point 29.
Considered a must have program: point 70.
Update available online: point 70.
Possible candidate for instability: point 74.
PD configuration data stored in Registry: point 74.
Decided to reinstall despite possibility of instability: point 75.
Can view Graphics files in different ways: point 113(h), point 135.
Can provide graphic view of documents: point 113(h).
Serves as replacement for Windows Explorer: point 120(aa).
Can convert Graphics file Formats: point 120(ad), point 320.
Can view contents of CAB files: point 134(e).
Can extract files from CAB files: point 141(u).
Comes with Size Manager utility: point 134(f).
Can print a list of some or all files in a folder: point 134(x).
Contained many useful tools: point 135.
Won many awards: point 135.
Installation took 18 MB: point 135.
Configurable options: point 135.
Can expand/collapse Drives and folders: point 135.
Can view double panes horizontal and vertical: point 135.

27

Can show filtered File Lists: point 135.


Can show Command Line and open DOS Box: point 135, point 141(c).
Can compare and synchronize folders: point 135, point 141(q).
Can do Find File: point 135, point 146(d).
Can change file Date and Time: point 135.
Made a point of shutting down before installing other software: point 135.
Lacks Address toolbar option of Windows Explorer: point 135, point 141(e).
Crashed: point 139(b).
Used Command Line option to launch GO.BAT: point 139(c).
Had "DOS Prompt Here" Context Menu option: point 141(e).
Apparently not responsible for unresponsive system: point 141(q).
Dual-pane view couldnt accommodate file details: point 141(q).
No FAQ on website re error message: point 144.
More than a year of experience with the program: point 144.
Installation added unwanted Context Menu items: point 146(m).
Unwanted Context Menu items appear in Windows Explorer too: point 146(m).
Could not remove one unwanted Context Menu item: point 146(m), point 196.
Removing Context Menu items provoked Shutdown: point 146(m).
Tech support responded in a few days: point 146(m).
Tech support initially gave bad advice: point 146(n).
Subsequent tech support advice did not work: point 196.
Folder file type opened with PD: point 146(m).
Run by PDEXPLO program: point 146(m).
Error: PDEXPLO not responding: point 224(f).
ZIP feature ignored empty folders: point 168.
Could copy System Files on Hard Disk C while Windows was running: point
210.
No option to copy a Drive: point 210.
Can set to show Hidden Files: point 210.
Not responding error apparently caused by other program: point 224(f).
Provided information on partitions: point 258(b).
Slow copying large files to another partition: point 258(b), point 269(o).
Stalled when trying to copy files with overly long names: point 258(b).
Zipped files faster than DriveImage: point 269(c).
ZIP compression about 55%: point 269(c).
Calculated 500 MB as 500 x 1 MB: point 269(i).
Computer had problems with PD: point 270.
Ran PD as regular program at Startup: point 285.
Used Find File function to locate all batch files referring to wrong disk: point
303(d).
Slow reading from CD: point 309(a).
Used CDex instead of PD to read Audio track from CD: point 309(a).
Shut down after Fatal Exception: point 315.

28

Better than WinDiff for synchronizing folders: point 318.


Directory comparison found duplicate files: point 319.
Could create Bitmap Files for Startup Wallpaper: point 320.
Using PD to move program files may have caused slowness: point 332.
Error message when closing: point 144.
Error: Illegal operation: point 146(m).
Error: Not responding: point 224(f).
Error: Cannot copy: point 258(b).
Size Manager
Created by makers of PowerDesk.
See also TreeSize.
Checks total space used in folders and disks: point 164.
Set up separate Icon to run it: point 135.
Put Icon on Files Toolbar: point 310.
UNZIP
See also PowerDesk, WinZip.
Type of program that decompresses files compressed into ZIP Format: point
5(d).
May be needed for Bootable Floppy: point 5(d).
Can distribute zipped files back to their original locations: point 26.
Can ZIP in Win98 program and unzip in DOS program or vice versa: point 27.
ZIP
See also DriveImage, XCOPY32, PowerDesk, PKZIP, WinZip, Path, Bootable
Floppy, UNZIP.
Error: Error in archive Directory: bad ZIP file: point 287.
Had to delete bad ZIP file in DOS: point 287.
Format into which files may be compressed (.ZIP): point 5(d).
Used to add utilities to Win98 Emergency Boot Disk: point 57.
Can be Passworded: point 27.
Reduces accessibility of individual files: point 25.
Some ZIP programs let you look at the contents of ZIP files: point 25.
Some ZIP programs let you extract individual files from them: point 25.
Some ZIP programs let you add to or otherwise edit ZIP files: point 25.
Thinking through using ZIP as a Backup tool with XCOPY: point 26, point 202,
point 203.
Offered prospect of flexible approach to Backup: point 27.
Advantage over Disk Image File approach: dont have to do entire Partition:
point 27.
Advantage over Disk Image File approach: small ZIP takes less time and space:
point 27.

29

Used to get questionable files out of the way at least temporarily: point 168.
Zipping a 2 GB Partition would be time-consuming: point 256(b).
XCOPY and ZIP system would carry me for weeks between DriveImage
snapshots: point 337.

Essential Utilities
Your system has only begun to come together at this point. Already, however, it
is time to look beyond Microsoft for helpful utilities. Unlike PowerDesk,
mentioned above mostly for its usefulness and its relevance to Windows
Explorer, the following are very important and are well worth their price. All of
these non-Microsoft utilities (including PowerDesk) are very stable and, in my
experience, are likely to cause few, if any, problems on your system. Norton
AntiVirus 2000 is a possible exception, but if so, you have to put up with it unless
you find an antivirus program that you like better. Youll notice that these
programs tend to add an entry to Add/Remove Programs, even if you dont
install them through there. Speaking of which, note that Add/Remove
Programs has a separate tab that you use to add or remove portions of Win98.

Add/Remove Programs
See also Windows Setup Tab, Clean System Directory, CloseAll, System Devices,
IRQ Routing, Uninstall Information Folder, Dismantling Drive C, Win98
Emergency Boot Disk, Visual Basic Runtime.
Place for adding and removing programs generally. This heading does not list
all programs to which this might apply.
Found under Control Panel: point 163.
ARP for Outlook 98 allows Add New Components option: point 225.
ARP for Outlook 98 gives option to completely reinstall or just refresh
installation: point 166(b).
Add New Components leads to Office 98 Component Install Page: point 225.
Used to Uninstall programs: point 141(e), point 146(l).
Used to verify that program is installed: point 195.
Processes used by ARP: point 146(l).
Browsing through ARP for programs to delete to reduce bloat: point 170.
Before using ARP to remove programs, see if they have "Uninstall" Shortcuts or
files: point 170.
Supposed to use ARPs Windows Setup Tab to remove Outlook Express: point
241.
Not sure why Outlook Express doesnt appear on ARPs Windows Setup Tab:
point 242(c).
Program did not appear in ARP; had to use its Uninstall Icon: point 266(e).

30

Windows Setup Tab


See also Outlook 98, Outlook Express.
Found under Add/Remove Programs: point 146(d).
Separate from the ordinary Install/Uninstall option: point 154(c).
Where to add or remove WaveTop or Web TV for Windows: point 39.
Did not show Outloook Express: point 242(h).
Norton AntiVirus 2000
See also GoBack, Norton, Disk Defragmenter.
Inexplicably put non-removable entry on File | New menu: point 312.
Thought NAV was primary suspect for system instability: point 220.
Decided NAV was not primary suspect for system instability: point 221.
Compare antivirus Freeware: point 140(a).
McAfee antivirus program update process baffled me: point 156(a).
Cant go online without good, current antivirus software: point 156(a).
NAV used more than 40 MB of disk space: point 156(a), point 165(c).
Installation added folder I had not authorized: point 156(a).
Uninstall failed to remove folders: point 156(a).
Installation includes LiveAdvisor and LiveUpdate: point 156(a).
NAV can trash Hard Disk with PartitionMagic: point 195.
Probably not the source of problems with Outlook 98: point 225.
Runs POPROXY process: point 278.
Error: error starting program: apparently caused by POPROXY: point 278.
POPROXY problem caused COMCTL32.DLL error message: point 282.
GoBack
See also PartitionMagic, Custom Settings, Audio Editor.
Eliminated need for InCtrl4: point 141(d).
Vastly simplified recovery of previous Registry edits: point 151.
Not directly connected with Backup process: point 203.
Everyone praised GB: point 228.
Description of features: point 228, point 236.
Used to restore deleted files or system: point 228, point 236.
Had enhanced Recycle Bin: point 228.
Stored previous revisions of changed files: point 228.
History (Event Log) wiped out each time you disabled it: point 228.
Created system safe point: point 236.
Useless if Hard Disk was physically useless: point 236.
Ability to roll back changes depended on space allocated to it: point 236.
Had to disable before relocating a Hard Disk: point 236.
Had to Uninstall and reinstall before adding new Hard Disk: point 236.
Not compatible with Win2000: point 236.

31

Incompatible with some disk compressors: point 236.


Boot floppies had to contain GB Drivers: point 236.
Froze during installation movie: point 236.
Event history stored on same Hard Disk as events being tracked: point 238.
User choice of space to set aside for history: point 238.
Must Uninstall and reinstall to change space set aside: point 238.
Manual said program would just step aside for large files: point 238.
Had to leave at least 10 MB free on partition: point 238.
Had to configure separately on each computer: point 238, point 255(b).
Would not install on disk with non-DOS partition: point 239, point 242(a).
Got around bad disk problem with superficial Format: point 243.
Installation involved multiple reboots: point 243.
Cute clock: point 246.
GB with Norton SpeedDisk would trash system without patch: point 246.
GOBACKIO.BIN was main history file: point 246.
GOBACKIO.BIN is a System File: point 269(c).
Event Log showed events and safe points: point 246.
Easy to figure out events: point 246.
Option to revert Drive or resurrect virtual copy of previous situation: point 246.
Option to revert one or both Hard Disks: point 246.
Excluded some items: point 246.
Popped up before any other program on reboot: point 246.
Took a half-minute: point 246.
Might have to make multiple tries to revert successfully: point 246.
System Safe Point was any 10-second period of inactivity: point 246.
Adding items manually to Event Log: point 246.
System would not recognize Hard Disks when booted from Floppy: point 246.
Prevented DriveImage from running: point 254, point 269(a).
Antivirus message was red herring: point 254.
Bootup option to revert, disable, or boot from Floppy: point 254, point 269(l).
Booting with regular Floppy seemed to work fine: point 254.
Disabled GB to boot from Floppy: point 254.
Did not allow re-enabling with different settings: point 255(e).
Supposed to use their Uninstaller: point 255(e).
Had to revise partition sizes before reinstalling: point 255(f).
Unlocked slave Hard Disk by Uninstalling GB: point 256(d).
False bug report due to problem with GoBack itself: point 256(d).
Caused significantly slower reboots: point 256(d).
Caused blue screen errors: point 256(d).
Caused Norton Disk Doctor error message: point 256(d), point 256(f).
Damaged boot record beyond repair: point 256(f).
Required at least 10 MB: point 258(a).
Move data before adjusting partition before installing GB: point 258(b).

32

Corrupted Directory after abortive install: point 258(d).


Changing a large file wiped out Event history: point 258(e).
Relied on it: point 267(d), point 281, point 289, point 319.
Could manually re-enable from DOS Prompt: point 269(a), point 269(m).
DriveImage backup filled with huge GOBACKIO.BIN: point 269(b).
Prevented DriveImage on non-GOBACKIO partitions: point 269(l).
Re-enabling became familiar: point 269(m).
May be responsible for disk thrashing and Mouse slowness: point 269(m).
GB installation trashed by DriveImage: point 269(m).
Manual contained no list of error codes: point 269(m).
Manual mentioned no Command Line options: point 269(n).
Must reboot at least once to disable: point 269(n).
Two running Processes, GBMENU and GBPOLL: point 269(n).
Possible source of Network slowness: point 269(o).
May have caused disk errors: point 269(o).
Disabling GB took half-hour: point 269(o).
Disk geometry error caused near-freeze in ScanDisk: point 269(o).
PrcView shutdown may have caused GB disk problem: point 269(o).
Large file changes may confuse: point 269(o).
One test showed Event Log covered past 40+ hours: point 279, point 281, point
282.
Had to remove recent documents before reverting: point 281.
Successfully reverted: point 281, point 284, point 323.
Many changes reduced log to 12 hours: point 284.
Shut off GB polling: point 291.
GB polling just checked for GB updates: point 291.
Lost Suspend to Disk file on laptop: point 291.
Problems with Gateway computers: point 291.
Only way of shutting down by batch file was to kill Process: point 291.
No way to suspend temporarily during large file changes: point 291.
Could not tell which data files reversion would wipe out: point 294, point 297.
Could revert just one Hard Disk: point 294.
OptOut (coded in assembly language) not logged: point 294.
Should have inserted comment in log before installing a program: point 294.
Log allows filters to reduce details: point 294.
ScanDisk and Disk Defragmenter trashed disk covered by GB: point 298.
List of incompatible programs: point 298(a).
Antivirus programs must allow MBR writes: point 298(b).
Defragmenting used up much of GB Event Log: point 298(b).
Fix for Norton SpeedDisk incompatibility: point 298(b).
Confused by disk copies: point 298(b).
Disable antivirus programs during GB installation: point 298(b).
Nearly indispensable: point 300(a).

33

Prevented Defrag from running on GOBACK partitions: point 300(d).


Created separate partitions containing only GOBACKIO.BIN: point 300(d), point
302.
GB website unclear re Norton Utilities: point 300(e).
Modified Registry to keep Defrag away from GOBACKIO.BIN: point 300(f).
Disabled to make DriveImage Disk Image File: point 301.
Allocated much more space to make Event Log go back more hours: point 302.
Event Log went back only 12 hours after allocating 20% of disk: point 302 and
point 323.
Audio editing (Cool Edit 2000) reduced Event Log to 12 hours: point 302.
Opted not to cover a Hard Disk: point 258(a).
Restoring other computer from backup would require GB Uninstallation: point
304.
Batch files for Defragmenting only selected partitions, not GOBACKIO: point
306.
Catching up, slowed down Mouse and other program: point 309(a).
Should allow storage of Hard Disk data on another Hard Disk: point 309(a).
GB slowdown problem exacerbated by Clipboard Pile: point 309(a).
Displayed lost files in one place but not another: point 323.
Forgot to Uninstall GB before running DriveImage: point 334.
Had to use FDISK to rescue trashed GoBack system: point 334.
Caused DriveImage error cannot lock a locked drive: point 334.
Event Log went back 5 days on infrequently used computer: point 335.
Reasonably stable program: point 335.
Need to Uninstall forced reduced use of DriveImage: point 337.
Reduced need for moment-by-moment backup: point 339.
Error: Invalid drive specification when booting from Floppy: point 254.
Error # 58: Unable to write to the boot sector: point 254, point 269(a).
Error: Drive C does not contain a valid FAT or FAT32 partition: point 254.
Error: Third-party disk-partitioning software: point 254.
Error: Detected a Problem With Your System: point 256(d).
Error: Geometry of the disk has been changed: point 258(a), point 269(g).
Error: GoBack (300): run SETUP.EXE from within Windows: point 269(l).
Error: GoBack Install (316): drives are on the same physical Hard Disk: point
269(m).
Error: GB_PROG.EXE can only be run in MS-DOS Mode (code 503): point
269(n).
Error: Unable to revert all of your Hard Disks to the requested time: point
281.
Error: Fatal Exception caused by GB polling: point 291.
Error: Couldnt locate these drives on your system: point 298(b).
Error: GoBack Install (400): 2 copies of the allocation tables on your drive are
different: point 335.

34

Error: Disk activity now going on relates to safely transitioning: point 269(m).

Backup
I use a CD-ROM Drive capable of burning CDs -- commonly called a CD Burner - to make my backups. The subject of CDs is a world unto itself, and Ill get to
that later. Here, I limit myself to the topic of Backup, and not even to that whole
topic, but just to the part that involves creating Disk Image Files using a program
like DriveImage or Norton Ghost.
Backup
See also Network, GoBack, DriveImage, ScanReg, Registry Checker,
SYSTEM.INI, WIN.INI, SYSTEM.DAT, USER.DAT, CAB Files, BAK Files, OLD
Files, Hardware Profile, Links Folder, File-by-File Backup, LFNBACK.EXE, Disk
Image File, Online Storage, OUTLOOK.PST, Audio Editor, CD_PREP.BAT,
Conflict, File List, ZIP, XCOPY.
Backup is any useful copy of data on computer, usually kept for safety, so that
you can restore the data if something happens to the original. May involve
floppy disk, removeable disk, another Hard Disk on same or different computer,
Tape Backup, electronic Memory, printouts, etc.
Some backup software does not capture Registry automatically. But your
backup may be useless for program files (but not data files) if it does not capture
the Registry.
Ideally, keep copy of Registry for each backup of program files: point 204.
Can back up on CD: point 3.
Using multisession CDs: point 269(e).
Some files never change and dont really need frequent backup: point 27.
At the extreme, proper backup would require separate CD for every program
installed: point 203.
Thinking about incremental backup: point 340.
Can save large files in small pieces among multiple floppies via Win98's Backup
utility: point 141.
Lacking incremental backup means redoing everything since last full backup:
point 227.
No clear dividing line between essential and incidental Win98 files on
backup: point 269(d).
Wanted to make frequent, unobtrusive backups: point 337.
Program files and data files require different kinds of backup: point 337.
Backup during the night should provide adequate protection: point 339.
Disk Image File

35

See also GoBack, DriveImage, Easy CD Creator, Slice32, CLR_DOCS.BAT,


CLR_RECY.BAT, Temporary Internet Files, Network, File-by-File Backup, ZIP.
Clear out Start | Documents and Recycle Bin before making DI: point 120(i).
Clear out C:\WINDOWS\TEMP Directory before making DI: point 16, point 53.
Offers simplicity for regular Backup work: point 3.
Adaptec seems to contemplate File-by-File Backup technique: point 13.
Placed onto Bootable CD with utilities to restore the image: point 64.
Could save on Hard Disk instead of saving on CD: point 111.
Tested by restoring from CD onto which image file was burned: point 116(k).
Could copy image file from one computer to the other via Network: point
116(k).
Shut off Archive Bits manually so I would know what the image file covered:
point 166(f).
DriveImage
See also GoBack, PartitionMagic, PowerQuest.
Recommended: point 2.
Stored many files in one Disk Image File: point 5(f).
Provided files worth having on Bootable Floppy: point 5(h).
Put files in right place automatically as it unpacked image file: point 13.
Ran in DOS so Windows files were not in use: point 17, point 30, point 116(i).
Could edit image file created by DriveImage: point 24.
Required more temporary disk space than smaller ZIP files: point 25.
Not a File-by-File Backup technique: point 26.
Used a take-over-your-machine approach: point 27.
Used to set up basic Win98 system on empty Hard Disk: point 29.
Basic technique for backing up Windows: point 56.
PQDI.EXE was DOS executable form of program: point 58.
Load MOUSE.COM first: point 58.
Options were Create Image, Restore Image, Disk-to-Disk Copy: point 58.
Resulting filename extension was PQI: point 58.
Offered no compression and low (40%) and high (50%) compression: point 58.
Fast mode was very fast: point 58.
Could move PQI image file to other machine by swapping Hard Disks: point 58.
PQI image file different from Easy CD Creator image file: point 61, point 269(f).
Recommend low compression for CDs: point 61.
Included in the programs in DOS_UTIL folder on Bootable CD: point 64.
Ran from DOS_UTIL folder: point 66, point 191.
Deleted and Reformatted existing partition when restoring: point 66, point 179.
Offered to Check for Bad Sectors and Verify Disk Writes: point 66.
Use ScanDisk to fix error # 2005: point 66.
Might use ScanDisk before DriveImage: point 66.
Claimed maximum compression of 50%: point 68.

36

Repeatedly died 98% of the way through a restore: point 78.


False corruption error: point 78.
Required reboot after failed restore efforts: point 78, point 269(m).
Repeated errors when trying to restore: point 78.
Seemed to need to run from disk with some spare space: point 78.
Worked best when run from the Hard Disk: point 86.
Running from separate partition: point 86.
Storing Disk Image File on another partition: point 103.
Not necessary to run from separate partition: point 103.
Allowed me to combine C and D partitions in one image file: point 103.
Ran from Real DOS: point 111.
Store 900 MB in an hour with max compression and verification: point 111.
First non-Microsoft utility installed on new system: point 115.
Attempted to squeeze everything into one CD: point 152.
Ran Cleanup Suite first: point 161.
Existing compressed files reduced compression rate to 61%: point 161.
Could use Disk-to-Disk Copy to get another computer up fast: point 166.
Used Disk-to-Disk Copy: point 169, point 256(f).
PQI file restored successfully: point 174, point 226.
Must restore multiple partitions one at a time: point 179.
Restored in 20 minutes: point 179.
Restored quickly from one Hard Disk to another: point 191, point 204.
Much more stable than HP Colorado Tape Backup: point 201.
Not as precise in terms of File Lists as other Backup approaches: point 202.
Wiped-out Hard Disk C replaced by D: point 204.
Froze 2/3 of the way through a restore: point 204.
Must run from something other than Bootable CD: point 204.
ScanDisk might be irrelevant: point 204.
Restoring PQI file from Hard Disk worked when CD didnt: point 204.
Disliked black box aspect of single image file: point 204.
Copied partitions across Network in two steps: point 214.
Disk-to-disk copy of Hard Disk C failed: point 214.
Nothing in manual on freeze caused by Disk-to-Disk copy of Hard Disk C: point
214.
Stored image file on other partition: point 220.
Message didnt explain there was not enough disk space: point 220, point 236.
Would have prevented manually redoing previous work: point 227.
Exact copy, including items that differed on other computer: point 255(c).
Need not run from a partition other than the one being imaged: point 269(a).
Could have run from RAM Drive: point 269(a).
Achieved 54% compression in practice: point 188, point 269(a).
Need to image entire partitions reduced backup usefulness: point 269(c).
Probably better compression than PowerDesk ZIP: point 269(c).

37

Preserved long filenames regardless of CD Format: point 269(e).


PQI file could hold far more than would fit on one CD: point 269(f).
Must divide oversized PQI image (>650 MB) before burning CD: point 269(h).
Similarity to Norton Ghost: point 2, point 269(h).
Option of splitting oversized PQI image into 2+ files: point 269(h).
Could use Slice32 to split oversized PQI image: point 269(h).
Splitting capabilities of DriveImage Special Edition: point 269(h).
Split oversized PQI into 671mB (640 MB) parts: point 269(l), point 301.
Used Network to move PQI image files to other computer: point 269(m).
Restored from split PQI file: point 269(m).
Manual did not explain error # 29: point 269(m).
Failed restore wiped out Hard Disk C: point 269(m).
Did not show sizes or Dates of files being restored: point 269(m).
Restored seamlessly from multi-part backup: point 269(m), point 334.
Backup of changed folders on C before restoring from PQI file: point 334.
Restore by Floppy reboot where Yamaha CD-ROM Drive not bootable: point
334.
Offered to change partitions as needed during restore: point 336(a).
Need to Uninstall GoBack and reboot reduced usefulness: point 337.
Backup philosophy: occasional DI backups: point 337.
Error # 2005: One or more lost clusters are present: point 66, point 204.
Error # 2004: Invalid cluster was found in a Directory entry: point 78.
Error # 1802: Image file is invalid or corrupted: point 78, point 204.
Error # 29: Cannot lock a locked drive: point 204, point 269(m).
Error # 1805: Error writing to image file: point 220.

Initial Tweaks and Hardware Problems


Device Manager is a sub-option within Control Panel. Youll use both
frequently. You can make them more accessible. One way is to put Control
Panel on the Start Menu and put a shortcut for Device Manager on the Desktop,
with its own Icon. Then go into Device Manager and resolve Exceptions, or at
least the easy ones that just call for Drivers. If you dont have a disk, you can
find drivers in the C:\Windows\INF Folder or online at WinDrivers.com.
Configure your Monitor. You should already have had your Modem working by
now. You will be working with Properties of some items here.
Control Panel
See also Windows Explorer, Dial-Up Networking, Add/Remove Programs,
Monitor, System, Performance, File System, DMA, Sounds, File | New,
Hardware Profile, Screen Saver, Mouse, Modem, Printer, Communications Port.
Found under Start | Settings: point 39, point 145(i).

38

Creating CP Icon for Desktop: point 112(e).


X-Setup can also create CP Icon for Desktop: point 112(e), point 137(c).
CP Icon created by X-Setup didnt work: point 138(d).
Decided to have just one CP Icon, located on Start Menu: point 145(i).
Removed CP Icon from Desktop: point 145(j).
CP elements have CPL extension: point 120(x).
Deciding not retire few CP elements for being unnecessary: point 120(x).
Deciding to retire FINDFAST.CPL for being unnecessary: point 120(x).
X-Setup makes it easy to retire unneeded CP items: point 120(x).
Start Menu
See also Windows Explorer, Internet Explorer, Find File, Properties, File | New,
Control Panel, Windows Update, Help, Favorites.
Opens up when user clicks Start Button.
Different from Startup Menu.
SM options in virgin Win98 installation: Start | Programs, Start | Favorites,
Start | Documents, Start | Settings, Start | Find, Start | Help, Start | Run, Start
| Log Off, Start | Shut Down.
Can also bring up SM by hitting Ctrl-Esc: point 105(k), point 182.
Rearranged icons on SM: point 102.
TweakUI may be the only way to remove some unwanted items from SM: point
145(f).
Device Manager
See also New (Context Menu Option), System Devices, Network, Serial Port,
DMA, SCSI, Hardware Profile, Desktop Toolbar, Turtle Beach Daytona,
Diamond SupraMax 56i PCI Modem, PCI Communication Device, Monitor,
Network Card, Hardware Troubleshooter, Resource Conflict, Modem, Disk
Drives, Computer | Properties, Communications Port.
Exclamation mark in yellow circle: see Exception.
Right-click on Computer to show IRQs: point 281.
No Sound Card entry: point 212.
Exception for S3 Legacy Relocator for SonicVibes PCI Audio Device: point 217,
point 234.
Error: Cannot find any free Interrupt Request (IRQ) Resources: point 217.
DM recommends using Hardware Troubleshooter: point 217.
Creating Desktop Shortcut to DM: point 112(e).
IRQs missing from DM: point 281.
System Devices
Subpart of Device Manager.
Provides information on AGP controller: point 325.
Also referred to as system Properties: point 107(g).

39

Driver not in SD may appear in Add/Remove Programs: point 107(g).


Properties
See also Windows Explorer, Start | Shut Down, DOS Batch, Toolbar, Disk
Format, Context Menu, System Devices, Network, DOSKEY, Disk Cache,
Communications Port, Resource Conflict, Modem, Resources, Auto Insert
Notification, IRQ.
Taskbar properties: point 41, point 42.
Recycle Bin properties: point 41.
Drive H (SWAP) properties: point 41.
Properties of Shut Down | Restart in MS-DOS Mode: point 105(l).
DOS Box Icon properties: point 105(l).
DOS Box properties re available RAM: point 105(m).
Change program Icon properties to specify output location: point 120(h).
Change Icon properties to shrink Icon: point 120(l).
Get combined size of many files by selecting all, right-clicking on one: point
134(f).
Change disk properties to Rename disk: point 242(g).
Properties option within Outlook 98 and Outlook Express: point 37.
Place to find DOS filename of file with long filename: point 113(e).
Modem extra settings option: point 265(c).
Enable device option for S3 Legacy Relocator for SonicVibes PCI Audio Device:
point 281.
Icon
Used too frequently to track every occurrence in this document.
See e.g., Context Menu, Properties, Graphics, Monitor, Start | Programs.
Shrinking eliminates little arrow: point 120(l).
Files and websites containing many icons: point 120(ad).
GIF, JPG, and ICO Formats: point 120(ad).
Creating icons from BMP Files: point 120(ad).
Using Icon Snatcher to search computer for icons: point 120(ad).
X-Setup can display or hide icons on Control Panel: point 137(b).
X-Setup can make Windows Explorer show the Icons that appear inside Control
Panel: point 137(e).
X-Setup can wrap long icon titles: point 137(e).
X-Setup can display more icons when Coolswitching: point 137(g).
Exception
Another word for exclamation mark in yellow circle in Device Manager.
Not the same as Fatal Exception.
Communications Port exception: Resource Conflict: no IRQ: point 232.
Exception caused by no free IRQs: point 234.

40

Driver
See also PartitionMagic, GoBack, AGP, System Devices, Bridge, 32-Bit, Diamond
SupraMax 56i PCI Modem, IRQ Routing, Monitor, S3 Inc. Savage4, Matrox
Mystique, CATROOT, Network Neighborhood, Tape Backup, C:\Windows\INF
Folder, DMA, Bus Master, Twain, FTP, Hewlett-Packard ScanJet IIcx, SCSI,
Mouse, CD-ROM Drive, CD-ROM Driver, ATAPI_CD.SYS, SSCDROM.SYS,
Bootable CD, Bootable Floppy, Motherboard, Video Card, Creative SoundBlaster
AWE64, Find File, Soyo, Hard Disk, WinDrivers.com.
May be found on Floppy: point 255(c).
Downloaded Drivers needed to Add New Hardware: point 82.
Modem disliked Driver it was supposed to like: point 99.
Modem Drivers loaded from Floppy: point 206.
Advised to skip USB Filter Driver: point 107(f).
Win98 built Driver Information Database when finding New Hardware: point
180.
Booting takes care of some Driver installations: point 259.
Win98 asks for Drivers for New Hardware: point 190.
Modem Diagnostics should say Communication Driver is COMM.DRV: point
206.
WinDrivers.com
Has latest Drivers: point 267(b).
Seemed like a good, professional site: point 309(c).
Made me get Sound Card ID unnecessarily: point 309(c).
Steered me to home page for Creative SoundBlaster AWE64: point 309(c).
Monitor
See also Video Card, Display, Power Management.
Not necessary to configure Monitor to get basic functionality: point 15.
Adjust settings in Control Panel: point 218.
640 x 480 resolution: point 120(l).
800 x 600 resolution shows more: point 218.
Safe Mode may affect Icon location for 800 x 600 resolution: point 146(h).
16-Bit color on Monitor: point 105(k).
Word 97 toolbars that dont fit in one resolution may fit in another: point 102.
Racing horizontal effect not a problem in 640 x 480 mode: point 105(k), point
184.
Set to 640 x 480 in Safe Mode to fix racing effect: point 105(k), point 184, point
206.
Racing horizontal effect recurs: point 192.
Racing horizontal effect was due to loose plug.
Drivers necessary to get right colors and end racing effect: point 105(k).

41

Cheap clone monitor configured as Unknown Monitor: point 218.


Monitor configured in Device Manager: point 218.
Change of settings might put Icons out of line: point 121.
Driver for unknown monitor type included with Win98: point 218.
Included in Hardware Profile: point 219.
Some programs cannot run in less than 256 colors: point 259(c).
Totally blank screen: see Logitech Mouse.
Changing resolution produces Explorer crash: point 105(k).
Video Card
See also AGP, PCIInfo, Matrox Mystique, S3 Inc. Savage4, Add New Hardware.
Also known as Display Adapter: point 218.
Driver found in C:\Windows\INF Folder: point 255(c).
Increase number of colors by updating Video Card Driver: point 259(c).
System recognized Graphics Card even without deliberately installing in: point
105(k).
Display
See also Monitor, Lost & Found, Video Card, Screen Saver.
An option under Control Panel: point 320.
Use this option to specify Wallpaper from Bitmap Files in C:\WINDOWS: point
320.
Resizing to 800 x 600: point 120(aj).
Modem
See also Dial-Up Networking, Internet Connection Wizard, ISP, Symantec
WinFax, PCI Communication Device, BIOS Setup, Cold Reboot, Newcom 33ifxC
Internal Modem, Creative SoundBlaster AWE64, Communications Port,
Diamond SupraMax 56i PCI Modem, SYSTEM.DAT, Office 97, Plug-N-Play, Add
New Hardware, Port, Resource Conflict, Safe Mode, Properties, Internet Tech
Support Diagnostics, IRQ, Resource Conflict.
Error: Unable to establish a connection: point 229, point 232, point 281.
Cant research online without one: point 200.
Installation required modem Driver on Floppy: point 37.
Frequent disconnections might have been fault of phone company: point 113(g).
Checking quality of phone line: point 113(g).
Installation included Serial Wave, Enumerator, Voice PCI: point 182.
Deleting five imaginary modems when I actually had only one: point 182.
Check Device Manager re modem problems: point 281.
Might still work after Warm Reboot but not after Cold Reboot, or vice versa:
point 234.
System couldnt find modem: point 91.

42

Device Manager shows one modem while Properties box shows two: point
265(c).
Search for new Driver in Control Panel | Modem | Properties: point 99, point
206.
Initialization strings can make modem run faster: point 266(g).
Better to have the right Driver than to have an initialization string: point 266(g).
Decide not to update working modem or its Driver: point 266(g), point 267(b).
Deleting Modem under Control Panel and letting system re-recognize: point
181, point 206.
Device Manager shows multiple Modems: point 181, point 195, point 206.
No entry for Modem in Device Manager: point 229, point 232.
No entry for Modem in Control Panel: point 99.
No IRQ for Modem: point 281.
Error 630: the computer is not receiving a response from the modem: point
281.
Have to configure your modem manually unless Win98 does it automatically:
point 15, point 99.
Error: could not detect modem: point 206.
Error: modem failed to respond: point 206.
Trying to fix modem with Diagnostics: point 206.
Manual settings on modem Card: point 206.
Initialization strings: point 265(c).
Improving modem performance via Extra Settings: point 265(c).
AGP
See also Motherboard, PCIInfo.
Information about: see WCPUID.
Installing AGP Driver: point 107(g), point 255(c), point 325.
Information on AGP controller: see System Devices.
Bridge
See point 107(g).
Southbridge: point 107(d).
Skipped PCI bridge Driver: point 107(e), point 182.
Skipped PCI to ISA bridge: point 180, point 255(c).
PCI
See also PCIInfo, Bridge, Audio, PCI Communication Device, Network, Diamond
SupraMax 56i PCI Modem, IRQ Routing, Matrox Mystique, Network Card, USB,
Modem, BIOS Setup.
Unknown PCI device: point 180.
Exception for PCI Multimedia Audio Device because Sound Card not installed:
point 212.

43

PCI devices can share IRQs: point 232.


Replacing ISA Cards with PCI Cards can free up IRQs: point 234.
Replacing ISA Cards with PCI Cards requires free PCI slots: point 281.
Standard PCI Graphics Adapter (VGA): point 255(c).
Diamond SupraMax 56i PCI Modem
Modem used in AMD machine.
See also PCI Communication Device.
Installed SUP2750 PCI Modem Enumerator: point 255(c).
Difficulty installing: point 182.
Device Manager considered it a SupraExpress: point 182.
No installation information on Diamond website: point 182.
Installation CD showed different menus at different times: point 182.
Advised trying a different slot on Motherboard: point 182.
Eventually did Find File (Driver): point 182.
September 1999 Driver update apparently the wrong one: point 325.
Appeared that Driver was built into Win98 but not Win95: point 325.
PCI Communication Device
See also Add New Hardware.
Same as Diamond SupraMax 56i PCI Modem: point 182, point 255(c).
Nothing specific on the subject at the Soyo website: point 182.
Didnt refer to a Motherboard feature: point 182.
Installation advice: Safe Mode | Device Manager, delete items: point 182.
Problems arose after installing from CD or using Network: point 192.
Installation required multiple reboots: point 193.
IRQ Routing
See also Motherboard, USB.
IRQ is short for Interrupt Request: point 107(d).
Referred to as VIA PCI IRQ Routing Miniport Driver: point 107(g).
Driver recommended by chipset manufacturer but not Motherboard
manufacturer: point 107(d).
Problems installing IRQ Routing Driver: point 107(g).
Driver not shown in Add/Remove Programs: point 107(g).
Problems caused by bad Floppy: point 107(g).
S3 Inc. Savage4
Full name: Cardex S3 Savage4 Graphics Adapter by Gainward: point 267(a).
Low price, difficult to Find File (Driver): point 267(a).
Updating Driver increased number of colors available: point 259(c).
Driver installation gave weird message that Drive F was inaccessible: point
267(a).

44

Matrox Mystique
Downloading Drivers: point 218.
Diagnostics require selection of monitor type: point 218.
Erroneously says that old version of DirectX installed: point 218.
A PCI Video Card: point 218.
Tape Backup
See also Hard Disk, DriveImage.
A Backup method involving special digital tape cartridges and internal or
external Tape Drives. Very early PCs (circa 1980) could use audio cassette tapes,
and there are programs that use videotapes, but these methods are unreliable,
slow, and not necessarily cost-effective.
Can chain multiple tapes to form one large backup of a set of programs that
are too large for one tape, at the very real risk that the chain will malfunction:
point 68.
Problems with Bus Master Driver: point 107(b).
Hewlett-Packard 5GB Tape Drive had lost data and imposed hassles: point 171.
HP tape software had utterly ceased to run: point 171.
Could not Uninstall malfunctioning HP tape software: point 171.
Network eliminated need for tape software: point 250.
Driver installed at Startup: point 255(c).
Tape Drive
See Tape Backup.
USB
Short for Universal Serial Bus, I think.
See also Driver.
I didnt plan to use USB: point 107(f).
Deleted PCI to USB connector: point 218.
Turn on OnChip USB and Assign IRQ for USB in BIOS Setup before installing
Win98: point 107(d).
Disabled USB in BIOS Setup to free up an IRQ: point 281.
Tried disabling PCI to USB Universal Host Controller to free up an IRQ: point
217, point 234.
Disabling PCI connector did not free IRQ: point 217, point 234.
Logitech Mouse
Logitech software enables middle button on Logitech Mouse: point 224.
Couldnt use this mouse on other computer because cord was too short: point
224.
Logitech software ran itself before BIOS Setup: point 233.

45

Software was DOS/Win3.1-compatible, i.e., had problems with long Directory


name: point 224.
Software enabled three-button-type functions on 2-button Microsoft
Intellimouse: point 255(c).
Totally blank Monitor seemed to occur after installing Logitech software: point
233.
Is a PS/2 mouse: point 286.
Installation: new M-series device on the COM1 port: point 255(c).
Downloaded upgrade: point 286.
Microsoft Intellimouse
See Mouse, Logitech Mouse.
Mouse
See also PartitionMagic, DriveImage, GoBack, MSIPCSV.EXE, Cleanup Suite,
Context Menu, Tool Tip, Double-click, Logitech Mouse, Win98 Emergency Boot
Disk, Cool Mouse 97, Scrollbar.
Edit Registry to make mouse work more smoothly: point 286.
Serial mouse is mouse connected to Serial Port: point 259(d).
Microsoft Intellimouse is serial mouse: point 286.
Can use PS2Rate to improve mouse Performance: point 286.
Used basic Mouse Driver for Floppy versions of PowerQuest programs: point
58, point 64.
An option under Control Panel: point 120(y).
Speed settings: point 120(y).
Considered using TweakUI to change speed settings: point 286.
Internet Explorer freezes mouse momentarily and then returns to normal: point
223.
Mouse unresponsive on unstable system: point 270.
Barely crawling: point 114.
Cool Mouse 97
Best Freeware Mouse Enhancement, by one opinion: point 140(a).
Can use middle button to roll window up to show just its title bar: point 286.
Can use middle button to bring up a Windows features menu: point 286.
Creative SoundBlaster AWE64
See also WinDrivers.com.
Required manual editing of SYSTEM.INI: point 309(c).
Need to edit SYSTEM.INI manually was disappointing: point 309(c).
Installation process inserted stuff in AUTOEXEC.BAT: point 309(c).
Confusing website information re necessary downloads: point 309(c).
Another page in website less confusing: point 309(c).

46

Successfully installed Drivers: point 255(c).


Installation needed to check CD for the Modem: point 255(c).
Decided to see whether Drivers were to blame for malfunctioning speakers:
point 309(b).
Malfunctioning sound may have been due to use of generic Audio Drivers: point
309(c).
SoundBlaster CD didnt think AMD K6/2 300 chip was at least a Pentium 133:
point 309(c).
Only Creative software I wanted was WaveStudio as backup for other Audio
Editors: point 309(c).
Installing Drivers definitely improved sound: point 309(c).
Printer
See also Direct Cable Connection, TCP/IP.
I used old Hewlett-Packard LaserJet III: point 224(a).
Driver offered for download from HP website was wrong Driver: point 224(a).
Tips available in C:\WINDOWS\PRINTERS.TXT: point 120(z).
Installed via Control Panel | Add Printer: point 145(h).
Registry edit to disable Start | Settings | Printer: point 146(e).
Switch box enabled printing from either computer without shutting down to
swap cables: point 186.
CD-ROM Drive
See also CD-ROM Driver, CD Burner, Yamaha CD-ROM Drive, DirectCD, CDRW, CDSpeed99, CDRIdentifier, Disk Cache, Win98 Emergency Boot Disk, BIOS,
BIOS Setup, Auto Insert Notification.
Wrong Driver eliminates file not found problem on CD: point 179.
Couldnt access it in Safe Mode: point 75.
Hewlett-Packard
See Tape Backup, Printer, Hewlett-Packard ScanJet IIcx.
Plug-N-Play
See also Network, 32-Bit, Add New Hardware, BIOS Setup.
Modem jumpers set for PNP system: point 206.
PNP
Same as Plug-N-Play.
Add New Hardware
See also Driver, Hewlett-Packard ScanJet IIcx.
Stuck on fact that PCI Communication Device was not yet installed: point 182.
Installing Network Adapter manually: point 184.
Brings up list of items not in Hardware Profile: point 218.
47

Improper Video Card installation triggers ANH: point 218.


Couldnt find Modem: point 182.
Wizard allowed me to add my standard no-brand Modem from a list: point 99.
Searched for non-Plug-N-Play devices: point 99.
Reinstall Modem in ANH: point 200.
Reminded me that S3 Legacy Relocator for SonicVibes PCI Audio Device was not
installed: point 232.
Tried to add S3 Legacy Relocator for SonicVibes PCI Audio Device in ANH:
point 234.
Detected that Communications Port needed to be installed: point 281.
Adding Communications Port: point 206.
Wallpaper
See also Bitmap Files, Display, PowerDesk, Internet Explorer.
Same as Control Panel | Display | Background on the Desktop: point 54, point
320.
Hardware Troubleshooter
See also Help.
Indicates that S3 Legacy Relocator for SonicVibes PCI Audio Device requires
IRQ: point 217.
Confusing message: point 217.
Offered in response to Exception in Device Manager: point 200.
Offered in response to problem under Communications Port: point 232.
Led to page containing advice: point 200.
Asked about System Reserved Conflict: point 200.
System Reserved Conflict led to No Modifications Allowed: point 200.
Suggested ways to free up IRQs: point 234.
Hardware Conflict Troubleshooter
See Hardware Conflict, Hardware Troubleshooter.
32-Bit
See also Network, PrcView, Slice32.
Microsoft recommends using 32-bit rather than 16-bit Drivers: point 184.
Plug-N-Play might not work with 16-bit Driver: point 184.
32-Bit program wont run in DOS: point 269(k).
Communication
See PCI Communication Device, Communications Port.
Communications Port
See also MSD, Exception, Direct Cable Connection, Hardware Troubleshooter,
Add New Hardware, Logitech Mouse.
48

Also known as COM port. See e.g., COM1, COM2, COM3.


An option under Device Manager: point 232.
Found information on CP in Resource Kit Book Online: point 206.
COM ports can share IRQs: point 232.
Modem Conflict with COM3 confused me; I thought Modem used COM3: point
200.
Properties indicate that CP is causing Resource Conflict: point 232.
Modem setup allows only 2 out of 3 COM ports: point 206.
Modem COM port and IRQ: point 206.
Specify Modem COM port under Control Panel: point 206.
Device Manager not recognizing COM port: point 225.
Uninstalling COM ports: point 181.
Was mistake to delete COM port: point 281.
Changing to COM2 did not solve problem: point 206.
Suggestion to disable COM2 to free up an IRQ: point 234, point 281.
Removing COM port may have made system unwilling to reboot: point 281.
Deleting COM port under Device Manager | Ports removed Exception from
Modem: point 200.
Modem using COM3: point 206.
Trying to use an extra-high COM port number: point 206.
COM1
Short name for Communications Port 1.
COM2
Short name for Communications Port 2.
COM3
Short name for Communications Port 3.
Hardware Conflict
See Exception, Hardware Conflict Troubleshooter.
Conflict
See Resource Conflict, Hardware Conflict, PartitionMagic, Version Conflict
Manager, Hewlett-Packard ScanJet IIcx, Hardware Troubleshooter,
Communications Port, ICQ.
Getting rid of conflicting program in context of Backup: point 202.
IRQ conflicts: point 232.
Resource Conflict
See also Exception, Resources, Conflict.
Device Manager | Properties | Resources shows Modem Conflict: point 200.
Modem Conflict may explain disappearing Modem: point 200.
49

Resources
See also MSINFO32, Active Desktop, Device Manager, TweakUI.
Sometimes used to refer to IRQs: point 232.
Not related to Resource Kit.
An option under Properties: point 200.
Conflicting resources: point 200.
Error: no modifications allowed: point 200.
Use Automatic Settings option: point 200.
Adapter
Generally means something that helps something fit into or work with
something else. In the PC context, most often used as a synonym for Card.
Card
See also PCI, S3 Inc. Savage4, Network, Hewlett-Packard ScanJet IIcx, SCSI,
CDRIdentifier, Add New Hardware, Video Card, Adapter, Network Card,
Sound Card, CompUSA, Matrox Mystique, Cardware, ISA.
Informal term for circuit board that slides into a socket on a Motherboard.
Sometimes referred to as an Adapter.
Performance
Is an option under Control Panel | System.
See also Aureate Media, Overclocking, DMA, File System, TweakBIOS,
Processor, Mouse, Outlook 98.
Replacing old hardware significantly improved performance and stability: point
59.
Shortcuts could optimize performance: point 105(d).
Difference between performance-enhancing and essential Registry tweaks: point
113(f).
Having two Hard Disks gives significantly better performance: point 256.
Newcom 33ifxC Internal Modem
Has generally seemed to be pretty obscure: 265(c).
New Hardware
See also Add New Hardware, Driver.
System recognizes new hardware when new Hard Disk or Memory are installed:
point 82.
IRQ
See also Device Manager, IRQ Routing, Add New Hardware, PCI, Exception,
BIOS Setup, MSINFO32, Resources, Hewlett-Packard ScanJet IIcx, SCSI,
Hardware Profile, USB, Turtle Beach Daytona, S3 Legacy Relocator for
50

SonicVibes PCI Audio Device, Hardware Troubleshooter, Conflict,


Communications Port, Safe Mode, Motherboard.
Free up an IRQ by disabling full duplex on Sound Card: point 232.
Computer | Properties identifies IRQ sharing: point 232.
Not using automatic settings for IRQs makes system less flexible: point 232.
Possible to set Modem to use specific IRQs: point 206.
Seemed that sometimes system was unable to assign an IRQ for Modem: point
229.
Interrupt
Same as IRQ. See IRQ Routing.
ISA
See also Bridge, PCI, Network Card, Sound Card.
Short for Industry Standard Architecture. The E in EISA is short for Extended.
Older configuration for add-in Cards. Replaced to some extent, on at least some
Motherboards, by PCI and/or AGP.
System
Is an option under Control Panel.
See also Hardware Profile.
Disks
See Disks and Drives.
Drives
See also Disks and Drives, Tape Drive, CD-ROM Drive, RAM Drive, File System.
Disks and Drives
The two are often synonymous. In some cases, however, Disk means a
physical device. See Floppy, Hard Disk, Compact Disc. In such cases, the
reference is to the medium (e.g., the floppy disk or the compact disc, as distinct
to the piece of hardware -- the drive -- that makes the disk work). In the case of
Hard Disks, of course, the medium is enclosed within the hardware, so a Hard
Disk is essentially the same thing as a Hard Disk Drive or a Hard Drive. A
Drive, by contrast, can be a strictly logical device. For example, if a Hard Disk
consists of two logical Partitions, the system might recognize those Partitions as,
say, Drive C and Drive D.
Disk Drives
Option under Control Panel | System | Device Manager | Disk Drives: see
Hard Disk.
Lists disks as merely Generic IDE Type 47: point 106.
This is the place to enable DMA: point 108.
51

Floppy
Short for floppy disk or floppy disk drive.
See also Bootable Floppy.
Error: "The system cannot read from the specified device": point 85.
Hardware Profile
See also Turtle Beach Daytona, Monitor, Hewlett-Packard ScanJet IIcx, Add New
Hardware.
Located under System option in Control Panel: point 207.
Not useful merely for corporate system administrators: point 207.
Enables user to alter hardware setup from one computer to the other: point 207,
point 209.
Create separate configuration for separate kinds of computers: point 259(a).
Do this by unchecking box in Device Manager: point 219.
Option: exists in all Hardware Profiles: point 259(d).
Eliminated need for separate Backups of program files on separate computers:
point 209.
Eliminated need for installing some programs on one computer but not the other:
point 209.
Found information on HP in Resource Kit Book Online: point 207.
Items removed from HP have red mark: point 218.
Delete the HPs that dont apply to the specific computer: point 211.
Error: Windows cannot determine what configuration your computer is in:
point 211.
Removed item from HP for lack of an IRQ: point 234.
Choose None to create new configuration: point 255(a).
Troubleshooting
See Troubleshooters, Diagnostic Suite, Safe Mode.
CONFIG.SYS
See also Sysedit, IO.SYS.
Error: cannot open this file: point 120(a).
Applies your preferred setup commands when you boot a Floppy: point 5(b).
Invokes HIMEM.SYS: point 5(c), point 7.
Files invoked tend to be found in C:\Windows\Command: point 5(c).
Should not cite Hard Disk when calling programs from Bootable CD: point 5(c).
Normally resides in the root of Drive C: point 6.
DEVICE=HIMEM.SYS line malfunctions: point 20.
Empty CONFIG.SYS: nothing in it: point 21.
Win98 seemed to ignore CONFIG.SYS line re CD-ROM setup: point 63.
Can replace AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS with MSDOS.BAT: point 118.

52

Fixing Out of Environment Space error: point 120(c).


CONFIG.SYS line to speed up Win98: point 120(c).

Network
Network
See also 32-Bit, Add New Hardware, Cold Reboot, Fast Restart, Direct Cable
Connection, DriveImage, Tape Backup, GoBack, Dial-Up Networking, PCI
Communication Device, TCP/IP, Shared Folders, InfoPager News Service,
IP_Agent, Microsoft Networking, Network Connection, Resource Kit, Disk
Image File, Custom Settings, Bits and Bytes, Microsoft Network, File System,
Network Card, Weak Disconnect, Strong Disconnect, LapLink.
First test of: point 186.
Adjust settings via network Icon under Control Panel: point 181.
DOS alternative: INTERLNK: point 181.
Found information on Ethernet in Resource Kit Book Online: point 184.
Option to do Backup on other computer over Network: point 185.
No Network connection until both machines were running Win98: point 269(k).
Solutions when Network Neighborhood shows no other computer: point 331.
Wingate lets networked computers share Internet Connection: point 140(d).
Settings for Dial-Up Adapter | Properties | Advanced | IP Packet Size: point
145(e).
Can see Shared Folders on other computer via Network: point 186.
Transferred data at rate of about 100 MB per minute: point 186.
Network Password interferes with Automatic Reboot: point 199.
X-Setup cant stop Network Password interference: point 199.
TweakUI stops Network Password interference: point 199, point 216, point 283.
Killing some Processes disables TweakUI setting: point 263.
Unknown force keeps disabling TweakUI setting: point 283, point 305.
Non-TweakUI method of stopping Network Password interference: point 283.
Non-TweakUI method makes other computer inaccessible: point 305.
Used Network to copy Disk Image File to other computer: point 220.
Error: Computer name you specified is already in use: point 255(c).
Each computer on Network must have its own name: point 255(c).
DriveImage Disk Image File restores all computers with same name: point
255(c).
Set different name for computer under Identification tab: point 255(d).
Error: Network error message on website: point 324.
Made it easy to transfer large files: point 193.
Troubleshooting tools include WINIPCFG, PING, ARP, NBTSTAT, NET VIEW,
NETSTAT, TRACERT: point 186.

53

Direct Cable Connection


Also known as DCC.
See also Dial-Up Networking, Network, LapLink.
Advice on how to set it up: point 93.
Security issue: looking for information on protecting Shared Folders: point 93.
Used to move files of ~650 MB: point 111, point 116(k).
With standard Parallel Port connection, moved about 200 MB per hour: point
111.
Crashed both computers when shut down on one unstable end: point 111.
Removing Network Neighborhood from Desktop kills DCC: point 118.
Using one computer to tinker with the other via DCC: point 145(i).
Not working: point 166(g).
Have to make sure each computer has unique ID: point 181.
Settings found in Network tab under Control Panel: point 181.
DCC Troubleshooter not helpful: point 181.
Recognized only two of three Communications Ports: point 181.
Still didnt work after adjusting TCP/IP bindings: point 183.
Had been working pretty well previously: point 183.
Using slower Serial Port instead of Parallel Port made no difference: point 183.
DCC failure led to decision to install Network instead: point 183.
Disadvantage of having to disconnect Printer to use Parallel Port: point 183.
Free -- comes with Win98: point 185.
Doesnt compare well against Network for ease of use: point 185.
Takes 3.5 hours to do transfer that Network does in 7 minutes: point 186.
Slowness not so noticeable on small transfers: point 109(f).
Network Neighborhood
See also Direct Cable Connection.
Removing Desktop Icon disables Drivers in Windows Explorer: point 181.
Registry edit to hide Desktop Icon: point 146(g).
Registry edit to revive Desktop Icon: point 208.
Other computer on Network appears under NN in PowerDesk Explorer: point
185.
Using TweakUI to revive: point 193.
Appears in PowerDesk Explorer without need to Double-click on Icon: point
193.
Serial Port
See also Mouse, Direct Cable Connection.
Unrelated to things that run serially. See e.g., Tape Backup, Diagnostic Suite.
Unrelated to serial numbers.
Slower than Parallel Port for Direct Cable Connection: point 183.
Set SP speed to 115,200 in Device Manager: point 105(c).

54

Parallel Port
Faster than Serial Port for Direct Cable Connection: point 183.
TCP/IP
Adjust TCP/IP bindings to improve security of Shared Folders: point 93.
Adjust bindings to check Client for Microsoft Networks: point 181.
Adjust bindings to check File and Printer sharing: point 181.
Dont check bindings for item labeled VPN Support: point 181.
Checking those boxes was mistaken: point 181.
Wound up checking Client for Microsoft Networks again: point 183.
Shared Folders
See also Direct Cable Connection, TCP/IP.
Security: NetWatcher utility tells you whos accessing shared devices: point 93.
Can see only shared folder from other computer on Network: point 186.
Can go into shared folder by using PowerDesk or Windows Explorer: point 186.
Network Card
See also C:\Windows\INF Folder.
Tried SMC Networks 10 Mbps Ethernet ISA Network Card: point 184.
SMC is Standard Microsystems Corporation in Hauppauge, NY: point 184.
16-Bit Card had only 10 Mbps speed: point 184.
Returned the 16-Bit SMC Network Card: could not get to work: point 184.
Tried LinkSys NC100 Network Everywhere Fast Ethernet 10/100 32-Bit PCI
Plug-N-Play Card: point 185.
Connecting PCs with Category 5 crossover or patch cable: point 185.
32-Bit PCI Cards allowed 100 Mbps speed: point 185.
Far easier installation of 32-Bit Cards: point 185.
Information on Network Cards under Device Manager: point 184.
Works better if you plug in the cable: point 185.
System wants to reinstall PCI Ethernet Controller on Reboot: point 192.
Has green Link light and yellow Activity light: point 185.
PowerDesk doesnt see other computer when its Activity light is not on: point
185.
Dial-Up Networking
See also NetLaunch, DUNCE, Network.
Black-and-white: always dials, or never: point 272.
Most recent version from Updates.com, not Microsoft: point 49, point 110.
May allow simultaneous Modem use with Direct Cable Connection: point 93.
Modem not working with DUN: point 99.
Can add DUN to Control Panel: point 145(i).

55

No harm from accidentally reinstalling latest version: point 223.


Corrected DUN use of wrong modem: point 265(d).
Deleted incorrect modem entry in DUN: point 265(d).
Multiple modems in DUN require manual choice of modem: point 265(d).
Modem error not caused by DUN: point 281.
Strong Disconnect
See also Weak Disconnect.
Occurs when computer cuts Network connection without permission: point
262(a).
Doing it automatically in context of Shutdown or Reboot: point 262(a).
Weak Disconnect
See also Strong Disconnect.
Occurs when computer seeks permission to cut Network connection: point
262(a).
Doing it automatically in context of Shutdown or Reboot: point 262(a).
Needed only Strong Disconnect in DOS Batch options for Reboot Toolbar: point
262(c).
Microsoft Networking
Enter Network Password for: see Network.
Microsoft Network
MN is an ISP, not a Network: point 41.
Shortcut deleted from Desktop: point 41.
Connectivity
See Internet Connection, Network Connection, Direct Cable Connection.
Network Connection
See also Network.
Information regarding: see WINIPCFG and Internet Tech Support Diagnostics.
Different from Internet Connection.
LapLink
Program for connecting one computer to another.
Not needed, given alternatives of Network, Direct Cable Connection, and
INTERLNK: point 250.

Application Programs and Features Included with Win98

56

Win98 comes with a large number of programs. These do things that you might
want to do in the course of your ordinary work. We will talk about how to run
these programs later; right now, the goal is just to introduce them.
First, there are several different kinds of Editors. Win98 comes with a Word
Processor (WordPad), a Text Editor (Notepad), a Graphics editor (Paint),
Microsoft Photo Editor, and an HTML Editor (Frontpage Express), as well as two
different tools to edit the Registry, namely RegEdit and System Policy Editor.
The Windows Updates website gave me current versions of NetMeeting and
Messenger, neither of which was important to me. Win98 also gave me other
little gizmos that had occasional value at best, including Calculator, Character
Map, and Quick Launch. None of these programs allows enough customization
to warrant special attention: they pretty much just get installed and you use
them.
Win98 comes with a bar at the bottom of the screen, the Taskbar, that contains at
least three major areas. At its left end is the Start Button, which we will talk
about later. In the center you see Icons (i.e., little colored symbols) for various
programs or options that you can run, or that already are running. On the right
end is the System Tray, a little indented area that shows a Clock and maybe some
other items. If you hold the Mouse pointer (also known as its cursor) steady,
you see a little note pop to provide more information about the item. This little
note is called a Tool Tip, and you see them frequently in Win98. In addition to
the Clock, the System Tray in a basic Win98 setup also holds an icon for Task
Scheduler. This is a program that lets you run programs at various times
throughout your week, day or night.

Editor
Generally, any program that lets you change contents of files.
See also HTML Editor, Audio Editor, Graphics Editor, System Policy Editor,
System Configuration Editor, Text Editor, RegEdit.
Word Processor
See also Word 97, WordPad, Processor, File Comparison.
May imply a more sophisticated program than a mere Text Editor.
Asked if I wanted to save changes when another program tried to shut it down:
point 141(l).
Text Editor
Examples: Notepad.
Usually more primitive than a Word Processor.

57

WordPad
See also X-Setup, Desktop Toolbar, Desktop Folder.
A Word Processor supplied with Win98.
Specifying Save In location: point 120(h).
Used with PrintScreen to capture screen image: point 134(q).
Used to open TXT files too large for Notepad: point 96.
Sometimes used to open files with the wrong extensions: point 113(c).
Added to list of SendTo programs: point 113(c).
Used to edit multiple DOS Batch files: point 303(d).
Added to Desktop Toolbar list of programs: point 310.
Notepad
See also Desktop Folder.
A Text Editor supplied with Win98.
Specifying Save In location: point 120(h).
Sometimes used to open files with the wrong extensions: point 113(c).
Added to list of SendTo programs: point 113(c).
Added to Desktop Toolbar list of programs: point 310.
Use X-Setup to enable word-wrap: point 137(l).
Use to create or edit REG Files: point 141(k).
Use to edit SYSTEM.INI: point 145(c).
Paint
Specifying Save In location: point 120(h).
Used with PrintScreen to capture screen image: point 134(q).
Microsoft Photo Editor
See also X-Setup, Scanning, Image Scanning.
Came with Win98 or Office 97: point 224(i).
Specifying Save In location: point 120(h).
Primary program for Graphics editing: point 224(c).
FrontPage Express
Apparently Freeware with Win98 or Internet Explorer: point 154(b).
Used MagicMover to move to D:\Program Files: point 154(b).
RegEdit
See also System Policy Editor.
Edits the Registry.
Get into program through Start | Run: point 146.
System Policy Editor
See also Resource Kit Book Online.

58

A Microsoft program, also known as POLEDIT: point 146(d).


Part of Resource Kit: point 146(d).
Found on Win98 CD: point 146(d).
Tinkering with SPE required restoration of previous Registry: point 148.
Would supposedly simplify Registry editing: point 146(d).
Opened in blank screen: point 146(d).
Purpose apparently to set up a system administrator: point 146(d).
Seemed to require Password at every bootup: point 146(d).
Program Help and online information inadequate: point 146(d).
Seemed to be subset of RegEdit: point 146(d).
Failed to work as I had hoped: point 149(a).
Seemed to have caused change with Password: point 150.
Ultimately Uninstalled it: point 146(d).
Installation seemed to have caused two pops on reboot: point 146(d).
Messenger
See also Updates.com.
Wasn't using Microsoft Messenger: point 145(d).
Didn't want Microsoft Messenger Icon to keep showing up in the System Tray:
point 145(d).
Netscape had obnoxious habit of inserting AOL messenger icon in System Tray:
point 198.
NetMeeting
Available from Windows Update: point 92.
Uses lots of Memory: point 145(d).
Calculator
See also Date and Time.
Added to Desktop Toolbar list of programs: point 120(f), point 310.
Character Map
Added to Desktop Toolbar list of programs: point 310.
Quick Launch
Only useful item on QL Toolbar was Show Desktop Icon: point 120(ac).
Copied that Icon to Desktop Folder: point 120(ac).
Taskbar
See also Properties, Toolbar, Start | Settings, Bottom-Edge Toolbar, Start Button,
Clipboard Pile.
Registry edit disables Context Menu: point 146(e).
Context Menu item to create new Toolbar: point 113(e), point 120(f).
Minimize All Windows option: point 120(w).
59

Vanishing Taskbar problem: point 316.


Restoring default Taskbar settings: point 316.
Not responding unless I hit Ctrl-Esc to bring it up: point 224(f).
Use X-Setup to disable Taskbar zoom: point 137(g).
Avoid bringing up Taskbar accidentally by making Scrollbar wider: point 311.
System Tray
See also Web Image Collector, Clock, Clipboard Pile, QUIKTRAY.EXE, Task
Scheduler, Volume Control, Weather1.
Called Systray for short.
One of the most basic programs for a working Win98 system: point 122.
Programs running in ST are constantly available: point 141(h).
Constant availability of programs running in ST is not all good: point 141(h).
Vanishing ST Icons: point 316.
Clock
See also System Tray, Overclocking.
Show Clock option: point 120(p).
Tool Tip gives Date and Time when clock is concealed: point 120(p).
Off by an hour: point 224(f).
Task Scheduler
See also NetLaunch, Date and Time, WEBWEEK.BAT, CLEANUP.BAT,
HOURLY.BAT, MAINTDAY.BAT, ScanDisk.
TS Icon is located in System Tray: point 105(g).
Making TS run items in Real DOS: see MAINT_WK.BAT.
Option of using TS to run CLR_DOCS.BAT repeatedly: point 120(i).
Configuring entries in TS: point 120(k).
Set up to run FREE_RAM.VBS every six hours: point 120(ai).
TS Icon not appearing in System Tray: point 123.
Forced a reboot so that MAINT_WK.BAT could run: point 127, point 130.
Ran MAINTWIN.BAT late in the evening: point 127.
Told TS to run a Shortcut instead of the DOS Batch file: point 130.
Option of telling it not to start unless computer had been idle: point 130.
TS settings: point 141(l).
LastTaskRun information available by using WinDiff: point 150.
Magnifier
Can replace Power Tools Zoom In option: point 119(b).
Disconcerting at first, later preferable: point 119(b).
Added to Desktop Toolbar list of programs: point 310.
Tool Tip

60

Also known as ToolTip.


See also Toolbar, DOS Prompt Here, Clock.
Popped up if I left cursor pointing for a few seconds: point 113(e).
X-Setup can change TT that appears when you point Mouse at Desktop item:
point 137(r).

Creating Toolbars
Toolbar
Refers both to toolbars within programs (see specific program) and toolbars that
Win98 allows the user to locate at edges of the screen. Distinct from Taskbar.
See also New (Context Menu Option), PowerDesk, Windows Explorer, Internet
Explorer, Scraps Folder, Office 97 Suite, X-Setup, Suites Toolbar, Links Toolbar,
Desktop Toolbar, Toolbars Folder, Main Toolbar, Internet Toolbar, Files Toolbar,
Programs Toolbar, E-mail Toolbar, Cool Edit 2000, Top-Edge Toolbar, BottomEdge Toolbar, Right-Edge Toolbar, Left-Edge Toolbar, Floating Toolbar.
Manipulating: point 105(j), point 109(g), point 113(e), point 120(s), point 120(u),
point 143.
Creating: point 143.
Properties set to Always on Top: point 120(p).
Properties set to Auto Hide: point 120(o).
Dragging, docking: point 120(o), point 120(q), point 120(ac).
Shut off text and title: point 120(ac).
Tool Tip eliminated need for Show Text option: point 143.
Some toolbars contained the best Icons from Start | Programs: point 120(ae).
Toolbars subDirectory under Start | Programs: point 120(p).
With all toolbar Icons the same, had to use text to differentiate them: point
120(ac).
One toolbar can double up with another on same edge of screen: point 120(o).
Squeezing toolbars together produces pull-down menu effect: point 143.
Start Button
See also Windows Explorer, Explorer, Start Menu, Start | Shut Down.
Left-clicking opens Start Menu (as that term is used here).
Right-clicking opens Context Menu: point 146(m).
Right-click to add item to Start Menu: point 145(i).
Located on the Taskbar, at the bottom left corner of the Win98 screen.
Start | Programs
See also Start Menu, Windows Explorer, Toolbar.

61

Reach this item by clicking on Start Button and choosing Programs. Is common
location for program Icons. This heading does not list every program having an
Icon under SP.
Program installation adds Icons here: point 141(o).
Adding subfolders to SP: point 42.
Add Icons to SP: Create Shortcut pointing to programs EXE file: point 141(f).
Can rearrange Icons under this heading: point 115, point 141(o).
One rearrangement of Icons: point 52.
Rearrangement made duplicates when I downloaded updates: point 52.
Editable by Double-clicking on submenu: point 146(m).
Contains link to Windows Update: point 109(g).
Program Uninstallation makes SP Icon no longer able to function: point 115.
Added SP shortcuts to run Command Line programs: point 119(a), point 119(d).
SP shortcuts in lieu of Path entries: point 119(a).
Subfolder used to bury unused SP items: point 119(a).
Contained complete set of program shortcuts: point 143.
Harder to find a specific program in SP than in specialized Toolbars: point 143.
Links Folder
See also Desktop Tools Folder.
Folder located under C:\Windows\Favorites: point 120(ac).
Integral part of Internet Explorer: point 142.
Became basis for Links Toolbar: point 109(g).
Better located other than on Drive C for purposes of Backup: point 142.
Placed by X-Setup on Drive E along with Favorites: point 142.
Decided to put it back on Drive C: point 142.
Contained Icon for Frequented Folder: point 143.
Links Toolbar
See also Links Folder.
Is on Top-Edge Toolbar: point 109(g), point 120(ac), point 120(o).
Icons: point 120(ad).
Format: point 120(ad).
Shared top edge of screen with Programs Toolbar: point 120(ae).
The only Toolbar that creates pull-down menus for its contents: point 120(ac).
Replaced text with Icons to squeeze it onto one line: point 120(ad).
Contained link to Quick Reference Page: point 113(a).
Context Menu
Same as Right-Click on Mouse.
So called because you get a different menu, depending on context -- i.e., on the
type of item clicked.

62

Programs adding CM options: see PowerDesk, Windows Explorer, Internet


Explorer, CloseAll, Taskbar, MultiRen, TreeSize, PrcView.
Changing CM options: see MenuEdit, X-Setup, Registry.
Specific CM options: see Open With, QuickView, New (Context Menu Option),
Properties, SendTo, Rename, Recycle Bin, Create Shortcut, DOS Prompt Here.
Install option when clicking on INF Files: point 109(c).
CM is different for folders versus files in Windows Explorer: point 146(l).
Is the menu that opens when you right-click on something: point 137(d).
Some programs install unwanted CM options: point 141(t).
Have to scroll past unused CM options every time you use CM: point 134(f).
Removing folder CM options removes Start Button CM options: point 146(m).
Registry edit that might affect New (Context Menu Option): point 150.
Shut off Winamp CM options: point 157(b).
CM option to open new session in Internet Explorer: point 307(b).
CM in Registry: point 31, point 146(e), point 146(g) through point 146(j).
CM for Office 97 Shortcut Bar: point 102.
CM for DOS Batch file: point 105(h).
CM for Desktop: point 112(e).
CM for Desktop re Active Desktop: point 145(j).
CM to change Icon: point 113(e).
No CM item to Create Shortcut to Desktop Folder: point 120(n).
Properties | Target leads to installation program: point 141(e).
CM for disk shows Format: see Disk Format.
CM for WebCompass: point 307(i).

Standalone Programs
Standalone
See No-Install Program.
No-Install Program
My term for a program whose installation is just a matter of putting the
programs files where you want them (typically, in a folder of their own), as
distinct from the ordinary Win98 procedure of running through an installation
process that probably makes changes to the Registry. Optionally, you can create
a Shortcut to the program. See point 141(t), point 289.
Examples: WCPUID, PCIInfo, Tiny Wave Editor, URL2HTM, WINIPCFG,
OptOut, SiteSnagger, MenuEdit, Slice32, IP_Agent, WavGlue, PrcView,
RegClean, Delayer, WinDiff, CTBIOS, CDFS.VXD, CDex.
DOS Batch files and other DOS programs are no-install programs. Examples:
Paradox, FDISK.

63

So are other Standalone executables. Example: Norton Disk Doctor, DISKEDIT,


NDIAGS, UNERASE, UNFORMAT. This includes programs that can run from
the Floppy. Examples: PartitionMagic (in the DOS form), DriveImage. Distinct
from Drivers, which are not Standalone -- i.e., which ordinarily just make it
possible for some other program to use a piece of hardware.
Technically, includes programs already installed with Win98. Examples:
ScanReg, WordPad, Notepad, Calculator, Character Map, Paint, Sound Recorder,
Disk Defragmenter, Magnifier, ScanDisk.
Could also include Win98 commands like MSINFO32 and HWINFO.
May also include eFax, Start Manager, CDWav, CDSpeed99, Winamp.
CTBIOS
Partly in German: point 107(a).
A No-Install Program: point 244.
Provided BIOS information not found under MSINFO32 or HWINFO: point 244.
Avoided need to copy BIOS information manually during boot: point 107(a).
SiteSnagger
An Offline Browser: point 307(d).
Is a No-Install Program: point 307(d).
Saves files from a website as a project: point 307(d).
Would get only first level offsite, regardless of levels specified: point 307(d).
No maximum download size setting: point 307(d).
Maximum number of webpages setting: point 307(d).
Option to ignore multimedia files: point 307(d).
Failed to download actual search results pages: point 307(d).
Web Results page did not open: point 307(d).
Had to delete projects manually: point 307(d).
WinDiff
See also PowerDesk, LoadPowerProfile, Files Toolbar, Dupeless, FILELIST.BAT,
Task Scheduler.
A file and Directory comparison tool from the Resource Kit Sampler: point
119(a).
A No-Install Program.
Could stand alone with aid of one additional file from Resource Kit Sampler:
point 119(a).
Recommended tool for File Comparison: point 149(b).
Very useful for comparing copies of Registry: point 150.
Not so useful that it could help me recover two days lost Registry edits: point
151.
Used to compare contents of CD: point 190.
Could compare dissimilar lists after some editing: point 210.

64

Delayer
See also WEBDAILY.BAT.
A No-Install Program: point 141(v).
Could delay the running of a program or run programs repeatedly at certain
intervals: point 141(v).
Had Command Line option: point 141(v).
WavGlue
Combines multiple smaller WAV files into one larger WAV: point 157(e).
A No-Install Program: point 157(e).
Successfully merged parts into 1 GB Audio file: point 157(e).
PrcView
See also GoBack, Cleanup Suite, Ctrl-Alt-Del.
Designed to show all Processes currently running: point 141(f).
Allows user to kill Processes: point 141(f).
A No-Install Program: point 141(f).
Shows useful information about current Processes: point 141(f).
Shows full Path names and other details about DLLs in use: point 141(f).
Seemed mostly to report EXE activity rather than DLL: point 258(b).
Indicates current running applications: point 141(f).
Positive reviews: point 134(h), point 141(f).
Use to see what happens when programs close: point 269(n).
Had Command Line option to kill Processes: point 141(s).
Could kill all Processes, not merely application programs: point 141(s).
Indicates that ADSUB is the AdSubtract program file: point 315.
Context Menu provides multiple options for any Process: point 141(f).
Shows whether process is 16-Bit or 32-Bit: point 141(f).
Could not start because system was not responding: point 282.
Had far more options than CloseAll: point 141(s).
Used to determine which Processes a program uses: point 146(l).
Slice32
See also DriveImage.
Created by PC Magazine: point 141(i).
A 32-Bit program to cut large files into smaller pieces: point 269(k).
Differences between 16-Bit and 32-Bit versions: point 269(k).
Could run from Command Prompt: point 141(i).
Created Splice32 to put pieces back together: point 141(i).
Had worked well for me: point 141(i).
A No-Install Program: point 141(i).
Used it to reduce Disk Image File to fit on two CDs: point 269(j).

65

Could cut large file into equally sized small portions: point 269(j).
Failed to provide onscreen indication of what it was up to: point 269(j).
Took only a few minutes to slice large file: point 269(j).
Could not run without Windows: point 269(k).
Tiny Wave Editor
Created by Yamaha: point 157(h).
Used as temporary Freeware substitute for Cool Edit 2000: point 157(h).
Small and surprisingly capable: point 157(h).
Start Manager
See also ZDNet.com.
Available as separate download or part of WinBench 99: point 158(b).
Used instead of X-Setup for Startup items: point 137(r).
Lets you examine and deal with programs that run on Startup: point 145(d).
More useful than other similar programs: point 158(b).
Similar to MSCONFIG | Startup: point 158(b).
Shows programs that dont appear in MSCONFIG | Startup: point 158(b).
Shows more programs than MSCONFIG | Startup: point 163.
Liked Start Manager more than MSCONFIG | Startup: point 163.
Can run from Command Line: point 158(b).
Runs as a Standalone: point 163.
Part of Cleanup Suite: point 158(b).
Uninstalling: had to delete C:\ZDBENCH folder manually: point 163.
Used SM to remove Clipboard Pile from Startup list: point 224(f).
Used to shut off DirectCD: point 224(k), point 231.
RED.COM
Useful utility: point 5(g), point 57.
Created in 1984, probably by PC Magazine: point 148.
Used to move files to another Directory: point 148.
MDEL.EXE
Freeware that simplifies deletion of files in numerous directories: point 141(r).
Used in CD_PREP.BAT.
DELTREE
See also Internet Explorer, Clipboard Pile, CD_PREP.BAT,
C:\WINDOWS\TEMP Directory.
Used in CLR_DOCS.BAT to clear Start | Documents: point 120(i).
Used in CLR_RECY.BAT to clear Recycle Bin: point 120(i).
May have to run in Real DOS to remove directories: point 120(i).
Used to remove unwanted directories: point 20.

66

Used to get rid of My Documents Folder: point 120(j).


Very much slower than Windows Explorer for deleting large Directory: point
220.
DOSKEY
See also DOSSTART.BAT.
Gives Unix-like ability to use up arrow to repeat previous DOS Commands:
point 20, point 88.
Can specify in DOS Box Properties: point 105(l).
COMMAND.COM
See also Bootable Floppy.
Parameters for and Registry editing: point 146(k).
URL2HTM
A No-Install Program.
Program capable of converting Favorites to URL entries on an HTML page:
point 156(l).
WCPUID
See also Overclocking.
Same idea as, but better than, the Intel Processor Frequency ID Utility: point 248.
Provided information about CPU and motherboard: point 248.
Provided information about AGP chipset: point 248, point 325.
PCIInfo
Provides information re PCI and AGP devices: point 252.
Used to find type of Video Card: point 325.
WINIPCFG
Internet utility providing information about Internet Protocol address, Network
Connection, and Internet Connection: point 266.
OptOut
See also GoBack, MSIPCSV.EXE, Go!Zilla.
Freeware that removes Ad-Supported Freeware: point 289.
Scans Registry and files for signs of Ad-Supported Freeware: point 289.
Stops some Internet Explorer crashes: point 297.
Deletes Aureate Media parasite files: point 297.
Written by well-known programmer Steve Gibson: point 289.
Written by author of SpinRite: point 297.
Written in tight, non-bloated assembly code: point 289.
Is a No-Install Program: point 289.
Added to Diagnostic Suite: point 289.
67

Can cause Ad-Supported Freeware to malfunction: point 289.


Impressive program: point 289.
May be Shareware masquerading as Freeware: point 289, point 297.
Caused BSOD upon exit: point 289.
Had second thoughts after using: point 289.
Damaged Go!Zilla: point 293.
Deleted ADVERT.DLL and other Ad files: point 294, point 295.
Deleted MSIPCSV.EXE: point 295.
Search for other programs damaged by OO: point 296.
Could not easily tell which programs OO might have damaged: point 296.
Couldnt find log of programs about to be damaged: point 296.
Linked to GRC.COM: point 297.
GRC not certain Aureate Media had transmitted personal data: point 297.
Finds other spy files added after previous use: point 336(b).
MenuEdit
Created by PC Magazine in 1996: point 141(t).
Intended to remove unwanted Context Menu options: point 141(t).
An alternative to manual Registry editing: point 141(t).
Not certain it would work properly with Win98 Registry: point 141(t).
Worked only on file types, not on folders: point 141(t), point 146(l).
Is a No-Install Program: point 141(t).
Small, convenient, no harm keeping it handy: point 141(t).
CDex
See also PowerDesk, Audio Toolbar, Ripper.
Is a Ripper and also an Encoder: point 157(d).
Settings for: point 157(d).
CDFS.VXD
See also Windows Explorer.
Very small and useful Audio adjustment: point 157(c).
Enabled user to see full contents of Audio CD, not just CDA files: point 157(c).
Is a Ripper without CDDB capability: point 157(d).
Posed virtually no quality problems: point 157(d).
Typical Audio CD contained numerous versions of Audio tracks: point 157(c).
Audio tracks would now appear as WAV files: point 157(c).
Winamp
See also Context Menu.
Changing preferences: point 157(b).
One of the most popular computer Audio players available: point 157(b).
Worked well over a period of months: point 157(b).

68

Installer added unauthorized folder called Mjuice Media Player: point 157(b).
Problems with WA on unstable system: point 270.
Added to Audio Toolbar: point 309(e).
AntiPop
A Command Line program to remove pops from WAV files: point 157(f).
CDSpeed99
Could test data transfer rate and Audio extraction of CD-ROM Drive: point
224(m).
Could verify integrity of CD-R or CD-RW disk: point 224(m).
Showed CD length, CD-ROM speed: point 224(m).
Odd results re amount of data on disk: point 224(m).
Error: incapable of returning error information: point 224(m).
Dupeless
Created by PC Magazine: point 314(a).
Voted one of the best Freeware duplicate File Finders: point 140(a).
Detects duplicates that had the same contents but different names: point 314(a).
Distinguishes duplicates with same names but different contents: point 314(a).
Could add to its list of files and folders that it would not compare: point 314(a).
Took only a few minutes to consider more than 20,000 files: point 314(b).
Did not say whether duplicates could be safely deleted: point 314(c).
Would not sort duplicates by file or Path name: point 314(e).
Would have to reconsider same list of duplicates next time around: point 314(e).
Deleting duplicates caused some problems: point 321.
AdSubtract
See also PrcView.
PC Magazine described as Freeware that would make Web surfing much more
pleasant: point 308.
Can prevent ads from loading in your Web Browser: point 308.
Can block cookies: point 308.
Can exempt five sites from ad-blocking: point 308.
Produced illegal operation error message and Explorer shutdown: point 308.
Free updates required to keep ad-blocking effective: point 308.
Can easily update their database of ads to block: point 308.
Statistics page said it had filtered 900 ads in just 6 websites: point 308.
ExactTime
Created by PC Magazine: point 156(i).
Set system's clock according to exact Time websites: point 156(i).
Runs at bootup, or periodically, or manually: point 156(i).

69

Internet Tech Support Diagnostics


See also Network Connection, Internet Connection.
Came highly recommended: point 266(g).
Provided clear, accurate info and suggestions about Modems and connections:
point 266(g).
There didnt seem to be any Tech Wizard button: point 266(g).
Another little source of information that would probably be useful sometimes:
point 266(g).
CDWav
Splits large WAV files into pieces: point 157(e).

Reliable Installed Programs


Audio Editor
Program that can modify sound files.
See Editor, GoBack, Windows Explorer, Codec, Cool Edit 2000, Tiny Wave
Editor, WAV, Creative SoundBlaster AWE64.
Different from Ripper.
Do Audio and graphics editing on separate Partition: point 32.
Audio work was especially slow; used big separate Partition to speed it up:
point 256.
Couldnt make GoBack work very well with Audio editing: point 258(e).
Didnt really need Backup of Audio files being converted to MP3: point 337.
Sounds
See also Audio.
An option under Control Panel: point 320.
Location for changing Win98s standard noises: point 320.
Disabling all sounds: point 118.
Audio CD
A CD on which sound is recorded in tracks. Not the same as a data CD on which
computer Audio files are loaded. Most common computer Audio (i.e., not Audio
CD) Formats are WAV and MP3.
Copy sound from Audio CD to computer by using a Ripper.
See also Windows Explorer, CDFS.VXD, Auto Insert Notification.
Problem copying track from audio CD to Hard Disk: point 309(a).
Audio
Editing: see GoBack.
Benchmarks: see WinBench 99.
70

See also Audio Toolbar, Sound Card, Volume Control, CDFS.VXD, WAV, MP3,
CDSpeed99, BIOS, PowerDesk, Windows Explorer, Winamp, Cacheman,
SweepGen, Codec, Sound Recorder, Encoder, Cool Edit 2000, Windows Media
Player, WavGlue, RealPlayer, Audio Suite, Creative SoundBlaster AWE64, S3
Legacy Relocator for SonicVibes PCI Audio Device, PCI Multimedia Audio
Device, Turtle Beach Daytona, Motherboard, Audio Editor, Audio CD.
Hard Disk thrashing, pieces of music dropping out: point 268.
MP3
See also VisiTrax, Cool Edit 2000, i-Drive, Codec, Encoder, Audio Editor.
Is a computer-created Audio file, as distinct from Audio CD tracks: point 157(c).
Is a compressed Audio Format, as distinct from WAV files: point 157(d).
MP3 files made from WAV files: point 157(d).
Compresses Audio into much smaller files: point 337.
Codec
See also SweepGen, Sound Recorder.
Short for coder-decoder. May mean same as Encoder.
Blade and LAME are Audio codecs: point 157(d).
Fraunhofer MP3 Codec in Cool Edit 2000 is oriented toward music: point 260(a).
DSP Group Truespeech codec might give best voice compression: point 260(a).
Sound Recorder
See also Cool Edit 2000.
Audio recording program supplied with Win98.
Changing Codec in SR: point 260(a).
Encoder
See also Codec.
Converts regular Audio file to a compressed Format like MP3: point 157(d).
Compressed file takes only 10-20% as much space: point 157(d).
CDDB
See also CDFS.VXD, VisiTrax.
Short for Compact Disc DataBase.
Online, downloadable database of song titles and artists: point 157(d).
Volume Control
See also Audio Toolbar.
Can open by clicking on little yellow speaker in System Tray: point 309(b).
Change settings in VC to get sound from speakers: point 309(b).
Cool Edit 2000

71

See also GoBack, Office 97 Shortcut Bar, SweepGen, Codec, Audio Toolbar,
Custom Settings, Tiny Wave Editor.
Cornerstone of my Audio work: point 157(a).
Settings for: point 157(a).
Refused to work on failing computer: point 116(k).
Error: A device ID has been used that is out of range for your system: point
212.
Error caused by PCI Multimedia Audio Device problem: point 212.
Added to list of SendTo programs: point 113(c).
Icon added to Main Toolbar: point 157(a).
Undo option slowed down every editing action in CE2000: point 258(e).
Left large Temporary Files to be cleaned up by MAINTDAY.BAT: point 309(d).
Temporary Files stored on Drive H (SWAP): point 260(c).
Had MP3 recording, editing, playback capability: point 157(a).
Uses high-quality Fraunhofer Codec for MP3 compression: point 157(d).
Use Sound Recorder instead of CE2000 for DSP Group Truespeech Codec: point
260(a).
Can remove Audio noise and other defects: point 260(a).
Used to edit WAV files: point 157(d).
Use of left edge of screen prohibits locating Toolbar there: point 120(q).
Added CE2000 as SendTo option: point 157(a).
Had problems with 1 GB Audio file: point 157(e).
Choice of CE2000 temporary file folder locations: point 260(c), point 304.
No Defragmenting of CE2000 Temporary Files: point 260(c).
Audio editing can be time-consuming: point 268.
Set default Data File Location to be on Drive F: point 303(b).
Different computers required slightly different setups: point 304.
Ripper
A program that copies tracks (which are not computer data files) from Audio
CDs to the computer. Unrelated to WinMag Registry Ripper.
Examples: Exact Audio Copy, CDFS.VXD, CDex.
WAV
See also CDFS.VXD, CDWav, WavGlue, Easy CD Creator, MP3, CDFS.VXD,
Windows Media Player, Sounds, AntiPop.
Is a computer-created Audio file as distinct from regular Audio CDs: point
157(c).
Can use Cool Edit 2000 to edit WAV files: point 157(a).
WAV files not very compressible with ordinary file compression tools: point
269(c).
Win98 standard noises are WAV files stored in C:\WINDOWS\MEDIA: point
320.

72

Windows Media Player


See also Audio Toolbar.
Distinct from Mjuice Media Player: see Winamp.
Comes in two versions: point 309(e).
Most recent version from Updates.com, not Microsoft: point 49.
Changing settings on basic version: point 260(b).
Basic version not playing properly: point 260(b).
Basic version used to play a brief sound before opening a DOS Box: point 260(b).
High-powered version not offered at Windows Update: point 109(f).
Added to list of SendTo programs: point 113(c).
Could play WAV files: point 260(b).
Adaptec
See also Bootable CD, Hewlett-Packard ScanJet IIcx, ASPI, Super Boot Floppy.
Maker of Easy CD Creator, DirectCD, and ASPICHK.
CD
Note the difference between the DOS CD (Change Directory) command and the
CD (Compact Disc). This heading pertains only to the latter.
See especially CD-RW, CDSpeed99, CDRIdentifier, CD Burning Suite, CD-ROM
Driver, CD-ROM Drive, Audio CD, Bootable CD, CD Burner.
See also PartitionMagic; DriveImage; Easy CD Creator; PowerDesk, Windows
Explorer; DirectCD, CompUSA, Backup, DMA, CDFS.VXD, Defragmenting.
CD-R disk ordinarily contains Read-Only Files: point 25.
CD Formats: Joliet, ISO 9660, CD-ROM XA: point 269(e).
CD running Win98 has to remain in the CD-ROM Drive: point 12.
Multisession CD: point 269(e).
Disadvantage of using Disk-at-Once (DAO) option: point 270.
Burning CDs best done from separate Partition: point 33.
Burning CDs can be fairly rapid: point 66.
BTDOSM.SYS error may occur only when booting from CD: point 78, point 80.
Bootable Floppy
Floppy disk capable of booting the Operating System.
See also PartitionMagic, DriveImage, ScanReg, CD-ROM Driver, Bootable CD,
Super Boot Floppy, Win98 Startup Floppy, GoBack.
Essential files are COMMAND.COM, MSDOS.SYS, and IO.SYS: point 5(a).
Bootable Floppy needed to create Bootable CD: see Easy CD Creator.
Runs Startup commands through AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS: point
5(b).
Must edit CONFIG.SYS to run CD-ROM Driver: point 7.

73

Gives you DOS-based tools to make system work even if its screwed up: point
5.
Contains a maximum of 1.44 MB or 2.88 MB of files: point 5.
Files needed to fix a recalcitrant Hard Disk include Format, SYS.COM, and
ScanDisk: point 5(d).
Needs to include UNZIP program if youre including zipped files: point 5(d),
point 5(g).
Getting ZIP files into working shape on newly Formatted Hard Disk: point 5(g).
Pulling together the necessary files, the hard way: point 8.
Easy way to create Bootable Floppy is just to use Win98 Emergency Boot Disk:
point 8.
Win98 Emergency Boot Disk gave better results: point 63.
Have to tell BIOS Setup to boot from Drive A: point 57, point 77.
Trying to make BF larger than 1.44 MB: point 10, point 11.
Bootable CD
See also Easy CD Creator, Super Boot Floppy, CD-RW, CD Burner, SCSI,
PartitionMagic, DriveImage, C:\Windows\Command, RAM Drive.
Requires CD-ROM Driver, MSCDEX.EXE, AUTOEXEC.BAT, CONFIG.SYS:
point 7.
Use unlikely name (not RESTORE) for non-bootable part of CD: point 20.
Required adjustments to AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS: point 20.
Need Bootable Floppy to create Bootable CD: point 5.
Adaptec advice on constructing Bootable CD: point 7.
Adaptec advice on Bootable CD causes problems re RESTORE.GIF: point 20.
Might be able to emulate a bootable Hard Disk: point 12.
Useful when Bootable Floppy wont do the job: point 3.
Bootable CD may include files needed both before and after getting DOS Prompt:
point 5(d).
Has two parts: one bootable, one not: point 6.
Bootable part acts as Drive A, and normal Drive A becomes Drive B: point 6.
AUTOEXEC.BAT line with MSCDEX.EXE tells computer where backed-up files
are: point 6.
Non-bootable part of CD is at Drive letter indicated by MSCDEX.EXE: point 6.
Can still see contents of non-bootable CD after booting with the right Floppy:
point 64.
Booting from CD-ROM Drive: point 77.
Primary purpose seems to be to function as glorified Bootable Floppy: point 12.
Error: Boot from ATAPI CD-ROM: Failure: point 179.
Adobe Acrobat Reader
Freeware with simple installation: point 156(g).

74

Super Boot Floppy


See also PARTINFO.EXE.
My name for a Bootable Floppy that I built from scratch, as distinct from the
Win98 Startup Floppy: point 8.
Adaptec advice on SBF starts me creating Bootable Floppy the hard way: point
5.
AutoRun
See Auto Insert Notification.
Auto Insert Notification
AIN and AutoRun Properties tell system to run recognized programs (such as
Startup.exe or Setup.exe) on program CDs inserted into CD-ROM Drive, or to
play Audio CDs, without requiring any action by the user.
Disabling: point 109(f), point 259(d).
Easy CD Creator
See also DriveImage, Adaptec, ASPICHK.
Can create Bootable CD: point 4.
Bootable CD limited to 1.44 MB: point 11.
Could not create Bootable CD from anything other than a Bootable Floppy:
point 11.
How to burn a Bootable CD: point 18.
Stalled at overly long filenames: point 18.
Counted file sizes differently from Windows Explorer: point 18, point 188.
Did not copy Windows swap file: point 18.
Bootable CD in ISO 9660 Format: point 18.
Could burn Bootable CD in both ISO 9660 and Joliet Formats: point 18.
Puts DriveImage PQI files onto CD in one big lump: point 61.
Option of not closing disk: point 65.
Bootable CD visible as Drive J: point 65.
Merges two WAV files into one: point 157(e).
Installation took less than a minute: point 188.
Installed on machine without CD-RW Drive to fix ASPI problems: point 224(j).
Creates multisession CDs: point 269(e).
Importing sessions in multisession CDs: point 269(e).
Data CD: point 269(e).
Disk full or closed: point 269(e).
Advantages of Joliet versus ISO 9660 Formats: point 269(e).
Disk Image File option: point 269(f).
Multiple CD sets: point 269(f).
Disk fragmentation problems: point 269(f).
Buffer underrun: point 269(f).

75

Using BURNING partition to avoid buffer underrun: point 269(f).


Incapable of splitting 754 MB file to put on two separate CDs: point 269(h).
Copy of DI put on each Bootable CD: point 269(h).
Errors reported by output device: means youve created a Coaster: point 269(p).
CD-RW
Short for Compact Disc ReWritable (or perhaps Read-Writable), as distinct from
ordinary CD-R disks: point 4.
See also Easy CD Creator, DirectCD, Hewlett-Packard ScanJet IIcx, CDSpeed99,
CD Burner.
Might be able to use as Bootable CD to run Win98: point 12.
Ordinary CD-ROM Drive could not read CD-RW disk: point 111.
SCSI
Short for Small Computer Systems Interface, I believe.
See also Hewlett-Packard ScanJet IIcx, CDRIdentifier.
System of connecting devices to computer by chaining one to another, not
requiring separate Adapter Cards or ports for each.
Complexities of installing SCSI devices: point 224(j).
May need special Drivers: point 5(e).
May not support Bootable CD: point 5(e).
SCSI problems could stem from not having latest ASPI modules: point 224(j).
Automatic settings box not checked in Device Manager: point 232.
IRQ used: point 234.
ASPICHK
See also Adaptec.
Short for ASPI Checker: point 224(j).
Intended to see whether you had the most recent ASPI modules: point 224(j).
Running Easy CD Creator fixed ASPICHK problem: point 224(j).
ASPI
See also Easy CD Creator, ASPICHK.
Short for Advanced SCSI Programming Interface: point 224(j).
Fooling Adaptec software into installing latest ASPI modules: point 224(j).
ATAPI_CD.SYS
Supposedly Microsoft's generic CD-ROM Driver: point 7.
Found a copy online: point 20.
Turned out to be a Sony Driver: point 20.
Didnt work with Yamaha CD-ROM Drive: point 20.
CD-ROM Driver
See also SSCDROM.SYS, ATAPI_CD.SYS, CDSpeed99, Bootable CD.
76

Must be on Bootable Floppy in order to use CD-ROM Drive: point 7.


Called by CONFIG.SYS: point 7.
Supposedly enabled in Safe Mode when entered via WIN /D:M command: point
129.
SSCDROM.SYS
Samsung (?) CD-ROM Driver used on my system: point 7.
Didnt work with Yamaha CD-ROM Drive: point 20, point 63.
Yamaha CD-ROM Drive
See also DriveImage, Adobe PhotoDeluxe, GraphicCorp Photo Editor, CD
Burner, CD-ROM Drive, SSCDROM.SYS, ATAPI_CD.SYS, Win98 Emergency
Boot Disk.
I had a Yamaha CD Burner.
Compare Plextor Drives: point 263.
Could handle some disturbance while burning a CD, but not much: point 263.
Firmware upgrade: point 326.
CD Burner
See also CDRIdentifier, DriveImage, Easy CD Creator, Read-Only Files, CD
Burning Suite.
Means a CD-ROM Drive capable of burning data on CD-RW disks: point 4.
My burner was the Yamaha CD-ROM Drive: point 4.
Could not boot from Bootable CD: point 189.
Balks, creates Coaster: point 269(p).
Coaster
See also Easy CD Creator, CD Burner.
CD-R disk burned defectively is good for nothing but to be a beverage coaster:
point 269(p).
What youd expect from a system that has frozen: point 269(p).
Compact Disc
Also known as CD.
See also CDDB, CD-RW, Disks and Drives.
MSCDEX.EXE
See also Bootable CD.
Is, like any .EXE file, an executable program: point 6.
Tells the computer that it's going to be running a CD-ROM Drive: point 6.
DirectCD
See also Start Manager, Adaptec.
Default installation starts automatically at Startup: point 224(k).
77

Allows ordinary file writing and erasing on CD-RW: point 10, point 224(k).
Allows only 530 MB useful space on 650 MB CD: point 10.
CD-ROM Drive may not be able to read DC Formatted CDs: point 10.
UDF Reader allows system to read the disks Formatted with DC: point 224(k).
Graphics Editor
Program that changes the contents of Graphics files.
See Microsoft Photo Editor, Kodak Imaging, GraphicCorp Photo Editor, Editor,
Graphics.
Do Audio and Graphics editing on separate Partition: point 32.
Scanning
General-purpose term for when a program examines files or disks. Also used in
a separate sense for Image Scanning or OCR Scanning.
See also Hewlett-Packard ScanJet IIcx, Twain.
Microsoft Photo Editor the best program to scan images into: point 224(i).
Image Scanning
See also Scanning, TextBridge, Adobe PhotoDeluxe, EasyPhoto, GraphicCorp
Photo Editor, Microsoft Photo Editor.
All Win98 image scanning programs used same non-ideal interface: point 224(i).
QuickView
See also Context Menu, X-Setup, ImgView, Graphics.
Quick-viewing multiple files: point 120(z).
TIF
See also Windows Explorer, eFax, GraphicCorp Photo Editor.
A Graphics file Format: point 141(b).
Not to be confused with Temporary Internet Files.
JPG
See also Icon.
A Graphics file Format: point 141(b).
GIF
See also Icon.
A Graphics file Format: point 141(b).
Error: no viewer capable of viewing: point 141(b).
ImgView
Created by PC Magazine: point 141(b).
Installed viewers for Graphics files: point 141(b).
Viewers worked through QuickView: point 141(b).
78

Graphics
See also PowerDesk, Windows Explorer, ImgView, Video Card, Graphics Editor,
Icon, Microsoft Photo Editor.
File Formats: see TIF, GIF, JPG.
Viewable through QuickView: point 141(b).
Use X-Setup to change location of graphics files: point 137(m).
Thumbnail view in Windows Explorer: point 303(b).
Bitmap Files
See also Startup, PowerDesk, Icon, Rename, Kodak Imaging, Clipboard Pile.
Also known as BMP files: point 118.
Win98 chooses Wallpaper from BMP files in C:\WINDOWS: point 320.
Win98 supplies excess BMP files that you can delete: point 320.
Kodak Imaging
Program supplied with Win98 or Internet Explorer download: point 224(i), point
320.
Capable of saving files as Bitmap Files: point 320.
Much faster than GraphicCorp Photo Editor: point 224(i).
OCR Scanning
See also Scanning, TextBridge, WordScan, OmniPage.
Short for Optical Character Recognition.
Use OCR scanning for text documents.
One opinion as to best OCR Freeware: point 140(a).
WordScan
See also TextBridge.
Old DOS-based OCR Scanning program: point 224(h).
OmniPage
See also TextBridge.
Old DOS-based OCR Scanning program: point 224(h).
Added Fax option to Outlook 98: point 102.
TextBridge
OCR Scanning program: point 224(i).
Extremely slow installation: point 224(f), point 224(h), point 231.
Produced better results than WordScan or OmniPage: point 224(h).
Could do Image Scanning, but not as well as programs designed for it: point
224(i).
GraphicCorp Photo Editor
79

See also Kodak Imaging.


Image Scanning program: point 224(i).
Very good program: point 224(i).
Made this my default editor for TIF files: point 224(c).
Ran very slowly on Pentium 233 MMX computer: point 224(i).
Used for more refined editing: point 224(i).
Came with Yamaha CD-ROM Drive: point 224(c).
Hobbled by poor Help files: point 224(c).
Offline Browser
See also SurfSaver, HTTrack, SiteSnagger, WebCopier, Internet Explorer,
Favorites, WebCompass.
Wanted program that would explore hits from search engine results pages: point
307.
HTTrack
Free five-star download from ZDNet.com: point 307(f).
An Offline Browser: point 307(f).
Intended to mirror a website on your Hard Disk: point 307(f).
ZDNet.com mentioned possible Java feature errors: point 307(f).
Better than SurfSaver: point 307(f).
Didnt download hits from search page: point 307(f).
Really liked it: point 307(f).
WinMag Registry Ripper
Unrelated to Ripper.
Sounded potentially useful: point 224(b).
EasyCleaner
A free Registry cleaning program: point 139(b).
Best Freeware Registry cleaner, by one opinion: point 140(a).
One of the best Freeware duplicate File Finders, by one opinion: point 140(a).
Part of Cleanup Suite: point 225.
Included a Clean Registry option: point 225.
Removed invalid references: point 147, point 225, point 315.
Seemed to be actively updated and highly recommended: point 139(b).
Seemed to clean Registry well: point 139(b).
Found unnecessary files: point 139(b).
A cool program: point 139(b).
Found no invalid Registry entries to explain system problem: point 144.
Could not run from Command Line: point 152.
Duplicate files test seemed to run OK: point 139(b).
Duplicate test apparently incomplete; re-run requires 196 hours: point 166(b).

80

Sought replacement for duplicate files test: point 314.


Deciding against other Registry cleaners: point 134(g).
Registry Checker
Same as ScanReg.
See also MSINFO32.
Used to check system: point 116(e).
Can make Backup of Registry: point 151.
Can run by running MSINFO32: point 120(an).
Can run by running Win98 System Information: point 120(an).
No point using RC to back up potentially bad Registry: point 139(b).
Checkers
Created by PC Magazine: point 159(b).
ScanReg
See also Cleanup Suite, Registry, Start | Run.
See also (same as) Registry Checker.
Recommended utility to have handy: point 5(g).
Decided to have a copy on Bootable Floppy: point 57.
Did same thing as RegClean, but better: point 119(d), point 139.
Is the Win98 Registry Checker program: point 119(d).
Comes in DOS and Windows versions: point 124.
Windows version has to switch to DOS to make Registry changes: point 124.
Windows version called SCANREGW: point 147.
Became part of my regular system maintenance: point 139.
Creates Backup of Registry in /backup mode: point 139(b).
Default location for Registry backups is C:\Windows\Sysbckup: point 145(p).
Backups are Hidden Files in C:\Windows\Sysbckup: point 148.
Registry backups would be backed up along with rest of Hard Disk C: point
145(p).
SCANREG.INI determined where Registry backups were kept: point 145(p).
SCANREG.INI determined number of Registry backups: point 120(an).
Changed location of Registry backups to Drive H (SWAP): point 145(p).
Modified DOSSTART.BAT to report on Registry backups: point 145(p).
Ran /restore mode to restore working copy of Registry: point 146(n), point 148,
point 196, point 270.
Ran /fix mode in Real DOS: point 147.
Ran /restore mode in Real DOS: point 148.
Detected and replaced a screwed Registry: point 147.
Copied bad Registry to RBBAD.CAB file in /fix mode: point 147, point 270.
Normally names Registry backups RB001.CAB etc.: point 147.
Names Registry backups in irregular order, e.g., RB002, then RB009: point 147.

81

Restoring previous Registry corrected bad Registry edit: point 148.


Only five backups visible in /restore mode: point 148.
Five visible backups in /restore mode not necessarily most recent: point 149.
Move extra backups to other folder to avoid confusing SR: point 148, point 270.
Fixing problem required several tries restoring previous Registries: point 148.
SR confusingly seemed to change Dates of Registry backups: point 148.
SR oddly created backups much larger than before: point 148.
Creates its own backups folder when necessary: point 242(f).
May not catch all Registry errors: point 270.
May always say it fixed your Registry in /fix mode: point 270.
Absence of RBBAD.CAB file may be acid test of good Registry: point 270.
Sometimes created very large Registry backups: point 270.
WebCompass
See also Context Menu.
Could explore all links on a webpage: point 165(a).
Could determine which links were dead: point 165(a).
Could give a one-line description of live links on a webpage: point 165(a).
Could give longer summary of live links: point 307(i).
No serial number posed installation hassle: point 165(a).
Error on exit: "object is invalid or not set": point 165(a), point 336(b).
Originally by Quarterdeck, purchased by Symantec: point 307(i).
Symantec discontinued WC: point 307(i).
Faster and more explicit for exploring search results pages: point 307(i).
Could be doctored to examine first 200 hits from AltaVista: point 307(i).
Results in Access 97-compatible database: point 307(i).
Difficulties with updates: point 323.
Update difficulties seemed to be caused by MagicMover: point 323, point 336(b).
MSINFO32
See also Internet Explorer, CTBIOS, Processes.
Tools option contains DirectX Diagnostic Tool, Internet Explorer Repair Tool,
Windows Report Tool, Update Wizard Uninstall, System File Checker, Signature
Verification Tool, Registry Checker, Automatic Skip Driver Agent, Dr. Watson,
System Configuration Utility, ScanDisk, Version Conflict Manager.
System Information tool on left side tells Partition sizes: point 106.
Same information as HWINFO: point 145(m).
Hardware Resources option shows IRQs: point 232.
Shows modules loaded and running tasks on system: point 141(f).
HWINFO
See also MSINFO32.
Short for Hardware Diagnostic Tool.

82

Provided information on Registry entries: point 145(m).


Provided information on File Attributes: point 145(m).
MSCONFIG
See also MSCONFIG | Startup, System Configuration Utility, Startup Menu.
Can edit CONFIG.SYS, AUTOEXEC.BAT, SYSTEM.INI, WIN.INI.
Can also find it under MSINFO32: point 145(d).
MSCONFIG | Startup
See also Start Manager.
Shows programs that run at Startup: point 39.
System Configuration Utility
Same as MSCONFIG.
System File Checker
Same as SFC.EXE: point 55.
Can extract files from CAB Files: point 141(u).
Searches for corrupt System Files: point 55.
May mess things up by restoring original rather than updated files: point 116(e).
REG Files
See also Notepad, RegClean, DEFRAG.REG, Undo.
Temporary Internet Files
See also Internet Explorer, Defragmenting, X-Setup, TIF.
Advice to clear out before Defragmenting: point 122.
Stored on Drive H (SWAP): point 50, point 242(f).
Removing cookies from: point 53.
Folder comes back to life after deleting: point 53.
Could empty before creating Disk Image File: point 111.
Relocated to another Drive; no longer necessary to empty it out: point 111.
How to clear out TIF from within Internet Explorer: point 168.
Deleted cookies from this folder manually: point 16.
Cacheman
Sets Disk Cache, not Virtual Memory: point 141(n).
Highly spoken of in context of computer Audio: point 141(n).
An all-purpose Memory manager: point 141(n).
Simple, abrupt installation: point 141(n).
Settings for Chunk Size and for caches for Filenames and Directories: point
141(n).
Is Cardware: point 141(n).

83

Cardware
Programs whose creators request a postcard if you like the program: point 330.
See also Cacheman, Exact Audio Copy.
FTP
See also iBackup, WS_FTP.
Short for File Transfer Protocol.
Used Fast FTP site to Find Files (Driver and others) online: point 20, point
224(g).
WS_FTP
Created Temporary Files that HDValet removed: point 141(m).
Limited Edition version is Freeware: point 156(f).
Provided a good way to upload files to my websites via FTP: point 156(f).
Paradox
See also Office 97 Suite, Main Toolbar.
DOS database program I still used sometimes: point 250.
Started by using PDX.BAT: point 250.
EndItAll
Created by PC Magazine: point 141(g).
Better than Ctrl-Alt-Del: point 141(g).
Easy to use: showed actual names of running programs in plain English: point
141(g).
User can mark programs to be shut down: point 141(g).
Better than TaskManager and simpler than PcrView for ordinary purposes:
point 141(g).
No Command Line option: point 141(g).
MultiRen
Created by PC Magazine: point 141(a).
Select multiple files, right-click to Rename all at once: point 141(a).
Command syntax slightly complex: point 141(a).
InCtrl4
See also GoBack, Clean System Directory, Norton Utilities.
Created by PC Magazine: point 141(d).
By one opinion, best Freeware program installation monitor: point 140(c).
Monitored actions taken during program installation: point 141(d).
Set default Data File Location to be on Drive F: point 303(b).
Would tell me how to roll back bad installations: point 141(d).
Reportedly stable and useful: point 141(d).
Tells what files change during Reboot: point 141(d).
84

Better than Find File for detecting changed files: point 141(d).
Supposedly able to monitor execution of any software function: point 141(d).
Produced an invalid file error: point 141(d).
Significantly slowed a programs installation: point 141(e).
Confused by my act of opening a DOS Box during installation: point 141(e).
Gave report on files changed during installation: point 141(e).
Said how Registry changed, but not how files changed: point 141(e).
Seemed mostly informational for purposes of program installation: point 141(e).
Considering EasyUninstall 2000: point 141(e).
Decided I probably wouldn't use it regularly: point 141(e).
Wasnt helpful in another situation: point 146(l).
Freeware
See also Tucows, Hotfiles.com, ZDNet.com, MSIPCSV.EXE, Ad-Supported
Freeware, Aureate Media, PC Magazine.
Is free software.
Generally offered either as genuine attempt to help others, or in hopes that the
program will thereby control the market, or because the programmer also offers
a purchased version with more features.
Example: freeware version of TweakBIOS wont let you save your changes:
point 134(v).
Many of the programs discussed in this document are Freeware. This includes
some not specifically labeled as such.
List of 50 best freeware programs, in one opinion: point 140.
Shareware
Was originally sometimes confused (at least by me) with Freeware.
Now generally means software that is free during a temporary test period.
May not work after test period ends, or may provide irritating reminders to
purchase it: point 289.
Line between Freeware and Shareware sometimes blurred: see e.g., OptOut.
May be difficult to Uninstall properly if user does not purchase: point 289.
Purchased version of software can eliminate problems with Ad-Supported
Freeware.
DOS Prompt Here
See also Windows Explorer, DOSSTART.BAT, Context Menu.
Created by PowerDesk: point 141(e).
Registry edits to adjust this option: point 146(k).
Adjusting Tool Tip name: point 146(k).
Making it open in the right Directory: point 146(k).
Internet Connection

85

See also Internet Explorer, ISP, Internet Connection Wizard, Internet Tech
Support Diagnostics.
Different from Network Connection.
Programs keeping connection alive: see Internet Loafer, Connection Keeper,
Keep It Alive.
Programs making connection faster: see iSpeed, FastNet99.
Multiple computers sharing IC: see Network.
Security of: see IP_Agent.
Information regarding: see WINIPCFG and Internet Tech Support Diagnostics.
File Find
See Find File.
Find File
See also InCtrl4, FINDFAST.CPL.
Search for file* (without quotes) gets all files beginning with the word file;
search for file gets all files containing the word file.
Available from Tools | Find | Files option in Windows Explorer or from Start |
Find: point 145(g).
Creating Shortcut to Find File: point 145(g).
Finding files generally: see PowerDesk, Windows Explorer, Files Toolbar,
WHERE.EXE, WHEREIS, FILEFIND.
Finding specific files: see CabWiz, WIN.COM.
Finding spyware: see OptOut.
Finding duplicate files: see EasyCleaner, Dupeless, MoreSpace.
Finding Drivers online: see FTP.
Finding Drivers for specific hardware: see Diamond SupraMax 56i PCI Modem,
S3 Inc. Savage4, Hewlett-Packard ScanJet IIcx.
Using DOS names and file sizes and Dates to find files: point 75.
Renaming a file to make it easier to find: point 253.
Locating files in a special Directory to make them easier to find: point 128(d).
WinMag's Registry Pruner
Showed list of entries in Registry's SharedDLLs list: point 141(j).
Indicated that the files to which these DLLs point no longer exist: point 141(j).
Allowed me to remove those entries: point 141(j).

86

How I Spent Another Three Months Installing Windows 98


by Ray Woodcock
Commenced with some pessimism and a dread of what might be coming
Shortly after Tax Day in the year 2000 A.D.

This may not prove to be the final answer on how to install Windows 98 and
other programs. It may not even be the final answer for me. But its a step ahead
of the previous go-round, when I spent three months at the project and still
wound up with a system that crashed. The long document describing that
process, which I call the Epic, has much more detail on many of these points; it
also tackles some of them in different ways from what Im recommending here.
Under each of the following headings, you will find references to corresponding
sections of the document entitled, An Index to Information on Installing
Windows 98. Those sections, in turn, contain references to specific paragraphs
in the Epic that contain much more detail on relevant topics.

Part One: Basic Windows 98 Installation


For more information see the following Index sections:
Before Turning the Computer On: A Few Fundamental Hardware Issues
Turning on the Computer: What You Notice Before Windows
Setting Up Your Hard Disk Before Installing Windows
Recommended Hard Disk Partitions for Win98
The Win98 Core
Win98 Modes
Files and Folders

There is a vast difference between having a simple Win98 installation and having
one that you can actually use for the many things that people want from their
computers nowadays. Installing Win98 can mean something very simple, if you
want a computer that just sits there. The following paragraphs give you that.
I.1. Save Your Existing Information. I dont just mean your data. You may need
drivers and other files from your existing program setup. You may also need
your password that allows you to log in to your Internet Service Provider
(ISP), and all kinds of other stuff that youve been taking for granted. One way
to keep drivers and other files handy is to have another computer already
running Win98 and/or your existing setup, from which you can copy stuff by
floppy disk and, eventually, by network connection. Another way is to have a

second Hard Disk to which you can copy everything that now exists on your first
hard disk. (If you dont have a second hard disk, you might think about getting
one. It doesnt have to be especially huge or fast, although thats always nice.
Right now, the second hard disk will give you a place to store the stuff from
drive C, but you will begin to see many other ways in which that second drive
can make things much easier.) This is entirely different from the question of
Backup, which you should have in a separate place, not on your computer.
I.2. Install Windows 98 Temporarily. If you already have DOS on your system
or have a Bootable Floppy disk, and can access your CD after booting from that
floppy, and also have a floppy containing FDISK and FORMAT, you may not
need to do this. Otherwise, you might want to run through a quick installation
of Win98 onto drive C. There are four reasons:
(a) Temporary installation will let you create a Bootable Floppy startup disk,
referred to here as the Win98 Emergency Boot Disk. That disk will enable you to
start your system. If you do boot your system with it, it will also create a
temporary RAM Drive and will load programs into that RAM drive. You may
want to copy some of these programs to another floppy disk -- in particular,
FDISK and FORMAT -- if you dont already have them on a floppy. If your
system fails to boot from the floppy drive, check your BIOS Setup and make sure
youre using a boot sequence that begins with drive A.
(b) Once you have a working version of Windows, you can install a temporary
version of PartitionMagic. That will let you create a PartitionMagic floppy. I
suggest doing the same with DriveImage.
(c) This will give you an easy way to copy over the \WIN98 folder from the CD
to your secondary Hard Disk. This anticipates step 5. You may find it very
useful to do this through Win98 if you are having any problems accessing your
CD-ROM Drive when youre in DOS.
(d) If you dont have a disk scanning utility (e.g., ScanDisk or Norton Disk
Doctor), this will give you a chance to copy ScanDisk.exe from
C:\Windows\Command to a floppy disk, just in case your Hard Disk acts up.
I.3. Start Over: Create Clean Partitions. Having more than one Hard Disk will
allow you to move your data back and forth from one to the other while creating
the following partitions, if youre using FDISK. Alternatively, using
PartitionMagic may make that unnecessary, since PartitionMagic can generally
create and manipulate Win98 partitions without disturbing the data on them.
Having more than one hard disk will also make some file transfers significantly
faster.

To simplify the following discussion, I assume that you have two hard disks, and
that they are large enough to accommodate the following partitions:
Master Hard Disk
Drive C: PROGRAMS: at least 1,500 MB: holds Win98 and other program files.
Drive D: STATIC: purpose described below: minimum of 400 MB.
Drive E: GOBACK: purpose described below: perhaps 15-25% of total primary
disk size.
Drive F: DATA: should allow at least 2 GB of free space plus existing data files.
Slave Hard Disk
Drive G: MM: multimedia files: at least several GB free plus existing
multimedia files.
Drive H: BURNING: temporary holding space for materials being burned onto
CD: 750 MB.
Drive I: SWAP: purposes described below: can range from 200 MB to several
GB.
You might enjoy additional improvements in Performance if you put the SWAP
drive on a third hard disk, assuming your power supply can handle it. (If you
start getting occasional problems that you werent getting before, the answer
may be no.) Note, however, that in an IDE system (which is what most PCs use)
you are limited to four devices (a primary and secondary master and slave). This
Partition arrangement assumes you will be using a CD Burner -- that is, a CDROM Drive capable of burning data onto blank CDs; the CD Burner will count as
one of those four devices.
After using FDISK, use FORMAT to make your partitions ready for action.
FDISK is an ugly, black-and-white thing, but its not too complicated; just pay
attention and be very precise in what you do with it, because it can wipe out
everything in no time. In any event, drive C should be the only primary
partition. Otherwise, DOS and Windows may disagree on where drive D and
other drives are located.
If you get partway through installation and cancel out, use FORMAT to wipe off
drive C and start over. Wipe off drive C even if youre using the Win98 Upgrade
CD, because the previous version of Windows (i.e., Windows 3.1 or Win95) can
cause problems later if you leave it there. But again, do be sure, before deleting
that previous version, that you have the previous version of Windows on the
other hard disk or on a floppy or CD somewhere, in case you need some
program files from it.

I.4. Lay a Solid Foundation: Make Sure the Hard Disk Is Good. Win98 comes
with a ScanDisk program that may find and fix problems on the disk. Norton
Disk Doctor seems to be a more thorough product, and is a major exception to
my general dislike of Norton software -- especially when I run it from the floppy
disk that different versions of Norton Utilities creates, or allows me to create
during installation. You should run one of these disk scanning programs before
going to all the trouble of developing a complete Win98 system, so that you
dont discover too late that your bad Hard Disk has trashed everything and you
have to start over.
I.5. Install Windows 98 from Drive D. Drive C will contain your Win98 program
files, but you dont want to install them onto drive C directly from the Win98
CD. Rather, you want to copy them from the CD to drive D, and then install
from drive D to drive C. This method tells your system where to find Win98
program files that were originally on the CD, any time it needs them, and you
wont have to locate and load the Win98 CD every time the system thinks it
needs to copy something from it. These files go onto drive D because that
partition will be devoted to never-changing installation files that will not require
Defragmenting, Backup, or otherwise tinkering with every day. (They will be in
stasis -- hence the name STATIC.)
Drive D doesnt require the full contents of the Win98 CD; it just needs the
contents of the WIN98 folder from the Win98 CD. I have done the installation
without any of the subfolders under that WIN98 folder, but recently I have made
AT&T my ISP, and therefore have preserved the OLS\AT_T subfolder (where I
assume OLS stands for On Line Services). You can use the DOS XCOPY
command to move these contents over from the CD or your secondary hard disk.
(See step 2.) Net result: you should have a folder called D:\WIN98; that folder
should contain a SETUP program; you should be able to run that program by
typing SETUP at the command line from within that folder in DOS; and this
should begin the Win98 installation process.
If youre using the Win98 Upgrade CD, the installation process will ask for
evidence that you had Windows 95 or some other qualifying product. If you
want, you can probably pass through that question by pointing to a D:\WIN95
folder containing the 34 MB worth of files that you could optionally copy over to
drive D from the Windows 95 CD. (It works even if the Win95 CD is just an
upgrade CD.)
Finally, although it is a matter of preference, I install almost every program listed
on the Win98 custom installation option, the exceptions being WebTV (which
apparently doesnt work so well) and Multilanguage Support (which I am fairly
sure I will never need). My rationale is that I would rather have all the programs

installed now than have to install them in dribs and drabs later for in order to
accommodate some program that I didnt originally expect to need. Note that
we are not configuring or customizing anything at all right now. Doing so could
make things very confused later. There will be time for customization -- indeed,
customization is what this is all about -- but not yet.

Part Two: Install the Crucial Utilities


For more information see the following Index sections:
Essential Utilities
Backup
II.1. Install GoBack. This program allows you to take your computer back to a
time in the past -- minutes or hours ago -- when things were working better. The
Epic describes some problems with this program; nevertheless, at this stage it is
essential. It can save you literally days of re-re-reinstallation. If it doesnt start
up when you insert the CD, run Windows Explorer and double-click on the CDs
SETUP file. During installation, use the custom install option and tell GoBack to
use the entire space on drive E (well, all but 11 MB) as the place where it stores
its history. (GoBack tracks events on each hard disk separately, and must store
its information somewhere on the disk that it is tracking.) Also, to help tame the
crazy proliferation of folders in your C:\Program Files folder, you might want to
tell it to install its files in C:\Program Files\Disk Utilities\Wild File\GoBack.
You can then steer other disk-related programs so that they, too, will install in
that Disk Utilities subfolder. In the case of the PENTIUM computer on which I
was first setting this up, my second Hard Disk was just a puny little 1 GB thing
on which I planned to store no important data, so I chose none as the place to
store GoBack data for that second Hard Disk. GoBack can remember anywhere
from a few hours to many weeks, depending on how much space you have
allocated for it and how much file changing your system has experienced (i.e.,
how much GoBack must track). You may want to keep the GoBack log open and
insert notes as youre going along to clarify what youre doing now (e.g.,
Installing NAV). GoBack is not bulletproof, so dont rely on it exclusively, but
it can be very helpful.
II.2. Install AntiVirus Software. I have gone back to using Norton AntiVirus
2000 because McAfee wasnt updating itself properly. Either way, you need to
have some antivirus software installed. This is the one exception to the rule of
installing really solid software first. I have tried to avoid Norton software
because it provokes crashes, but using NAV 2000 is much safer than having a
virus on your system. Once youve installed your antivirus software, use its
update feature to get the latest updates. The leading antivirus software

producers update their software quite frequently; it is almost certain that the
version loaded from your CD or floppy disk wont protect you against the latest
viruses. If you install Norton AntiVirus, I suggest installing it in C:\Program
Files\Symantec\Norton AntiVirus. You may have to use Windows Explorer to
create that folder before installing; my version of NAV 2000 has the brain-dead
inability to create a new folder during installation.
II.3. Go Online and Download the Windows 98 Upgrades. This is not a crucial
utility; it is just the tail end of Part One. Experience suggests postponing it until
after youve installed GoBack and antivirus software, so as to reduce the risk of
losing hours worth of downloads.
To go online, Windows should provide you with an option to enter the Internet
Connection Wizard. If you have an option as to where to install the program
files for your Internet Service Provider (ISP), choose C:\Program
Files\Internet\<ISPname> where <ISPname> is the short name of your ISP.
Hopefully the information you have saved from your old Win98 installation
includes the username, password, and phone number that you use to access your
account at your ISP. Note that the installation process may insert the wrong
username here. You may also have to set up your Modem. See below for more
information on hardware problems.
When you can get online, you can begin downloading. Youll find the download
site at the Windows Update option available under the Start Button. Youll have
fewer things to download if you start with Windows 98 Second Edition, but
youll still have to do some downloading even with Win98SE. If you dont have
Second Edition, the downloads will give you most of it anyway by the time
youre done. At the Windows Update page, click on Product Updates.
Presently, the best way to proceed here may be to skip through all the other
download options and begin with Internet Explorer 5.01 and Internet Tools.
Its not listed as a Critical Update, but once its on your system, the list of critical
updates will change. No point updating older versions of Internet Explorer that
IE 5.01 will be replacing. Use the Advanced button to download components
now and install later, so that you dont have to re-download if the installation
doesnt work out. These, too, can go onto drive D, in a folder called
D:\Windows Update Setup Files. Once youve downloaded them, click on the
IE5SETUP file to run them. If you forget which items youve installed, IE5SETUP
will show the already installed ones in bold print. Then go back to the Windows
Update site until youve downloaded everything that fits your system.
II.4. DriveImage. Having done a bunch of work to install Win98 and download
its updates, we should make a Backup. DriveImage (or another similar program,
Norton Ghost, which I have not used much) allows you to take a snapshot of an

entire partition and store it in a Disk Image File. Unlike some backup programs,
DriveImage restores your system exactly like it was. This PowerQuest product,
like PartitionMagic, allows you to create a floppy during installation; and like
before, it runs in Real DOS. If the Mouse is not working properly, run the
accompanying mouse program first. Note that DriveImage and PartitionMagic
are not compatible with GoBack. To make a Disk Image File in DriveImage, you
must first disable GoBack, and that wipes out your GoBack history. So if youre
planning to use GoBack to roll your system back in time, do that before using
DriveImage. (You disable GoBack by double-clicking on the Icon in the System
Tray and then choosing Options | Disable GoBack.) (Note that I use the vertical
bar | symbol to divide separate steps in a process. Other people sometimes use
other symbols, such as -->.) If you installed a temporary version of DriveImage
as suggested above, you can now use the floppy rather than reinstalling the
program, and even the floppy will soon be unnecessary.
II.5. PowerDesk. The only thing making this program (or something like it)
crucial right now is the ability to UNZIP compressed files, which you will need
in order to handle important downloads. I might point out that PowerDesk does
have many other abilities as well -- enough, perhaps, to justify its purchase price,
at least if you would rather avoid the hassle of researching and collecting the
various Freeware programs that would be needed to replace it (assuming there
are Freeware programs offering all those functions, which I dont know to be the
case). If you install this program or something like it, you might want to install it
into a new Disk Utilities folder (i.e., C:\Program Files\Disk
Utilities\PowerDesk); youll be using that new folder for numerous other things
eventually. Depending on the version of PowerDesk you are using, you may
find an upgrade on the manufacturers website; it may be accessible through the
programs Help option. Finally, you may want to obtain and install the DES
Encryption Enabler floppy, which was optional with my version.
II.6. Adobe Acrobat Reader. Dont go hunting for this thing; it will find you. Its
just a program that enables you to read PDF files, which includes the users
manuals for many different kinds of software and hardware. When you do
install it, now or later, I suggest installing it in C:\Program
Files\Graphics\Adobe\Acrobat Reader. If you get a chance to upgrade it, do so;
the later versions are better.

Part Three: Set Up the Hardware


For more information see the following Index sections:
Initial Tweaks and Hardware Problems
Network

Backup
We have now set up a basic framework that will allow us to begin shaping the
Win98 environment to fit our needs. The following suggestions are certainly not
the only way to do it, but if you work carefully through these steps, you will pick
up some good ideas that you can then use for other purposes.
III.1. Adjust Recycle Bin. Right-click on this Desktop icon and choose Properties
| Configure drives independently. Click the Do not move files to the Recycle
Bin box for all drives except C (PROGRAMS) and F (DATA). The Recycle Bin
isnt necessary and/or causes problems on the other drives. For example, when
working with Audio files, the Recycle Bin can pop up irritating messages telling
you that your disk is full when its not. If this leaves you without protection on a
key drive -- for example, if you want protection on your Multimedia partition -then you might consider using a customized Backup approach (e.g., doing as
much of your work as possible on CD-RW disks) or allowing huge amounts of
space so you can enable GoBack on your second hard drive.
III.2. Create Temp Folders. You will find it useful to have TEMP folders to serve
as temporary storage locations for files that you dont know what to do with.
The easiest approach, for now, is to create one on each partition except E
(GOBACK). Consider the TEMP folder on drive F (DATA) to be your primary
location for downloads and other transient files; this is a good location because
GoBack and the Recycle Bin will cover it. Create a folder called
F:\Temp\Staging Area. This will be the place to which you unzip the contents
of zipped programs. Keep it empty except for the file you are currently
unzipping. Keep copies of the ZIP files before you unzip them; youll be
surprised at how frequently you need them again. You might put them in a
folder called F:\Temp\Downloads, and then burn them off to a CD when youve
got 500 or 600 MB worth of them.
III.3. Make Control Panel Accessible. You will be going into Control Panel many
times before youre through. This particular tweak is important only in the sense
that it can help reduce your frustration. Control Panel is now going to be one of
the top-level picks on the Start Menu. To make the change, create a new folder
and give it exactly this name: Control Panel.{21EC2020-3AEA-1069-A2DD08002B30309D}, without the comma. (For best results, copy and paste that
number rather than typing it.) That will create a Control Panel folder. Move it to
C:\Windows\Start Menu.
III.4. Make Device Manager Accessible. For similar reasons, Device Manager
needs to come out from being buried down in Control Panel | System. For now,
it will be a Desktop icon. Right-click on the Desktop and choose New | Shortcut.

Type C:\WINDOWS\CONTROL.EXE SYSDM.CPL,,1 and click Next. Name it


Device Manager. Right-click on it and choose Properties | Change Icon. Handy
sources of icons include these files: C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SHELL32.DLL,
C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\PIFMGR.DLL, C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\URL.DLL,
C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\COOL.DLL, C:\WINDOWS\MORICONS.DLL, and
C:\WINDOWS\PROGMAN.EXE.
III.5. Resolve Basic Hardware Problems. Install drivers recommended by your
motherboard manufacturer, perhaps downloaded from their website. Go into
Device Manager and look for Exceptions -- yellow circles with black exclamation
marks in them. Select one of them and look at its Properties for an indication of
what needs to be fixed. It may just be a matter of installing Drivers for some
items. They may be available on disks you have lying around, or you may find
them online. (If you browse, note that the OK button will only light up when
youre pointing at a directory that contains potentially useful drivers.) Many
items of hardware require drivers, including the Motherboard, and sometimes
the latest driver can make all the difference. You can also search for drivers in
the C:\Windows\INF Folder, or perhaps its subfolders. (Its a hidden folder, so
you cant browse to it at present; youll have to type it in. Well be changing that
soon.) If that fails, try the Microsoft Windows Update option. You may have to
screw around with various combinations of installing and uninstalling part or all
of the conceivably available and relevant software, reading the owners manual
and other sources of documentation, upgrading your BIOS, changing different
BIOS Setup items to accommodate Legacy rather than Plug-N-Play, using Add
New Hardware, Cold Rebooting, deleting items from Device Manager, editing
AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS, rearranging Cards in different slots,
removing suspect items of hardware to confirm whether the system works right
without them, playing around with IRQs, retrying whatever you are doing in
common-sense order and also in bass-ackwards order, random order, no order,
etc. Experience suggests the following:

When I buy ultra-cheap hardware, I pay for it in hours of extra installation


and configuration time, sometimes continuing for the life of the product.
The more extreme the suggested solution, the less likely it is to be helpful.
The longer you fool around, the more it proves that youre missing the real
problem. Sometimes advice from the manufacturer or a Newsgroup may be
your only salvation.
Its probably wiser to resolve your hardware problems at this point if you
can, or else you can just forge ahead, ignore the problems you cant figure
out, and expect to be suitably punished later.
Sometimes the most satisfying solution is just to throw away the offending
hardware, buy a replacement, and write a pissed-off letter to the
manufacturer when you finally get your word processor working again.

Note that this part of the process can take days. The Epic contains agonizing
details on some hardware problems. If youre cursed with old or complex
hardware or a recalcitrant system, you may have to spend a lot of time hunting
for the solutions.
III.6. Set Monitor Resolution. Go into Control Panel and set your Monitor to
display a resolution of at least 800 x 600. You may have to install the software
that came with your Display Adapter first. Mine, on one computer, was for a
Matrox card; I installed it in C:\Program Files\Graphics\Matrox. If you dont
change your resolution, browsing websites for important information will
become frustrating as you scroll back and forth, trying to figure out what theyre
saying.
III.7. Set Up Hardware Profile. This is essential if you will be using more than
one computer, and its worth knowing how to do even if you have only one. Go
into Control Panel | System | Hardware Profiles and rename the existing profile.
I did this setup on a computer that I call the PENTIUM machine, so I named my
profile PENTIUM. In Device Manager | Properties, uncheck the box that reads
Exists in all hardware profiles for items that will be unique to that hardware
profile -- that is, that dont exist on all of your machines.
III.8. Install Printer. This will be essential if you need to print program-related
information at one point or another during this process. Do it under Control
Panel | Printers | Add a Printer. Printers are usually connected to LPT1.
III.9. Set Up Network. If you have two computers, make sure they are talking to
each other. A couple of network cards will cost you less than $50, and a network
is an extremely helpful device. After installing Cards and Drivers, you have to
make sure each computer has a unique name under the Control Panel | Network
| Identification tab. You also need Shared Folders -- the fewer the better, for
purposes of keeping your files secure when you go online. I recommend
F:\Temp\Shared for this purpose, to emphasize that it is merely a temporary
clearinghouse. After creating the folder, go into Control Panel | Network |
Configuration and make three changes: (1) Click the Add button and add
Protocol | NetBEUI. (2) Click File and Print Sharing and enable that. (2) Rightclick on F:\Temp\Shared, choose Sharing from the Context Menu, and make the
folder Shared with your preferred Access Type rights. These steps should (a)
require the computer to reboot and (b) put a little hand under F:\Temp\Shared
(as you see it in Windows Explorer) to show that it is shared.

Part Four: Create Toolbars and Organize Start | Programs

10

For more information see the following Index sections:


Creating Toolbars
Note that it may be somewhat easier to work with the following instructions and
suggestions if you configure Windows Explorer and other programs to suit your
working style. For instance, this may make it easier to spot EXE files. This is not
necessary, however. Information on customizing Windows Explorer and other
programs comes later.
IV.1. Create Toolbar Folders. We will be creating a number of toolbars. Each
toolbar needs a folder to contain the icons that will appear on the toolbar. The
Links folder already exists, but you will have to create the others. Create them
under C:\Windows\Start Menu\Programs\Other\Toolbars. The toolbar
folders to create are as follows (e.g., for the Online Toolbar, create a folder called
C:\Windows\Start Menu\Programs\Other\Toolbars\Online):

Online Toolbar
Audio Toolbar
Desk Tools toolbar
System Tools toolbar
Disk Tools toolbar
Office Tools toolbar
Graphics toolbar

Depending on your screen resolution, you may wind up displaying the full
contents of all of these toolbars (below), or you may instead have to combine
several of them a subfolders under another toolbar folder.
IV.2. Creating Toolbars. You can have toolbars in five general locations: at any
of the four sides of the screen, and also floating anywhere on the screen. A
toolbar can also be Always on Top or not (i.e., always visible or not), and it can
have AutoHide on or off (i.e., it will pop up when you move your mouse to that
edge of the screen, or else it will just be visible there whenever it is on top). I
dont use floating toolbars because they get in my way. To create a toolbar, you
right-click on an empty space on the Taskbar at the bottom of the screen and
choose Toolbars | New Toolbar. (You dont have to create a new toolbar for the
four bars that Win98 creates automatically: Links, Address, Desktop, and Quick
Launch; you just turn them on or off.) Once youve clicked on New Toolbar, you
have to browse to the folder (above) that will contain the icons you want to show
on the toolbar. This creates a toolbar on the Taskbar. The Taskbar is the least
ideal place for a toolbar because there are already several other things that want
to appear down there. To move a toolbar to one of the other possible locations,

11

take these steps: (1) Minimize or close all windows, so that you can see the
Desktop. (2) Left-click on the left edge of the toolbar -- where the mouse cursor
turns into a two-headed arrow -- and hold the mouse button down as you drag
the toolbar out onto the Desktop. Release it there. You now have a floating
toolbar that you can resize by dragging the two-headed arrow at any of its
borders. (3) Drag the title bar of the floating toolbar to any of the four sides of
the screen. This works even if there is already a toolbar there -- that is, more than
one toolbar can share the same edge of the screen. You may be able to drag in
one step from the Taskbar directly to the preferred edge of the screen, but keep
the two-step approach in mind in case the one-step approach fails. (4) Tinker
with positioning, dragging it back out onto the Desktop if necessary, until you
have an arrangement you like. Note that you can drag the edge of the toolbar to
make it wider or narrower. (5) Adjust the right-click Context Menu settings for
the toolbar. Here, we will shut off the text and title for all toolbars, and will rely
solely on the different icons to tell us which programs we are running. If your
screen is large enough, you may also prefer to make your toolbars Always on
Top and not AutoHide. AutoHide leaves more screen space available but has the
irritating habit of popping up whenever you accidentally move your mouse too
close to the edge. To change the properties of a toolbar at any time, right-click on
its left edge (or the top edge, for a vertical toolbar) or on any empty space on it.
IV.3. Putting Icons on Toolbars. Each toolbar folder needs to contain the icons
relevant to its subject. I have provided a list, below, to show which icons wound
up in which folders on my computer. (Note that we have not yet installed all of
the relevant programs; the list below is a final list that you may want to check
again later.) We will not be changing these icons much, because it is more
efficient to know exactly where to look for the icon of the program you want to
run. You may or may not prefer to have toolbars jammed with icons. I
recommend not trying to put every program icon on a toolbar, because all those
extra icons will slow down your search for the important ones, and because you
will be able to access your rarely used programs through the Start | Programs
menu. Note that one toolbar may crowd another so that not all its icons show
unless you drag the appropriate toolbars or their edges in the appropriate
direction. You can put icons into folders by either dragging or by cutting and
pasting, working either from folder to folder or from folder to toolbar or vice
versa. Your icons will come from the following sources: (1) You will cut icons
from the Start | Programs menu. You wont leave copies there because duplicate
icons can cause confusion when you update your programs. See below for more
information on raiding the Start | Programs menu. (2) You will copy icons from
other toolbars. In particular, Win98 comes with the Quick Launch toolbar
already running. You will find copies of its icons in the Start | Programs menu,
so you need not raid the Quick Launch toolbar. The one exception is the Show

12

Desktop icon. Once youve raided the Quick Launch toolbar, you can close it.
(3) You will assign icons for new folders and programs that you create.
IV.4. Links Toolbar. You will note that we did not create a folder for the
preexisting Links toolbar. This is because the toolbar is pre-packaged to draw its
contents from C:\Windows\Favorites\Links. As that location suggests, the
Links toolbar is supposed to display links to favorite websites. We can use it for
this purpose much more efficiently than Win98 does, however. We will add the
links themselves later. Right now, the interesting thing about the Links toolbar is
that it treats folder icons differently than other toolbars do. If you put a folder
icon in another toolbar and click on that icon, you get a Windows Explorer box
showing you the contents of the folder. You have to double-click on the
preferred icon within that box, and you also have to manually close down the
box when youre done with it. By contrast, a folder icon on the Links toolbar
serves as the top of a pull-down menu. That is, when you click on it, its contents
unfold and you can choose the preferred item with just one more click. This is
not as efficient as having the desired icon directly available on the toolbar, but it
works very well for situations where you are going to have a collection of
programs that may be changing and that can all get lumped under one folder.
For this purpose, create a Frequented folder under
C:\Windows\Favorites\Links. This folder will contain customized links to
websites that you visit frequently. We will address, later, the question of how to
design these customized links. Right now, the Frequented folder can stay empty.
Finally, Win98 supplies a number of favorites in the Links folder. Some of these
links may have some use for you. Cut and paste all of them except Toggle
Images to a subfolder named C:\Windows\Favorites\Links Supplied With
Win98. Cut Toggle Images and paste it onto your Online Toolbar. Finally, note
that you can also get a pull-down menu effect from any toolbar by dragging
another toolbar up against it, so that all that remains of the toolbar is its top icon
and the >> symbol. Clicking on the >> will then give you a pull-down menu.
That can be useful, but some people may find that the >> is too small a target.
IV.5. Edit the Start Menu. Now that you have your important programs on
toolbars, you can organize the ones that remain. The list, below, shows the
ending status of mine. There are two ways to edit the menu. You can edit it
live, or you can edit it canned. Live editing means you select Start |
Programs and then right-click on the individual item and cut, copy, paste, drag,
or delete, as you want. Canned editing means you select Start | Programs and
then double-click on one of the folders (not programs) underneath it, so as to
open up a Windows Explorer page. From here, you can move up, down, and
around to do your cutting, pasting, deleting, etc. Or to open up a slightly
different (and probably better) Windows Explorer view, right-click on the Start
Button and choose Explore, or just navigate to C:\Windows\Start

13

Menu\Programs. Note that editing this menu is an ongoing job, because new
programs will forever be adding new icons to it -- although as your system
matures, there will be much less of that. Ideally, we would not do this
rearranging until all of your programs were installed, but the Catch-22 is that we
need the rearrangement in order to install the programs properly. Moving these
shortcuts will have no effect on program performance, but watch out for rare
occasions or mistakes when someone has put actual program files rather than
mere shortcuts in Start | Programs. You want to move these to a proper location
under C:\Program Files and then create a shortcut to them back here on the Start
Menu. Note that you can edit the Start Menus top level in this way, as I have
done, to remove the Windows Update and PowerDesk items and put them
elsewhere.
IV.6. Arrange Shortcuts. Here is the final arrangement of shortcuts under Start |
Programs on my computer, including items that we have not yet installed at this
stage in the game. Note that this list includes the contents of all toolbars except
the Links toolbar. We have to work through some other concepts before we can
deal with that one.
___[add list]

Part Five: Arrange Drive F (DATA)


For more information see the following Index sections:

The DATA partition will be the most important partition for daily work in most
programs. Both GoBack and our daily backup scheme will cover it. The purpose
here is to organize the folders that drive F will need.
V.1. Create Top-Level Folders. I recommend including the following folders
under the root of F: Spreadsheets, DB (for database tables), Text (for word
processing documents), Graphics (for all sorts of images), Websites (for web
pages that you will copy to your home page online), Messages (for e-mail and
other similar messages), and Temp (see above).
V.2. Make a Backup in the F:\RELOPROG Folder. You dont want to risk losing
all of your work, above, in setting up the Favorites\Links and Toolbars folders.
Therefore, we want to put a copy of these materials into a folder called
RELOPROG (short for RELOcated PROGram-related files). To make sure you
get it all, copy the Favorites and Start Menu folders to RELOPROG manually
now. Later, we will have a batch file that will do this automatically.

14

V.3. Create CMDUTILS and Its Subfolders. To be sure we have all the tools
necessary to revive our system in the event of a problem, we are going to add a
folders worth of troubleshooting utilities to each backup CD. This folder is
called F:\RELOPROG\CMDUTILS. When its done, it should contain the
following subfolders:

CMDUTILS\DOSPROGS. Not all of these are actually DOS programs, but


they all run in a DOS Box and/or in Real DOS. See below for more details.
CMDUTILS\BATCH: will contain DOS batch files that we will be assembling
later.

Note that it will be some time before we have assembled all of these materials.
This list appears here in order to provide a single reference point for all the
contents of CMDUTILS, and to give a full idea of what its all about; but you
cant fully assemble it now, so you will have to refer back to this point later to
make sure it has all come together properly.
V.4. Add to CMDUTILS\DOSPROGS. This folder should contain the following
materials:
Everything from C:\Windows\Command, excluding the EBD subfolder.
(The EBD subfolder contains the files that go onto the Win98 Emergency Boot
Disk, which are duplicates of the contents of the Command folder, in
compressed or uncompressed form.) Were making these duplicates of
program files, which would otherwise be a waste of disk space, because this
will allow us to make sure we have the complete set each time we burn a CD,
without having to go back and collect the set all over again.
Everything from the Norton Utilities emergency floppies, if you have Norton
Utilities. These files should not be duplicates of anything already in the
DOSPROGS folder, but if there are duplicates, tell the computer to keep the
more recent ones. Alternatively, you could put the entire contents of these
disks into in separate subfolders, at the expense of complicating things and
making the programs less accessible.
A CMDUTILS\DOSPROGS\PQ subfolder, containing PowerQuest
programs from the floppy disks mentioned above. Put those programs in
subfolders PQDI for PowerQuest DriveImage and PQMAGIC for
PartitionMagic. Since these programs do most of their work in DOS anyway,
there is no need to reinstall them from the CD. We will just work in DOS
with these program files.
A separate subfolder for each DOS application program that you still use. In
my case, I need only CMDUTILS\DOSPROGS\PARADOX.

15

Other useful standalone EXE and COM programs, obtained from the Win98
Resource Kit, miscellaneous downloads, and other sources. Note that, in a
few cases (e.g., Delayer, PrcView) the following list contains the command
line version of the Win98 program that will soon appear in its own folder
under C:\Program Files. The complete list of CMDUTILS\DOSPROGS
executables in my DOSPROGS folder is as follows:
____ [add list of EXE and COM files]

Help files (usually with the HLP extension), in the same folder (i.e.,
CMDUTILS\DOSPROGS) as the programs that refer to them (e.g., NDD.HLP
needs to be with NDD.EXE).
A CMDUTILS\DOSPROGS\DOC subfolder for documentation (usually
DOC or TXT files) accompanying any of the above kinds of programs.
A CMDUTILS\DOSPROGS\SYS subfolder, containing all of the SYS files
(e.g., COUNTRY.SYS) that get into the DOSPROGS folder one way or
another. You arent likely to need them, and you dont want them cluttering
up your DOSPROGS folder when you go browsing through it in search of a
tool, but they are generally small enough to make them worth keeping if you
put them off to the side like this. Toss in accompanying files (e.g.,
DRVSPACE.BIN, to go with DRVSPACE.SYS, since we wont use either of
them but you might want them handy on a CD that gets burned with all this
stuff).

V.5. Add to CMDUTILS\BATCH. This folder should contain the following


materials:

A CMDUTILS\BATCH\QBAS subfolder, containing QBASIC programs that


we will be using. They go under BATCH because well ordinarily use a BAT
file to run them.
The following batch files (more details later):
___list and summary explanation of batch files

V.6. Set Up Other Drive F and G Folders. Programs already installed, and
programs yet to be installed, will be looking for folders on drive F and G in
which to store their data. These programs will take some other action -- most
commonly, resetting themselves to put their data somewhere on drive C instead
-- if those folders do not exist on drive F or G. Thus, it makes sense to create the
folders before configuring the programs. Its not necessary to show every folder
I have on drives F or G on my system; the following are the folders that various
programs look for:

16

___list of program-sought folders on F and G

Part Six: Assemble Standalone Win98 Programs


The standalone programs in F:\RELOPROG\CMDUTILS run best, or perhaps
only, from the command line. There are also some standalone programs that run
only, or perhaps most effectively, in the Win98 graphical environment. In other
words, you want to run some programs from a command line and some by
double-clicking on an icon. This Part addresses the latter.
This does not include all Win98 programs. The focus here is on the programs,
like those in CMDUTILS, that are self-contained -- i.e., that do not have to be
installed into the Win98 Registry in order to run. Installing them consists of
nothing more than moving their program files to an appropriate directory and
perhaps setting up a shortcut to refer to their EXE program. (In one or two cases,
you have to go through more of an installation process, but then you can still
move them around to other folders without using Add/Remove Programs or
otherwise uninstalling and reinstalling them.) That is, they can likely be
installed, at least, without any risk to the stability of your Win98 installation.
These programs need not exist on Drive F. They wont be changing much, and
therefore wont call for frequent backup. All you do is move their program files
to the appropriate folder and then make a shortcut to the executable (usually
EXE) file in that folder and put that shortcut in the appropriate place on your
toolbars or elsewhere in Start | Programs. My list of standalone Win98
programs and folders is as follows:

___[WinDiff -- for this and all others, include the full final path]
WCPUID
PCIInfo
Tiny Wave Editor
URL2HTM
WINIPCFG
OptOut
MenuEdit
EasyCleaner
Slice32
WavGlue
PrcView
Delayer
CTBIOS
CDex

17

CDFS.VXD
CDWav
CDSpeed99
Dupeless
ExactTime
Internet Tech Support Diagnostics
Checkers
HP DeskScan II

Part Seven: Install Your Reliable Programs


For more information see the following Index sections:

The approach taken here is not to install Microsoft programs first, as I once
thought I should, but rather to start with the programs that seem least likely to
cause system problems. Some such programs have already been installed, in
the sense that they do not require any installation: the CMDUTILS files and
standalone programs mentioned above, and the programs included with the full
installation of Win98.
Now we turn to programs that, while requiring standard installation, have
produced little or no system instability for me. Despite their stability, however,
you should make a DriveImage backup of drive C before installing any of these
programs. This is the second DriveImage backup made so far. Make the backup
at this point, before installing any of these programs, even if you have not have
finished with all of the steps presented above. Plan to keep this backup, and the
others mentioned above and below, for at least the next several months. It can
take that long for a problem to worm its way out and destabilize your system.
VII.1. Audio and CD Programs. I choose this category first, not because it is
most important, but because Cool Edit 2000 is so undeniably stable. If you cant
do anything else with your computer, at least you should be able to convert
radio, records, audio CDs, and cassettes to MP3 format using this program. And,
of course, to burn my backups to CD-RW, I needed to install the CD software:
Easy CD Creator and DirectCD. With Cool Edit, I didnt need many other audio
tools, and the ones I did need were standalones I had already installed, above.
Finally, I chose Winamp as my player. I hear others are better, but Winamp still
seems to be the leader, and it has worked well for me.

18

VII.2. Graphics, Scanning, and Image Programs. In my case, I postponed some


of the scanning software because it had experimental elements: (a) I postponed
software related to my scanner, which was an old HP ScanJet IIcx whose SCSI
interface card may have been responsible for some past software
incompatibilities, and (b) OmniPage Pro would install a fax option for Outlook
98, which I considered experimental software. The experimental items get more
attention below; they do not belong in this category of reliable software. Hence,
in this category I installed only these graphics-related programs: ImgView and
GraphicCorp Photo Editor.
VII.3. Internet-Related Programs. In this category, I installed AdSubtract,
HTTrack, Juno (the old version), WebCompass (including downloaded
upgrades), and WS_FTP.
VII.4. System Utilities. The stable ones included the following:

Cacheman
EndItAll
InCtrl4
MultiRen
Seti@Home
WinMag Registry Pruner
WinMag Registry Ripper (not needed if you install the Norton Registry
Editor)

Part Eight: Configure the Installed Programs


For more information see the following Index sections:
Application Programs and Features Included with Win98

The standalone programs generally cannot be configured, but you can configure
some of the programs that came with Win98 and also some that you just
installed. In a few cases, configuration can take some time. It is sometimes
possible to save your configuration settings in such a way that you can restore
them quickly. This will make things easier if, for any reason, you must come
back to this point and try again to create a working system for yourself. Where I
did not bother working out a canned approach to reconfiguration, it is probably
because I have already worked out a configuration (typically, for a standalone
program) and can just copy it over to a new system, or else because I have not
yet tried configuring the program for myself.

19

VIII.1. CMDUTILS. For the most part, standalone programs require no further
configuration, or do not remember the settings you give them.
VIII.2. Norton AntiVirus 2000. Your preferences for NAV 2000 are saved in two
files in the NAV 2000 program folder mentioned above, C:\Program
Files\Symantec\Norton AntiVirus. If you have previously installed and
configured NAV 2000, you can copy these two files to this folder. The files are
NAVOPTS.DAT and NAVSTART.DAT. (Note: I am using all caps for easy
identification of program files, but the actual files on your computer may not be
all caps.)
VIII.3. PowerDesk. When you customize the toolbar in PowerDesk, the changes
are saved in USER.DAT. This file, with SYSTEM.DAT, comprises the Registry, or
at least the most important part of it. If you have a previous Win98 installation
running on a separate computer, you can loot it for the customization settings
you developed previously. If not, you will have to redo the settings this time,
but then you can export those settings from the Registry for future use. (Note
that Registry work is very tricky and can screw up everything. Proceed at your
own risk.) Basically, you use the the BEFORE.TXT and AFTER.TXT comparison
technique at point 150 in the Epic. Note that you can run most of these
Command Line programs -- in this case, RegEdit -- in several different ways,
including Start | Run, MS-DOS Prompt, or by using the command line feature in
PowerDesk.
In this case, working with my old Registry on the other computer, I produced
BEFORE.TXT, then I changed the PowerDesk toolbar, then I produced
AFTER.TXT. The WinDiff comparison highlighted only one change, under the
Toolbar Current Settings heading. This heading appeared under
HKEY_USERS\.DEFAULT\Software\Mijenix\PowerDesk\Version3.0\Explorer
Plus. Using the WinMag Registry Ripper, I searched HKEY_USERS for
ExplorerPlus (so as to narrow down the field), deselected all but the one that
matched exactly, and saved it as a file with this name: PowerDesk Toolbar
Settings.REG. (The Norton Registry Editor would do the same thing. An easier
but less selective way was to use RegEdit, find that ExplorerPlus subkey, and
choose Registry | Export Registry File | Selected Branch.) Since it was a REG
file, I could just double-click on it and it would automatically update my
Registry. Trusting to GoBack, I floppied it over to the computer containing my
new installation, tried it, and it worked. I rebooted to double-check, and it was
OK. I now had my customized PowerDesk toolbar, from the old Win98 setup,
working on the new installation. If I ever had to reinstall PowerDesk, this part
would be done in a matter of seconds. I liked to customize PowerDesk in other
ways as well, but it appears that at least some of those changes occur
automatically when you customize Windows Explorer.

20

VIII.4. Windows Explorer. Because of the ways in which this program seems to
interact with Win98, Internet Explorer, and other programs, I could not
confidently use a REG file as above. Instead, I made my preferred changes
manually and will have to do the same again next time. The same was true for
Internet Explorer and Outlook Express.
VIII.5. Audio and CD Programs. CDex and Winamp do allow or require some
configuration but, as noted above, these are standalone programs. I had already
configured them and did not pay attention to the files that changed when I did
so, and I dont expect to do so in the future as long as I have previously
configured copies of them that I can move around to where I want them. Cool
Edit 2000 keeps its configuration settings in INI files, also known as
Configuration Settings files, located in the C:\Windows folder. The particular
files are COOL.INI, COOLSYS.INI, and COOLKB2K.INI. Easy CD Creator stores
its settings in the Registry key named
HKEY_USERS\.DEFAULT\Software\Adaptec\Easy CD Creator\Settings and,
as above, you can export the changes to a REG file and always have them for
future repeat installations. ___Direct CD Settings___
VIII.6. Other Programs. I postponed tinkering with the graphics, scanning, and
image software for reasons expressed above. I configured Juno by going through
its brief installation process. I configured Cacheman by telling it that I was a
Power User and by making a note to myself to register the program by
sending the author a postcard telling him how much I liked it. I postponed
Seti@Home installation because I wanted to have two different Seti@Home
download accounts, one on each computer; otherwise, they would both be
repeating the same assignments. Some configuration involved setting up DOS
Batch files; I felt those would be better discussed below.

Part Nine: Install and Configure the Riskier Major Programs

For more information see the following Index sections:

There is no sharp line clearly dividing risky programs from the rest, but there are
definitely some programs that tend to mess up the system and others that dont.
Chances are that you will be able to install the following programs without
crashing your system; but over time, these programs will be a lot more likely to
give you problems. Therefore, before installing even one of these programs,
copy your Start | Programs folder to drive F and make another DriveImage

21

backup of drive C. You may also want to make one or more interim backups,
perhaps temporarily on a CD-RW disk, partway through this process. There are
several reasons for making those interim backups: you will be adding a great
many new files to your system; GoBack will probably not be able to keep a
record of them all; and some parts of the process may be too time-consuming to
lose and re-do. Note that the programs discussed here are not all of the
remaining programs; they are the large, risky programs that have a major impact
on the system.
IX.1. Office 97. Install Office from the CD. (I considered switching to StarOffice,
but it doesnt sound like they have their act together yet.) The Office 97 installer
wont ask for proof that you qualify for the upgrade (assuming youre using an
Office 97 upgrade CD rather than the full package) if you have already installed
a previous version of Office, so you might want to copy the old Office 4.3
program disks to drive D (STATIC). After installing from the CD, download and
run as many of the following updates as you need. You can find more details on
them at Microsofts Office Update website. There may even be a few other
downloads there that you could use. The following order of installation seems to
work adequately, where you begin with the updates and fixes that affect all
Office programs, and particularly the Service Releases:

Office 97 Service Release 1 (SR-1)


Office 97 Version Checker
Office 97 Service Release 2b (SR-2b)
Office 97 Converter Pack
Office 97 Document Open Confirmation Tool
Office 97 Euro-Enabled Fonts
Office 97 Forms Security Control Patch
Office 97 Microsoft Draw 98 Add-In
Office 97 ODBC Driver Security Update
Office 97 OfficeArt AutoShapes
Office 97 Sounds
Office 97 Unique Identifier Patch
Office 97 Unique Identifier Removal Tool
Word 97 Hyperlinks Update
Word 97 Leap Year Fix
Word 97 Supplemental Text Converters
Word 97 Template Security Patch
Word 97 Time Management Wizards
Word 97 Viewers
Word 97 Web Authoring Tools Update
Word 97 Web Page Wizard Accessories
Word 97 Weblinks Help File
22

Access 97 Address Book Database


Access 97 Command Bar Wizard
Access 97 Contacts Management Database
Access 97 Exchange and Outlook Wizard
Access 97 Partial Replica Wizard
Access 97 Print Relationships Wizard
Access 97 Snapshot Viewer
Access 97 Web Tracker Database
Access 97 Weblinks Help File
Excel 97 CALL Function Patch
Excel 97 Custom Chart Types Template
Excel 97 Euro Toolbar Button
Excel 97 Personal Budgeter Template
Excel 97 Power Utility Pak
Excel 97 Production Tracking Template
Excel 97 Quattro Pro Converter
Excel 97 Spreadsheet Viewer
Excel 97 SYLK Security Update
Excel 97 Virus Search
Excel 97 Web Connectivity Kit
Excel 97 Weblinks Help File
Excel 97 XLM Macro Update

Your Word 97 configuration settings are saved in C:\Program Files\Microsoft


Office\Templates\Normal.dot after you exit Word, and also in the Registry in
HKEY_USERS\.DEFAULT\Software\Microsoft\Office\8.0\Word. If you have
AutoCorrect entries, they are in C:\Windows\<username>.acl; for instance,
mine is C:\Windows\Ray Woodcock.acl. You may have other <username> files
in C:\Windows; for example, some of my current Excel settings are saved in Ray
Woodcock8.xlb, and my password list is in Ray Woodcock.pwl. It should be safe
to copy these files over to your new setup.

IX.2. Outlook 98. Although this program is sometimes considered a part of


Office 97, it is quite different on the subject of installation. You download the
setup file from Microsoft, and then use that to download the remainder of the
program rather than copying it from a CD. There no longer seem to be any links
to download Outlook 98 from the Microsoft website, and the setup program no
longer seems to download the bulk of the program automatically. Having
already downloaded that program and saved it to disk, however, I was able to
copy the Outlook 98 Setup folder from the old installation to this new one, and I
23

installed the program from there. Since these setup files did not change, I put
them onto drive D (STATIC) rather than C. I then ran SETUP.EXE from there
and installed the program itself on drive C, followed by these updates:

Outlook 98 Archive Update


Outlook 98 Automated Calendar Template
Outlook 98 E-mail Attachment Security Patch
Outlook 98 E-mail Security Update
Outlook 98 Field Mapping Patch
Outlook 98 Import-Export Date Fix
Outlook 98 Security Patch

Next, go into Add/Remove Programs, select Microsoft Outlook 98, click on


Add/Remove, choose Add New Components, go online, and select the updates
that fit your needs.
IX.3. FrontPage 2000. You may want to install this program separately, after
installing the Office 97 programs shown above. I found that its online upgrades
tended to screw up the system, and I needed to feel my way through them one at
a time, reversing with GoBack when they appeared not to work right. Also, if
youre using the FP 2000 upgrade CD, you can dispense with the future need for
inserting the FrontPage 98 CD during installation by taking the following steps:
install a bare minimum version of FP 98, delete its GIF, JPG, and HLP files (and
maybe its HTML files) to slim it down some more, temporarily copy the
remainder to drive I (SWAP), use GoBack to revert the system to the time before
you installed FP98, move that FP98 remainder to drive D (STATIC), and point to
drive D when the FP 2000 installer says it cant find any previous installation.
After installing the program, download and install the appropriate updates,
which for me were the following:

FrontPage 2000 HTML Tools


FrontPage 2000 Tutorial

IX.4. Norton Utilities. Depending on your system, the version of Norton, and
the kind of installation, you may find that this set of programs will cause a minor
or major increase in the number of times Win98 crashes. Nevertheless, the
program (or perhaps some other utility program) has a few utilities that may be
essential at times. I recommend installing in C:\Program
Files\Symantec\Norton Utilities. Your installation of Norton AntiVirus might
have given a Symantec folder by now anyway, and I believe the Norton Utilities
installation will create a Symantec folder if you dont already have one, even if
you tell the installer to put the program files somewhere else. One working
installation involves selecting the Custom option and choosing these programs to

24

install (but letting none of them run automatically or in lieu of other programs) ,
and then go online and download any available updates through Live Update:

Norton Connection Doctor


Norton Disk Doctor
Norton File Compare
Norton Registry Editor
Norton Utilities Basefiles
Norton Utilities DOS Applications
SpeedDisk
Live Update

IX.5. X-Setup.
IX.6.

Part Ten: Tweaks


MagicMover

Part Eleven: Batch Files

II.6. Learn to Boot into Real DOS. DOS comes in different flavors. You can do
things in Real DOS that you cant do in Imitation DOS. If you have booted your
system in Win98, however, you can no longer easily run Real DOS programs like
PartitionMagic and FDISK. You can avoid Win98s control in one of two ways:
either boot from a DOS Bootable Floppy or choose the Command Prompt Mode
from the Startup Menu.
To use the Bootable Floppy option, you have to instruct your BIOS Setup to boot
from the floppy. Otherwise, the system will ignore it and will continue to boot
from the Hard Disk (i.e., will boot Win98) as usual. To get into your BIOS Setup,
you reboot your computer and wait for the screen to say something like, Press
DEL to enter Setup. (Note that some computer manufacturers disguise this
somewhat; you may have to check your owners manual.) Your BIOS Setup
should allow you to specify the order in which the computer looks at different
disk drives. To boot from the floppy, which you will probably do only
occasionally, you want drive A (the floppy drive) to be first on the list.

25

To use the Command Prompt Mode option, you need to get into the Startup
Menu. To get that menu, you hit F8 when your computer is nearing the end of
its initial bootup information (for example, it may show you a screen containing
information about your hard disks or other devices). Note that, if GoBack is
enabled on your system, it will advise you at Startup to take other steps before
getting into Real DOS, at least if you want to do it from the floppy. You cant
ignore GoBack if its enabled. If it is disabled, dont re-enable it until youve
finished doing whatever it was that prompted you to disable it in the first place.
Norton Utilities
VisiTrax

26

How I Spent Three Months Installing Windows 98


by Ray Woodcock
A 398-page document
Commenced with great optimism and no idea of what was coming
Shortly after New Years Day in the year 2000 A.D.

OK. This may be a little wild, and it's certainly long and wooly, but I think I
have the whole thing figured out, at least for my system. This is my complete
guide to how I back up a full Windows 98 system on CD-ROM. Even if it doesn't
actually work for you, it might at least provide some useful ideas or information.
The focus here is on program files, not data files; the best backup strategy for one
may not be so hot for the other. Along the way, I have tried to throw in any
relevant DOS or Windows knowledge I may have collected, with an eye toward
helping people who are really stumped.
Why did I start writing something like this? (1) To keep me on track during a
sometimes complicated process that I pursued on a sometimes full-time,
sometimes part-time basis over a period of several weeks, despite being plagued
by Windows crashes and program misbehavior that frequently required me to
take off on long detours to solve related problems. (2) To keep problem-solving
notes for my own future reference -- including the near future, when Windows
might crash and I might have to re-create the solutions I had just painfully
worked out. (3) To share my knowledge of DOS and Windows tinkering and my
useful discoveries. (4) To provide an example of the folly of Windows. (5) To
establish a version of Windows, complete with a user's manual, that could let me
stay with this particular operating system for several years. (6) To keep track of
good ideas for making the computer more efficient, especially with the little
things that may take only an extra second or two but that might be repeated
dozens of times each day. (7) To provide an example of the strengths and
weaknesses of my unusually thorough and/or detailed working style. Basically,
I looked into the abyss, and the abyss looked into me, but this happened for
(hopefully) a hundred users through my experience.
In most cases here, my notes are pretty precise, but sometimes there were just too
many things going wrong at once, so I had to break them out into separate tracks
and try to keep up with it all. I think I got most of the details on that stuff as
well, but it may not read as smoothly at those times.
Why This Is Not a Published Book
(1) I am not a computer expert, except maybe in some specific questions that I
pursued. (2) There are enough published books already. (3) Dealing with

publishers is a hassle. Often they do want quality improvements; but more


frequently you go to a huge amount of trouble and have nothing to show for it.
(4) I'm not that interested in the subject. I wanted to write down my steps and
theories, for the benefit of myself and others, but I didn't want to make it a
yearlong project. (5) The subject matter is too irregular. I try to write it all for
newcomers, but in some cases I think newcomers won't be interested, and in
those instances I adopt a more advanced tone. (6) I don't feel like going through
to clean out redundancies, irrelevancies, changes of tone, mood, voice, tense,
number, etc. To hell with it: it's grammatically imperfect, but it's useful.
In figuring out how to achieve my backup goals here, I spent a lot of time and
did some tinkering. In other words, this account may be more suited for the
person who wants to learn more about the whole subject, or who is trying to
accomplish a customized result, and may be less suited for the person who just
wants a quick and dirty three-step guide to the task of backing up on CD. For
that, see e.g.,
http://www.zdnet.com/products/stories/reviews/0,4161,347537,00.html or
http://www.zdnet.com/zdtv/callforhelp/howto/story/0,3650,2217085,00.html.
This may be something that some people will print out and stick in a file
somewhere, if they have no way of getting information online when their
computer crashes. This epic goes through a huge number of things that can go
wrong in dealing with hard disks, partitions, Windows 98, and other subjects.
As you will see, it wasn't always quite as simple, in my case, as those summary
Websites make it sound.
My overall goal was to come up with a solid, easily restorable Win98 CD that
would last me for the next several years, until the accumulation of changes in
operating systems (i.e., Windows, Linux, or some other) and in application
software and utilities combined to persuade me that it was time for a major
renovation. Reviews of Microsoft Office 2000 suggested that I need not worry
about upgrading to it. So at this point my plan was mostly to create a base on
which I could just add incrementally to my software collection with occasional
new application programs and utilities.
Overview: Two General Methods
There's more than one way to back up onto CD. Mostly you hear about the
approach that involves making a series of disk images and backing them up on a
series of CDs, 600 MB at a time. I'm sure that approach works well, especially for
large disks. But for my purposes it has two shortcomings. First, my experiences
with tape drives during the past ten or twelve years have left me sour on using a
series of media to do backup. I didn't find that Hewlett-Packard's tape backup
software and hardware worked reliably in that regard. Also, I had times when

the link from one tape to the next would fail, or when one tape would go bad,
and then everything in the series after that would be lost. I'm sure disks are
more reliable than tapes but, as I say, this is the way my preferences run. (For
one user's difficulties with the Seagate backup software, see
http://noccc.org/bytes/articles/v01/331.html.)
My second and more important reason for seeking a different CD approach is
that I hope to break the Windows reinstallation process out into different layers
or phases. I would like to have one CD that contains the basic Windows 98
program files, and another one or two CDs containing program files that I have
added on afterwards. That way, if there's something wrong with the basic
Windows programs, I can reinstall Windows and burn a new CD to back it up,
without disturbing all the dozens of other programs and utilities that I might
install later and back up on a separate CD. (This was inspired by dabbling in
Linux. See
http://ftp.win.tue.nl/math/dw/personalpages/aeb/linux/partitions/partition
_types-2.html.) Likewise, if I download a screwy little utility that winds up
wrecking my whole hard disk, I can quickly reinstall from the Windows 98
backup CD; quickly reinstall my more stable programs (e.g., Cool Edit 2000)
from a mainstream programs backup CD; and I'll be left with relatively little to
reinstall manually.
Initial Preparations
1. AMD computer and Experimental (Backup) Computer. Buy, build, or
borrow, so that you're working with two computers. This is an optional step, of
course, but it really can make a huge difference, and if you have lots of work to
do and find yourself sometimes waiting on one computer to finish, it will pay for
itself eventually. When you have two computers, you can swap hard disks back
and forth, look on one for files that seem to be missing from the other, seek
emergency information online, etc. You just wouldn't believe how much easier
these processes are with a spare computer sitting around. And after you're done
upgrading, you can turn the second computer loose on some project that takes
forever, like compressing huge audio files to MP3; and you'll have it to fall back
on, or raid for parts, when the first one malfunctions.
2. Get PowerQuest's PartitionMagic and DriveImage. (I hear you can also use
Norton's Ghost, but I've found the PowerQuest software to be really great, and I
haven't always had such good luck with Norton's software. I did try out Ghost
later, however. See point 354.) Install these programs even if you're going to be
wiping off your hard disk shortly. Use PartitionMagic ("PM") to create partitions
on the disk where you'll be installing Win98. (For more information, see point
269(f).) If you're careful, you can do this without messing up the material that's

already there. I suggest creating a drive C that will hold your programs and a
drive D for temporary files. I suggest putting temporary files on a separate disk
because I understand they can cause a lot of disk fragmentation. The size of this
drive D will depend on the needs of the programs using it. For instance, Internet
Explorer creates a Temporary Internet Files folder of a size you dictate, and Cool
Edit 2000 can take advantage of large chunks of disk space for its temporary files.
Anyway, if you create new partitions, be sure they're formatted. Also, when
installing PartitionMagic, be sure to take advantage of the option to create a boot
floppy. (For a refinement of some of this advice, see point 44.)
3. Image vs. File-by-File Backup. You have a choice. Your backup CD can
contain a single large disk image file that rolls all your program files into a ball;
or your backup CD can contain individual files. Advantages of the disk-image
approach: the process is much simpler and you can compress up to 50% more
material in the same space. The advantage of the individual-file approach is that
it may give you more flexibility and easier access to your files. I suggest using a
combination of both approaches. That advice may reflect my own reactions to
computer meltdowns. On one hand, I want some basic tools handy; but if I can't
make it work after a couple of hours of fiddling around, eventually I just want to
toss the damn thing out and start over. In other words, for my regular backup
work I want the simplicity of the disk image approach; but for troubleshooting I
want a bootable CD that contains some useful fix-it programs, and that can take
the place of a bootable floppy on those occasions when my floppy drive isn't
working right or isn't being recognized by the system.
First Method: File-by-File
4. Bootable CD Introduction. Here, I'll begin with the individual-file approach.
We'll get to the easier disk-image approach later. (See point 56.) For starters, see
if you can find article no. 990420-0001 in Adaptec's knowledge base. It is entitled,
"How Do I Create a Bootable CD?" Their site is somewhat chaotic, and you may
not be able to find the article (I can't myself, at this moment, and am relying on a
printout); I'll try to summarize it. Basically, to create a bootable CD using
Adaptec's Easy CD Creator program, you need a bootable floppy and some other
files and settings described below. (I'm using Easy CD Creator version 3.5c.
Menu options may differ in other versions. Several other programs seem to have
the same capabilities as Easy CD Creator, and some -- notably CDRWin and
Nero -- appear to have gotten better reactions from some users.) Note that older
machines may not be able to boot from a CD. See
http://www.ora.nsysu.edu.tw/~goldentime/bootcd02.htm. For a more
technical explanation, see
http://www.cdpage.com/Compact_Disc_Variations/bootablecdarticle.htm.
(Later, looking back at this paragraph, I realized that I probably needed to

explain something. I had purchased a Yamaha CRW4416E CD-ROM drive. This


drive was capable of burning data onto blank CD disks, which is why people
call drives like this burners. This particular burner could work with both CDR (CD-recordable) and CD-RW (CD-rewritable) disks. Most of the CDs created
during the process that I am about to describe were plain old CD-Rs. They were
inexpensive and I could use them in any ordinary computer.)
A Bootable Floppy -- The Hard Way
5. Why Start with the Hard Way? To make a bootable CD, you need a bootable
floppy. I'll start with the hard way, for several reasons: that's how I learned the
easy way; I learned the hard way because that's the path that Adaptec's advice
got me started on (see point 4); the easy way doesn't always work; there are some
things you can't do with the easy approach (see point 13); and if you understand
the hard way, you'll understand what you've got (and haven't got) when you use
the easy way (see point 8).
To prepare a bootable floppy the hard way, then, you should begin by realizing
that the purpose of this floppy is to provide you with DOS-based system tools
that will help you make your system work (or will at least help you figure out
what's wrong) no matter how screwed-up it might be. In other words, you want
this floppy to make a lot of good tools available. But it's only a floppy, so you're
under a very serious 1.44 MB limit on what it can hold, unless you happen to
have a 2.88 MB floppy drive. (See point 11.) You must prioritize. Here, then, are
the most important files to include on a good boot floppy, in order of
diminishing importance:
(a) Essential System Files: the visible file (COMMAND.COM) and the two
hidden files (MSDOS.SYS and IO.SYS) that exist on a floppy disk that you have
formatted with the command FORMAT A: /S. (If you can't see hidden files on
such floppies, adjust your View | Folder Options in Windows Explorer.) Be
careful with FORMAT -- it wipes out anything that might be in the disk you
specify! You may be able to recover the data in at least some cases. If you have a
disk that has already been formatted, life is easier: you can make it bootable just
by using Windows Explorer and copying these three files to it.
(b) Boot Files: the ones that apply your preferred setup commands when you
boot your floppy. These are CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT. You may find
more complex versions of these in C:\ (i.e., the root of your C drive). Here, we'll
be creating fairly simple versions.
(c) Optional System Files: the ones invoked by lines in your Boot Files. For
instance, if you put a line in your CONFIG.SYS that invokes HIMEM.SYS (e.g.,

DEVICE=A:\HIMEM.SYS), then you'd better have a copy of HIMEM.SYS at the


specified location (which would be A: in that example). You can find files in this
category, and in categories (d) and (e), in C:\Windows\Command. (I noticed
online that one authority suggested not using a drive letter in such command
lines, so the one in my CONFIG.SYS just reads DEVICE=HIMEM.SYS -- the
reason being that the drive letter stuff can confuse the system when it boots the
bootable part of the CD as though it were drive A. See point 6.)
(d) Essential Hard Disk Utilities: the files that you may need in order to establish
a beachhead on a hard disk. Categories (a) through (c) involve what happens
when you first boot the machine using your bootable CD, before you even get a
DOS prompt. Now we turn to those categories of files that you have the option
of running anytime at a DOS prompt. First, the programs that you may need to
establish a beachhead on a recalcitrant hard drive, for use when you boot your
CD and find that the hard disk is so unresponsive that you basically need to wipe
it off and start anew. These files are: FDISK, to see whether there are any
working partitions on the hard disk, and to prepare some if not; FORMAT, to
prepare those partitions so they'll work reliably with DOS and Windows files;
and SYS.COM, which FORMAT will use to make a partition bootable (i.e., so that
it will contain the System Files mentioned in point 5(a)). I also decided to include
SCANDISK.EXE and .INI here. You will also need to include your unzip
program (e.g., PKUNZIP) in this category if you're zipping any files, as described
below.
(e) Essential Special-Purpose Files: some users may need SCSI drivers or nonEnglish keyboard files. Again, you may need to include lines in your category
(b) files, above, to refer to these special files. (Note that the Adaptec article (see
point 4) says that not all SCSI controllers and motherboards support booting
from CD-ROM.)
(f) Essential Copying Utilities: the files you need to copy your Windows 98
backup from CD to the hard disk. If we were talking about the disk-image
approach (see point 3), this would be a program like DriveImage, which extracts
hundreds or thousands of individual files from one large disk image file.
Instead, since we're talking about the individual-file approach, you need a tool
that will copy the files one at a time from the CD to the hard disk. This is
XCOPY (or, more precisely, XCOPY.EXE, XCOPY32.EXE, and XCOPY32.MOD).
(g) Optional Utilities: files that may be useful in some special circumstances.
Although there are many such files, and many different ways to use them, I
settled upon this list: BOOTMAGIC (consisting of a half-dozen files installed on
a rescue floppy that BootMagic allows you to create); ATTRIB.EXE, CVT.EXE,
DEBUG.EXE, DELTREE.EXE, DOSKEY.COM, DOWN.COM, EDIT.COM and

.HLP, EXTRACT.EXE, FIND.EXE, LE.EXE, MEM.EXE, MODE.COM,


MORE.COM, NEXT.COM, RED.COM, SCANREG.EXE, SLICE.COM,
SMARTDRV.EXE, SUBST.EXE, SWEEP.COM, and WHEREIS.COM. These files
mostly came from C:\Windows\Command, but may also have filtered into my
collection from Norton Utilities, PC Magazine, and elsewhere over the past
fifteen years. I also included some batch files I had prepared to simplify moving
around the hard disk: UP.BAT, TOP.BAT, and TEMP.BAT.
(h) Additional Utilities That Don't Fit: I would have liked to include additional
programs that are easier to use than some of the above utilities. Unfortunately,
these easier-to-use versions take more space than one floppy boot disk can
accommodate. In this category, I would include files taken from the boot
floppies created by PartitionMagic and DriveImage. (See point 64.)
For our purposes, categories (a) through (e) cannot be compressed into a ZIP file
by using a program like PKZIP, because they must be available and ready to
work at bootup. But once you've used the utilities in category (d) (if necessary)
to create some working space on the hard disk -- in, say, a C:\TEMP directory -you can copy a ZIP file to the hard disk from the boot floppy and can unzip that
file there in C:\TEMP. This ZIP file can contain files described in categories (f)
through (h). (You would zip these files, of course, to cram more of them into the
same amount of space. If you do include some zipped utilities, just be sure to
include a non-zipped copy of the unzip program -- for instance, PKUNZIP -- in
category (d).
6. AUTOEXEC.BAT. We're still working on the hard way to create the bootable
floppy that you'll need in order to create a bootable CD. We must now work
down through the preceding list of files. Most of them are ready-made; only two
require you to do some editing. The first is AUTOEXEC.BAT. Create a plaintext AUTOEXEC.BAT file containing this line: MSCDEX.EXE /D:RESTORE
/L:Z. When you boot with your bootable CD, this line will tell the computer
where your backed-up files are. In other words, your CD will have two parts:
one bootable, one not. The part that is bootable will contain the files listed in
point 5. This bootable part will act as though it, not your floppy drive, is drive
A. Your floppy will become drive B instead. If you already have a drive B, I
believe it will be disregarded. (This is the "Bootable CD-ROM Emulates a Floppy
Diskette" scenario described at
http://www.support.vectra.hp.com/vectrasupport/level4/30bpv03069/30bpv0
3069.html. (If you're curious, the parts of the MSCDEX.EXE line just shown are
as follows: (a) MSCDEX.EXE is, of course (like any .EXE file), an executable
program; it tells the computer that it's going to be running a CD-ROM drive. (b)
RESTORE is the name assigned to the non-bootable part of the bootable CD. (c)
Z is the drive letter where your computer can find the files in the non-bootable

part. To accommodate systems with varying numbers of partitions, you can


leave it at Z, even if you don't have 25 other drives; just remember that your CDROM will temporarily be located at Z, not at F or wherever you normally find it.)
Finally, you can soup up your AUTOEXEC.BAT if you want. For instance,
@ECHO OFF will keep the lines of your AUTOEXEC.BAT from appearing
onscreen when the program runs, and PROMPT $P$G will make your DOS
prompt more informative. (Note that my further experience required me to
make an important change in this AUTOEXEC.BAT file. See point 20.) Note that
AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS normally reside in C:\ -- that is, in the root
of your C drive.
7. CONFIG.SYS. The other file that requires you to do some editing is
CONFIG.SYS. According to the instructions from the Adaptec page (see point 4),
you are to create a plain-text CONFIG.SYS file containing these lines:
DEVICE=SSCDROM.SYS /D:RESTORE
LASTDRIVE=Z
SSCDROM.SYS, in that file, is the name of the driver that I have been using on
my CD-ROM drive; I believe it originally got onto my system from a Samsung
drive I had previously, and it has just stayed there even though I have since
switched CD-ROM drives. Your driver may have some other name. To find out
what and where your CD driver is, try looking at your C:\CONFIG.SYS file or
the manual or disk (if any) that came with your CD drive, or at the
manufacturer's Website. It's been recommended that you use Microsoft's generic
ATAPI_CD.SYS driver. See
http://www.ora.nsysu.edu.tw/~goldentime/bootcd02.htm. Anyway, you'll
notice that this step involves two files: CONFIG.SYS and the SSCDROM.SYS (or
whatever) file that it refers to. Similarly, the previous step involves
AUTOEXEC.BAT and the MSCDEX.EXE file that it refers to. So to add to
categories 5(b) and (c), the bootable part of your CD will need to contain at least
these four files. My own CONFIG.SYS also includes DEVICE=HIMEM.SYS,
which obligates me to include HIMEM.SYS in category 5(c). (Note that my
further experience required me to make an important change in this
CONFIG.SYS file. See point 20.)
8. Boot Floppy: Easy Way. Put copies of all the files described in points 5
through 7, into a separate folder. Zip the ones that can be zipped. (See the
bottom of point 5.) Make sure the total contents of the folder are 1.44 MB or less.
(Although floppies are supposedly 1.44 MB, you may find that the amount you
can fit onto a floppy, according to the numbers reported by Windows Explorer,
is actually slightly less than 1.44 MB. In working through these problems, I
didn't experiment with using DriveSpace or a zip program to pack more material

on there that might unpack itself when you need it.) Copy it all (including
hidden files and system files -- see point 5(a)) to a floppy disk; make sure to use a
floppy that you have freshly formatted and scanned, so that you won't discover
at the wrong moment that you are relying on a defective boot disk.
You have now finished with the hard way to create the bootable floppy that
you'll need in order to create a bootable CD. The easy way is to use the startup
floppy that you can create in the course of installing Windows 98. This floppy
goes by various names. The C:\Windows\Command\EBD folder contains, I
believe, the files that go onto that floppy. I assume EBD is short for Emergency
Boot Disk, but the README.TXT file in that folder calls it the Windows 98
Startup Disk. I have also heard it called the Startup Floppy and the Boot
Floppy. Here, Ill refer to it as the Win98 Startup Floppy except when I forget
and call it something else instead.
We'll be installing Win98 (see below); you can make one then; or you can always
come back and make one in Control Panel | Add/Remove Programs | Startup
Disk. This disk (however you create it) won't have the same utilities as one made
the hard way, but it does have a lot of utilities, and it also has the advantage of
being ready-made to work with a wide variety of CD-ROM drives that you may
own in the present or the future. To run many of the utilities mentioned above
(e.g., FORMAT) with the Win98 Startup Floppy, look for a RAM drive (i.e., one
that exists only temporarily, in your computer's RAM) just one letter before the
letter where your CD-ROM drive is located, and note that the CD-ROM will be
simply the last letter applied to your drives (e.g., somewhere around E or F), not
Z. (See point 6.)
9. Test Your Bootable Floppy. Set your computer's BIOS to boot from the floppy
drive. To do this, reboot your computer and watch the instructions that appear a
few seconds after it starts up. There may be an instruction like "Hit Delete to
enter Setup." In that example, hitting DEL will bring up some choices. Click on
perhaps the second of those choices and look for the item that lets you change
the boot order. It might look like this: C,CDROM,A. Use PageDown or other
keys to make A first; save this change; and reboot. The purpose of this reboot is
to test two things: does the floppy disk boot properly, and can you get programs
that work (including those in your ZIP file, if you created the boot floppy the
hard way)? When you're done testing, reset the BIOS so that it boots from drive
C again. We will soon need to use that drive. Later, though, when the bootable
CD is all set to go, we'll reset the BIOS so that the CD-ROM boots first.
(Depending on your BIOS and your chosen setting, you might not have to do any
of this resetting: it might just go down the list until it finds a bootable disk. It
seems like it should always do that, but I have not found this to be the case.)

10. Idea for a Larger Bootable Floppy. We could now go ahead and create a
bootable CD, but I guess we should first decide what we're going to put on it.
All we've really done is to figure out what belongs in that tiny little 1.44 MB
bootable section. What goes into the other 650 MB or so of free space? (It will be
more like 530 MB, if you use a rewritable CD-RW formatted with a program like
DirectCD to allow ordinary disk writing and erasing. Make sure, however, that
all of your CD-ROM drives can read disks formatted that way.) Really, you
could put anything you wanted in there. The bootable section, ideally, would be
much larger than 1.44 MB, so that you could do more with your bootable CD
than just boot to a DOS prompt. If you could create bootable program CDs for
all of the applications you'd like to run, you could run a computer without a
hard drive or a floppy. CDs might have self-contained program files, and you
might save your work to a RAM disk and, periodically, to a Web server or a page
on the Internet. But that's not the kind of system I have right now, so I haven't
pursued these possibilities.
11. Experiment to Enlarge the Bootable Partition on CD. I began by saying that,
if you want to create a bootable CD, Easy CD Creator requires you to have a
bootable floppy. (See point 4.) I wondered, however, whether I could store more
than a measly 1.44 MB of programs in the bootable section of a CD, so as to do
more interesting things with a bootable CD than merely boot the system. To
experiment with this, I put about 50 MB of files on a separate, bootable partition
called BOOT_CD. (For information on making a partition bootable, see point
5(a).) Then, before I came to the part of the Easy CD Creator process that told me
to insert my bootable floppy into drive A, I opened a separate DOS window and
used the DOS command SUBST A: F:\ where F was my BOOT_CD partition.
This command told the computer to substitute drive F for drive A. (The
command to end the substitution and return the disks to normal is SUBST A:
/D.) I hoped, then, that when Easy CD Creator told me to insert a floppy, I
would hit return, and it would happily insert these 50 MB of files into the
bootable part of my CD. Unfortunately, it didn't work out that way. I just got an
error message, and Easy CD Creator would go no further. That happened even
when I had less than 1.44 MB of files in that BOOT_CD partition. Apparently
SUBST didn't work for these purposes, or else the large partition size (which
PartitionMagic would not shrink below a relatively massive 260 MB) triggered
an alarm in Easy CD Creator. I tried at least to take advantage of the fact that
Easy CD Creator and my computer's BIOS will accept floppy drives up to 2.88
MB -- that is, I reduced the files in BOOT_CD until I had less than 2.88 MB there - but it still didn't work. (The maximum floppy drive size is important because,
when you do boot your bootable CD, you'll discover that the computer sees its
bootable section as drive A, not as drive F or whatever letter your CD-ROM
drive ordinarily uses.) So I was stuck with the 1.44 MB limit.

10

Uses for a Bootable CD


12. Running Windows from CD. This left me feeling that there wasn't much use
for a bootable CD, other than as an emergency startup disk. Researching the
question briefly, I found a page that seemed to confirm this. See
http://www.ozemail.com/~rossstew/drs/sec1.html# bk13. On the other hand, I
also found a page telling how to make a CD that will actually start and run
Windows 98 from the CD by using a RAM drive. See
http://www.heise.de/ct/Service/English.htm/99/11/206/. The concept
appears to be that since you can't make any alterations to the contents of a CD,
you can't do the constant reading and writing of certain files that happens in an
operating system like Windows, so Windows can't run from a CD; but that you
can get around this by setting up a CD that will load Windows and will also copy
its Registry files to a RAM disk, where they can indeed be altered. You have to
work through a somewhat complex setup process to achieve this, however, and
any configuration changes you make during a session will all be lost as soon as
you reboot, because a RAM drive is, of course, purely electronic memory.
(Unless, of course, you could figure out some way to save those configuration
changes to your hard disk and reload them manually or automatically when
Windows reboots.) Another problem is that you apparently can't use the CDROM drive for anything else; taking the CD out of the drive will require you to
reboot. See http://utopia.knoware.nl/users/sanny/bootable_cd_rom.htm.
Without these drawbacks, the idea of having Windows running from a CD,
where it can't get corrupted (except by physical damage to the CD), would be
very tempting. I hear that you can create a bootable CD that will emulate a hard
drive, and I can see how a rewritable CD-RW in that condition (perhaps with
some files write-protected) might make a handy drive C with Windows loaded
on it (especially if it allowed you to load the Windows files to RAM disk so that
you could use the CD-ROM drive for something else), but I have not yet figured
out how to create that kind of bootable CD.
13. Advantages of the File-by-File Approach. The concept of the Adaptec page
(see point 4) seems to have been that you would use the bulk of your CD to make
a file-for-file copy (i.e., not an image copy) of your basic Windows installation,
and would then restore it on a file-by-file basis. This would explain why they
said that you should make sure XCOPY is on your bootable floppy. (See point
5(f).) There's certainly no point using XCOPY with image restore software like
DriveImage, which will put the files in the right place automatically as it unpacks
the image. (XCOPY is a DOS utility that will copy directories and subdirectories
one at a time, from one disk or directory to another. It doesn't investigate or
dismantle massive image files.) (At this point, it surprised me to see that XCOPY
was not on the Win98 Startup Floppy.) This, then, is one advantage of creating
the bootable floppy the hard way. (See point 8.) I can imagine that there might

11

be times when this file-by-file approach would be useful. For instance, if I figure
out that Windows is not booting because of one misbehaving file on my hard
disk, I could easily boot this file-for-file CD and replace that one corrupted file
with a good copy from the CD. Much easier than wiping the hard disk and
restoring from multiple CDs! This thought inspired me to go ahead and
complete this file-for-file copy on bootable CD, following the approach that
Adaptec seems to have had in mind, before trying my hand at the disk image
approach. (For further refinements of the boot floppy, see point 50.)
Perfect Windows on CD
14. Starting Windows from Scratch. Thus, I found myself facing the need for a
pure, pristine copy of Windows 98 that I could record permanently on my
bootable CD, using the file-for-file method. As noted above, my first goal was to
have a CD containing those basic files, as actually installed on my computer,
before adding any application files or anything else that might screw them up.
So now that I had the files I needed from drive C, I was free to wipe drive C
clean and reformat it as a bootable drive. (See point 5.) This time around, I did
not make the mistake of installing Windows 95 and then installing Win98 on top
of it, which was what the concept of "upgrade" had meant to me previously.
(Not to mention that the Win95 installation was itself an upgrade, too, that I had
installed on top of OS/2!) Instead, the preferred approach is evidently to wipe
the disk clean, reboot with your bootable floppy that contains your CD-ROM
driver, go to the drive letter where your CD is located, which depends on which
kind of boot floppy you're using (see point 8), and run the SETUP.EXE program
in the root of the Windows 98 CD. So that's what I did this time around. At
some point, if you're using the upgrade CD, it looks for proof that you had a
previous version of software (Windows, or possibly OS/2 or other operating
systems) that qualifies you to use the less expensive upgrade instead of requiring
the full-blown Windows 98 CD. You'll have to insert a CD or floppy to satisfy
that verification step in the upgrade process. (Note: I subsequently started over
and redid this step and some of the other steps that follow. See points 31 et seq.)
15. Keep It Simple. Don't install anything on your newly wiped hard disk except
Windows 98, and don't do a lot of configuring and tinkering. It's OK to leave
your monitor in 640 x 480 mode with lousy colors. The one thing you do have to
configure is your modem (unless Windows detects it automatically). Then go
online and download the latest upgrades from Microsoft's Windows Update
page. It's easy to find that page: Win98 installs a link to it on your Start menu.
Do all the upgrades that are relevant for your needs, starting with the Critical
Updates and with the serious ones that produce a popup box, when you click on
them, telling you that they must be downloaded and installed by themselves.
These downloads will include Internet Explorer 5. Then consider going to

12

www.updates.com and downloading any other fixes they say you might need.
Now you have a complete Windows system. (Later, I wound up doing more
modem configuration. See point 37.)
16. Other Ways to Adjust Windows Early in the Process. Use your judgment on
how much to configure Windows otherwise. You'll have an opportunity to do
more later. The tradeoff is that, if you push your luck and make a lot of farreaching changes now, you risk spoiling your perfect installation and wasting all
the hours you've spent installing and downloading; but if you don't make any
adjustments, you'll have to make them all again, every time you reinstall
Windows. The changes I'm talking about are those that you'll certainly make at
some point; the only question is whether they will jeopardize your basic rocksolid (ha) Windows installation if you make them now. In my own case, I
decided on several minor steps that seemed best done now, before other
software would get installed and might get confused by any change in the
existing state of affairs. One thing I did was to create a C:\TEMP folder, since I
always use one of those and no harm would be done by creating it. In addition, I
deleted everything from C:\Windows\Temp, so that my CD would not fill with
useless clutter; and for the same reason, I instructed Internet Explorer's options
to clear out its History and Temporary Internet Files ("TIF") folders. I
supplemented that last step by visiting the TIF folder to delete cookies manually.
Also, having gone to www.updates.com (see point 14), I knew that Windows had
installed an outdated version of RealPlayer; but since I disliked RealPlayer, I
went into Start | Control Panel | Add/Remove Programs and removed REAL.
This would also be a good time to run a surface test or create new partitions (by
using e.g., the PartitionMagic floppy -- see point 2). I wouldn't recommend
installing Norton Utilities or AntiVirus, however; they can add pollution to the
pure, basic Windows installation we're contemplating here. (The second time
around, I adjusted the basic Windows installation somewhat differently. See
point 37.)
17. At this point, I could have installed Easy CD Creator on my fresh, clean hard
drive. I decided not to do that, however. I wasn't worried about the program
causing any problems with my nice new Windows installation, although I
suppose that could be an issue too. Instead, I was concerned about doing my
Windows backup while Windows was running. DriveImage has the advantage
that it reboots the computer into Real DOS before creating its image files, so that
your Windows files are not in use. Easy CD Creator does nothing like this. So I
thought there might be a risk that, no matter how perfect my Windows
installation might be, the CD might fail to capture files that Windows was using
at the time of CD creation. To avoid this, I took the hard drive out of the
computer and hooked it up as a slave drive in the other computer. (See point 1.)
(Configuring as a slave drive involves resetting the jumper on the hard disk, if it

13

has one, and making a change in your BIOS if it doesn't use Auto settings. I
didn't actually use screws to install the drive inside the computer; I just put it on
a stack of books next to the computer and left the case off.) Since Windows
wasn't booting from this master-turned-slave drive, there wasn't a lot of the
usual Windows thrashing around to identify it as new hardware -- that is, it
didn't seem that any important files would be affected -- and I hoped its
Windows files would mostly be inactive while Easy CD Creator was running.
18. Burning a Bootable CD. The rest of the Easy CD Creator approach was, well,
somewhat easy. I shut down all other programs. Then, following the Adaptec
instructions (see point 4), I went into Data Layout and dragged the entire
contents of the drive (we're talking about my slave drive D, now) to the CD
creation area, so as to avoid fragmentation and other problems that might cause
a buffer underrun. (See point 269(f).) Easy CD Creator processed this request
and stalled at a half-dozen cookies in my Temporary Internet Files folder that
had somehow been invisible even though I had instructed Windows Explorer to
show hidden files. I hit the "Change" button to truncate the overly long
filenames for these cookies. (Easy CD Creator's limit is 64 characters per
filename, not counting pathname.) (If it had been real filenames rather than mere
cookies, I would have aborted rather than truncating and would have shortened
the filenames if possible.) I noticed that Easy CD Creator reported that the disk's
contents were only about 300 MB, whereas Windows Explorer was reporting
more like 400-500 MB. The discrepancy seems to have been due to different
methods of counting file sizes (i.e., actual file size versus amount of disk space
allocated) and to the apparent fact that Easy CD Creator was not making a copy
of the large Windows swap file (WIN386.SWP) that had appeared in D:\ after I
brought the hard disk over as a slave. (Too late, I remembered that I had
previously adjusted this machine so that the Windows swap file would go on
drive D; but since it wasn't being recorded to CD, I saw no harm in it.) Finally, I
went into File | CD Layout Properties | General, told the computer to use the
name of WIN98_PURE for my new CD, clicked on Data Settings and changed the
File System to ISO 9660, clicked on Bootable, clicked Properties and made sure
the "Any MS-DOS 8.3 character file names" button was marked, clicked OK,
changed File Types to "Add All Files" (out of sheer paranoia), and clicked OK
again. The program asked me for a bootable floppy, and since I would be
needing XCOPY, I decided to use the floppy that I had created the hard way.
(See point 13.) After copying the files from that floppy into a temporary area and
adding BOOTCAT.BIN and BOOTIMG.BIN (which were, I guess, the files that
made it bootable), the program brought me back to its main screen and waited.
(Thus, it seems that I could instead have followed the procedure recommended
at www.ozemail.com.au, where they suggest dragging the contents into the CD
creation area (see the top of this point 18) as the last step, not the first.) I clicked
File | Validate Layout, not because I know what that does, but because I always

14

do that before creating a CD. Then I clicked File | Create CD, chose a speed of
2x, clicked Advanced and chose the "Close Session and Leave Disc Open" option
-- after all, I was using only half of the CD -- and then clicked OK. The program
burned the CD without further ado. (At this point, I had not yet come across the
suggestion that you burn the bootable section first, using the required ISO 9660
format, and then come back and burn the rest of the disk in the more popular
Joliet format. See http://www.fadden.com/cdrfaq/faq03.html# [3-15]. See point
65. For further information regarding bootable CDs, see
http://www.ozemail.com.au/~rossstew/drs/bootcd.html.)
19. I had an old 1 GB hard disk sitting on the shelf that I had been meaning to
sell. Now I was glad I hadn't. I put aside the hard disk containing the pristine
Windows 98 installation, to serve as a backup in case I wanted to make any
changes, and instead connected the old 1 GB drive to the original computer.
(The covers were off both computers, and were destined to stay off until I had
everything done.) I put the new CD into that machine's CD-ROM drive and
booted, changing the BIOS to boot from the CD-ROM. Sure enough, the new CD
did boot properly: when I typed DIR at the DOS prompt for drive A, I saw the
contents described in point 5; and when I switched to drive Z (see point 6), there
appeared to be the original Windows 98 files (shown with truncated 8+3 DOS
filenames). Using the DOS utilities in the bootable part (drive A), I checked drive
C with FDISK and then used FORMAT C: /S/V and also SCANDISK C:
/AUTOFIX /NOSAVE /NOSUMMARY /SURFACE to prepare it. I created
C:\TEMP, copied my UTILS.ZIP file (see the end of point 5) to that directory and
unzipped it to get XCOPY. I typed Z: and CD \ to make sure my copying would
start from the root of Z; I typed C: and CD \ to make sure that the copied files
and subdirectories would branch off from the root of C; and then I ran XCOPY Z:
C: /S/E, and it began copying files.
Installation Problems: XCOPY
20. In this paragraph, I'm going to describe a technical problem I had. Not
everyone may have this problem; but if anyone else does have it, they might
appreciate hearing about the solutions I tried. There might also be some who
would appreciate this review of numerous DOS commands and utilities. The
problem was like this: XCOPY went for a while, and then stalled at the
\PROGRA~1\PLATIN~1\WORLDV~1\ folder with the message, "Invalid
device request reading device RESTORE. Abort, Retry, Ignore, Fail?" I hit R for
"Retry" several times, and then tried "Ignore" several times, but the message
repeated. The particular file at which (or after which) XCOPY had stalled was
AXWORL~1.ZIP. Letting the program remain stalled at that point, I removed
the CD from that computer, put it in the other one, and used Windows Explorer
to look at the folder (whose name, without DOS truncation, was "C:\Program

15

Files\PLATINUM technology\WorldView for Internet Explorer." (Note: you'll


see the truncated 8+3 file and directory names, like PROGRA~1 instead of
Program Files, if you use Windows Explorer to look at the DOS-based CD rather
than at a Windows-based directory (such as the matching folder I had on the C
drive of this other computer). Anyway, looking in that WorldView folder on
both drives C and G (the CD-ROM in this other machine), I saw nothing unusual.
I opened a DOS window and typed XCOPY
G:\PROGRA~1\PLATIN~1\WORLDV~1\*.* E:\X, where the E:\X folder was a
new one I had created for the occasion. The copy went off without a hitch. I
went online for guidance but found very little. One user suggested that perhaps
there was a loose connection to the floppy drive. I put the CD back in the
original computer and turned it off, checked all the plugs and connectors, and
rebooted from the CD. (I noticed, this time, that the DEVICE=HIMEM.SYS line
in my CONFIG.SYS file (see point 5(c)) malfunctioned, but when I re-rebooted, it
worked fine.) I went to the troublesome
Z:\PROGRA~1\PLATIN~1\WORLDV~1\ folder (using the ChangeDirectory
command, i.e., CD \PROGRA~1\PLATIN~1\WORLDV~1, although often it's
less frustrating to do it one directory at a time, e.g., CD \PROGRA~1 and then
CD PLATIN~1, etc. -- note carefully how the backslashes are used) and saw that
the next item in the list, after AXWORL~1.ZIP, was a HELP directory. I tried to
copy just this WORLDV~1 folder and its subdirectories, using XCOPY
Z:\PROGRA~1\PLATIN~1\WORLDV~1\*.*
C:\PROGRA~1\PLATIN~1\WORLDV~1\ /S/E. This gave me a "Bad
command or file name" error. Puzzled, I went to drive C, and what to my shock
and horror did I see but that XCOPY had created no folders there! I tried the
original XCOPY command again (see point 19), and belatedly discovered that I
had gotten "Bad command or file name" because I had no PATH statement
pointing to C:\TEMP, where XCOPY resided. I typed PATH A:;C:\TEMP, to
designate the two places were (so far) all my working DOS programs were
located. I ran XCOPY Z: C: /S/E again. Now, another belated discovery: I had
forgotten to re-orient the computer back to the roots of C and Z (see the last
sentence of point 19), so it XCOPYed everything into C:\TEMP, which of course
was exactly not where I wanted my files to go. I used DEL and DELTREE to
clean the unwanted files and directories out of C:\TEMP. Then, reorienting
myself properly, I ran XCOPY again as before. Once again, it stalled at the same
place, and once again, Retry and Ignore did not do the job. This experience, I
realized, was showing me a shortcoming of the file-by-file approach: if one file
goes haywire, the whole rest of the thing is lost -- unless you want to sit there
and XCOPY individual directories, one at a time, skipping the troublesome ones.
Thinking further, I went back and ran XCOPY
Z:\PROGRA~1\PLATIN~1\WORLDV~1\*.*
C:\PROGRA~1\PLATIN~1\WORLDV~1\ again, but this time without the
/S/E switches. This ran fine, which told me that the problem was in the HELP

16

or LIB subdirectories of the WORLDV~1 directory. Tired of retyping all these


long commands, I belatedly ran DOSKEY, which gives you the Unix-like ability
to use the up arrow to choose which previous command you'd like to repeat.
(Type DOSKEY /? for more information; the /? switch works with other DOS
programs too.) I went into the HELP subdirectory and again ran the XCOPY
command just shown, adding HELP\ after WORLDV~1 in both the Z: and C:
parts, so as to copy the HELP folder from Z to C. (Be sure to add the \ after
HELP; otherwise DOS won't know if that's a file or directory name.) (It's OK if a
long command wraps over onto the next line; just don't lose your place or get
confused if it doesn't wrap perfectly.) This, too, ran just fine. I tried it again with
the /S/E switches, and that's when I got the error "Invalid device request"
message. I tried it with the LIB subfolder, and that worked just fine with the
/S/E switches. So I knew my problem was limited to the HELP directory, so I
went back there. I noticed that it contained a sub-subfolder called IMAGES. I
repeated the XCOPY command for this HELP\IMAGES folder, but this time the
XCOPY command failed both with and without the /S/E switches. I tried using
COPY *.* (making sure that I had oriented myself to the proper directories on
both C and Z), and this copied some files and then gave me the "Invalid device
request" error after listing the file named RESTORE.GIF. When I hit fail, DOS
said "Fail on INT 24 - RESTORE.GIF." The XCOPY section of the DOS manual
told me that "INT 24 Error" means that the user aborted from an "INT 24 error
reading or writing disk." I already knew that much: I had indeed aborted (by
hitting Fail) after getting that "Invalid device request" error. Hoping for further
enlightenment, I went online, but there was virtually nothing on "Int 24 error"
anywhere. The best I found -- and it wasn't much -- was at
http://d1.ifmo.ru/library/dosint/24/--.HTM, which did at least give me a
couple of ideas. One idea was to try copying that RESTORE.GIF file
individually. Sure enough, that produced the "Invalid device request" message
too. I tried copying the next file after it on the list, ROLL.GIF, and that worked
just fine. I brought the CD back to the other computer and tried copying
RESTORE.GIF from the CD to another directory. DOS was able to do this with
no difficulty! So apparently it wasn't a problem with the CD or the file; it was
something about that filename on that first computer. Trying another approach,
I tried to go into EDIT, got a "General failure reading drive A," remembered that
the CD was still in the other computer, brought the CD back to this first
computer, and hit Retry. I typed EDIT again, typed the letter X, and tried to save
this new file as C:\TEMP\RESTORE.GIF, thinking that I would then copy it to
the appropriate subdirectory and see what happened. Surprisingly, EDIT gave
me the error message, "Edit was unable to create or access the file
C:\TEMP\RESTORE" (not RESTORE.GIF). I tried again, failed again, and quit. I
verified that there was no pre-existing RESTORE file in C:\TEMP. DIR /AH
showed no hidden files named RESTORE (or anything else) in C:\TEMP or in
C:\PROGRA~1\PLATIN~1\WORLDV~1\HELP\IMAGES. I tried a different

17

way to create C:\TEMP\RESTORE, by typing COPY CON:RESTORE, typing


"This is RESTORE" in the file, and then hitting F6 to save it; but that, too, gave me
the "Invalid device request" error. I took the CD back to the other computer and
looked at it in Windows Explorer, but I just could not see anything unusual
about it. Going back to the first computer, I went to the IMAGES subdirectory
on Z and typed COPY RESTORE.GIF C:\TEMP\X, thinking that maybe it would
save the RESTORE file under a different name, but once again I got the "Invalid
device request" message. Wondering if the problem had to do with the way the
computer was booted, I rebooted with the BIOS set to boot from the floppy, and
used the Windows 98 emergency floppy instead of the one I had created the hard
way. (See point 8.) I went to the IMAGES directory on the CD (which was now
drive letter F) and again tried COPY RESTORE.GIF C:\TEMP\X, and it copied!
Apparently the problem lay in the boot disk that I had assembled the hard way.
My first thought went to the SSCDROM.SYS driver I had been using; I wondered
if perhaps I should have replaced it with the ATAPI_CD.SYS driver that others
had recommended. (See point 7.) There didn't seem to be a copy of that driver
anywhere on the hard disk of my other computer, so I tried the Fast FTP site at
http://ftpsearch.lycos.com/?form=medium. I found a copy of ATAPI_CD.SYS
that was only about 18 months old, downloaded it, put it on the floppy, and
went in to edit CONFIG.SYS to refer to it -- and there I discovered my answer!
As shown in points 6 and 7, Adaptec's instructions tell you to design
AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS so that the name your computer assigns to
the non-bootable part of the CD will be -- you guessed it -- RESTORE! I went
ahead and replaced the driver, thinking that maybe this generic ATAPI_CD.SYS
driver might save me some headaches in the future; but I also changed the label.
The relevant line in my revised AUTOEXEC.BAT now said MSCDEX.EXE
/D:Z1Z_Z2ZM /L:Z, and my revised CONFIG.SYS now said
DEVICE=ATAPI_CD.SYS /D:Z1Z_Z2ZM. I hoped that very few files would be
named Z1Z_Z2ZM, so perhaps XCOPY would run in peace from now on. Using
this new and improved floppy, I rebooted the original computer. It said that the
ATAPI_CD driver was a Sony driver, that it did not find any drives, and that the
device driver was not installed. So I went back to the other computer, removed
the ATAPI_CD.SYS file from my floppy, restored the SSCDROM.SYS driver, and
changed the CONFIG.SYS line again, so now it read DEVICE=SSCDROM.SYS
/D:Z1Z_Z2ZM. Back to the original computer; reboot with this super floppy; all
goes well; the CD-ROM is recognized as drive Z with a label of Z1Z_Z2ZM. I go
to the troublesome IMAGE directory (see above), try COPY RESTORE.GIF
C:\TEMP\X again, and it works! Since I want to make a fresh start and see if the
whole thing will run all the way through without interruption, I use DELTREE to
wipe out the directories on C (not counting TEMP, which contains XCOPY and
the other programs I'm using); I use DEL to wipe out the other files in the root of
C; I make sure that my PATH statement points to C:\TEMP and that I am at the
root of both C and Z (see above), and then I go back and re-run the original

18

XCOPY Z: C: /S/E. (See point 19). (I think I could have avoided the problem
with being in the wrong part of the disk if I had instead typed XCOPY Z:\ C:\
/S/E (with those two backslashes), but I'm not inclined to experiment with that
now.) The XCOPY process proceeds swimmingly, and at the end it tells me it
has restored over 3,500 files.
21. This paragraph describes another technical problem, and continues in the
general spirit of the previous paragraph. Now that I seemed to have things
working, I was ready for the acid test: would the CD give me a bootable copy of
Windows 98? I removed the CD, rebooted and reset the BIOS to boot from drive
C, and rebooted. I got the error message, "Boot from ATAPI CD-ROM: Failure.
DISK BOOT FAILURE, INSERT SYSTEM DISK AND PRESS ENTER." (Ya gotta
love those all-caps messages that make you feel like an idiot who's about to ruin
an expensive computer.) I could not understand why it was saying it was
booting from an ATAPI CD-ROM. I thought maybe the problem was that I had
done a warm reboot. So I tried a cold reboot (shut the power off and wait at least
sixty seconds before turning it back on). As happens so often in life, the failure
message recurred. I put my super-duper boot floppy in and hit Reset. It reboots,
as it did before, and assigns the CD-ROM to drive Z with the label Z1Z_Z2ZM. I
ignore that and go into C:\ to see what's happening with the AUTOEXEC.BAT
and CONFIG.SYS that should have been restored from the CD during the
XCOPY process. I type DIR and see that both files have size zero -- there's
nothing in them. Is that right? I shut down this computer again, hook up the
hard disk on which I originally installed my pristine version of Win98 (see point
19), and boot it. It boots up just fine. I go into Windows Explorer and look at C:.
Yep, its CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT also have zero bytes. So that's not
the explanation. Another question comes to mind: did XCOPY bring over the
hidden system files, like IO.SYS and MSDOS.SYS (see point 5(a))? I shut down,
swap hard disks again, and reboot with the floppy again. I go into C:\ and type
DIR /AH to see a list of hidden files in the root directory. It shows me just the
two that I put there when I formatted drive C as a bootable drive (see point 19).
In my brief look at C:\ on the pristine hard disk a moment earlier (see above),
Windows Explorer had shown me at least a half-dozen hidden files, and a look
on the other computer confirmed that it, too, had a large number of hidden files.
To double-check, I type CD \WINDOWS and then DIR /AH to see if there are
any hidden files in the Windows directory. None on that machine, whereas,
again, C:\Windows on the working Win98 computer has any number of hidden
files and folders. So, OK: somewhere, the hidden files fell through the crack. I
put my bootable CD into the working Win98 computer and use Windows
Explorer to check its contents. Yeah, there are quite a few hidden files in its C:\
root folder and also in its C:\Windows folder. So Easy CD Creator did its job,
and the problem must be in the use of XCOPY. Does it copy hidden files?
XCOPY /? says nothing about hidden files. Then I remember that I have another

19

version of XCOPY, called XCOPY32. (See point 5(f).) I take it on a dry run on
the working Win98 computer: I open a DOS window and type XCOPY32 C:\
C:\X\, to send copies of everything in the root to a specially created junk folder
called X. Then I look at X in Windows Explorer. No hidden files are copied!
What the hell good is that? At the DOS prompt on the working Win98 machine,
I again type XCOPY /?. This time, I get a long listing of all kinds of XCOPY
options, including XCOPY /H, which is supposed to copy hidden and system
files along with everything else. What is this /H? (Note: the list of options is so
long that I have to type XCOPY /? | MORE to read the comments before they
scroll off the screen.) I turn back to the original PC, on which I've been doing all
this XCOPYing and rebooting. On that machine, as just noted, XCOPY /? says
nothing about any /H option. I check the file dates for the versions of XCOPY
on both machines; they are the same. How is this possible? Do you suppose that
the DOS prompt runs one version of XCOPY when it's a DOS box running within
the Windows graphical interface, but a more retarded version of XCOPY when
I've only booted to DOS and haven't yet gotten the graphical interface running?
To check this possibility, I shut down the working Win98 machine and reboot it
with the same floppy as I used to boot the other machine. Sure enough, using
the version of XCOPY in that machine's C:\Windows\Command folder, the
command XCOPY /? says nothing about the /H flag, and when I try to use
XCOPY /H, I get an "Invalid switch - - h" error message, and the same for
XCOPY32. Browsing online, I confirm that this is a known fact that everyone
except me seems to accept. So what do I do about XCOPYing the contents of this
CD to an empty hard disk when I want to restore my system?
22. While trying to find the solution for XCOPY, I came across a comment that
told me I should have set the first partition on my hard disk active when I was
using FDISK. I went back into FDISK, set the partition to active, left FDISK, and
rebooted. This time, the hard disk did boot up. For an instant, it flashed the
colored Windows 98 startup screen. Then it dumped me back at the C: prompt.
But at least I didn't have to boot from the floppy anymore. I tried XCOPY /?
again, but it still gave me just the limited number of options, not including the
one that copies hidden files.
23. As I browsed newsgroup comments, I came up with several concerns about
XCOPY: (a) It was not clear whether I should type XCOPY or XCOPY32 when
working within a Win98 DOS box. Some comments seemed to suggest that
either command would give you XCOPY32 under Win98 and that either
command would give you plain old XCOPY if you had booted in DOS. I decided
that the simple solution was just to type XCOPY32 from now on. (b) A number
of users say that XCOPY -- or, as I'll call it from now on, XCOPY32 -- can screw
up your long filenames. The reason for this seems to be that people are using
XCOPY32 to copy their C drives while Win98 is running. The idea seems to be

20

that, for some reason, XCOPY32 generates a DOS-style short filename, and that
the filename thus generated may differ from the short filename that the
Windows Registry uses. This seems to be more of a rumor than an actual
problem described in any firsthand account, as far as I could tell; besides, I hoped
to have avoided it by hooking up my source disk (i.e., the one from which I was
burning a CD) as drive D rather than C. (See point 18.) (c) Most importantly,
since everyone seems to agree that XCOPY32 will copy long filenames only when
used from within a Win98 DOS box, I had to conclude that I could not use the
CD that I had burned -- at least not for restoring a working Win98 system from
scratch onto a blank hard disk. I could have used ATTRIB to shut off the
troublesome attributes (hidden, system, and read-only) before burning the CD,
but the original concept was that I was going to be backing up a perfect, untinkered-with version of Windows, and this would not have been consistent with
that. (Note: to suppress long or short filenames in a DOS box, use DIR /Z or
DIR /B or DIR /Z /B.)
24. I concluded that XCOPY32 required me to work within a Win98 DOS
window at either the start of the process, before burning the CD, or the end of
the process, when trying to restore. I couldn't think of any special value that
XCOPY32 offered at the start of the process -- I certainly hadn't needed it to burn
the CD -- and my whole goal at the end of the process was to find something that
would create a Win98 installation from scratch on a bare hard disk. I could
imagine that XCOPY32 might be useful for some tasks after I got Win98 set up on
that bare disk, but it seemed clear that, at this stage of the game, XCOPY32 could
not help me.
Alternatives to XCOPY
25. The only way I could see to doctor my files before burning them on the CD,
other than using a disk-image program like DriveImage (see point 2), would be
to use a ZIP program to encapsulate a whole disk, or at least a whole directory,
into a single file with a nice DOS-friendly 8+3 filename (e.g., PROG_DIR.ZIP)
and no troublesome file attributes. Zipping would reduce the accessibility of
individual files, which was part of the original goal; but that might not be a big
deal, since some ZIP programs -- such as PowerDesk, which I use -- allow you to
look at the contents of ZIP files and extract individual files from them (and also
to add to or otherwise edit them, which wouldn't apply if the files in question
were on a read-only CD). I didn't have any experience with editing the single
huge disk image files that DriveImage would produce, so I couldn't say whether
image file editing in DriveImage would be better or worse than using
PowerDesk -- although of course it seemed that the latter would probably be
faster and would demand less temporary hard disk workspace. During at least a
year of frequent usage, I have had some imperfect experiences with PowerDesk

21

in situations not related to the present discussion, but overall I have been pleased
with it, and I cannot say whether other software would have turned in a better
record. That made PowerDesk something of a known quantity.
26. But then how would this ZIP process work? I would zip all of the directories
in a Windows installation into a smallish number of ZIP files -- not too many, so
that I wouldn't have to keep them all straight and spend a lot of time repeating
the same ZIP and UNZIP commands; these ZIP files would get burned onto CD;
I would restore them into a temporary working directory on the blank hard disk
from CD, by using plain old DOS-based XCOPY (or plain old COPY, for that
matter); and then I would unzip them and let their contents distribute
themselves back to their original locations (assuming I would remember, each
time, to give the commands needed to save the full pathnames for the zipped
files). In short, XCOPY32 would be replaced by a hybrid approach that is
definitely more file-by-file than DriveImage but definitely less file-by-file than
XCOPY32.
27. One advantage of the ZIP approach, for me, was the prospect of a flexible
approach to backup. I really didn't want to be in the position of burning two or
more disk image CDs every time I wished to do a complete backup of a 1- or 2GB Windows system with all the application software etc., if -- as seemed likely -there would be some folders that virtually never changed and didn't need to be
repeatedly backed up. This seemed increasingly important as I thought about
the pace at which hard drive sizes were increasing: I definitely did not want to
be in a position of doing 8 GB backups on CD, or of having to invest in a DVD
drive and expensive DVD disks, if this other approach would make the CD-ROM
viable for an extra year or two. As mentioned above in the context of editing,
disk space was another factor that worked in favor of the ZIP approach. It takes
a lot less disk space to hold a ZIP file of a directory, and to work with one
directory at a time, than to make a massive disk image file -- which, as I
understand, must include your entire disk. Also, I thought it might be good to
stay more in touch with periodic developments with my Windows files and my
drive C, and that in this sense the one-shot DriveImage approach might keep me
a little too insulated. In addition, I thought I might get a higher compression
ratio from ZIP programs than from DriveImage -- not that I would know, but just
that I've been very impressed with ZIP compression. Another consideration was
that perhaps it would be best to take two different approaches, at least for the
basic system backups, just in case either one proved to have some kind of defect
that wouldn't emerge until later; so I might wind up wanting to use both
DriveImage and ZIP methods at certain times. Moreover, you can zip files while
running Windows and then can use a different program to unzip them in DOS,
or vice versa, according to the needs of the situation; this would allow some
welcome flexibility when compared to the take-over-your-machine approach of

22

DriveImage. And when we get to the data part of the picture, ZIP files can be
passworded -- I see, for instance, that PowerDesk has recently added DES
encryption.
28. Before going any further, I wondered whether it would be easiest to keep
that old 1 GB hard disk that I had been planning to sell and leave a pure copy of
Windows 98 on it. Whenever I wanted to reinstall Windows, I could just cable it
with another hard drive, boot from DOS, and use DriveImage to copy its entire
contents over to the other disk. I decided against this tempting alternative for
several reasons: (a) I felt I could sell the disk for somewhere in the range of $2550, which made it a lot more expensive than a CD. (b) As long as those Windows
files were on a hard disk, they were vulnerable to operator error or program
malfunction, and in that case I would be back at square one -- unless I wanted to
make a backup of them on CD, which would be a really ironic thing to do. (c)
The Windows installation was only the first stage in my journey. I would still
have to install program disks; I would want CD backups of those installations; so
it seemed that I might as well learn how to do it now and follow the same
approach through the rest of the project. (d) Even though cabling disks together
is not hard, sometimes I would really rather use my CD-ROM drive than get out
the screwdriver and dismantle my computer. (e) A hard disk is tough, but
probably not as tough in cold and humidity as a CD (although probably tougher
in direct sunlight, in case you were planning to leave your Windows 98 backup
sitting on the hood of your car). (f) A hard disk still takes at least a little more
storage space.
29. Looking at the PowerDesk Website, I see that they do not recommend using
PowerDesk or ZipMagic 2000 for backing up hard disks. Also, I have just
discovered that my old DOS unzip programs won't work with the latest ZIP
programs, and I haven't yet come across a good, free DOS zip program. My
options at this point, then, are (a) to buy a program like ZipMagic 2000, which I
think comes with a DOS version as well as the Win98 version, or (b) to accept
that I'm going to have to use DriveImage to set up the basic Windows 98 system
on the empty hard disk, but can then use my Windows-based PowerDesk ZIP
program after that. I accept option (b), which brings us to the question of how to
use a disk image approach instead of the file-based approaches that I've been
talking about for so long.
Starting Over
30. Having had my pure and pristine Windows 98 hard disk cabled as slave to
another machine for several days now, and having watched Norton Utilities and
other programs perform all kinds of evil operations on that pure disk when I
wasn't looking, and having decided that I was going to use DriveImage (which

23

boots into DOS, so that no Windows program files are active during the CD
burn, which means that I need not do my CD burning with the Windows disk
cabled as a slave drive in an alien machine), and furthermore having discovered
that I did not set things up exactly as I might have wished the first time around, I
resolved to start over and reinstall a new and even more pure version of
Windows 98. (This, then, is where I begin to revise the steps suggested in points
14 et seq.)
31. Installing Windows 98 from the Hard Disk. One thing that I did differently,
this second time around, was to prepare to install Win98 from the hard disk. I
have been informed that, if you copy the WIN98 folder from the upgrade CD to
your hard drive, and leave it there, and run SETUP.EXE from there, Windows
will generally look at that WIN98 folder when it needs to consult its original files,
thus saving me the repeated hassle of having Windows tell me to insert the
upgrade CD into the machine, not to mention the frustration of seeing that
Windows then acts as though it can't find what it wants on that CD. See e.g.,
http://www.zdnet.com/zdtv/callforhelp/answerstips/story/0,3650,2336826,00
.html. So while I still had the nearly pure version of Win98 installed on C, I used
Windows Explorer to copy the WIN98 folder to drive C. It later developed that I
might have been able to do this afterwards with X-Setup. (See point 137(n).) I
also heard that you could do it with a direct Registry tweak: in
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Se
tup, create a SourcePath item of the String Value type by right-clicking in the
right window, if theres not a SourcePath item already, and set its value equal to
the place where you have put the Windows files. Later, I modified my thinking
about part of this step. (See point 319.)
32. Deciding on a Partition Scheme. Another thing I did before cleaning out the
rest of the hard disk was to make sure I had two hard drives hooked up there,
with the second one serving as a placeholder so that the Windows program files
would all be set up to refer to the proper partitions. I probably could have done
this with just one drive, but since I had that old 1 GB drive sitting around, I went
ahead and cabled it as my second hard disk, and I laid out my partitions on the
two drives so as to resemble the layout on the other computer (referred to here as
my "main" computer), where I was writing these notes and where I do most of
my work. To set up the partitions in FAT32 format (i.e., the more efficient disk
format that first became available for Windows users in Win98), I temporarily
installed PartitionMagic. I used it to create six partitions, trying to set each at a
size that I thought might accommodate its needs (given the relatively small sizes
of the hard drives on this PENTIUM computer), but knowing that I could always
use PartitionMagic to adjust them later. On the first hard drive, I put partitions
C through E. C was the WIN98 partition (1000 MB); D was the PROGRAMS
partition (1700 MB); and E was the DATA partition, for word processing files and

24

other materials that generally do not require constant disk access (300 MB, which
I would probably revise upwards later when I had a clearer idea of how much
space I really needed for C and D). Why did I care about constant disk access?
With your first hard disk busy using Windows and other program files, they say
you are better off spreading out the disk work, which you can do by putting
your active data files on a separate drive. Thus, on the second hard drive, I put
these partitions (all in an extended partition, so their letters would always follow
the partitions on the primary drive): F as my AV partition (a 250 MB placeholder
for the much larger partition I would use on the other machine, where I do my
audio and visual image editing); G for a partition called BURNING (250 MB
now, as a mere placeholder on this tiny 1 GB hard disk, but 700 MB later, on the
other machine) (see point 33); and H for a SWAP partition (500 MB) (see point
44). (For more information on one reason for putting all of the Windows
program files in their own partition, see point 154(d).)
33. Here's a brief explanation of the BURNING partition. I call it BURNING
because it temporarily holds the stuff I burn onto CDs. With a limit of 700 MB,
this partition will hold very little beyond what is actually going onto a CD. That
is, it will not contain many actively used files, and therefore will tend not to
become fragmented. (Fragmentation can cause some CD-burning programs to
stutter and can ruin the CD you were trying to create.) Further reducing the risk
of fragmentation, you have the fact that most of the contents of this partition will
arrive here in ready-to-burn chunks -- that is, you aren't going to do much
editing in this relatively restricted space. Also, by having this partition on a
separate hard drive, you reduce the risk of a stutter when Windows fiddles with
program files on your first hard disk for whatever reason.
34. Once PartitionMagic completed the steps of rearranging the partitions as just
described, I was ready to retrace the steps described in point 14. I rebooted and
set the BIOS to look at drive A; I then rebooted with a bootable floppy (see point
8), making sure that this floppy contained the DOS tools I would be needing, as
described in the following sentences. I checked to insure that I could read files
on the CD-ROM drive, which my floppy had placed at the letter Z. (See point 6.)
I then began hacking and slicing with DELTREE and DEL, removing everything
from drive C except C:\TEMP (where I had unzipped my DOS tools) and the
C:\WIN98 folder. (See point 31.) When those two directories were all that DIR
saw, I typed ATTRIB -H -R -S to expose the hidden, read-only, and system files
in the root directory of drive C and to make them capable of being deleted, and
then I used DEL on them one by one until they were all gone. Then I typed
DELTREE TEMP. As a final check, I typed DIR /AH, and saw that there was still
a hidden RECYCLED directory. So now I had to recreate \TEMP and re-unzip
my DOS tools there in order to use DELTREE on this RECYCLED directory. (I
knew that Windows would soon be recreating the thing, and I didn't see what

25

harm it could do if I left it, but I deleted it anyway, just to be thorough.) Then I
typed DELTREE TEMP and DIR /AH again, and was satisfied that C:\WIN98
was the only thing left on the drive. I took a quick tour of the other partitions,
typing DIR and DIR /AH at each, and concluded that everything was empty. I
removed the CD, rebooted from the floppy, and checked C one more time to
make sure it had nothing other than C:\WIN98. (Note that, by doing a previous
installation of Windows 98 and then erasing it in this way, I had unintentionally
avoided the potentially difficult question of how you would otherwise get the
WIN98 folder from the CD onto the hard drive without using XCOPY and
running into all the problems discussed above, although I suppose you could
work around that difficulty if you had another computer to which you could
copy the WIN98 folder and then burn a CD or copy it over by temporarily
connecting this hard drive to that machine.)
Reinstalling Windows 98
35. I went into C:\WIN98 and typed SETUP. I went through the setup process.
The process never made me refer to anything outside C:\WIN98, except that (a) I
needed the Product Key from the back of the CD jacket and (b) I had to load the
Windows 95 upgrade CD to prove that I was a qualifying upgrader. I was
surprised that the installation did not need the Win98 CD for anything else. The
setup options I chose were as follows: I let the program install to
C:\WINDOWS; I chose the Custom route and selected everything (which I later
regretted -- see point 39); and otherwise I pretty much went with the defaults.
(Later, I found that you can avoid inserting the Win95 CD by copying the
\WIN95 folder over from the Windows 95 CD and browsing to it during the
Win98 installation process.)
36. I contemplated moving the hard disk containing this new installation over to
my AMD machine. After all, that computer had a faster modem, so as to
download the program upgrades more quickly. Also, it had the CD-ROM drive
that was capable of burning CDs. But as I thought about it, I saw several reasons
against this plan (which differs somewhat from the approach described in point
17): (a) If I moved the hard disk over to become drive C on the other machine,
Windows would reconfigure itself for the hardware on that machine, which
meant that it would re-reconfigure itself when I brought the hard disk back to
this other machine to add software. I wanted to keep this first installation as
simple as possible. (b) If I used this hard drive as the C drive in the AMD
machine, I would have to install Easy CD Creator on it. My concept was to
install the application software later, to insulate the basic system from quirks in
that software -- not to mention that I didn't want to have to uninstall or upgrade
this version of Easy CD Creator every time I reinstalled my operating system
over the next couple of years. (c) I don't like to be without a working computer

26

that I can use to check for solutions online, and although I could PROBABLY
reassemble one quickly enough if need be, I was reluctant to tempt fate. (d) I
expected the whole process of installing software to be quite time-consuming,
and I wanted to work on other stuff -- and to be able to continue taking these
notes -- while that was going on. (e) To simplify things, after the installation and
downloads and adjustments were all complete, I could just use the DriveImage
boot floppy to create a disk image file on the H partition of my little 1 GB drive
(see point 32), and could then connect that drive to the AMD machine and burn
the CD from there, when the time to burn arrived.
37. Modem Setup. Leaving the hard disk in the PENTIUM computer, then, I
decided to do my tinkering with Windows before downloading relevant updates
(see point 15), rather than afterwards. I made this decision mostly because I
wanted to put the Temporary Internet Files folder used by Internet Explorer in
the right place to begin with, before going online. Beginning with that task in
mind, I started Internet Explorer, which started the Internet Connection Wizard.
I went through that wizard to configure my Internet connection through my ISP,
and allowed it to run the Hardware Installation Wizard to configure my modem,
which involved supplying a modem driver on a floppy disk; and since I had to
create that floppy by copying the driver from the hard disk on my AMD
machine, I was glad already that I had decided to keep my AMD computer
running! I said OK to the option of signing up for an Internet mail account, even
though I feared it would give me Outlook Express rather than Outlook 98; I did
this because I don't use Outlook Express for e-mail, but I do sometimes use it for
newsgroup browsing. I had to fire up Outlook 98 and Outlook Express on the
other machine (Tools | Accounts | Properties) to make sure I had the right
answers for some of the setup questions. The computer then wanted to go
online, but I selected Work Offline and started making adjustments to Internet
Explorer (View | Internet Options). (Later, I wound up doing more modem
configuration. See point 99. I also found another program for newsgroup
browsing. See point 292.)
38. The changes I made to Internet Explorer were as follows: (a) On the General
tab, I changed the homepage to my preferred, customized search page
(http://www.northernlight.com/nlquery.fcg?dx=1004&qr=&qt=&pu=&qu=&si
=SOURCE%3D1&la=3%3A1&qc=All&d1=&d2=&rv=1&search.x=41&search.y=1
7). (b) Also on the General tab, in the Settings for Temporary Internet Files
("TIF"), I changed to "Never" check for newer versions of stored pages, I told it to
use 50 MB, and tried to put it into the root of SWAP partition H. (See point 32.)
It informed me that I couldn't do that, so I opened Windows Explorer and
created H:\Temporary Internet Files (which apparently would have occurred
automatically if I hadnt bothered -- see point 242(f)), and told Internet Explorer
("IE") to put the TIF folder there. IE informed me that it needed to reboot in

27

order for these changes to take effect. (Note: if Internet Explorer has already
created a TIF folder somewhere, and that folder doesn't go away after you
change your Internet Explorer options for TIF and reboot, you can go into DOS
and use DELTREE to get rid of it. Probably an easier way to do all this is to use
X-Setup. See point 137(n).) (c) My final change on the General tab was to change
History to three days, since I just never look back in time any further than that on
IE. (d) On the Advanced tab, I checked "Browse in a new process" and "Toolbar - Small Icons," and I unchecked "Show Internet Explorer on the Desktop." Then I
closed out of Options. (e) In the main screen, I dragged the Address bar and the
menu bar to the same line as the button bar, so that I had a nearly full-screen
effect with more functionality. (f) In View | Toolbars, I unchecked Text Labels. I
could have made more changes, but I knew I would be downloading an updated
version shortly, and decided that I could take another look at the options after
that. So I closed Internet Explorer and hit Start | Shut Down | Restart to let the
settings take effect.
39. On reboot, I again got an introductory message telling me that my computer
wasn't equipped to run WaveTop, which was one of the options included in the
mass of Windows options I had checked when I selected everything for
installation. To stop this WaveTop message from loading at startup, I went to
Start | Settings | Control Panel | Add/Remove Programs | Windows Setup,
where I unchecked the Web TV for Windows option. This gave me the option of
restarting, which I took. After reboot, I went into Start | Run | msconfig |
Startup, and was pleased to see that the four different WaveTop items that had
appeared there previously were gone.
40. While in Add/Remove Programs, I had noticed that RealPlayer 4.0 was the
only (non-Windows) program shown. I disliked the way RealPlayer had taken
over my desktop when I had downloaded it one time; I preferred other programs
for my audio and video playback; so I elected to remove RealPlayer here.
41. I made some desktop adjustments, as follows: (a) I shut off the Channel Bar.
(b) I right-clicked on the taskbar at the bottom of the screen, went into Properties,
and checked Auto Hide and Show Small Icons. (c) I again right-clicked on the
taskbar, and this time selected Toolbars and unchecked Quick Launch. (d) I
right-clicked on Recycle Bin and set its Properties to configure the drives
independently and not to display the delete confirmation dialog box. I left all
drives at the default value of 10% except for SWAP drive H, where I clicked "Do
not move files to the Recycle Bin." (e) I deleted the Outlook Express shortcut, Set
Up the Microsoft Network, My Documents, and Online Services from the
desktop. (The Microsoft network was not a computer networking thing; it was
an Internet connection option. The purpose of the Microsoft Network and
Online Services options was to give the user different ways of connecting to the

28

Internet. I didnt want to become a customer of Microsoft or these other ISPs


(Internet Service Providers) at this point, however.)
42. I right-clicked on the taskbar | Properties | Start Menu Programs |
Advanced, and created three new folders under "Programs": Frequently Used,
Primary Utilities, and Other Programs. Under Other Programs, I created a folder
called "Online." I moved the Internet Explorer and Online Services folders into
that Online folder. I made a copy of the Internet Explorer shortcut (the one
actually pointing to the IE program, not to the IE folder) and put it in Frequently
Used. I moved Accessories and StartUp to become subfolders under Other
Programs. (Note: this rearrangement was premature. See point 51.) Windows
seemed to figure out where StartUp is, even when I buried it several layers
down, but if that had failed I would still have had the option of specifying a
location using X-Setup. (See point 137(n).)
43. I right-clicked on Start and chose Explore. This put me into Windows
Explorer. I unchecked View | as Web Page. I checked View | Details, and I
unchecked View | Toolbars Text Labels. I clicked on the grey part of the
Address area and dragged it up to the right end of the previous line. I went into
View | Folder Options | View and checked "Display the full path in the title
bar," "Show file attributes in Detail View," "Allow all uppercase names," "Show
all files," and "Smooth edges of screen fonts," and I unchecked "Hide file
extensions." Finally, still in Folder Options, I clicked on the "Like Current
Folder" button. To finish the job, I left-clicked on Start | Programs, right-clicked
on MS-DOS Prompt, cut it, and pasted it onto Frequently Used. I repeated the
same steps for Windows Explorer.
44. Setting Virtual Memory. This is disk-based memory, as distinct from RAM.
Basically, as I understand it, you're storing, on disk, a snapshot of what is going
on in a program that is currently active on your computer. Disk-based storage is
much slower than RAM, so you want to do what you can to speed up this disk
storage. In Windows 98, the virtual memory -- that is, the disk storage file -- is a
file named WIN386.SWP. This "swapfile" is one of the frequently-changing files
that can cause fragmentation and slowdowns if you put it on a partition with
other files that you will be using actively. (See points 32-33.) Fortunately, I had
located the SWAP drive last, as drive H (see point 32), thus allowing myself to
add a third hard drive sometime in the future and thereby make the most of the
PCForrest advice to put the swapfile on your least-used hard disk. (Note that
this is a revision of point 2.) See
http://www.zdnet.com/zdtv/callforhelp/howto/jump/0,3652,2217131,00.html.
Until I had a third hard drive (if ever), I believed that the second hard disk
would still be less busy than the first, where the program files were located; and I
also hoped that, by putting the swapfile (and other temporary files, such as the

29

Temporary Internet Files used by Internet Explorer -- see point 38) into their own
partition, I would reduce their tendency to cause fragmentation. To move the
swapfile to drive H, I followed highly recommended instructions found on the
PCForrest site at www.pcforrest.co.uk/swapfile.htm. As instructed, I went into
Start | Settings | Control Panel | System | Performance | Virtual Memory | Let
me specify my own virtual memory settings. I selected drive H. To designate a
minimum swapfile size, I found the PCForrest advice somewhat inapplicable,
since they envision a setup now, for today's computer usage, whereas I was
preparing a basic Windows setup for the next couple of years. See also
http://epsilon.silicon.net.my/adrian/Speed_Demonz/Swapfile_Optimization/
Swapfile_Optimization_08.htm. The purpose of the minimum is to reduce the
number of times when Windows must recalculate the needed size of the swapfile
and shrink it accordingly. Since I had set drive H at a size of 500 MB and so far
had few other demands on it, and since I had previously noticed that the
swapfile was around 100 MB (see point 18), I decided to set it at a minimum of
100 MB. As almost everyone seems to recommend, I ignored the option to set a
maximum. I told the computer that, yes, I was sure I wanted to do this; I
rebooted; and when I went back into this part of the Control Panel, I saw that, as
promised, the maximum had been set to "no maximum." This information was
greyed out, but PCForrest says this means that Windows is observing your
minimum and maximum settings but is managing the swapfile whenever its size
needs to land somewhere between those extremes. (Note: PCForrest says that
defragmenting the swapfile can help immensely, but that's not an installation
issue and it's not important yet.) I think, but am not certain, that setting your
own swapfile sizes may also allow the defragmenter to defragment the swap file,
which they say is helpful for better system performance.) Later, I learned more
about the Windows swap file. (See point 242(f).)
45. While I was in Control Panel, I clicked on System | Device Manager. I
noticed a trouble mark -- a yellow circle with a black exclamation mark in it -next to a device related to my sound card. I didn't see much reason to configure
the cheap old sound card in this PENTIUM computer, however, since it was not
the one I used for most purposes. I decided to save that part of the installation
for later.
46. Windows installed a default My Documents folder on drive C. I wanted my
data files kept separate from my program files. Windows did not allow me to
simply delete the My Documents folder, however. A comment that I saw in a
newsgroup gave me the impression that TweakUI would allow me to remove
My Documents, but I did not plan to install TweakUI until later. (See point 71.)
So My Documents had to remain for now. Eventually, I found that TweakUI was
not necessary for this. (See point 120(j).)

30

47. As noted earlier (see point 16), the goal of these adjustments was to take care
of things that might be more difficult to do (or undo) later, and also to make
adjustments that I would almost certainly make anyway eventually, without
crossing the line into adjustments that could make the system unstable. The
foregoing adjustments pretty much reflect the way I've been using Windows for
a couple of years now, so I'm comfortable with that aspect of them. As far as I've
been able to determine, none of them threatens system stability. Anyway, I have
decided that the tradeoff is worth it -- there are just too many little adjustments
to make, adding up to hours of reconfiguration, and I would really rather do
them this one time and be done with it, if at all possible.
48. Having set up a basic system to my taste, I went online and downloaded all
the relevant updates again. (See point 15.) Since I didn't want to sully my pure
installation with any kind of Connection Keeper utility, I kept having to check
back and go to some Webpage online, to keep my ISP from disconnecting me for
lack of activity. (They interpret mere downloads as inactivity since, for all they
know, you're just listening to streaming audio.) This time, I noticed that as I
downloaded various Windows updates, the list of updates seemed to change -that, in essence, I was updating the updates. This was fine with me; it was just
interesting. I guess it suggested that Microsoft wasn't necessarily preparing onetime updates that would bring you all the way from the Stone Age to the
Chemical Age in one step. They were giving me the updates in the order in
which they had prepared them, patches on patches. This was my impression of
the situation, anyway. The downloads took at least six hours of pure connection
time; with disconnections and everything, they ran from about 2 PM one day to 7
AM the next day.
49. As noted above (point 15), the places I went to for downloads were (a) the
page to which the Windows Update shortcut took me and (b) updates.com. At
updates.com, I was pleased that there were only three programs that Microsoft's
Windows Update page had not brought up to the most recent version, but I was
somewhat surprised to see that two of those programs were by Microsoft itself!
(The other was Macromedia Shockwave ActiveX Player, whose most recent
upgrade was (judging by the version number) a very minor one, which I decided
to ignore.) Why wouldn't Microsoft give me its most recent versions of Dial-Up
Networking and Windows Media Player? This seemed odd. Just in case ZiffDavis's updates.com site was wrong (and I have found their free utilities to be
very useful and reliable, even if they did shaft me on a magazine subscription
once), I decided to postpone the updates.com part of this enterprise until later.
50. When the downloads were complete, I checked all partitions, to see where
Windows had put files. The only additions to any drives other than C were (a) a
hidden Recycled folder on each drive, (b) an MSDOWNLD.TMP folder on D

31

with nothing in it, and (c) to my satisfaction, a WIN386.SWP file and the
Temporary Internet Files folder on drive H. So I decided not to worry about
doing any sort of CD backup of any disk other than C at this point. I also used
Windows Explorer to glance at the file dates of each file in the C:\WIN98 folder
(the one containing the Windows 98 setup files -- see point 31) and all of its
subfolders. As far as I could see from a quick glance, all files were dated
5/11/98. So evidently the installation process had not changed any of them or
added anything to them. I felt that my DriveImage backup should include this
C:\WIN98 folder; I just wanted to start developing some sense of what was
changing during these various processes.
51. I noticed that the downloads had changed a few things that I had previously
adjusted (see points 38-47), had added some other things that I needed to adjust,
and had generated some temporary files that I did not want to preserve on the
disk image CD that I would soon be burning. Retracing my steps, I began with
Internet Explorer. In Tools | Internet Options | General | Temporary Internet
Files, I clicked on Delete Files, including all offline content. (I noticed that the
TIF folder was still assigned to drive H, so that was good.) I also cleared History
on that screen. On the desktop, I again deleted the shortcut for Outlook Express.
52. Repeating the technique used in point 42, I rearranged my Start menu
programs to suit me. It has seemed easier to do this rearrangement as I go along,
rather than allow the shortcuts to accumulate into an impenetrable forest. But at
this early stage it would have been simpler if I had postponed the previous
rearrangement: the downloads added new versions of some of these shortcuts,
and since I had moved the earlier shortcuts, the download was not able to
update the shortcuts automatically, so I had to figure out manually which
duplicative shortcuts to delete. I wound up with these groups of shortcuts:
Frequently Used (containing just a small number of items, and I intended to keep
it that way), Primary Utilities (containing subfolders for Microsoft Desktop Tools
and Microsoft System Tools), and Other Programs (containing subfolders labeled
Editors, Games, Multimedia (Audio, Video, and Images), Online (Browsers,
Connection Utilities, Email/News/Chat, ISPs, and Webpage Tools), and StartUp.
53. In Windows Explorer, I created a C:\Temp folder. Also, I revisited folders
that I thought might have other junk files that I would not want preserved in my
backup CD. (See point 16.) Specifically, I cleared out C:\Windows\Temp, and I
removed the remaining cookies (which the procedure in point 51 had not
removed) from H:\Temporary Internet Files. That latter step may seem
unnecessary, since I was not going to be backing up drive H at this time, but I
was superstitious about the TIF folder, which I had heard was linked back to
drive C. Checking on that, sure enough, I found that there did now exist a
C:\Windows\Temporary Internet Files folder, whereas I'm pretty sure I had

32

checked and there had not been one previously. I rebooted to DOS to delete that
folder, but I couldn't find it. I rebooted to Windows and looked again in
Windows Explorer. Yep, there it was, not hidden or anything. I opened a DOS
window and looked. No TEMPOR~1 folder. I deleted it in Windows Explorer. I
rebooted and looked again in Windows Explorer. It was gone. Would it stay
gone after the next time I went online? I hoped so. (It did.)
54. I revisited the Taskbar (see point 42) with a right click, selected Start Menu
Programs, and cleared the Documents Menu. I revisited Control Panel | System
| Device Manager (see point 45) and saw that the situation had not changed
regarding yellow warning stickers; there was still just the same one, which I
would be working on later. I decided to set Control Panel | Display |
Background | Sandstone and chose the Display | Tile option there; I also set
Control Panel | Display | Screen Saver to my taste.
55. I decided to run some diagnostics. From a shortcut on the Start | Programs
menu, I ran the System Information utility. Under Tools, I ran System File
Checker | Scan for altered files. (Another approach is just to go to Start | Run |
SFC, or run SFC from a command line.) It found no problems. I decided to leave
well enough alone, and exited the System Information utility. It seemed that I
was ready to make my image backup CD.
Creating the CD with DriveImage
56. For purposes of burning my basic Windows setup to CD, I had decided that
DriveImage was the way to go. (See point 29.) This entailed booting from the
DriveImage floppy and capturing the entire Windows 98 hard disk to an image
file. I had plenty of space for that image file on drive D (see point 32), so that's
where I decided to put it.
57. I had not yet come to a definitive boot floppy to use in making the CD
bootable. As noted earlier, I had decided that the Win98 Startup Floppy, was
going to be bootable in the widest variety of CD-ROM drives. (See point 13.) My
objection that this floppy lacked XCOPY had proved to be unimportant, at least
for purposes of a boot floppy that would restore a working copy of Windows 98
onto a bare hard disk. (See point 23(c).) If I took the floppy that I had created the
hard way (see point 8) and removed XCOPY and the various utilities that were
already incorporated into the Win98 Startup Floppy, I found that there really
weren't that many utilities left, and that I could squeeze most of these into a ZIP
file that would fit in the remaining empty space on the Win98 Startup Floppy.
The programs already incorporated into the Win98 Startup Floppy included
ATTRIB, CHKDSK, DEBUG, EDIT, EXTRACT, FDISK, FORMAT, SCANDISK,
and SYS.COM, along with AUTOEXEC, CONFIG, and various drivers.

33

Subtracting these from the list in point 5 left me wondering whether I could find
space for these remaining utilities: BOOTMAGIC, CVT, DELTREE, DOSKEY,
DOWN, FIND, LE, MEM, MODE, MORE, NEXT, RED, SCANREG, SLICE,
SMARTDRV, SUBST, SWEEP, TEMP, TOP, UP, and WHEREIS. I found that if I
deleted the first two -- which I didn't think I'd need anyway -- there was plenty
of room for the rest after zipping. So I zipped them and put them onto the
Win98 Startup Floppy, and this became my state-of-the-art boot floppy, to be
used in making bootable CDs. (It has been suggested that you can delete some of
the drivers on that disk to make room for more utilities, but this defeats the goal
of having something that will boot the widest possible variety of machines.) I
rebooted, set the BIOS to boot from A, and booted this state-of-the-art floppy. It
worked and gave me access to the CD, so I felt that it would do the same when I
burned it into the bootable part of a CD. That is, it seemed likely to make a
bootable CD and to let me restore my disk image from that CD. (See point 11.)
58. I put the DriveImage floppy disk in A (see point 5(h)) and ran the PQDI
program. The mouse was not working. I didn't absolutely need it, but I wanted
it. I exited the program and inserted the PartitionMagic boot floppy. I copied
MOUSE.COM and MOUSE.INI to drive D, and then copied them from there to
the DriveImage floppy. (The PartitionMagic boot floppy uses an old mouse
driver that probably works with just about any mouse.) I rebooted, re-ran PQDI,
and the mouse worked. Back in DriveImage, I chose the Create Image option
(the others were Restore Image and Disk to Disk copy), requested an image of
drive C only, and specified that the output file be D:\C_IMAGE.PQI. I added
some explanatory comments, chose low compression (40%, as compared to high
compression's 50%, but faster), and clicked OK. The thing was very fast -- it was
done in about five minutes. I exited and went to D, and there, sure enough, was
C_IMAGE.PQI, a file of 382 MB. That was small enough to fit on one of the
partitions of my primary slave drive (i.e., the 1 GB hard drive -- see point 32).
Thus, while I was in DOS, I deleted the WIN386.SWP file from drive H (see point
44), knowing that Windows would recreate it on drive H (if I had a drive H
connected) the next time I booted Win98 on my drive C. Then I copied the
C_IMAGE.PQI file from drive D to drive H (on the 1 GB drive) and deleted it
from drive D. I shut down the machine, disconnected this 1 GB drive, connected
it to the AMD computer, moved C_IMAGE.PQI over to the primary hard drive
on that computer, shut it down, disconnected the 1 GB drive again, and turned
my attention to the PENTIUM computer, where I would be installing the
bootable CD that I was about to create on the AMD computer.
59. In this paragraph, I am again dealing with a technical problem that may not
affect most people, but that some may find interesting and that I want to include
to make sure I don't leave out any important details. On the PENTIUM
computer, I disconnected the other hard drive, where I had installed my nice

34

new version of Windows 98, and put it aside. I had now reached a point of
addressing the original problem that had prompted me to seek a reliable method
of installing Windows in the first place. You see, I'd been having some Win98
difficulties on the AMD computer, and those difficulties were starting to worry
me, but at least that computer was still running; but this PENTIUM computer
had been really malfunctioning. In recent weeks I had replaced the
motherboard, the memory, and the floppy drive, and while I could see real
improvements in stability and/or performance with each of those upgrades,
there were still problems with Windows 98 itself. The machine, in its ordinary
configuration (i.e., when I was not fooling around with the old 1 GB hard drive),
had possessed two 3 GB hard drives: one a Fujitsu, and one a Western Digital,
both from 1997. Drive C (the Fujitsu, I believe) had Windows, program files, and
Windows-created data files. I had cleared off drive D (the Western Digital) to
make room for a Linux installation. I had experimented briefly with three
different versions of Linux and had decided that I would probably be going
towards Linux sometime in the future, but that there was just too much
Windows-based software that I liked and needed right now, so that I could not
yet justify the switch to Linux. In order to run Windows on drive C and Linux
on drive D, I had installed PowerQuest's BootMagic program, which had
allowed me to choose which operating system I wanted to boot up. BootMagic
might fall into the category of what's known as "disk overlay" software -- that is,
it might be like various disk manager programs that run before your operating
system begins, and thus allow your operating system to use larger hard drives
than your BIOS would otherwise permit. After my Linux experiment, I had
emptied and reformatted drive D. I could have wiped off drive C too, given my
intention to reinstall Windows from scratch, but I did have a few hours' worth of
work on it that I didn't want to lose. So I had removed drive C and put it aside
(see point 19), and drive D was the one on which I had been doing all this
Windows experimentation, as I've been describing here. Now I was finally ready
to burn a CD that I believed really would be bootable, so that I would be
prepared to reinstall Windows on that original drive C, the Fujitsu. (I wanted to
put it there because I wanted to keep the Western Digital 3 GB disk, on which I
had just finished doing a nice clean Windows installation, as a backup in case
DriveImage or the CD-burning process screwed up somewhere.) All I had to do
was get those few hours' worth of work off my original drive C, so that I could
wipe it clean and try installing Windows from my DriveImage CD.
Unfortunately, when I connected my original drive C and attempted to boot it
up, I got an "Invalid system disk" error. I booted from a floppy, typed DIR C:,
and got an "Invalid media type" error. I ran PQDI from the PartitionMagic
floppy, and it told me I had "partition table error # 108." Browsing online, I
found some indications that this might have been caused by the Linux
installation. I didn't think that was the explanation, though, because as I recalled
the disk had been working right up to the end (although possibly the act of

35

removing Linux knocked a crutch out from under it, or something). The better
explanation came from the PowerQuest page at
http://www.powerquest.com/root/newsltr/news698.html# tip2, where they
said this: "Translation is the process that allows a computer to see drives larger
than 500MB by using an interface between the drive and the BIOS. Once a drive
is formatted under a certain translation it has to stay translated that way. Any
change in the translation will result in a lot of partition table errors including
errors 108 and 110. Changes in translation can be caused by various things, but
the most common are moving a drive from one system to another, upgrading the
motherboard or BIOS, re-detecting the drives in the system, or simply disabling
or enabling a translation mode in a situation where it is either needed or not
needed respectively." I had mis-jumpered the disk just a few moments earlier,
when trying to hook it up, and that may have caused the problem. The Web
page just cited also said that error # 108 could be caused by a drive overlay. I
noticed that, while BootMagic had previously worked just fine when booting this
drive, I was no longer seeing any mention of BootMagic when I tried to boot this
disk. Finally, the PowerQuest Web page said that error # 108 could come from
what they called "true errors," which are sometimes (but not always) hopeless.
The Website suggested running their PARTINFO.EXE program, which was
included with PartitionMagic and other PowerQuest products. I copied it from
the AMD computer onto a floppy and ran it in the troubled PENTIUM computer.
Its output scrolled off the screen, so I copied MORE.COM onto the floppy and
ran it again as PARTINFO | MORE. It said I had errors 108, 109, 110, and 116.
(There wasn't room on my super-duper boot floppy (see point 57) to add this
interesting PARTINFO program, but at least I copied it onto the boot floppy that
I had created the hard way (see point 8).) The PowerQuest Website said I could
call PowerQuest tech support, but it was Sunday and I didn't want to wait until
Monday if I didn't have to. But I decided that I would if necessary, because it
said that the data can usually be recovered by someone who knows what they're
doing. In the meantime, I tried two other PowerQuest solutions. First, to see if
the BootMagic drive overlay was the problem, I followed their advice and tried
to boot without a floppy, hitting SPACE or CTRL when the system said it was
initializing my BootMagic overlay. The thing is, the system never did say
anything about BootMagic. I tried both SPACE and CTRL, with the BIOS set to
boot from both A and C, and it didn't work -- I just got an "Invalid system disk"
error. The other PowerQuest solution was to download a free demo of their Lost
& Found program, which they described in these words: "[A]s long as your disk
is still spinning, Lost & Found can locate and recover almost any file, anywhere
on your disk." The demo would not fix the problem -- for that, I would have to
buy the program -- but it would tell me at least if the problem could be fixed. I
downloaded and tried to run it in Real DOS, only to discover it had to be run in
Windows, but then it turned out that the Windows program created DOS
floppies. (Why didn't they just say so in the first place? Maybe I missed it.)

36

Once I had the floppies set, I booted the PENTIUM computer with them, but my
display reacted weirdly, so I rebooted with another floppy and then restarted the
program with the LF -t option (text mode). The program asked for a serial
number (which was 2453-0000-0000-0001 for this demo). It also required me to
designate a disk and partition to which I would save the files I wanted to save, so
it was good that I had the 1 GB hard drive connected as my primary slave.
Shortly after that, it crashed with a "general protection fault" error. I rebooted
the machine and tried again, and this time it ran. It took about a half-hour to do
its thing with the 3 GB drive and, sure enough, it was able to show me the names
of my "lost" files. I looked on their Website and saw that the program price was
$70. Seventy bucks! For something I've never needed before and probably won't
need again? I selected "Start Recovery" there in the Lost & Found demo and
went through the simulated recovery process. The program looked pretty good,
and I probably would get it if I really needed it. But in the meantime, I had
thought of a way to short-cut some of the work that I would have to do over
again, so I decided against buying the program. Therefore, I was ready to
reformat this hard drive, burn a CD, and see if I could get those two together, the
CD and the drive.
60. The PartitionMagic boot floppy didn't seem to be able to do anything with
this screwed-up 3 GB hard disk, so I used FDISK from the floppy drive to delete
the bad partitions and then used PartitionMagic to match the partition
arrangement I had previously used on the other 3 GB hard drive (see point 32).
The first time around, PartitionMagic gave me an "error trying to create batch
file" message, and I realized that I had flipped the write-protect switch on the
floppy. After I changed the write-protect tab, the program refused to let me type
in the size I wanted for the primary partition, so I created it to fill the disk and
then resized it in a separate PartitionMagic operation.
61. Meanwhile, in the CD-burning department, I had to decide what to do with
the C_IMAGE.PQI file that I had copied to the AMD machine. In general, I
assumed I would still want to use a bootable floppy and create a bootable CD,
using more or less the same procedures as before. (See point 18.) But how was it
supposed to work exactly? I didn't want to use C_IMAGE.PQI as you would
ordinarily use an image file in Easy CD Creator, to create an unpackaged set of
files on the CD -- if I did that, I'd be back in the boat of having to use XCOPY to
move the files from the CD to the empty target disk. (See point 24.) Moreover,
C_IMAGE.PQI didn't seem to be the type of image file (having either a .CIF or
.ISO extension) that Easy CD Creator could use in that way. Evidently
C_IMAGE.PQI would have to go onto the CD exactly as it was, as one big file.
The DriveImage manual confirmed this, and also told me that the Low
Compression option I had chosen for C_IMAGE.PQI (see point 58) was just what
they recommended, presumably for its greater speed.

37

62. Along about this time, I did some experimentation with using CD-RW
erasable disks, in hopes that they would spare me from using up a lot of one-shot
CD-R disks. I found that I could burn some files onto a CD-RW, but the
PENTIUM computer would refuse to read them, even though the AMD
computer could see them just fine; but if I put those same files on a CD-R, the
PENTIUM computer had no problem. I went online and found some comments
suggesting that the CD-RW problem might stem from the old SCSI adapter card
with which I connect my old scanner to the old computer. Since I wasn't quite
ready to throw out the scanner, I decided I'd just have to try to get it right with
CD-R disks, and do without the CD-RWs.
63. I also experimented with the results obtained by booting with my two
different floppies (i.e., the Win98 Startup Floppy, designed for a variety of CDROM drives (see point 57) and my own super boot floppy, with somewhat more
DOS utilities and fewer CD-ROM drivers). I found that if I booted with the
Win98 Startup Floppy, I got consistently good results in attempting to see the
files on the CD, whereas the super boot floppy was not doing so well. I tried
changing the CD-ROM drive reference from Z to I (see points 6 and 32), but that
made no difference. Evidently the SSCDROM.SYS driver on the super boot
floppy was not exactly the right one for this particular CD-ROM drive after all.
(See point 20.) It's what I had in the CONFIG.SYS for this PENTIUM machine,
but apparently Windows 98 had been ignoring that and setting up the CD-ROM
drive in its own preferred way.
64. Before I had completed all this earnest scientific experimentation, I burned a
CD-R with the super boot floppy. I had intended to use the Win98 Startup
Floppy, but I screwed up -- but this is how we make all those great discoveries,
right? This CD wasn't bootable (at least not in the PENTIUM computer), but if I
booted that computer with the Win98 Startup Floppy and then looked at the
contents of this CD, I was able to see them. The contents of this particular CD
included not only the C_IMAGE.PQI file, but also a folder full of DOS utilities. I
had decided to include that folder because of course I would need DriveImage to
restore C_IMAGE.PQI to a blank hard disk, and the DriveImage DOS program
nearly filled a floppy, and I really preferred to use the Win98 Startup Floppy as
the bootable floppy that you insert when creating a bootable CD. (See point 18.)
So I created a DOS_UTIL folder and put all kinds of DOS utilities (including
DriveImage) into it. In other words, this CD had three things: the bootable part,
C_IMAGE.PQI, and the DOS_UTIL folder. To avoid the risk that I might
unthinkingly use old DOS utilities that would permanently truncate my long
filenames, I decided not to take my earlier approach of dragging 50 MB of DOS
utilities en masse to the DOS_UTIL folder. (See point 11.) Instead, when
deciding what to put into DOS_UTIL, I selected the materials that had been

38

useful, or potentially useful, so far. These included (a) the boot disks for
PartitionMagic, DriveImage, and BootMagic, from which I could create a
separate boot floppy if I needed to use the mouse (the Win98 Startup Floppy
didn't enable the mouse, but I didn't want to tinker with its CONFIG.SYS file and
possibly mess it up, because I didn't fully understand everything that floppy did
when it booted up); (b) the utilities on the super floppy I had assembled the hard
way, with the addition of XCOPY and the other files that didn't fit onto a floppy
(see point 57); and (c) the other useful PowerQuest programs I had recently
discovered, namely, PARTINFO and the Lost & Found demo (see point 59).
Although I had inadvertently made this resulting CD non-bootable by using the
bootable floppy, I was still able to gain access to its contents, including both
C_IMAGE.PQI and the DOS_UTIL folder, by booting with the Win98 floppy.
65. I decided to try again, using all my collected wisdom, and see if I could get it
right. I burned a CD-R (not a CD-RW -- see point 62), using the Win98 Startup
Floppy as the bootable floppy (see point 63), and on this CD I put both
C_IMAGE.PQI and the DOS_UTIL folder (see point 64). I also decided to try a
modified version of the two-pass suggestion that I had belatedly heard about
(see the end of point 18): I used a CD-R, but I instructed Easy CD Creator not to
close the disk. This way, I hoped, I would be able to fill the unused 200 MB
remaining at the end of the CD for something. This CD successfully booted and
its contents were visible as drive J. (The Win98 floppy creates a RAM drive as a
temporary place to hold its utilities. See point 8.)
66. Meanwhile, I had been experimenting with the imperfect CD that I had
created on the first try. (See point 64.) I booted the old machine with the Win98
Startup Floppy, looked into the CD, and ran DriveImage (PQDI.EXE) from the
DOS_UTIL folder. It ran fine, including installing the mouse driver. I clicked on
Restore Image, browsed to C_IMAGE.PQI, confirmed that I wanted to restore
my backup of drive C to the drive C partition on this machine, and got the
message (as the manual had warned me) that DriveImage would delete the
existing C partition because DriveImage had to restore into free space. Basically,
it would replace my version of the C partition with its own version, which was
fine with me. I chose all the safest settings: Safe Mode, Check for Bad Sectors,
and Verify Disk Writes. It really didn't take much extra time. The whole thing
looked like it was going to take less then 15 minutes, for 450 MB. Not bad!
Unfortunately, when it was about 95% of the way through, it stalled with this
message: "Error # 2005. One or more lost clusters are present." The DriveImage
manual instructed me to respond to this message by running SCANDISK or
CHKDSK. (Apparently SCANDISK is the better of the two.) I recognized that I
might have made a mistake here: although I had run FDISK and PartitionMagic
(see point 60), and although the latter had supposedly checked the disk, I had not
actually run SCANDISK before restoring from C_IMAGE.PQI. But now, before I

39

could do that, I had to choose between Ignore or Cancel, neither of which was
very appealing. I reasoned that I'd catch the error with SCANDISK, so I chose
Ignore. But the message kept repeating, and after ten tries, I chose Cancel. I
exited the program and clicked on Reboot. The machine wouldn't boot from the
hard disk, so I knew I had some problems. I booted from the floppy and looked
at the hard disk. File not found! Nothing there! I guess when DriveImage says
cancel, it really means Cancel. OK, so I ran SCANDISK on drive C ... no, it was
time for lunch, so I decided to run SCANDISK /ALL /AUTOFIX /NOSAVE
/NOSUMMARY /SURFACE. It took quite a while, and when it was done, it
said it had fixed some errors on drive C, so I hoped that was all I needed.
67. As noted in point 65, the seemingly perfect CD booted just fine, and now it
was time to try installing again. Again, I ran PQDI (DriveImage) in DOS_UTIL
(see point 66), and again, it ran pretty quickly -- and again I got Error # 2005! I
ran SCANDISK again. This time, it found tons of things to fix, which seemed
odd on a disk that had no visible or hidden files on it. I went partway with it
and then bailed out and reformatted the disk and ran SCANDISK again, and this
time it found no problems. I ran PQDI once more and, you know, third time's a
charm: it worked! No error messages. It finished and told me it needed to
reboot. I let it reboot in DOS, took a look at drive C, and it looked like my stuff
was there. I set the BIOS to boot from C, and Windows booted without any
problems. It wanted to recognize some new hardware, probably because I had
installed a memory upgrade during this PENTIUM computer's downtime, and
was now working with this other 3 GB hard drive. But then it was done, and it
looked good. As a backup, I made a second copy of the basic CD that I had used
for this installation (see point 65) for offsite storage.
Installing the Applications
68. My software existed in two forms: program CDs that I had purchased, and
software from other sources (primarily floppies and downloads) that I had on the
AMD computer and/or had burned onto CD. In my mind, the software ranged
from those programs that were highly important and reliable, down through
other programs that were important and/or reliable, but not both, and on to
programs that were genuinely unimportant and/or unstable. I decided, in this
second stage of the operation, to install those application programs that were
important, and perhaps to add others that I felt were especially stable even
though not as important, with a special emphasis on programs that would
require a lot of downloading and/or configuring if I had to install them again
from scratch. I would reach my stopping point when I had run out of stable
programs and/or had put approximately 850-900 MB on my PROGRAMS
partition (drive D -- see point 32), whichever came first. I figured that 900 MB
would be about the limit of what I could squeeze on one CD, if DriveImage was

40

correct in claiming a maximum compression rate of 50%. Of course, installing


programs on the PROGRAMS partition would also modify the WIN98 partition
(drive C), so I would make another CD backup of that partition, and this twodisk set would provide the second installment in my attempt to have a fully
backed-up, solid installation of Windows and my applications programs and
utilities. I would not be able to get as much material on these two CDs as if I
recorded them on a continuous two-CD set, but I would also not be vulnerable to
the problems I have experienced in the past with using serial tape backups. (See
introductory comments at the start of this document.)
69. I installed Office 97 first. As with Windows 98, I did not install Office 95 and
then upgrade from it (see point 14); instead, I installed Office 97 from scratch. I
chose to install the full (custom) version of Office, plus some items from the
Office 97 ValuPack (i.e., Animated Cursors, Sounds, and Word Viewer; I also
tried to install TrueType Fonts, but evidently those had gotten installed already,
and the Word 97 Converter installation failed because I did not have an older
version of Word loaded). Whenever the installation programs gave me the
option, I installed these programs to folders on the PROGRAMS drive (D)
instead of C. (See point 32.) I reconfigured the Microsoft Office toolbar to my
liking and removed its "New Office Document" and "Open Office Document"
options from my Start menu; and I moved its Start | Programs icons to a
Microsoft Office folder and also put a couple of those icons in the Frequently
Used list (not learning from my previous mistakes, and therefore was doomed to
repeat them -- see points 42 and 52). I went into each Office program I was using
and configured its options and generated its help database, so as to avoid having
to take those steps repeatedly during future installations. In Word, I also went
into D:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\Templates and created a backup copy of
NORMAL.DOT. I created Text and Graphics folders on my DATA partition (E),
moved
D:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\Clipart to E:\Graphics\Clipart, and told
Word where to look for its Clipart. I also told Word to keep its AutoRecover files
on H:\Temp. I took similar steps with Access and Excel.
70. Before I could finish installing Office 97, I needed to install PowerDesk 98
Utilities, which I considered one of my "must have" programs. (See point 25.) I
needed it now because there had been many updates and patches to Word, Excel,
and other Office 97 programs; I had saved many of those downloads as files on
CD; and I could now spare myself hours of downloading time just by reinstalling
those updates from CD; but since I had saved those downloads in zipped format,
I needed an unzip program to get at them, and PowerDesk 98 had an unzip
feature. I installed it, went online to download its latest update, and configured
it. I sorted through the myriad downloads that I had saved on CD, added some
that were still on my AMD machine and had not yet been burned to CD, and

41

came up with a CD filled with of 648 MB of compressed files to copy over to the
PENTIUM computer -- realizing, as noted in point 69, that not all of them might
fit in this installment. I copied the programs on this CD mostly onto partition E,
with some left over for H (see point 32), and prepared to begin installing them. I
didn't get too far into slicing and dicing, rearranging and adjusting the list of files
to install, before I realized that I would have to shut off the read-only attribute
that somehow got turned on during the CD-burning or file-copying process,
because it was driving me crazy to have to confirm every move, so I used
ATTRIB -R /S for that.
71. If I had had that program-filled CD ready earlier, I would have finished
installing Windows 98 before turning to Microsoft Office and other software. I
had indeed finished installing Win98 as far as Microsoft's official products were
concerned, but I had some other Win98-related utilities that had served me well
and that had seemed stable (or at least as stable as Windows itself), and I had to
finish sorting through my downloads (see point 70) before I could install those
utilities. But when I finished that, I was a little confused. First, some of the
Windows-related utilities that I had downloaded previously seemed, now, to
have been incorporated into the latest Win98 and Internet Explorer updates.
Erring on the side of safety, I deleted all downloads that now seemed
unnecessary. This included the "power tools" that gave me right-click features
like Zoom In and Open Link in New Window -- which, as I say, I had already
gotten somehow. Second, I couldn't find the TweakUI utilities that I thought I
had downloaded, so I went online for information. (At first, the system would
not detect my modem. I gave it a one-minute shutdown and tried again, and
that didn't do it. I went into Control Panel | System | Modem and deleted the
modem. On reboot, the modem worked.) Online, it developed that I probably
didn't download the TweakUI utilities, because I found someone who told me
they were actually on my Windows 98 upgrade CD itself, in the
\Tools\Reskit\Powertoy folder. And then, before I installed them, I saw that
Microsoft's Website was offering a "Power Tweaks" utility, without much of a
description of what was actually in it. It seemed like it might be an update to the
power toys on my Win98 CD, so I opted for the download. After I installed it, I
couldn't tell what difference it might have made, if any; there weren't any
explanatory notes. Moving onwards, I read the README.TXT file
accompanying the Powertoy folder from my Win98 upgrade CD, and its
repeated warnings scared me off. I mean, I had used TweakUI before, and had
really appreciated some of its features, but now I thought maybe I'd better wait
until after I had my application software loaded in a fairly stable state and had
saved that to CD. Now I was nervous, and I hoped I hadn't wrecked my nice
perfect system by plowing ahead and installing that other thing before I had
really thought about it.

42

72. Having gone as far as I was prepared to go with enhancements to Win98 and
Internet Explorer (which Microsoft treated as a sort of two-headed thing growing
out of one body, rather than two distinct programs), I returned to the task of
completing my Office 97 installation. (See point 70.) Again, to verify which of
my downloads I might actually need, I went back to Microsoft's site, this time to
the Office 97 area at http://officeupdate.microsoft.com. First, they had some
general-purpose updates that seemingly applied to all Office 97 products. I
started with the Version Checker, which told me (not surprisingly) that I was at
the base level, and that I would have to run both the SR-1 patch and the SR-2
patch. I happened to have both patches, thus saving myself the time to
download these patches (totaling over 18 MB) on a 28.8 kbps modem. I installed
the first patch and rebooted, as it said; I ran the version checker again and it
confirmed that I still needed to install the second patch. I double-checked at the
Website (above). It said that if I had SR-1 installed, I could go directly to SR-2b,
rather than merely SR-2. I had previously downloaded SR-2b (a 24 MB file) as
well, so I was all set. Sadly, when it rebooted, my nice perfect setup froze at the
Windows introductory screen. Bad news! After waiting several minutes for it to
progress, I manually reset the computer. I booted in Safe Mode -- the computer's
first preference -- and then immediately rebooted into Normal Mode, and this
time it went OK. But I couldn't get the modem to dial out, so I rebooted again -cold, this time. (See point 21.) It froze again. This was certainly no longer a
pure, reliable Windows installation. End of story.
73. It was time to reinstall my software, and that meant I had an opportunity to
test the backup copy I had made of the bootable CD. (See the end of point 67.) I
rebooted the machine, set the BIOS to boot from CD, and rebooted again. It
booted perfectly. I began to realize that I was being a little hasty. Before I could
wipe off these disks and start over, I had to make sure the partitions were all
ready. I booted from drive C into Safe Mode and looked at the disks. Drives E
through H could stay as they were. (See point 32.) They contained all of the
downloads I had copied from the CD. (See point 70.) The only exceptions were
(a) the PowerDesk update, which I had downloaded while I was preparing the
CD (see point 70) but which I had previously downloaded and did now have on
the CD as well and (b) the Office 97 SR-1 and SR-2b patches (see point 72). I
wasn't planning to retry the Power Toys thing (see point 71) until much later in
the game.
74. Postponing PowerDesk. I decided to try to do without PowerDesk for now.
(See point 70.) I wasn't sure what was responsible for my problems, but it and
the Power Toys were the most likely candidates. I tried to figure out which
PowerDesk file had stored my preferences and settings, so that I wouldn't have
to do them over again. To test this, I customized something on the Toolbar and
chose Save Now, and then did a search for the most recently changed file on

43

drives C or D (clicking on the "Time" heading to sort by time), and it turned out
that the settings were stored in C:\WINDOWS\USER.DAT. I'm told that
USER.DAT and SYSTEM.DAT are your two Win98 Registry files, so I couldn't
very well just put copies of them aside and then reintroduce them after
reinstalling PowerDesk; they would have too many other changes to track. I
tried the same approach for Word 97 and got the same results. So I was going to
have to do my settings over again for all these programs. Moral of the story
(which I'm sure I will learn eventually): the frosting goes on last!
75. If I was going to try to get by without PowerDesk 98, I would need to unzip
the previously saved downloads that I would be installing, and I would need to
do this with PowerDesk 98 before wiping it off the disk. I didn't need to unzip
everything. I would reload PowerDesk eventually, because it really had served
me pretty well so far. It was just a matter of changing the focus slightly and
installing less software, so that maybe both drives C and D would fit onto the
next DriveImage CD. But, oops, a snafu: I had deleted the SR-1 and SR-2b
downloads that I had copied from CD (see point 73) as soon as I had installed
them, so as not to get confused and install them twice, so now I would need to
copy them again from CD ... except that I couldn't access the CD in Safe Mode.
So, OK, I booted the PENTIUM computer from the floppy, and then I thought
that it might be impossible to figure out which files I wanted to copy from the
CD if all I had was the short DOS filenames. But I checked in a DOS window in
the AMD computer and found that DOS did reproduce the long filenames when
you do a DIR listing. But for some reason this wasn't happening on the
PENTIUM computer. Similar short filenames, but no long filenames. So I looked
at the original files on the AMD machine, the ones from which I had burned the
CD full of programs, and used their DOS names and file sizes and dates to find
the equivalent files on the CD in the PENTIUM computer. Ultimately, this
enabled me to copy the Office 97 SR-1 and SR-2b patches onto drive E. I then
unzipped all of the previously saved downloads that I expected to install on this
go-round, which consisted exclusively of Microsoft Office updates.
76. As a last gasp, I moved the Clipart folder back where it had been originally.
(See point 69.) And, you guessed it -- the computer booted just fine in Normal
Mode! To test this, I moved Clipart back again to E:\Graphics and rebooted
again. It booted without a problem. So that wasn't the explanation for the
problems I'd been having. (I later moved it with X-Setup. See point 137(m).) But
now I was in a quandary. Do I reinstall from scratch and be sure I've got it right,
and spend several more hours in the process? Or do I continue from where I am
and make a go of it, investing another ten or twenty hours in an approach that
might be unstable? I knew the answer as soon as I asked the question. I really
wanted to get it right. I did not want to ever have to do something like this
again. So in exchange for hopefully never doing it again later, when I wouldn't

44

have a clue of where to begin, I decided I had to do it again now, while it was
relatively fresh in my mind. It was extremely tempting to just let it slide, but I
had gotten so tired of Windows crashes that I thought I really would rather do it
the hard way if there was any reasonable chance that Microsoft's code would be
happier that way. I figured that a purely Microsoft machine -- with Windows 98
and Office but nothing else -- would be about as stable as Windows was going to
get, and that's the route I decided to take.
Comparing Windows 98 Installations
77. I rebooted, using the backup copy of the CD. (See point 67.) Interestingly,
Windows as installed on the hard disk ignored my BIOS instructions to boot first
from the CD-ROM, and instead booted from drive C. I rebooted and set the
BIOS to boot from the Win98 Startup Floppy, and that worked. I ran FORMAT
and SCANDISK on drives C and D. (See point 67.) Then I rebooted to make sure
this backup copy would indeed be bootable when the hard disk was blank,
because that's when I would need it most. An odd thing happened: the
computer said "Boot from ATAPI CD-ROM: Failure," and the blue-and-white
Windows 98 startup screen with clouds flashed across my monitor, and then it
said "Microsoft Windows 98" and gave me a C prompt. I guess it was booting
from the hard disk that I had formatted with FORMAT C: /S /V. I unhid the
hidden system files on C with ATTRIB -H -S -R and deleted them all, and tried to
reboot from the CD-ROM again. It booted with no problem. Evidently, on my
BIOS at least, the hard disk will take precedence over the CD-ROM whenever
possible, regardless of what you indicate in BIOS Setup.
78. Problem Using DriveImage from Hard Drive. This paragraph, and a halfdozen after it, deal with what appeared to be an interconnected group of
technical problems that may not affect everyone but may be informative
nevertheless. I installed again, running PQDI (DriveImage) from DOS_UTIL.
(See point 67.) This time, I got "Error # 2004. An invalid cluster was found in a
directory entry." Sheesh! Apparently I did not yet have the knack of properly
preparing the hard disk for installation. Or else ... perhaps there was a physical
flaw in the disk? I hadn't run the surface surface scan in SCANDISK. I decided
to rectify that right now. Looking again at the SCANDISK /? options, I very
belatedly realized that perhaps I was supposed to have been running SCANDISK
C: /CUSTOM all this time, instead of using all the other settings I had been
using. (See e.g., point 66.) I tried that, and it seemed to work: it said it was
fixing the directory structure -- the one that, as far as I could tell, hadn't been
broken. Since DriveImage says that it replaces your partition with its own, I
didn't bother reformatting again; I just ran PQDI again and let it roll over the top
of the 411 MB that had been installed a few moments earlier, before the thing
crashed. Once again, it got 98% of the way through the process and gave me

45

Error # 2005. (See point 67.) I tried again with SCANDISK C: /CUSTOM. It ran
a long time, and said it fixed the directory structure (again). Browsing online, I
saw a comment by one user who felt that the FAT32 disk format requires
frequent use of SCANDISK -- as in, every night. Another user's circumstances
sounded somewhat like mine (hard disk several years old, irregular problems on
bootup, little or no trouble detected in SCANDISK), but in more important ways
we were very different (I was not getting the seemingly important "sector not
found" errors, or the message that the computer could not find the FAT
partition). The advice to him, using a drive that was "3+" years old, was to
replace the hard disk. It was something I had contemplated, but I didn't think I
was quite at that point; but I did begin to think that I had done the right thing in
not installing the rest of my software on a possibly unstable hard drive. Another
seemingly knowledgeable person commented that SCANDISK is not an in-depth
tool and there can be numerous deeper problems that it won't detect, such as
instability produced by improper setups and by combining new drives with old
drive controllers or vice versa. I also saw a suggestion to try Norton Disk
Doctor. I eventually realized that the Norton Utilities installation process creates
emergency boot floppies, and that I must have some of them around here
somewhere. I found them and ran Norton Disk Doctor (using the "thorough test"
setting) from Norton rescue floppy no. 2. It found no problems on drive C.
While I was at it, I ran it on drive D, and found no problems there either. I tried
again to install from the CD with DriveImage. This time, I got "Error # 1802.
Image file is invalid or corrupted." I was beginning to think that might indeed be
the problem -- but how could it? I had installed a solid, working copy of
Windows using the other CD, which I had created with the same C_IMAGE.PQI
file that still resided on the hard disk on the AMD machine; the CD burning
process had seemingly gone without a hitch for this CD; and now I was getting
this error message before the thing even tried to install, whereas previously it
had gotten as far as 98% of the way through the installation before crapping out.
The best I could figure was that it was probably just some kind of system
incompatibility between this two-year-old Fujitsu drive and my new
motherboard. I rebooted from the CD and noticed an error message telling me
that BTDOSM.SYS (on the bootable portion of the CD) was corrupted. Had I
been getting that error message each time? The many drivers on the Win98
emergency floppy tended to flash by and I didn't pay much attention to them,
but it seemed like I would have noticed this. I powered down for a minute and
rebooted. No such error message this time. Very strange. Evidently the first
step I had to take, before restoring from CD (or perhaps before any major system
operations) on this computer, would be to do a cold boot. (See point 21.)
Perhaps this boot problem, previously unnoticed, had been responsible for some
of the previous variability in error mesages I was getting from DriveImage. I
looked at drive C and saw nothing on it, and concluded that DriveImage
automatically requires you to do a reboot each time you attempt a restore

46

operation, even if nothing restores. On closer examination, I realized that C was


actually D -- that is, I had thought I was looking at the WIN98 partition, but I was
actually looking at the PROGRAMS partition (see point 32), which told me that
DriveImage had at least proceeded as far as deleting the old C partition in
preparation for installing the new one. I ran PartitionMagic to take another look,
and it confirmed that there was 1 GB of free space before the PROGRAMS
partition. I decided to try DriveImage again. As always, I set it to safe mode
with the maximum verification etc. settings, just to be sure. It didn't give me the
Error # 1802 message this time. Instead, I was back to Error # 2004, which is
where I started this paragraph. OK. This was not working. I rebooted, got the
BTDOSM.SYS error again, powered down for a minute, rebooted, and got no
such error. I tried a different approach: I used PartitionMagic to eliminate the C
partition that DriveImage had created. Or at least I tried to. PartitionMagic took
the command, but when I clicked "Apply," it gave me "Error # 600. Error trying
to create batch file." I assumed the reason was that it could not create the batch
file that would guide this process on the read-only CD disk. I had copied
PartitionMagic to one of the other hard disk partitions, so I ran it from there and
got no such error. I rebooted with no problem, went back to that same hard disk
partition, and ran DriveImage from there, instead of running it from the CDROM, as I had done previously. This time, the disk image restoration was
successful. Very interesting! Maybe the whole problem that I was wrestling
with in this paragraph was just that DriveImage, like PartitionMagic, needs to
have a little room for a batch file or a scratch file or something that it can write to,
during its operation, such that it will work from a hard disk or a floppy but not
necessarily from a CD. (If this last step had failed to restore the Windows files to
C, my only other idea was to copy C_IMAGE.PQI from the CD to drive D and
use DriveImage to install it from there to C. In other words, the question then
would have been whether the image file, as well as the DriveImage program
files, would work better if it were located on something other than the CD.)
79. Possible Hard Disk Problem. I left DriveImage and rebooted from the CD. I
got the BTDOSM.SYS error again, but otherwise the CD proceeded along its
ordinary boot path. This showed me that, at least in my BIOS, the hard disk tries
to override the CD-ROM but not the floppy. (See point 78.) I cold-rebooted and
set the BIOS to boot from drive C, so as to see whether C_IMAGE.PQI really had
reinstalled Windows on this hard drive. Sure enough, I got the blue-and-white
Windows 98 startup screen. But then it froze there, just as it had done before.
(See point 72.) So evidently this problem hadn't been related to the applications
software I was installing on the previous go-round; evidently it was a problem
related to the basic Windows installation. In other words, it seemed that either
the original Windows installation was bad, or that this hard disk wasn't taking it
very well. I belatedly realized that perhaps some of the problems I had had with
XCOPY (see point 20) and Linux (see point 59), and was now having with the

47

Windows installation, might have been due to a hardware problem with the hard
disk, not to mere software imperfections. I was fairly sure (but not positive) that
the Fujitsu hard drive that was now my primary hard disk had also been my
primary hard drive previously. (See point 59.) I didn't know whether a problem
with the drive would be related just to the execution of programs, in which case I
might be able to use this Fujitsu as a secondary hard drive to store data on, or
whether it signaled instead that the drive was failing and should not be used for
data either.
80. A List of Files with FILELIST. Someone online had been kind enough to
create a QBASIC program called FILELIST.BAS (with an accompanying
FILELIST.BAT program to run it) that would let me produce a detailed listing of
every file on my disk, and I had modified it for my purposes. (For details, search
for that on Deja.com, with ray-woodcock@usa.net as author, or -- if this link still
works -- see
http://x41.deja.com/[ST_rn=ps]/getdoc.xp?AN=571703537&search=thread&C
ONTEXT=947777113.818872330&HIT_CONTEXT=947777113.818872330&hitnum
=7.) (Note: if you get a "File not found" error, make sure FILELIST.BAT is
pointing to the directory in which you have put FILELIST.BAS. If you don't do
BASIC programming, I understand there are other utilities that may help you
with some of these same processes.) I decided to use this program to compare
the files that had now been restored to this Fujitsu 3 GB hard drive, against the
files that had existed on the original Western Digital 3 GB hard drive from which
I had created C_IMAGE.PQI in the first place. (See point 19.) I put
FILELIST.BAS and FILELIST.BAT onto a floppy on the AMD machine. I warmrebooted the PENTIUM computer from the same Win98 Startup Floppy that I
had used to make the CD bootable. (See point 57.) I didn't get the BTDOSM.SYS
error, so perhaps that was something that occurred only when rebooting from
CD. (See point 78.) I looked at C briefly, and, sure enough, there were a bunch
of files there. I copied the FILELIST programs from the floppy to a folder called
DOS_UTIL on hard drive partition E. (On E, I had put most of the upgrades that
I had brought over from CD. See point 70. DOS_UTIL would eventually migrate
to drive D. See point 103.) I typed EDIT FILELIST.BAS (and later .BAT) to
change these programs slightly so they would read and write from E rather than
C. I typed FILELIST and got a "Bad command or file name" error. I found that I
had not yet brought over a copy of my old 1991 version of QBASIC from the
AMD machine, so I did that and re-ran it. Later, I found a more recent version.
(See point 141(q).) It gave me a listing that contained no long filenames, which
reconfirmed that this was a difference between the so-called "Windows 98" that
existed on these boot floppies and the full-blown Windows 98, whose DOS boxes
and command prompts did produce long filenames.

48

81. Inexplicable Freezes. To produce a good file list, it appeared I would have to
connect the Fujitsu drive to a system capable of booting into full-blown Windows
98. As I say, I had intended, anyway, to compare the Windows installation on
the Fujitsu against the pure installation on the Western Digital. So I decided that
now was a good time to connect the Western Digital as my primary master hard
drive in the BIOS setup, make this Fujitsu my primary slave, and make the 1 GB
drive a secondary slave (with CD-ROM as secondary master) entirely dedicated
to serving as my drive H swap area. (See point 44.) I moved the drives around,
changed their jumpers, recabled them, found that I would need a Y cable for the
power connector because I had run out of power supply lines, fished out the Y
connector that I had obtained at Radio Shack a few years earlier, booted the
system into drive C on the pristine Windows installation without a hitch, and
tried to use Windows Explorer to move the upgrades from SWAP to another
partition. The system froze, and I wondered if it was because I had chosen, as
the target, a partition on the troubled Fujitsu drive. I rebooted; the system went
through SCANDISK to verify that I had not screwed up anything by forcing an
improper shutdown; and then my previously perfect Windows installation froze
before the bootup was complete. I did a cold reboot (see point 21); the system
went into Safe Mode; I immediately rebooted; and it booted successfully in
Normal Mode. I looked at the contents of each partition in Windows Explorer.
They all seemed OK, except the one that had been a target now had no Recycled
folder. I used Windows Explorer to move the files from there to a different
partition. Not all of them would fit. I tried to move the remainder to another
partition, but evidently chose another partition on the Fujitsu drive, because it
froze again. (Needless to say, I was beginning to wonder if the Fujitsu drive was
dying.) It was difficult to tell which partitions were on which drive. The first
two were in alternating order (i.e., C was the first partition on the Western
Digital, D was the first partition on the Fujitsu, etc.), probably because the
partitions on the Fujitsu weren't all logical drives. One of them was a primary
partition, and I understand that can cause this alternating-drive situation. I tried
again, and this time managed to move the files to a partition that did not cause
the system to freeze. Most of them, that is. With 15 seconds left in the move
process, the system froze again. I cold-rebooted and the system ran SCANDISK.
It froze on the SWAP partition (drive H) from which I had been trying to move
files. This presented an interesting thought. Maybe I was having problems with
the older 1 GB Seagate as well as the Fujitsu. I booted from a floppy and looked
at the contents of the Seagate. It showed a DIR listing with no problem. The files
that I had been trying to move appeared to be gone. It looked like they had
arrived in the other partition OK. I started Norton Disk Doctor and told it to
check this SWAP partition. It found no problems. I made a list of the partitions
that contained no files I needed to keep, and then, to simplify things, I went into
the DOS version of PartitionMagic, deleted three partitions, and resized the
remaining partitions to use up the free space. But PartitionMagic and the system

49

froze when it got to the 1 GB Seagate drive. So the freezes were not just a
Windows phenomenon! I cold-rebooted from the floppy and used FDISK to
remove all partitions from the 1 GB drive and create a new logical drive there,
and formatted that 1 GB logical drive with FORMAT /V. I fired up
PartitionMagic again to see how things looked in the wake of its crash a few
minutes earlier. Everything looked OK.
82. Converting and Resizing Partitions. I decided this would be a good time to
convert the primary partition on the Fujitsu drive to logical drives under an
extended partition, so that the drive letters would fall into consecutive order
instead of giving me the alternating-drive problem just mentioned. I did that by
shrinking the size of that primary partition in PartitionMagic, using the extra
space for a logical drive, and then booting into Windows and using Windows
Explorer to move the files from the one to the other. These operations, not
involving the 1 GB drive, caused no freezeup. When I booted into Windows, it
recognized new hardware, probably related to the memory that I had changed
since creating C_IMAGE.PQI (see point 67) or else to the fact that I now had
three hard drives connected. I logged on and registered with Microsoft to
download the needed drivers during this process. I rebooted and got a "CMOS
checksum error" from the BIOS. I hit DEL and changed the BIOS to boot from
the hard disk first. Windows froze during reboot. I shut down the machine and
took out the 1 GB drive. Windows went into Safe Mode on reboot. When it was
done booting, I immediately hit Start | Shut Down | Restart. It booted into
Normal Mode without any further freezing. I clicked on Start | Shut Down |
Restart and held down F8 right after the BIOS recognized the hard disks, so as to
get my choice of the mode in which I wanted to reboot. (Otherwise, it would
ordinarily keep right on going into Windows 98.) I chose 5 ("Command prompt
only"). This gave me Real DOS, the kind that doesn't show long filenames, the
kind you don't get in a DOS box within Windows -- the kind that I think you
have to use to run the DOS versions of PartitionMagic et al. (I was running those
versions simply because I did not yet want to install any more software on my C
drive.) (I hadn't tried it, but I had heard that you could choose Command
prompt and then edit your C:\MSDOS.SYS file -- after turning off its -S -H -R
attributes with ATTRIB (see point 34), and then turning them back on when
you're done -- so that its BootGUI=1 line would instead read BootGUI=0, and if
you do this the default bootup will be DOS rather than Win98. (See point
120(al).) In this case, you can go back into Windows by typing WIN at the
command prompt.) I went to D and confirmed that there were no longer any
files in it. I ran PartitionMagic, deleted that primary partition, and created and
resized partitions as necessary to put me back to the original six-partition
scheme. (See point 32.) I created the H:\TEMP and H:\Temporary Internet Files
directories that Windows would be looking for (see point 44). Also, now that I
had Windows installed on C, and saw that it occupied less than 500 MB of the

50

1,000 MB I had given it, I reduced the size of that partition to 700 MB -- hoping
that C:\Windows\Temp would never need more than 200 MB to spare, or else
that it would know enough to use the SWAP drive if it did -- and reallocated the
rest to the DATA partition on the first hard drive. Since I had no further freezes,
I concluded that the old Seagate 1 GB drive had been the culprit and that it
would not be useful even as a data disk. I labeled it as "probably defective" and
put it on a shelf. That, however, did not fully exonerate the Fujitsu, since the
Seagate had not been connected when I had experienced some of my problems.
(See point 79.)
83. CRC Error. PartitionMagic completed all of the changes just described
except one: when it was resizing the DATA partition on the first hard drive, it
gave me "Error # 45. CRC error in data." This error did not appear in the
manual. It occurred on the Western Digital drive, not the Fujitsu, and it seemed
to occur when PartitionMagic was trying to move files as part of the resizing
task. The files being moved were a small number of program updates. I could
have deleted them and restored them again from the CD (see point 70), but I had
devoted a fair amount of time to sorting them out and rearranging some of them,
and I preferred not to have to do that again.
84. Fixing Bad Sectors with Norton Disk Doctor. I wondered whether some of
the problems I had been having with hard disks pertained not to hardware, but
to a corrupt file. I ran SCANDISK /AUTOFIX /NOSAVE /NOSUMMARY on
drive E, a partition named DATA. It said it had fixed the file allocation tables,
and it paused for quite a while during its check of the file system -- so long, in
fact, that I exited and ran Norton Disk Doctor instead. Norton found the free
space that had not yet been assigned to a partition, and offered to revive it, but I
said no, I'd just as soon leave that to PartitionMagic. Finally, I figured out what
the error was -- PartitionMagic was trying to move itself! I exited
PartitionMagic, copied the PQMAGIC files to another drive, ran PQMAGIC from
there, and, to my surprise, got the same Error # 45. I rebooted to Windows, used
Windows Explorer to move some of these files, and the system froze. I rebooted
and, even though the BIOS was set to look at C first, it looked to the CDROM
and A. I tried again, and the same thing happened. I cold-rebooted, and this
time Windows booted properly. I opened a DOS box and used COPY to make
copies of the files that I was trying to move away from the E partition. It moved
four of the six files I was trying to move, but then it froze and gave me a blue
screen with "Disk Write Error -- Unable to write to disk in drive E. Data or files
may be lost." This led to a Windows "Fatal Exception" screen, so I rebooted.
Again, I had to cold-reboot to get Windows to boot from the hard disk; and even
then, it froze during the boot process. I rebooted from the floppy. At this point I
discovered that I had been confused. The change in drive letters had gotten me
copying files to the troublesome E drive, rather than away from it. When I typed

51

CHKDSK /F at the E: prompt, the system froze. I rebooted and ran SCANDISK
E: /AUTOFIX /NOSAVE /NOSUMMARY again, and this time it whipped right
through it. I didn't want to use DOS commands to move many files, because it
seemed that they would eliminate the long filenames. (See point 23(c).) So I
used XCOPY only to move DOS program files, and then DELTREE to remove
those files from E. This part went OK. I rebooted into Windows (Safe Mode)
from the hard disk, immediately rebooted into Normal Mode, and used
Windows Explorer to move the remaining files from E. Within a few seconds, I
got "Error Copying File: Cannot copy [filename]: The system cannot read from
the specified device." I rebooted, hit F8 after the BIOS recognized the hard disks,
and chose "5. Command prompt only." I ran PartitionMagic from the DOS
prompt. This time, I created a separate temporary partition with the free space
on this Western Digital hard disk, so that Norton Disk Doctor would not offer to
revive that space (since I was not sure what effect that might have, but thought it
might involve sticking that free space back into one of the other partitions). The
PartitionMagic operation succeeded and rebooted me; I again chose the
Command prompt option. I saw that the DATA partition was now drive F,
instead of E. I ran Norton Disk Doctor and diagnosed both E (the temporary
partition) and F (the DATA partition), using Norton's normal test (not the
thorough one). It found and fixed numerous problems on the second partition,
and marked many bad blocks. I ran Norton again just to be sure, and this time I
ran it on all partitions on both disks. It detected no other errors. I rebooted into
Windows. I tarried during the boot process, leaving SCANDISK to decide to
start itself and rectify errors that it had identified on drive F. Apparently when
Norton marks bad clusters, it does so in a way that SCANDISK can detect,
whereas SCANDISK was unable to detect these particular bad clusters by itself,
without Norton's aid. SCANDISK did not mark any additional clusters bad and
did not remove Norton's "bad" marking from any. On the other hand, during its
scan, SCANDISK informed me that some data was stored in an area of drive F
that was probably about to fail, and offered to move this data to "an undamaged
area of drive F." I accepted this offer, which Norton had not made. SCANDISK
sat there for a long time on one cluster and then finally said, "ScanDisk
encountered a data error while reading the FAT entry for cluster 16384. This
error prevents ScanDisk from fixing this drive." I okayed out of that and got
another message: "At least one area of drive F has sustained physical damage.
Although such damage might be caused by an isolated incident such as a power
failure, it is often a sign of impending hardware failure. ... You should run
ScanDisk daily for a while; if more physical errors occur, have this drive checked
by a qualified computer hardware technician." So it wasn't clear that I could fix
it by reformatting or other software remedies. But I thought maybe I should try.
I left the program and got an instruction to run ScanDisk for Windows that said,
"Press any key to continue starting Windows." I did this. Windows booted. Not
wanting to alter any more Windows program files than necessary at this stage, I

52

went directly into Windows Explorer and tried again to remove the files from
this DATA partition. The operation succeeded. I rebooted into real DOS with F8
("Command prompt only" -- see above), ran PartitionMagic, and told it to delete
these E and F partitions, create a new E ("DATA") partition, and format it. It took
a long time. I could hear it grinding away, and I knew it was finding bad sectors.
PartitionMagic finished and rebooted. I went back into real DOS, ran Norton
again, and pointed it at E. This time, I set Norton to do five repetitions of Disk
Doctor's "Diagnose Disk" test on the thorough setting, which the computer
estimated would take 3.5 hours. It finished and found no additional problems.
Then I ran Disk Doctor's "Surface Test" on all drives, on the normal setting -- but
I used the thorough setting on E. These tests found no additional problems. I
decided that my drives were probably not failing, that the damage on E (on the
Western Digital) was probably from a one-time event, and that the problems
with the Fujitsu were due more to incompatibility that might render it unusable
for a program disk but still might make it usable for a data disk. I noticed that
the bad blocks on E appeared towards the end of the disk, and I thought to
myself that if that section of the disk produced more bad blocks in future scans, I
could use PartitionMagic to create a separate partition for them in the "Hidden"
format, so as not to disturb the order of my other drive letters.
85. Comparing the CD Against the Original. I now felt confident enough about
my disks to compare what I had gotten from my CD re-installation of Win98
against the original installation located on drive C on the Western Digital disk. I
rebooted into Windows on the hard disk, so as to have access to long filenames.
I deleted all files from C:\Windows\Temp and then emptied the Recycle Bin on
drive C. (The files contained in these two places would just add clutter to what I
was about to do.) Then I opened a DOS box and, using the FILELIST program
(see point 80), I created a list of all files on drive C, which contained the original,
hopefully still somewhat pure, installation of Windows 98 on the Western Digital
drive. (See point 17.) I renamed this list from FILELIST.TXT to WDIGLIST.TXT.
I also created a list of files that I had restored from the CD, that had been on the
primary partition of the Fujitsu drive. (See point 67.) This one was still named
FILELIST.TXT. I typed COPY *.TXT COMBLIST. This gave me one long
COMBLIST file combining the two different file lists. Since the FILELIST
program produces full-path directory listings (e.g.,
G:\FOLDER\FILENAME.DOC), I didn't need to keep the two lists separate to
figure out which files came from which disks; the first letter in each full
pathname (G, in that example) would tell me. I renamed COMBLIST to be
COMBLIST.TXT, copied it to a floppy, carried it to the AMD machine, and tried
to import it into an Excel spreadsheet (choose Files of Type | All Files (or Text
Files) in File | Open). Excel got partway through the process of parsing the file
into separate columns, and then returned the error message, "The system cannot
read from the specified device." It turned out to be a problem with the floppy; I

53

reformatted the floppy and recopied the file, and this time it worked. Excel gave
me a spreadsheet containing a total of 11,538 data lines. To compare, I went to
the PENTIUM computer and ran the command DIR C:\ /S /A/4. This ran for a
while and then summarized by saying that the Western Digital drive, with my
original semi-pure Win98 installation, had a total of 5,772 files containing
427,889,664 bytes in 1,045 directories. I did the same for G: (where the Fujitsu
installation had landed) and got the conclusion that the CD had restored 5,766
files with 532,362,393 bytes in 1,043 directories. The sum of 5,772 plus 5,766 was
11,538, which matched the number of data lines in the Excel spreadsheet. So it
seemed that the spreadsheet did contain a data line for each file on drives C and
G. Turning to that spreadsheet, I added a column heading row. I also inserted
an Index column and numbered it (Edit | Fill | Series, with a 1 in the first cell),
so that I could restore the spreadsheet to the original order in which FILELIST
had produced it. I extracted the drive letter, and the filename without the drive
letter, into separate columns. (In the cells in the drive letter column, put a
formula like this: =LEFT(F2,1), where F is the column containing the filename
and 2 is the number of the row. Then "freeze" that value against subsequent
changes in column F by selecting all the values in this column (hold Shift while
pressing End and then Down) and then hitting Edit | Copy and then Edit | Paste
Special | Values | OK. Create another column for Filename and extract the
filename without the drive letter. (Example: =MID(F2,3,512).) Freeze its values
too.) I sorted the entire table by the Filename column and secondarily by the
Drive column. This put filenames from drives C and G right next to each other,
in the order of C first, G second. I inserted a Column called "Compare" and
entered formulas into it. Then I undertook the following analyses:
(a) Spreadsheet Comparison of Alternating Filenames. I used a formula to verify
that the files listed on drives C and G were alternating. For example, if drive C
had a file called AUTOEXEC.BAT, then drive G should have one too. (Example:
with Drive Letter as the E column and Compare as the F column, the formula in
cell F3 was like this:
=IF(E2="C",IF(E3="G","","ERROR"),IF(E2<>"G","ERROR",IF(E3="C","","ERROR"))
), and I copied that to all cells after F3. Then, to isolate the offending cases, I used
AutoFilter (i.e., select a cell on the table heading row and then use Data | Filter |
Autofilter and select "ERROR" at the arrow button on the Compare column.)
Disregarding files of size zero, this showed the list of files on drive C that did not
appear on drive G, or vice versa. First, I saw why drive G was 100 MB larger
than drive C: it contained a large WIN386.SWP swap file (see point 44) that
could easily be deleted and recreated as needed. On the other hand, drive C
contained several \WINDOWS\CATROOT files that drive G did not contain.
According to http://www.acit.com.tw/acercare/talk98/3/win98.html,
CATROOT contains catalog files that store information regarding your drivers.
You have a catalog file for each driver package. The catalog file contains a

54

Microsoft digital signature confirming that the driver has passed testing by
Windows Hardware Quality Labs. I probably got extra CATROOT files when
Windows installed those extra couple of drivers. (See point 82.) In this sense, the
version of Windows on drive G was more pure (i.e., less hardware-specific) than
the version on drive C. Presumably the same tinkering had caused the creation
of three other files on drive C that did not exist on drive G, namely,
C:\SETUPLOG.TXT, C:\WINDOWS\REGTLIB.EXE, and
C:\WINDOWS\WINFILE.EXE. But that couldn't be, because the file dates were
from long before this past week. I thought, however, that the explanation might
be that Windows extracted these previously existing files from its CAB files in
the C:\WIN98 directory (see point 31), rather than creating them from scratch,
during its setup process. That left just one file on my list of files that appeared on
one drive but not the other. This file, G:\WINDOWS\WNBOOTNG.STS, is a
Signature file that apparently indicates that system startup has failed. If it is
present, Windows 95 (and presumably 98) will boot in Safe Mode. See
http://www.jenntel.com/tech/Win95/gtshoot.htm. Reviewing the
circumstances surrounding the creation of the CD (from which the contents of
drive G were created), it appeared that I had indeed booted the system before
making the CD. (See point 55.) So I couldn't explain the presence of this
WNBOOTNG.STS file, but it didn't worry me by itself, since I recalled being
pretty happy with the state of the Windows installation when I made the image
file and burned the CD. Then, on closer examination, I saw, from the file date,
that this WNBOOTNG.STS file had been created on drive G just a day earlier,
after I had restored from the CD to the Fujitsu. (See point 67.) So it did not
reflect a problem with the CD itself. Perhaps it was created automatically, to flag
Windows system files that have not yet been booted. Finally, having thus
isolated the lines in the spreadsheet that corresponded to files existing on drive C
but not G or vice versa, I created a copy of the spreadsheet, named it
"SYNCLIST.XLS," and deleted these lines from that copy, so as to focus on other
kinds of dissimilarities among the files on drives C and G.
(b) Spreadsheet Analysis of File Sizes. I removed AutoFilter and put a different
formula in the Compare column. This time, I was comparing to make sure that
files with the same full pathnames had the same sizes. (The formula:
=IF(G7<>G6,"",IF(D7=D6,"","ERROR")).) Once again, I AutoFiltered for ERROR.
I ignored (1) CATROOT files (see point 85(a)), (2) the FILELIST.TXT file that
produced the spreadsheet, (3) a few files whose names made clear that they were
related to the installation of my modem (which were hardware-specific files and
therefore would probably change automatically and/or be easy to change (e.g.,
"Standard 33600 bps Modem.log."), (4) the C:\BOOTLOG files that presumably
do nothing more than their name implies, and (5) the
C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM.DAT and C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM.DB files -- which, I
believe, were Registry files, and therefore understandably changed when I

55

installed my modem. This left me with two C:\WINDOWS files that differed in
size between C and G. Those files were SCHEDLOG.TXT and
SHELLICONCACHE. I wouldn't know, but the names seemed to suggest, again,
that these files were naturally adjusted when I installed the modem or otherwise
tinkered with the hardware. In short, it seemed that the only differences
between C and G in this category were that a bit of installation and adjustment
had occurred on the one disk but not yet on the other.
(c) Spreadsheet Comparison of File Dates. I removed AutoFilter again and put
yet another formula in the Compare column, to detect files that had been
modified on different dates. (I didn't worry about different modification times of
day because the dates seemed likely to capture the differences, given that the two
installations had occurred several days apart.) (Formula:
=IF(G3<>G2,"",IF(B3=B2,"","ERROR")).) Filtering once again for ERROR, I
mostly got files discussed in points (a) and (b). The remaining altered files, all in
C:\WINDOWS, were as follows: NDISLOG.TXT, RAYWOODC.PWL,
SYSTEM.CB and .INI, ttfCACHE, and USER.DAT. At this point, I realized that I
really would not have any way of telling, from this file comparison, if one of
these files were corrupted. Thus, while this file comparison was informative, it
was not giving me total insight.
86. Emptying, Testing, and Restoring the Drive. By this time, I had gone
through numerous gyrations with the formerly pure Windows 98 installation on
my Western Digital drive, seeing it freeze and rebooting into Safe Mode to fix it,
and so forth. (See points 81-85.) If the differences between drives C and G (see
point 85) suggested that there was any corruption on either drive, my bet was
that it would be on C, which had gone through all this turmoil. In other words, I
had now become more confident of the purity of my Windows installation as
captured on CD than I was of the purity of the Windows installation that
presently existed on either of my hard drives. Therefore, I decided to start again
from CD. First, I rebooted, set the BIOS to boot from the CD, and emptied off
drive C with FORMAT C: /V, leaving off the /S switch because I did not want to
transfer system files, which would screw up the boot process. (See point 77.)
Then I ran a thorough test on drive C with Norton Disk Doctor (see points 78 and
84); it found no errors. I had learned that DriveImage worked best when run
from the hard drive (see point 78), and it was one of the many DOS utilities that I
had loaded onto another partition (specifically, drive E). (See point 64.) So I ran
DriveImage from that partition to restore C_IMAGE.PQI from the CD to drive C
-- this time using the other of the two copies I had made of the CD holding
C_IMAGE.PQI (see point 67), just to make sure it worked OK. And as far as I
could see, it did.

56

87. The Archive Bit Concept. When DriveImage was done, it wanted to reboot,
so I let it; but I intercepted when the BIOS started to boot and changed the reboot
to the floppy rather than the CD, because of the finding that the hard disk would
intervene and not let the CD boot, if Windows was bootable from the hard disk.
(See point 77.) I intercepted because I wanted an exact list of the files, the way
they were installed from the CD, before letting Windows look at hardware and
configure itself. So I booted from the floppy and ran FILELIST. (See point 80.)
Then I remembered that this list would have no long filenames, and anyway, it
had been created from a CD that captured a Windows installation that itself had
been booted, and that therefore unavoidably had some hardware configuration
information in it. So instead, I tried working with the archive bit approach. The
archive bit, also called the archive attribute, is one of a number of attributes:
read-only, hidden, system, and directory are the others I know about, and I think
there are others besides. Windows and DOS turn on the archive bit whenever a
file is modified. I figured that, if I started with all the archive bits off, then it
would be easy to tell which files had changed after that: they would be the only
ones with archive bits on. This would have helped during the spreadsheet
comparison of file lists (see point 85), at least for purposes of making it easier to
identify the files that had changed during bootup or subsequent tinkering. It
began to seem that I should have changed the archive bit before making the CD.
Then again, I would have been reluctant to tinker with my perfect Windows
installation in this way. So I decided to do it now.
88. DOS Tools to Shut Off Archive Bits. Shutting off the archive bit was not as
easy as it looked at first glance. I started by running ATTRIB -A C:\*.* /S. It ran
for a long time and then began giving me error messages that said "Not resetting
hidden file" for a number of files. Browsing in Deja.com, I found some
indications that the problem might be that these particular files had other file
attributes set, and that in such cases you had to turn all the attributes off at the
same time and then turn the others back on (leaving the archive bit off, of
course). Moreover, some people said that your ATTRIB command had to list
these attributes in a particular order. One person said they had to go in the order
R,A,S,H, but I found that it worked OK if you just followed the order shown by
the DIR /A command (i.e., R,H,S,A, naturally ignoring the D attribute since I
didn't care to change any directories into files!); and other comments suggested
that you just needed to enter them all on the same line, regardless of order.
Anyway, the first file that came up with a "Not resetting hidden file" message
was in the C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM folder. This was odd, because then I typed
DIR /AA /S /V /P, and the first directory shown in which there was still a file
with the archive attribute on was the C:\MYDOCU~1 folder. Apparently the /S
command in ATTRIB did not process directories in the same order as in DIR.
Responding to another online tip, I went to
http://oak.oakland.edu/simtel.net/msdos/dirutl.html (other Simtel sites would

57

evidently do too -- just use the power search pages in AltaVista or Northern
Light and look for URL:SIMTEL) and downloaded CHATT.ZIP on the AMD
machine, unzipped it, and transferred it by floppy (only 17K!) to the PENTIUM
machine. The tip was correct: this was a handy, full-screen DOS utility that
simplified the task of changing attributes manually. What I wanted, however,
was an automated way to do it, since DIR C:\*.* /AA /V /S told me that drive C
still had 217 files with the attribute bit set, scattered across dozens of different
folders. (Reminder: DOSKEY simplifies retyping of the same commands. See
point 20.) Hunting for them manually and changing them manually in CHATT
was not my idea of a good time. Tinkering further, I found that my problems
were limited to hidden files. That is, ATTRIB -A would work just fine to shut off
the attribute bit on files that happened to have R or S bits on as well. Thus, the
ones that were causing problems were only those that had both the hidden and
attribute bits set, regardless of how their read-only and system bits were set. I
did this with DIR C:\ /AA /AH /V /S /P. When it showed me a file with both
H and A bits set, I used CTRL-C or CTRL-BREAK to kill the DIR operation and
then used the appropriate set of ATTRIB commands (e.g., ATTRIB -H -A
[filename] followed by ATTRIB +H [filename]). (During this process, I noticed
those seemingly useless MSCREATE.DIR files all over my hard disk that, in the
past, I had felt comfortable deleting, since they had a file size of zero and seemed
to have no purpose. Browsing online, I found that many other users were doing
the same thing. I came across one comment, however, that suggested that
various Microsoft programs use those MSCREATE.DIR files when installing or
updating software. So this was one category of files, with two or three archive
bits set, that I had to deal with even though I might have preferred to delete
them.) This process was very slow, and since it seemed likely that I would want
to tinker with archive bits again someday, I decided to automate it. I did this by
making a modified version of FILELIST (see point 80), called LISTBITS, that
would work with DIR C:\ /AA /AH /V /S. I converted the resulting list of files
(i.e., those files whose A and H attributes were turned on) to a spreadsheet that I
modified using the technique described in point 80. (Note: when using
FILELIST, you may notice that the alignment of items in a DIR listing in a
Windows 98 DOS box is not exactly the same as the alignment of items in a DIR
listing in real DOS -- even when it's the real DOS included with Windows 98.) In
that spreadsheet, I deleted unnecessary columns and sorted the list so that the
files with both hidden and archive bits would be together. Then I modified each
filename on the list so that it now began with ATTRIB -H -A, and for the ones
that actually did have the hidden bits set, I made another set of these lines in
which I changed the -H to a +H, and put that set of lines at the end of the list.
There were two files that my modified FILELIST program had named without
showing any file attributes; I decided to see what the problem was with those
files while fixing their archive bits manually. (I hadn't minded doing this
because I wanted the experience in using BASIC (to program FILELIST and

58

LISTBITS), but as it turned out there were really only a few programs with both
the H and A bits set.) I exported the resulting list to a text file, left Excel,
renamed the text file to be X.BAT, copied it to the PENTIUM computer, and ran
it. It refused to change the bits on a file that also happened to have its system bit
set, telling me that I had to adjust my approach to take account of all four bits (R,
S, H, and A). I revised LISTBITS accordingly, ran it again, and manually shut off
the archive bits on the files that remained, making sure to reset the other bits
after turning off A. I ran LISTBITS once again, and it showed that the only files
left on C with archive bits on were the files created by LISTBITS or FILELIST
themselves.
89. Successful Reboot After Restoring. I rebooted, set the BIOS to boot from the
hard disk, and cold-rebooted. Windows loaded successfully. While booting, it
detected certain items of hardware. Immediately after booting, now that I was in
Win98 and had access to long filenames, I opened a DOS window and ran
FILELIST (see point 80), to get a complete reference list of files that I could use
later to determine what files had changed from the original. I saved this as
PURELIST.TXT. I turned off the archive bits for the files that FILELIST itself
created, and then I used LISTBITS to make a separate list of all files that had their
attribute bits on. These bits had gotten turned on during the process of booting
Windows. LISTBITS told me that booting had changed three files, all in the
C:\WINDOWS folder, namely, NDISLOG.TXT, SYSTEM.INI, and
SCHEDLOG.TXT.
Considering Windows 98 Second Edition ("Win98SE") and Windows 2000
90. Win98SE vs. W2K. You might wonder why I did all this work with the
original Windows 98, rather than Win98SE or Windows 2000. Here are my
thoughts on those questions:
(a) I'm sure I would have used Win98SE if I'd had a copy of it on hand when I
started this process. I did not fully and carefully consider it at that time, partly
because the project took shape and assumed larger-than-life dimensions only
after I got into it. In part, I may have been in denial: reinstalling Windows has
always seemed like a true ordeal to me, and I probably just wanted it to be done
with and go away, and therefore was probably not doing my best thinking on the
subject. Of course, I also had no desire to spend money on something I didn't
really need. That's how I saw it, and in some ways it still is.
(b) I had kept vaguely in touch with the general outlines of Win98SE since it had
first emerged in May 1999. The reviewers seemed to be saying that it was
essentially a collection of bug fixes that a person could download for free from
the Windows Update site. See e.g.,

59

http://activewin.com/reviews/software/utils/win98se/win98se_1.shtml and
http://www.rivazone.com/userreview/win98se.html and
http://cwsapps.tower.net.au/reviews/mspacks-ms98se.html. I had been
steadily downloading updates from that site, and therefore didn't feel much
inclination to wipe off my hard disk just for the privilege of reinstalling the same
stuff over again from a Win98SE CD. These reviewers were virtually unanimous
in saying that the person who had already downloaded the latest updates
probably wouldn't gain much by going to Win98SE.
(c) To some extent, I disagree with some of those reviews on one point: if I had
been writing in June 1999, as some of them were, knowing what I know now, I
would probably recommend buying the CD, for a lousy $25, rather than
spending hours to download the same patches and fixes from the Windows
Update site. This recommendation would vary, however, according to whether
the user had a really fast modem, or was tying up his/her primary computer
with these hours of downloads, or was using a Connection Keeper type of utility
to let the whole thing run in the background. (See point 48.)
(d) At this particular point in the game, having worked out the whole process of
copying my Windows installation to CD and restoring it to disk, I had the
belated sense that I really owed it to myself to do it right, all the way through,
and start again from the beginning, with a nice, fresh Win98SE CD and all its bug
fixes. But then I realized that Win98SE, finished in May 1999, did not have all the
latest bug fixes after all. Bugs had continued to surface. See e.g.,
http://www.zdnet.com/zdtv/screensavers/answerstips/story/0,3656,2288864,
00.html. Microsoft had continued to develop fixes on through the end of 1999,
and I had continued to download them. In that respect, Win98SE would be a
step backwards and would have required me to re-download those subsequent
fixes. It was indeed a cleaner solution to start from a CD that had many of these
updates, but it was still not an entirely clean solution.
(e) On the morning when I was writing these words, I was tempted to buy a copy
of Win98SE, in part, because I happened to have a $31.93 credit from the local
CompUSA store, thanks to having returned a floppy drive I didn't need, after
Computer Surplus Outlet in Las Vegas decided to get off their butts and ship the
floppy drive that I had ordered from them a month earlier. (See point 59.) Then
again, I supposed I wasn't actually required to use up the CompUSA credit
immediately. (See point 183.)
(f) I wasn't happy with the system freeze that I got after installing Office 97 SR-1
(see point 92). But so far, that freeze had not recurred, and Win98 on the
PENTIUM computer had stayed up and running for approximately 24 hours
since then. I did not know whether Win98SE would fix any such freeze, or

60

whether Office 97 SR-2b had fixed it, or whether (as something that had
happened the first time around as well -- see point 72) it was just a flaw induced
by SR-1 and/or SR-2b that Windows itself had repaired by drawing on its own
internal backup copy of its Registry files.
(g) I was a bit curious about how the file list would actually change if I installed
Win98SE. I was curious because I had begun to get into this project, even though
in a larger sense it was frustrating the hell out of me. Then again, I could not
provide any clear way in which I would use this knowledge about the change in
the list of installed files, other than possibly to increase my general familiarity
with the files that Windows uses.
(h) The one notable improvement offered in Win98SE that, it seemed, was not
going to be offered as a downloadable Windows update was Internet Connection
Sharing (ICS), which enables two computers to share a single phone line. See
http://www.zdnet.com/pcmag/features/win98_2ed_preview/index.html.
Since I had two computers, this feature interested me. It certainly made more
sense to get it for free as part of Win98SE than to spend $100 or more on a
commercial package that could do this. Then again, I found one reviewer who
said that Win98SE's ICS is useful but it can screw up your Dial-Up Networking.
See http://www.billortlieb.com/ocs/tech.htm. Another reviewer found it
strange that ICS was included in an operating system oriented toward
standalone computer users. See
http://www.zdnet.com/computershopper/stories/reviews/0,7171,2316376,00.h
tml. I looked for freeware that could give me ICS capability on Win98 (not SE)
computers, and eventually found the Proxy program by AnalogX. See
http://www.analogx.com/contents/download/network/proxy.htm. I
downloaded it, but haven't yet tried it. I also found that evidently I would need
to spend $20-30 for Ethernet cards to connect the PCs. I have tentatively decided
that this feature is not really important to me.
(i) One reviewer said that the upgrade from Win98 to Win98SE had taken him
and his customers from two or three freezeups a day to none. See
http://www.integrity.net/review_windows98_2nd.htm. I had still been getting
several freezeups a day in Win98 on the AMD machine, despite having
downloaded all the latest patches and updates. Then again, my number of
freezeups depended heavily on what software I was running. Freezes were
reasonably rare -- days apart -- when I was just doing audio editing in Cool Edit
2000, which was part of my reason for loving that program. The reviewer didn't
say whether he had spent the hours downloading all the latest patches, and it
sounded like he might not have.

61

(k) I realized that some system instability, in either Win98 or Win98SE, might
stem from the problem that I had seen repeatedly mentioned in newsgroups:
Win98 accumulates a lot of useless old files that slow it down and clog its
arteries, and it becomes necessary or advisable to wipe off your hard disk every
year or so and reinstall it -- especially if you're one of those people (like me) who
can't resist downloading lots of freebies and trying them out. See e.g.,
http://www.zdnet.com/zdtv/callforhelp/howto/jump/0,3652,2217117,00.html.
From this perspective, the important thing seemed to be, not to have a slightly
more refined original Windows 98 installation, but to have a solid one, stored on
a CD in a form that would allow me to reinstall with a minimum of pain -- and in
that regard, having done the downloads and configured the system, I was way
ahead of where I would be if I now went back and spent extra days on the whole
process of installing, downloading, configuring, burning a CD, shutting off
archive bits, creating a file list for future reference, etc., as detailed in this essay.
The real point seemed to be that Win98SE would have been a better place to
start, but that in the end I probably wound up in more or less the same place
without it.
(l) Regarding Windows 2000. When I began this project in early January 2000,
Windows 2000 was still a month and a half away from its official release date -which was, I believe, February 17. In the past, Microsoft had sometimes
postponed its release dates, so I was not entirely confident that the February date
would hold. Much more important was the fact that, in my experience,
Microsoft frequently releases its programs to the public in a bug-riddled form
that other software producers would consider beta quality. As the worst
example, I had downloaded Internet Explorer 4.0 immediately after its release -in late 1997, I believe -- and had ultimately had to reformat my hard disk and
reinstall everything from scratch. Generally, I felt that the best approach with
Windows software was to allow everyone else to become furious with it for six to
twelve months, and then install it if it still seems worthwhile -- preferably after
Microsoft has released its first major bug-fixing upgrade or "service release." As
I continued through this project of installing Win98, I came across early reviews
of Win2000. PC Magazine, for example -- which has sometimes seemed to act as
though Microsoft owned it -- praised the new operating system as having
impressive stability. Yet this time, to its credit, PC Mag did not immediately
recommend that everyone upgrade. Rather, they said that it was "very tricky" to
upgrade from Win98 to Win2000 -- in other words, I'd probably wind up doing
another installation from scratch -- and they advised that, unless you're a big
business, you should wait for the rest of the industry to catch up before
switching to Win2000. See
http://www.zdnet.com/pcmag/stories/reviews/0,6755,2426065,00.html. That
advice meshed nicely with my own hopes, which were that I would survive with
Win98 until Win2000 reached its maturity (i.e., shortly before Win2002, or

62

whatever the next version would be) and/or until Linux became easy to install
and use. Specifically, as "cons," PC Mag said that, at this point, Win2000
supports fewer peripherals and is more complex. To underscore the fact that
Win2000, so far, was suitable mainly for large businesses, the article focused
primarily on the contrast with Windows NT 4.0; for purposes of that comparison,
it said Win2000 was a great improvement. (But in its role as Microsoft
cheerleader, the PC Mag comparison did not do detailed comparisons of
Win2000 against Linux, the other strong contender for server operating systems.)
In short, given my experience with Microsoft products and particularly its
operating systems, it seemed very premature to consider moving to Win2000. I
should mention that it was even more premature to contemplate Windows ME
("Millenium Edition"), whose first release -- guaranteed to be bug-ridden -would probably not appear until May at the earliest. Meanwhile, Win98 had
reached the height of its maturity: Microsoft had probably developed it as much
as it was going to, thousands of other people had had their way with it, its
weaknesses were well known, etc.
Reinstalling Office 97
91. Installing Office 97 from CD. I was ready to try again to install application
software, following approximately the same procedure as before. Again, I
decided to load the Microsoft software first, hoping that Microsoft felt a special
incentive to make sure that at least its own software was compatible with
Windows. (See point 76.) So I installed Office 97 from scratch, along with
Animated Cursors, Sounds, and Word Viewer from the Office 97 ValuPack,
again installing to the D drive (PROGRAMS) rather than the C drive
(WINDOWS_98) whenever possible. (See point 69.) This time, I decided to save
the task of reconfiguring the Office 97 programs until after I had finished all
downloads and was satisfied that the system seemed reasonably stable. (See
point 74.) It would be a while before I'd get to that stage. (See point 102.) To
install Office 97, I inserted the CD and installed the programs just mentioned.
This installation process wanted me to register with Microsoft, but the
registration program couldn't find my modem, so I used the Windows Update
icon just to make sure the modem still worked OK.
92. Installing Office 97 SR-1 and SR-2 Patches. While I was at the Windows
Update page, I downloaded a few other Windows programs that I hadn't
bothered to get previously -- not tweaks or other experimental programs, but
more mainstream applications like NetMeeting. (I wanted the latest full release,
in case it included any useful bug fixes.) I also went to the Office 97 update
Website at http://officeupdate.microsoft.com to make sure I was still safe in
starting with the SR-1 and SR-2b patches that I had previously downloaded. (See
point 72.) Everything looked the same on that Website, so I went ahead and ran

63

my downloaded copy of SR-1. I rebooted, and the system froze. Evidently my


earlier worries about freezes weren't entirely due to the other tinkering I had
done then. (See point 71.) I realized afterwards that I had forgotten to shut
down the Microsoft Office 97 Shortcut toolbar, so possibly that was a factor. I
did a manual reset, booted into Safe Mode, rebooted immediately into Normal
Mode, and Windows loaded with no problem. I figured that if I had a real
problem, the SR-2b download would fix it or else I would notice it again, as had
happened the last time around. I ran SR-2b, and it finished and rebooted the
system with no further problems. (Later, I found a statement in
C:\WINDOWS\PROGRAMS.TXT indicating that you can't install SR-1 if you've
previously installed Win95, Office 97, and then upgraded to Win98 (in that
order). That didn't precisely apply to me, but it seemed that my problem might
have been related somehow.)
93. Direct Cable Connection. I went back to the Office 97 update Website and
worked through their list of available downloads, running my already
downloaded copies wherever possible and downloading the rest. All told, the
downloads I already had and the ones I was now obtaining gave me nearly 100
patches and updates to install. I had downloaded these most recent ones on the
AMD computer, since it had the faster modem. Now, instead of burning another
CD (see point 70) to transfer them to the PENTIUM computer, I hooked up
Direct Cable Connection ("DCC"). I had done this before, but I couldn't
remember the details. (If you don't already have the right cable, it may make
more sense in some cases to buy an Ethernet card for each computer, at a total
cost of around $40. An Ethernet connection is faster, and it will keep your
parallel ports free. DCC on serial ports is too slow to use except with very small
files.) I found simple, readable Websites on DCC at
http://www.microsoft.com/INSIDER/windows98/articles/netdir.htm and
http://www.myfavoritepc.com/support/tndcc.html. Another good (all-text)
site was at
http://www.ece.rochester.edu:8080/users/qzhu/ebooks/Win98/ch21/ch21.ht
m# Heading4. (Later, I found that that page seemed to have disappeared, but
maybe itll come back.) Helpful sites with screen shots of what you'll be seeing
when you try to install DCC appear at
http://www.kime.net/directcc/directcc95.htm and
http://www.helmig.com/j_helmig/dcc.htm. For more technical details and
FAQs, try http://php.indiana.edu/~jrrricha/dcc1.html and
http://www.tecno.demon.co.uk/dcc/dcc.html. I knew I had once found some
important instructions about protecting your data from prying eyes -- that you
need to take specific steps to prevent people online from looking at your shared
folders -- but at this point I was unable to find much information on it. The
kime.net site says something about it, but not very directly, in its reference to
adjusting the TCP/IP bindings. (I heard that another way to improve security of

64

shared drives, at least on a peer-to-peer network (which I didn't have), was to set
the last character of the name of the shared item to be $. Also, Win98 apparently
had a NetWatcher utility that would let you watch who was accessing your
shared devices.) Finally, if you run an updated version of Dial-Up Networking,
you may appreciate what the helmig.com site says about being able to use the
modem and DCC simultaneously.
94. Problems with Excel 97 Downloads. As I was installing the many Office 97
patches, I kept steering the location of program files to drive D (PROGRAMS)
whenever possible. The large majority of the installations presented no
problems. With several of the Excel updates, however, the installation seemed to
go OK, but then, when I took them up on their offer and tried to use them
immediately after installation, I got messages along the lines of "You do not have
Excel SR-1 installed on this computer." I went back to the Office 97 updates
Website and saw nothing pertaining to any program called "Excel SR-1." I felt
confident that this was an older message, and that it referred to what was now
called the Office 97 SR-1 patch. That, however, was no comfort, as I thought I
had already installed that patch. (See point 92.) I went to the Frequently Asked
Questions ("FAQ") page for the SR-2b patch and took its advice to try running
the Office 97 Version Checker. See
http://officeupdate.microsoft.com/Articles/sr2faq.htm. This Version Checker
told me that I had Office 97 SR-1 installed, and that I could now run the SR-2
patch -- which, as the FAQ page told me, meant that I could run the SR-2b patch.
This did not shed any light on the "Excel SR-1" messages, but I guessed that at
least it must mean that some of the patches I had installed had messed up the
previous installation of the SR-2b patch. This seemed like it could have been
what happened because of this statement at
http://officeupdate.microsoft.com/downloadDetails/sr2off97detail.htm: "If
you installed the Word 97 Template Security Patch or the Forms 2.0 Control
Security Patch you must reinstall them after installing the Service Release 2b."
That is, clearly some of these downloads interfered with one another.
95. Downloads That Depend on Other Downloads. It seemed best to continue
installing all my downloads, to the extent possible, and then rerun the SR-2b
patch, considering Microsoft's statement on the subject: they said that, if you
have "previously installed patches and fixes such as the Excel recalculation
patch," the SR-2b patch can be installed over them and "will run on top of them."
See http://officeupdate.microsoft.com/Articles/sr2faq.htm. (Apparently there
had been some problems with the original version of SR-2, which seems to have
been released in autumn 1998. Microsoft seems to have withdrawn it and
revamped it, so presumably it was now contained, or was compatible with,
patches that had been introduced in 1999.) So I installed all of the patches and
upgrades that were willing to be installed, with the exception of Outlook-related

65

stuff. (See point 98.) Then I went back through the list and tried again to
reinstall the rest, except for the Word 97 Template Security Patch and the Forms
2.0 Control Security Patch, which were still premature. (See point 94.) This
second time through, I was able to install one or two of the remaining
downloads, including especially the Excel 97 Date Migration Tools, which
apparently had to be installed after other date-related downloads. When I had
finished this second try, aside from the Template Security Patch and the Forms
2.0 Control Security Patch, I was left with just three Excel downloads: the AutoRecalculation Patch, the CALL Function Patch, and the SYLK File Security
Update. These three still insisted on having SR-2 installed. So I ran SR-2b again,
and it said it completed successfully. Then I went back to the Excel downloads
page and requested further information on these three remaining downoads. I
now discovered the following additional information: (a) The AutoRecalculation Patch was already included in SR-2, and therefore also in SR-2b, so
I didn't need it after all. (b) The CALL Function Patch had to be run again after
installing SR-2. See
http://officeupdate.microsoft.com/downloadDetails/xl97cfp.htm. (c) The SYLK
update page, too, said that SR-2 had to be installed first. See
http://officeupdate.microsoft.com/downloadDetails/Xl8p7pkg.htm. I noticed,
moreover, that the online versions of CALL and SYLK appeared to have file
dates somewhat later than the dates of the copies I had downloaded previously.
So I re-downloaded the CALL Function Patch and the SYLK update.
96. Inconsistent Report by SR-2 Version Checker. Before I ran those last few redownloads or made any other changes, I tried the Version Checker again, and
again it told me that I had only SR-1 installed -- even though I had just installed
SR-2b and had been told it was successful! I went online for enlightenment and
found that I was not the only person having this problem. One possible cause,
someone said, was having another Office 97 program running, but that didn't
apply to me. A better explanation came from someone who said that there was a
bug in the Version Checker, and that (a) you have to re-install SR-1 and SR-2
every time you run Office 97 Setup (which I had not re-done) and (b) you could
find out the actual state of affairs by checking the installation log files, which
were 97SR1_*.TXT and 97SR2_*.LOG. I searched for 97SR*.* and (ignoring the
97SR2CHK*.LOG files) found one copy of 97SR1_0.TXT and two copies of the
other one (97SR2_0.LOG and 97SR2_1.LOG). I opened the 97SR1_0.TXT file in
WordPad and, skipping down to the several different "Results of Application of
Patch File" summaries, found various indications that some patches had been
skipped or ignored for various reasons. Realizing that I didn't care as much
about the SR-1 results as the SR-2 results (because, after all, the Version Checker
had said I had SR-1 installed and was ready for SR-2), I looked at the most recent
SR-2 log, contained in 97SR2_1.LOG. Its filedate and time indicated that it had
been created just a few moments earlier, when I had run SR-2b. Skipping to the

66

bottom of 97SR2_1.LOG, I saw, "The SR2 patch has successfully completed." So


all I really wanted was for Version Checker to say that same thing. In further
browsing, I found a note by one user who said he had even tried extracting
individual components from the SR-2 update and installing them individually,
but still got messages that didn't make sense. The best he could offer was that he
had heard Microsoft was looking into the problem and might eventually issue an
SR-3 update. Another user suggested rebooting and running the SR-2 patch
from within Safe Mode. I did this, and then realized I had forgotten to hit F8
while the machine was booting, and therefore had needlessly re-run the program
in Normal Mode. I rebooted again, hit F8, and ran SR-2b yet again. It had me
reboot again after running, so again I booted into Safe Mode and ran Version
Checker. It still told me I was only at the SR-1 level and was ready to install SR2. Having installed SR-2 enough times, I gave up, rebooted into Normal Mode,
went to the folder that now contained many install logs (such as the
97SR2_1.LOG file mentioned above), and deleted them all except the last one,
which I thought might be useful for something.
97. Installing Remaining Non-Outlook Downloads. I ran the SYLK and CALL
downloads again. The SYLK download ran OK this time. The CALL download,
unfortunately, gave me the same error message. (See points 94-95.) Watching
more carefully, I saw that I first got a message that said the installation had
succeeded, and got the "Patch has failed" message afterwards. So I hoped that
the patch would actually work, and that the the installation program might just
be failing to find something it thought it would need. Then I ran the other two
patches that were supposed to be held until after the SR-2 patch had been
installed, namely, the Forms 2.0 Control Security Patch and the Template
Security Patch. (See point 94.) Both ran without any problem.
98. Searching for an Outlook 98 Installer. Although I was not clear on this, it
seemed that SR-2 or SR-2b could cause problems with Outlook 98. See
http://support.microsoft.com/support/kb/articles/Q191/9/52.ASP. Then
again, Microsoft's Website also said, "The SR-2b patch will recognize Outlook 98
files and leave them intact, but will update the remaining Office 97 installation."
See http://officeupdate.microsoft.com/Articles/sr2faq.htm. Regardless, I
decided to save Outlook 98 for last. Having now done as much as I could do
with the other Office 97 patches, I turned to the Outlook 98 SETUP.EXE file that I
had saved from my previous experience with Outlook. As I recalled, Outlook 98
did not give me the option of downloading the entire program and saving it for
future reinstallation; instead, I had to run this SETUP program, and Outlook
would install directly from Microsoft's computers onto mine. I had been vaguely
concerned that this would allow Microsoft to pull the plug on Outlook 98 at any
time, and was relieved to think that my CD imaging plans would now enable me
to make a more permanent copy of the program, albeit in installed (and therefore

67

perhaps not so flexible) form. Anyway, I clicked on the SETUP.EXE program. It


gave me three installation options, and all included Internet Explorer ("IE") 4.01,
which I didn't want because I had installed IE 5.1 during my earlier Windows
installation. (See point 15.) Using the AMD computer, I went online for advice
and saw some comments indicating that some people preferred to postpone their
IE upgrade until after they had installed Outlook 98. On a more encouraging
note, other comments said that, although Outlook 98's SETUP says it's going to
install IE 4.01, it actually just installs a few IE 4.01 files that are linked to Outlook
98, and otherwise leaves your IE 5 installation alone; you just have to be sure to
adjust your IE options to reflect the right mail program. I didn't feel entirely
certain about all this, so I went to the Office 97 updates page
(http://officeupdate.microsoft.com), where I was disturbed to see that there was
no option for downloading a new copy of Outlook 98 SETUP.EXE. Were my
suspicions about Microsoft pulling the plug turning out to be justified? I
searched for Outlook 98 at http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/search.asp
and didn't find a setup option there either. Along the way, I did find a statement
from Microsoft indicating that I didn't need to install SR-2 before Outlook 98, as
well as a statement that to avoid reinstalling IE 4.01, I should choose "Upgrade
only newer components" during the Outlook 98 installation. This seemed to be
the thing to do, regardless of whether you were installing the full version, the
standard version (which seemed best for me, since I already had most of the
contents of the full version), or the minimal version. See
http://www.microsoft.com/office/archive/olk98brch/specifications.htm. This
was all fine, thank you, but I still didn't have an answer to the most fundamental
question: where would I find that Outlook 98 installation?
99. Modem Difficulties. I decided I'd rather use the old version of Outlook 98's
SETUP.EXE program than none at all, so on the PENTIUM computer, I ran the
copy I had saved as a download 18 months earlier. For some reason, my modem
wasn't working. I went into Control Panel and saw that I didn't even have a
modem listed. I ran the Add New Hardware wizard and elected to add my
standard no-brand modem from a list. I had no idea why the modem had
suddenly disappeared -- must have been something about the installation
process. I rebooted, tried Dial-Up Networking, and found that the modem still
wasn't working. I clicked on its Properties in Control Panel and told it to search
for a new driver in the folder where I was keeping a copy of the driver needed
for this particular modem. Oddly, it didn't think that the driver for this modem
really belonged to this modem. I cold-rebooted, tinkered with some settings in
the Plug-N-Play area of my BIOS, and that still didn't do it. A couple of times
along the way, it asked me if it was OK to remove the device that I had
previously configured as a modem, and since that device wasn't working
anyway, I said sure, why not? I ran the Add New Hardware Wizard again, this
time letting Windows search for non-Plug-N-Play devices. It didn't find any. I

68

eventually configured it by the manual option, and it told me the modem had
been set up successfully. I rebooted, and the modem worked! (Later, I wound
up doing more modem configuration. See point 105(c).)
100. Installing Outlook 98. Continuing the foregoing process (see point 98), I ran
my old SETUP.EXE program and waited eagerly to see if it would still work. It
did. So I don't know what was the story with not being able to find SETUP.EXE
at the Microsoft Website. Maybe their thinking was that, if you already have the
old Outlook 98 installation files on your computer, you must be someone who
would get irritated to discover that you could no longer gain access to your
Outlook 98 information -- at least not easily -- the next time your computer
crashes, unless you've had the wisdom ... genius ... brilliance ... compulsiveness
required to save a copy of SETUP.EXE. Anyway, the installer ran for about an
hour and a half, and then it paused with a message that Setup would probably
fail if I didn't shut down the Microsoft Office Shortcut Bar. Before I thought
about it, I shut it down. Next time, I'll take that opportunity to make copies of
the downloaded files before I alter them by installing them. Or maybe I won't
need to: Setup ended with an indication that I could reinstall Outlook 98 in the
future just by running OUTLOOK 98 SETUP.EXE from the D:\OUTLOOK 98
SETUP folder. When I saw that message, I opened Windows Explorer and made
a copy of that folder to another partition before rebooting, just in case that was
indeed a set of files that would be self-installing without further downloading.
Then I clicked OK, and Setup rebooted the machine. I started Outlook 98. It ran
me through an Internet Connection Wizard, which required me, strangely
enough, to delete my existing Dial-Up account so that it could then re-create it;
but then Outlook 98 opened with no problem. I then went back to my list of
downloads and installed the last nine downloads, the ones specifically related to
Outlook 98. (See point 98.)
Adjusting Office 97 and Windows 98 in a Purely Microsoft System
101. Limit: One CD. In all this rebooting, I did not have any more freezes, so I
had less concern about a possibly imperfect Office 97 installation than I had had
the first time around. (See point 92.) I felt more confident, that is, that I could go
ahead and personalize my Office 97 installation with less risk that this effort
would be wasted. (See point 74.) The best way to personalize things, I decided,
would be to proceed in two phases. The first phase would include actions that
should not pose any risk of destabilizing my hopefully pure new Office 97
installation; the second phase would include somewhat riskier actions that,
although potentially risky, I would still rather take care of now than later.
102. Simple Adjustments. I decided to start by retracing my steps from the
previous customization of my Office 97 installation, and then I went forwards

69

from there. Thus, I took the following actions: (a) I rearranged the Office 97
Shortcut Bar, dragging it from the top of the screen to the left side. I right-clicked
on it, chose Customize, and added Desktop and Program bars to its existing
Office 97 bar and rearranged icons within these bars. (Later, I added an Internet
bar in place of the Program bar. See point 109(g). To create that bar, I used
Windows Explorer to create a folder in C:\Windows\Start Menu\Programs
called Internet; I added relevant shortcuts to that Internet folder; and then I
right-clicked on the Shortcut Bar and chose Customize | Toolbars | Add Toolbar
| Make Toolbar for This Folder, and pointed to my new Internet folder.) I
started to delete some icons, but when it told me that it would delete program
files along with the icons, I canceled that part and just unchecked them, so they
wouldn't be visible on the bar. (b) I rearranged the icons on my Start Menu. (See
point 69 for further information on this step and several of the following steps.)
(c) In Word 97, I went into Tools | Options and configured those options to
match the settings for that program on the AMD computer. Likewise Tools |
AutoCorrect. I told Word to keep its AutoRecover files on H:\Temp, generated
its help database (Help | Contents | Find | Minimize Database Size -- the larger
database options contain a lot of junk and duplicate entries), created a backup
copy of NORMAL.DOT, and was then safe in customizing my toolbars (select
View | Toolbars | Customize and then drag icons from the toolbar into the
document area to get rid of them, or from one toolbar to the other to combine the
buttons I use into just one toolbar). This toolbar customization resulted in some
toolbars whose icons did not all fit on one line in 640 x 480 mode; I had to verify
that they did fit when I finally went to 800 x 600 mode. (See point 121.) (d) In
Access 97, I opened the Northwind sample database to gain access to Tools |
Options and then repeated essentially the same steps as I had taken for Word. I
did approximately the same in Excel 97, Outlook 98 (for e-mail and scheduling),
and Outlook Express (for newgroups). I noticed that I did not yet have all of the
options in Outlook 98 on the PENTIUM computer that I had on the AMD
computer; it appeared that other options had been added, on the AMD machine,
when I had installed certain additional non-Microsoft software (e.g., a fax option
added by the OmniPage scanning program).
103. Pause for Image File. I eventually realized that I could stop after the first
phase to create a DriveImage image file backup of my hard disk partitions. I
wouldn't have to burn it to CD right away; I could just store it on one of my
other partitions. Ultimately, whether I used this image file or a later one, I was
still interested in keeping it all on one CD, rather than incur the risks involved in
spanning it over two CDs. So I still considered 850-900 MB to be my limit. (See
point 68.) When I looked at the status bar in Windows Explorer, I saw that the
approach of telling Office 97 to put its program files on drive D (PROGRAMS)
rather than drive C (WINDOWS_98) had only partially succeeded: there now
seemed to be about 250 MB of files on D, where before there had been none -- but

70

there were also a bunch of new files in C:\Program Files. (It later developed that
perhaps I should have used X-Setup before installing programs, so as to instruct
them all to use D:\Program Files rather than C:\Program Files. See point
137(m).) It dawned on me that my single CD would probably have to contain
separate image files for C and D. I also felt certain that I would want to have my
DOS programs, including DriveImage, located on D with my Windows
programs, although in a separate folder. So I used Windows Explorer to move
those programs to a folder called DOS_UTIL on drive D, and then I meant to
reboot into real DOS (see point 84), but I got distracted and the thing went on
into Windows 98 -- almost. It froze at the Windows startup screen. I thought
maybe this was another example of it freezing after installing Office 97 software
and then snapping out of it and being fine thereafter (see point 101), so I did a
cold reboot into Safe Mode, rebooted immediately into Normal Mode, and all
seemed well. (As an aside, I had noticed that booting had begun to take a lot
longer, ever since I had installed Office 97.) I rebooted into real DOS and started
to run DriveImage from drive D; then I remembered that PartitionMagic had
acted funky when I had previously tried to get it to operate on the disk on which
its own program files were located (see point 84), so I decided to run DriveImage
from the floppy instead. (Later, I tested this fear regarding DriveImage (see
point 269(a)) and found that it did not seem to be justified.) I was pleased to see
that DriveImage allowed me to combine both the C and D partitions in one
image file, which I created on my F partition under the name C_AND_D.PQI.
DriveImage said that I now had a total of about 800 MB in those two partitions.
The resulting image file was about 520 MB, so the DriveImage maximum
compression ratio was about two-thirds when dealing with these program files
(as distinct from data files, which might compress to a greater or lesser extent).
At that rate, the remaining 130 MB on a 650 MB CD would hold another 200 MB
of program files.
104. Installing FrontPage 2000. I rebooted into Windows, with the plan of using
Office 97 for the next several days, so as to refine my basic installation and make
sure, if possible, that it included all Microsoft programs and adjustments. It
seemed that I might be able to get all such programs on one CD. The only
remaining full-bore Microsoft program I possessed was FrontPage 2000. It was
experimental, for me, in the sense that I had only recently acquired it and did not
know for sure that it was really reliable, but all the reviews seemed to be
positive. I thought it might be appropriate to include, if possible, this one
remaining program that would probably do a fair amount of tinkering with my
C (WINDOWS_98) drive. I inserted the FrontPage 2000 upgrade CD (actually,
the first of two; but I had noticed previously, when installing FP 2000 on the
AMD machine, that the basic installation had required only the first CD). It
automatically prepared to install itself, and said that it was updating the
Windows 98 installer, which sounded good. It said it couldn't find the version

71

that I was upgrading from, so I put the accursed FrontPage 98 CD into the CDROM drive, hoping that would be the last time I would ever need that damn
thing, and this allowed me to proceed with the fresh new FrontPage 2000
installation. I chose the Customize option, so that I could tell the installer to put
the files on drive D. The installer seemed to indicate that the whole thing would
require much less than 200 MB. But when I clicked on "Install Now," I saw that it
had been showing me only the 59 MB that would go onto drive D, and not the
other 187 MB that would go onto drive C (my WINDOWS_98 drive). I backed
up a few steps and tried again, using just the default settings under the
Customize option (but still pointing to drive D). It looked like this would take
only about 150 MB total on both drives. It also seemed to include some "Office
Tools" that would be available for other Office 97 programs (e.g., Clip Gallery). I
wondered whether there were also some patches and updates in here that might
duplicate or improve on the various downloads that I had been installing. At
least it gave me an additional reason to think that it had been appropriate to try
to squeeze it into the CD that I expected to burn soon. Anyway, the FrontPage
2000 installation went ahead, and when it was done I saw that I had only 92 MB
of free space left on drive C, but still had over 1,400 MB left on drive D (my
PROGRAMS drive). I didn't expect to be installing another 1.4 GB of programs
on D anytime soon, and I also hoped that there wouldn't be much more material
going onto drive C. Therefore, to allow a little more breathing room on C, I
rebooted into real DOS and ran PartitionMagic to change the disk sizes so that C
was 200 MB larger and D was 200 MB smaller. Then I rebooted into Win98 and
adjusted the options in FrontPage 2000 as above. (See point 102.)
105. Further Adjustments in Windows 98. Before returning to the Office 97
customization process, I decided to bring my Windows installation more fully up
to date, as follows:
(a) I decided not to bring over the Win98 Power Management Troubleshooter
(PMTSHOOT.EXE), even though I had once found it useful, because the
Microsoft site said, "It is important to uninstall Pmtshoot when you are finished
using it." See
http://support.microsoft.com/support/kb/articles/q185/9/49.asp.
(b) I removed the very outdated "Setup for Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.01"
shortcut from desktop (installed, evidently, during the Office 97 installation
process).
(c) I went into Start | Settings | Control Panel | System | Device Manager |
Modem and set my serial ports to a maximum speed of 115,200. (Later, I wound
up doing more modem configuration. See point 113(g).)

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(d) Following advice found at


http://www.zdnet.com/products/stories/reviews/0,4161,2183193,00.html and
http://www.zdnet.com/products/stories/reviews/0,4161,347536,00.html, I
added shortcuts for the purpose of optimizing system performance (although
shortcuts to particular documents would have to wait until later, when I had my
ideal Win98 installation doing my regular daily work on a machine with all my
data files present).
(e) Simplify Internet Explorer Toolbars. I right-clicked on the Taskbar at the
bottom of the screen, created a Links toolbar, dragged it up to the top of the
screen, right-clicked it, and turned on Always On Top and Auto-Hide. (The
folder for that bar was at C:\Windows\Favorites.) This enabled me to get rid of
the Links toolbar in Internet Explorer (View | Toolbars | Links). (See point
109(g).) And with that gone, I realized that I could further reduce the complexity
of my IE toolbars by selecting View | Toolbars | Customize and getting rid of
buttons that I never use and by choosing the Small Icons option on that screen. I
also dragged the Address bar up to the Menu bar and right-clicked on the Go
button to get rid of it. According to
http://ie.digitalspider.co.uk/ie5/toolbar_go.html, "The Go button was added
because many users of previous versions were unclear as to the need to press
ENTER after typing an address into the Address Bar in order to proceed. The Go
button is meant to offer a GUI solution to that little problem."
(f) After reviewing some newsgroup postings, I decided against installing
TweakUI and other power toys (see point 71) until a later, more experimental
phase of my reinstallation. (See point 109(c).)
(g) I ran the Maintenance Wizard from the shortcut in the Start | Programs menu
(which points to C:\WINDOWS\TUNEUP.EXE). I used the Weekly option and
set it to defragment my disk at 1 AM every day of the week (except Thursday
and Sunday), since I found that keeping the thing nearly totally defragged is a lot
less painful than waiting for hours while a defragmenter brings my disk back
from the brink. Given my recent hard disk difficulties (see point 84), I decided
on a thorough ScanDisk examination on the first Wednesday (pool & movie
night) of each month at 5 PM. (After finishing this wizard, I came back, doubleclicked on the Task Scheduler icon in the System Tray at the bottom right corner
of my screen, made copies of this thorough disk scan for each of my partitions,
and set each one for a different disk and a different Wednesday or Saturday
night of the month, to allow this very slow operation to finish.) Continuing, I
instructed the wizard to delete unnecessary files on Thursdays at 4:30 AM, and
marked all except the Recycle Bin for deletion (having verified online that TEMP
folders that might be cleaned out in this way would not include TEMP folders
that I myself fill with all kinds of stuff that I don't want deleted). I decided to use

73

the Maintenance Wizard for these operations rather than Norton Utilities, which
I own, not because it does a better job, but because I have run into many
incompatibility issues with Norton products and would rather begin with the
assumption that I wouldn't be using Norton in the future.
(h) In D:\DOS_UTIL, I created a batch file called MAINT_WK.BAT with these
lines:
@ECHO OFF
DELTREE /Y C:\WINDOWS\TEMP\*.*
where the second line cleans out all contents of the C:\WINDOWS\TEMP folder.
(Later, this batch file would become much larger. See point 124.) I created this
batch file for several reasons: (i) I saw that some users were finding it necessary
to clear out this folder manually; (ii) I have sometimes been instructed to do so
myself in order to remove a source of misbehavior in some programs, and (iii)
apparently the Disk Cleanup program that the Maintenance Wizard runs (see
point 105(g)) does not touch the subfolders that sometimes appear in that TEMP
folder. The times when you do not want to delete the contents of
C:\WINDOWS\TEMP appear to be times when you're active at your computer:
installing new software, for example, or editing a document. Also, apparently
Windows will write-protect a file that is actively used, in which case there's an
additional layer of protection against accidentally deleting the wrong thing. One
other layer of protection: I suddenly realized that I had been running an
automatic deletion line (like the DELTREE line above) in my AUTOEXEC.BAT
file -- that is, it had been running every time I booted up -- without my even
thinking about or realizing what it was doing. If I survived with it happening on
every bootup (which is not recommended, since some installers leave programs
in C:\WINDOWS\TEMP until you reboot and they can finish installing), then I
felt confident doing it just once a week. Having created this batch file, I clicked
on the Task Scheduler icon at the bottom right corner of my screen, doubleclicked on Add a Scheduled Task, and scheduled MAINT_WK.BAT to run on
Thursdays at 4 AM. Later, I realized that this batch file was set to run in a DOS
window, rather than in real DOS, and therefore might not be able to delete the
contents of C:\WINDOWS\TEMP if Windows was meanwhile using some of
those contents. To fix that, I right-clicked on MAINT_WK.BAT and chose
Properties | Program | Advanced | MS-DOS Mode. I left on the "Warn before
entering MS-DOS mode," so as not to kill any overnight jobs I might have
running when this thing went off. I hit OK and checked the "Close on exit" box.
When I saved this, it created a MAINT_WK shortcut. I didn't want that shortcut,
so I deleted it, but that shut off the settings I had just added, so I did them again
and this time I let the icon stay. Next, I went back into Task Scheduler and
looked at the schedule for this thing. If it was going to warn me before

74

proceeding, there was no point running it at 4 AM each Thursday morning. The


better time, I felt, was on Wednesday at 4:00 PM, shortly before I would be
abandoning my computer for an evening of pool and beer. Under the Settings
tab, I changed it to run for a maximum of 10 minutes and I unchecked the box
that required the computer to be idle before the project would begin. The
scenario I envisioned was that the warning would pop up, I would realize I had
to wrap up my work, and I would have a half-hour to do that before I'd be
interfering with the next items on the maintenance schedule. (See point 105(g).)
(i) While browsing online as just described, I came across an indication by
PCForrest (see point 44) that surfing is faster if you shut off the AutoComplete
features in Internet Explorer (Tools | Internet Options | Advanced), so I did
that.
(j) Tip no. 65 at the Weber High School site (see
http://alliance.weber.k12.ut.us/oal/lesson1/win_tods.HTM) told me that I
could drag the bottom edge of the Links toolbar (see point 105(e)) far across the
screen, so that it could keep a large number of Website links ready for instant
reference. I felt I would be needing that space, once I got my Favorites
organized. (See point 109(g).) So I did it.
(k) Display Resize. I saw, in Control Panel | Display | Properties, that my
system had recognized my graphics adapter card even though I had not inserted
the CD to load the software for this particular hardware, thinking that this was
something I did not want to hard-wire into my permanent CD image of my
perfect Windows setup. Since this was a fait accompli, I decided I was safe in
bumping up the resolution to 800 x 600, 16-bit color. When I clicked on Apply, it
told me that I had to restart the computer immediately to avoid making some
programs run improperly. I said OK, reboot then. I got an Explorer message
saying, "This program has performed an illegal operation and will be shut
down." That was the kind of instability that I really did not want to be seeing.
Worse, when I rebooted, the display was not working properly at all -- there
were just lines racing across the screen. When the hard disk stopped working, I
felt that Windows had probably finished loading, so I used the other computer
for guidance as to which keys to hit when I couldn't read the screen: Ctrl-Esc to
bring up the Start Menu, then U for Shut Down, and then R for Restart, and then
hit Enter. It worked; the computer rebooted. I hit F8 at the bootup and went into
Safe Mode. I reset the display to 640 x 480 and rebooted into Normal Mode. The
display still wasn't working quite right -- it looked more like Safe Mode again -so I did a cold reboot. I then realized it was in 16-color mode, and it looked
better when I reset it to 256 colors. Apparently I had misunderstood the
situation and would have to install those specialized display drivers at some
point after all. I decided to postpone this until I was past the generic phase of

75

setup. (See point 120(aj).)


(l) Customized Imitation DOS. Apparently there are two different places at
which you have to edit files that appear with the DOS prompt, if you want to
change what happens when you go into DOS. To control what happens when
you use Shut Down | Restart in MS-DOS Mode, you right-click on
C:\Windows\Exit to DOS; and to control what happens when you click on one
of the MS-DOS Prompt icons that, in my case, appeared on the Office 97 Shortcut
Bar and on the Start | Programs menu, you right-click on those icons and go into
their Properties. The basic idea for some of the tabs in these Properties was this:
(1) Program tab, Advanced button: in Exit to DOS, the "MS-DOS mode" box is
checked, and in MS-DOS Prompt, the "Suggest MS-DOS" box is checked.
Checking the "MS-DOS mode" box opens up the opportunity to specify a new
configuration. I clicked the Configuration button and selected Disk Cache (to
make it run faster) and Doskey (see point 20) (EMS was already checked), and
then clicked OK twice. (2) Program tab: I changed the Working folder to
C:\TEMP in both cases. Since Exit to DOS was set to run its own
AUTOEXEC.BAT file and the MS-DOS Prompt icon was not, they wouldn't need
(or be able to use) the same batch file. For Exit to DOS, I could have
supplemented the AUTOEXEC.BAT just by editing the lines there under the
Properties | Program | Advanced button, but I preferred to leave the Windows
default as it was and to put my additions in a separate file. So for the Exit to
DOS properties, I specified a batch file called D:\DOS_UTIL\EXIT2DOS.BAT,
and for the MS-DOS Prompt properties, I specified
D:\DOS_UTIL\DOSSTART.BAT. (Regarding DOS_UTIL, see point 64.) The
EXIT2DOS file just needed to supplement the AUTOEXEC, while DOSSTART
needed to replace it. At this point, the only line in EXIT2DOS (aside from the
ubiquitous @echo off, which suppresses screen output) was going to be an
extension to the PATH, like this: PATH %path%;D:\DOS_UTIL. (The %path%
thing is a variable that says, plug in whatever the existing PATH is here.)
DOSSTART was slightly different:
@echo off
prompt $p$g
path c:\windows; c:\windows\command;d:\dos_util
doskey > nul
smartdrv
cls
To continue: (3) In MS-DOS Prompt, I specified QuickEdit and Fast Pasting. I
clicked Apply and OK for both of these Properties boxes. I copied the MS-DOS
Prompt that I had been working on, the one in the Start | Programs menu (in
C:\Windows\Start Menu\Programs\Primary Utilities) to the location of the

76

other MS-DOS Prompt that I use, on the Office 97 Shortcut Bar (located in
D:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\Office\Shortcut Bar\Office). I tested all
three places and found that everything worked. (Later, I revised the MS-DOS
Prompt further, to make the DOS box larger. See point 146(k).)
(m) I didn't want to change my SYSTEM.INI file in ways that I didn't fully
understand, but to give myself a reminder of a tip I found at
http://pages.eidosnet.co.uk/~bomber/Dos.html# START, I did the following:
select Start | Run | Sysedit, go to the SYSTEM.INI file, find its [386Enh] section,
and enter the following line:
;LocalLoadHigh=1 <-- this line maximizes available RAM in a DOS session
In this case, unlike the PATH statement (see point (l)), the semicolon at the front
makes the line a mere comment and keeps it from actually running or doing
anything. But something I saw elsewhere made me think that DOS already does
this -- oh, I remember, it was the Properties box for the MS-DOS Prompt item,
where one of the tabs will allow you to fiddle with memory. So I doubt I'll ever
actually use this SYSTEM.INI line. So now that I've written it here, I'll have a
way to remember it. So I'm going back in and removing it from SYSTEM.INI.
106. DMA. I kept hearing that I could get substantial performance
improvements by enabling DMA for my hard disks, using Control Panel |
System | Device Manager, but that I should do this only if my hard disks are
Ultra DMA drives. Apparently Win98 just assumes that your drives aren't
DMA-capable until you tell it otherwise. I didn't know if my drives were Ultra
DMA or not. In fact, I wasn't sure I even knew what model they were. I still had
the covers off the computers, so I knew I could go down there with a flashlight
and try to read them at an angle. But I thought this was something I should
know how to do from the keyboard. The first place I looked was Control Panel |
System | Device Manager | Disk Drives, but that listed them as simply "Generic
IDE Type 47." The Microsoft System Information tool (available on a Start |
Programs shortcut or through Start | Run | MSINFO32) just told me the sizes of
my partitions; and if I clicked on Components | Storage on the left side of the
screen, it repeated that these were "generic" drives. (Interestingly, the
Applications section of that screen identified my programs as Word 2000, Excel
2000, etc., leading me to wonder whether a person who upgrades Office 97 with
all the available downloads has most of what's included in Office 2000, much like
a person who downloads everything available for Windows 98 finds him/herself
with Windows 98 Second Edition. (See point 90(b).))
107. Motherboard Drivers. Before I could continue with the DMA question (see
point 108), I had to work through my motherboard driver situation. Browsing, I

77

ran across a posting that seemed to suggest that, if I installed the proper drivers,
I could replace the "generic hard drive" indicator (see point 106) with the actual
identities of my hard drives, and also that I might need the right drivers in order
to make use of DMA. Since both the PENTIUM computer and the AMD machine
were using Soyo 5EHM motherboards, and since I planned to keep those
motherboards for probably as long as I'd be running Windows 98, and since I
could always just upgrade the drivers whenever I got a new motherboard, I
decided to go ahead and install the motherboard drivers on my pure prototype
system. I started to use the CD that had come with the newer version 1.2 of the
motherboard, but then I wondered whether the older of my two Soyo
motherboards would be able to use the newer drivers. Further browsing at the
Soyo site and elsewhere led me to conclude, however, that drivers get updated
for all versions of the 5EHM motherboard at the same time, so the best approach
would be to get the latest drivers and install them now. But which drivers was I
supposed to use? My motherboard used the ETEQ (VIA) chipset, and Soyo's
website had a link to the VIA site. Between the Soyo and VIA sites, I gathered
that there were a number of different downloads that I might want or need:
(a) BIOS Upgrade. The VIA FAQs page talked about BIOS-related information
that I didn't have. To figure out how I could find that information, I followed a
link to http://www.ping.be/bios/numbers.shtml, where they told me that I
could find my BIOS ID number (which would then identify my motherboad, if I
couldn't identify it otherwise) by rebooting and hitting the Pause button to copy
down the number, date, and version information that appear at the bottom of the
screen during bootup. They also offered a downloadable CTBIOS program that
would identify this information without requiring me to reboot and write it
down. I used this download and found that its output was partially in German.
Nevertheless, it wasn't hard to figure out what I needed to know from it.
According to it, both machines were using Award Modular BIOS v4.51PG with
the VP3-586B-8669 //VIA 597VP3 chipset. (Interestingly, the motherboard in the
PENTIUM computer, which was the Soyo 5EHM that I had purchased more
recently, was board version 5EH V1.2-1CA2, while the 5EHM in the AMD
computer (which I had purchased at the Micro Center store in Cambridge, MA)
was identified as "EH-1BA1-BVP ALUATION ROM - NOT FOR SALE." No
kidding.) Armed with this information, I went back to the VIA site. I gathered
that I would have to update my motherboards' BIOSes by using downloads from
the Soyo site. With further information from
http://www.zdnet.com/products/stories/reviews/0,4161,347541,00.html, I
decided that I didn't really need a new BIOS right now and could wait until I ran
into a circumstance like the ones they listed there -- to provide support for new
hardware, to fix bugs that may prevent Win98 from running properly, or to
enable advanced Plug and Play features -- before upgrading.

78

(b) IDE Bus Master Driver. Soyo's site said this driver was necessary to enable
DMA, but that I should not download it because Win98 already contains a bus
master driver from Microsoft. VIA softpedaled the point, saying merely that it
"isn't necessary" to install this driver. VIA also commented on problems that
people were having with their CD writers and tape drives, and provided a way
to uninstall the VIA bus master driver and reinstall the Microsoft default driver.
Conclusion: I definitely did not want to install this driver. Yet the existing bus
master driver wasn't enabling my computer to see anything other than a
"generic" hard disk, and that's the way it stayed.
(c) AGP VXD Driver. In Soyo's words, the purpose of this driver was to "make
ETEQ (VIA) AGP port working properly in Window 95/98. Recommended."
VIA seconded that. VIA also commented that selecting the "normal" speed
option during installation would give greater stability but not as much speed as
the "turbo" option. Needless to say, I decided that I would use the normal option
when I installed this driver on my pure, hopefully stable system. Another issue:
for systems using the Intel 740 graphics chipset, VIA recommended
downloading the latest Intel 740 driver, version 1.5 or later. I believed the
graphics card in the AMD computer, but not the PENTIUM computer, used this
Intel 740 chipset. Therefore, I decided to deal with that issue later. (See point
325.) I went ahead and downloaded the AGP VXD driver and copied it onto a
floppy.
(d) IRQ Routing Driver. On a Web page for all Soyo motherboards using ETEQ
(VIA) chipsets, but not specifically devoted to my motherboard, Soyo said this
was a "recommended" download that would "fix some IRQ assignment issue in
Windows 95/98." (IRQ is short for interrupt request.) This driver was
apparently the same as the "miniport" driver available on the VIA site. VIA said
that this driver was intended for "all VIA chipsets using VT82C586A or
VT82C586B southbridge chips." The Soyo product page for my 5EHM
motherboard said that it used the "ETEQ 82C6638AT/6629 AGP chipset." I
couldn't tell if that was one chipset or two (i.e., the ETEQ plus the 6629 AGP). I
went to the manual page at Soyo's site, but it was just the same as the printed
manual. I did notice something, however: on the diagram that showed the
layout of the motherboard, it showed two separate ETEQ chips. One was labeled
EQ82C6629, and the other was labeled EQ82C6638. Mini-mystery solved. So
evidently VIA did not recommend this routing driver for my motherboard. So
why did Soyo recommend it? Maybe the "southbridge" chips were different
from the EQ chips just mentioned. Browsing, I found a post to someone with a
5EHM, advising him to go ahead with the IRQ routing driver. Another posting
said that the southbridge chip was the one with the VT82C586B number. This
didn't appear on the printed diagram. Something like it (but not the same
number) had appeared on the CTBIOS results. (See point 107(a).) Getting out

79

the flashlight, I was able to peer into both computers without shutting them
down (their covers were still off -- see point 19) and read this number from one
of the ETEQ chips (the other had nothing but a Soyo logo on it):
EQ82C6638CE'98. (Incidentally, I was pleased to see that both computers had
the CE build, which seemed to be the recommended one for this motherboard -a fact of which I had been totally ignorant at the time of purchase.) But I didn't
see anything with southbridge-style numbers. I finally bit the bullet, shut off the
PENTIUM computer, turned it on its side, and looked diligently inside it. I
didn't pull any cables, so maybe they were concealing something, but as far as I
could see there was no chip with a VP3 or VT82C type of number on it. I thought
I had seen something, somewhere on VIA's site, telling me that I didn't need the
IRQ routing driver and ACPI Registry if I was using Windows 98 SE because
Win98SE incorporates those things, but now I couldn't find that page, so maybe I
had gotten the information wrong. Also, I wasn't sure whether I would be
considered to have Win98SE for these purposes, since I had downloaded most of
Win98SE's contents but did not have those portions that existed only on the
Win98SE upgrade CD. (See point 90(b) and (d).) The blanket advice for Win98
users on VIA's FAQ page said that the proper way to install Win98 on systems
using VIA chipset motherboards was as follows: enable USB support in the BIOS
(I checked, and the PENTIUM computer had it, and as far as I could recall it had
had it since before I had installed Win98); install Win98; install the IRQ routing
driver; and then install the AGP driver (if you have an MVP3 or VP3 chipset). So
I concluded that I should go ahead with the IRQ routing driver, although I was
not entirely sure why. This, too, went onto a floppy.
(e) PCI Bridge Patch. According to Soyo, this allowed Win98 to "recognize the
ETEQ (VIA) chipset, power management controller etc." Advice online said to
skip this driver; I did.
(f) USB Filter Driver. This driver will "add more support for USB device,"
according to Soyo. Again, the online advice was to skip this driver, and anyway
I wasn't using USB and didn't plan to, so I ignored this one too.
(g) DOS All-in-One Driver. I had successfully used DOS on these motherboards
without any special drivers installed, and therefore decided that, at present, I did
not need this.
I had wondered whether I was supposed to begin by loading drivers from the
CD that came with the motherboard, and then update those drivers with these
downloads. After learning about the Bus Master driver (see point 107(b)),
however, I decided not to take the risk that the CD might install drivers I didn't
need. Confirming this, I found a couple of postings in which people said that all
you needed, on top of the drivers that came with Win98, was the IRQ Routing

80

Driver and the AGP Driver. I tried to install the IRQ Routing Driver, but
unfortunately it would only get as far as saying that it was setting up the
InstallShield Wizard to guide me through setup, and would then dump me back
at Windows Explorer. I hoped that meant that the thing was a quick install -which seemed possible, considering that the unpacked files were only 790 KB
altogether. To find out for sure, I tried but failed to find a working e-mail
address on the Soyo website, so I posted a query online and waited for an
answer. In the meantime, the AGPREADME.TXT file for the AGP Driver told me
not to install it until after I had installed my AGP graphics card driver. Since
only one machine had an AGP graphics card, I postponed this step until later.
(See point 325.) At some point, I noticed that the README.TXT file for the IRQ
Routing Driver said that, before installing Win98, I was supposed to have
enabled "OnChip USB" in the BIOS Chipset Features setup menu, and enable
"Assign IRQ for USB" in the PNP/PCP Configuration Setup menu. That's the
way those features were set at this point; I hoped they had been set that way
when I had installed Windows. A few days later, I had two replies to my query
about the IRQ Routing Driver. One person told me to go into Control Panel |
Add/Remove Programs and look to see whether the driver was listed. I didn't
see it there. Another told me to look for IRQ Steering in "system properties," by
which I guessed he meant Control Panel | System | Device Manager | System
Devices. There, I saw four VIA Tech entries: PCI to ISA bridge, Power
Management Controller, CPU to PCI bridge, and CPU to AGP controller. It
seemed that my IRQ Routing Driver had not loaded and was not going to load,
and possibly that the (or at least someone's) AGP Driver had loaded already. I
made a note to come back and see whether that same VIA Tech V82C598 CPU to
AGP controller was still listed after I installed my AGP Driver. (See point 325.) I
tried to copy the IRQ Routing Driver files to the hard disk and install it from
there, and that's when I found the problem: it was a bad floppy. I verified that
in Norton Disk Doctor on the AMD machine. Then I copied the IRQ Routing
Driver files to another floppy on the AMD machine, copied them to hard disk on
the PENTIUM computer, installed them from there, and the installation ran fine
and indicated that I had installed the VIA PCI IRQ Routing Miniport Driver V1.3A. It still didn't appear in System Devices, but at least it was now listed in
Add/Remove Programs.
108. More DMA. Continuing the DMA inquiry (see point 106), I learned from
the VIA FAQs page that Win98 was UDMA-capable, but that I couldn't use
UDMA 66 unless my hard drives used an 80-pin cable, which they didn't. How
about UDMA 33 -- or, indeed, any DMA? A page at the Soyo website informed
me that installing the right bus master drivers will automatically enable the use
of DMA. I got the right bus master drivers as soon as I installed Win98. (See
point 107(b).) The Soyo site said that you don't have to enable DMA in Control
Panel | System | Device Manager | Disk Drives | Generic IDE Devices |

81

Properties | Settings if your motherboard uses a non-Intel chipset, as I thought


the Soyo 5EHM did, and that if DMA is already enabled, you won't even have an
option there to turn on or off. On the PENTIUM computer, however, the DMA
box was still there for both of my hard disks, and it was not checked. Having
arrived at no other way of determining the models of my hard drives, I got down
there with my flashlight and looked at them. Then I went to the manufacturers'
websites and looked for specifics. According to the Fujitsu site, the one 3 GB
drive (model no. MPB3032AT) did support UDMA 33 (i.e., the kind of DMA that
doesn't require the wide 80-pin cable). So I checked the DMA box for that drive.
I got the warning that this can cause undesirable effects with your hardware, and
I said OK. The Western Digital site didn't have any information on the other 3
GB hard disk (model no. WDAC33100-00H), but I found a couple of other sites
that seemed to say that this disk was also UDMA-capable. I clicked the DMA
box, closed out of Control Panel, and rebooted. Windows restarted without any
problems. I had assumed that the hard drives on the AMD machine, being
newer, would surely be DMA-capable if those older 3 GB drives were, and
because of the positioning of the drives, I was not able to read their model
numbers without shutting down the machine and physically removing the
drives, which I declined to do now. (See point 173.) Unfortunately, this was not
the end of the DMA question. (See point 113(f).)
109. More Windows 98 Adjustments. Having taken care of those detailed
problems, I returned to the task of adjusting Win98. (See point 105.) The
additional steps I took were as follows:
(a) Power Management. In Control Panel | Power Management, I chose the
Home/Office Desk power scheme, and set things to shut off after a couple of
hours, leaving it to the screen saver to handle things until then. To give Win98
full control over the power settings, I rebooted, went into the BIOS setup,
enabled APM, disabled all timers (e.g., the ones that power down the hard
disks), and rebooted.
(b) Active Desktop. Long ago, I had shut off this option and ignored it thereafter.
Now I found myself wondering whether I should give it a chance. The site at
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/ie/ie40/gallery/ made it seem
interesting, and it became doubly so when I discovered that there are a large
number of other Active Desktop options out there. But I saw several different
comments indicating that Active Desktop tends to slow down your system,
presumably because your processor is busy updating various desktop items that,
in my case, I will rarely see because I almost always have programs filling the
screen. Then again, I thought I might be more likely to look at the desktop if it
had something worth looking at, and that perhaps the performance hit would
not be great, or would be worth the benefits, or would be something I could

82

control by adjusting how often the items on the desktop got updated. Also, I had
used Website subscriptions in an earlier version of Internet Explorer, until they
changed them in some way I didn't like. (This turned out to be Offline Viewing
in more recent versions of Internet Explorer.) It wasn't like I would have to
install or uninstall a program if I changed my mind about Active Desktop.
Browsing, I saw comments from people who had problems with Active Desktop,
but I also saw comments from people who liked it. Some persuasive words
against Active Desktop came from PCForrest, whom I had grown to respect (see
e.g., point 44), stating that "Active Desktop is a huge resource hog, and unreliable
at the best of times." On the other hand, other knowledgeable users seemed to
enjoy and encourage using it. See e.g.,
http://x34.deja.com/getdoc.xp?AN=538298873&CONTEXT=948731789.9116057
9&hitnum=41. I eventually decided that I could get the same thing as Active
Desktop, without the risk of instability, by using a slightly different approach.
(See point 113(a).) I also thought that I might experiment with Active Desktop
sometime later, however. (And if I did, I wanted to remember that you get the
option to save something as active content if you drag it with your right button
from the browser to the desktop.) But I kept hearing bad things about it -- e.g.,
that not even Microsoft employees used it -- so for this item, "later" never came.
(c) TweakUI. By this time, I had heard so many references to TweakUI, and had
come across so many little things that it would fix, that I could see no reason to
postpone it further. In the previous go-round (see point 71), I had worried that it
might have introduced some instability, but many subsequent happy reboots
(see point 101) had persuaded me that that earlier instability had been just a
passing by-product of installing Office 97. I had been using TweakUI for more
than a year on the AMD computer with no ill side-effects, as far as I knew. ZiffDavis, in their typical gushing style, claimed that "While certain parts of Tweak
UI may not work on your machine, we've never heard of anyone losing data or
experiencing system damage because of the utility." I felt a more cautionary
approach was appropriate, given the words of Microsoft itself, in the
README.TXT file accompanying TweakUI -- that "TweakUI ... presents a greater
risk of making changes that will leave Windows in an unusable state." I also
noticed that, although TweakUI was available on the Windows 98 CD (in
\TOOLS\RESKIT\POWERTOY), it was not supported by Microsoft -- the reason
being, apparently, that it was developed by Microsoft programmers for their
own use, not for the public. Moreover, I had run into some comments regarding
possible problems with the program (see e.g.,
http://www.ac.net/~lilesj/tweak.html). So I decided to compromise: I would
install it, in the sense of getting it onto my disk as part of this complete Microsoft
CD that I was planning to burn; but I would not actually use it to adjust any
system settings until later. To install it, I copied the contents of the CD's
POWERTOY folder to a folder called C:\POWER; I right-clicked on the file

83

named TWEAKUI.INF, and chose "Install"; I went into Control Panel, to verify
that the TweakUI icon was there; I double-clicked on that icon, just to make sure
that TweakUI would open OK; and then I deleted C:\POWER, which was no
longer needed. (TweakUI is also available for download from various sites, if for
some reason you don't see it on your Win98 CD.) As indicated in the next
paragraph, I pulled back somewhat from this. Later, I dropped it altogether.
(See point 117.) Subsequently, I came back to it cautiously, after all, to a limited
extent. (See point 145(f).)
(d) Resource Kit Sampler. Reading \TOOLS\RESKIT\README.DOC, I
belatedly found that I had been too eager to install TweakUI. It was part of the
Resource Kit ("ResKit") Tools Sampler on the Win98 CD, and now I wished I had
installed it along with the other tools in that Sampler. Since I did not want the
ResKit files scattered around my hard disks, I went into Control Panel |
Add/Remove Programs and uninstalled TweakUI. Then, trying again, I doubleclicked on \TOOLS\RESKIT\SETUP.EXE. This approach had the drawback of
not loading TweakUI from the hard disk (see point 109(c)), as some had
recommended, but I did not think that was likely to make any real difference;
and now I had the advantage of being able to tell the installer where to put all
these program files. Unfortunately, at this point I got an error message
indicating that Explorer was having problems. (Note that Explorer is distinct
from Windows Explorer. The former is some kind of essential program; the
latter is just a utility for moving files around.) I exited from Setup, coldrebooted, and tried again, hoping that my little TweakUI escapade had not
caused any damage. I designated the DOS-readable (i.e., short) folder name
D:\RESKIT for the location where I wanted the ResKit sampler files installed. As
expected, I noticed during installation that it copied files to drive C as well as D.
The installation completed without any problems. I decided, again, not to tinker
with these tools until later. The installation seemed to draw more files from the
CD than I had expected; I hoped that this would not take me over the limit of
what would fit on the CD that I was planning to burn. Interestingly, there was
not now a TweakUI icon in Control Panel. Instead, I had a Start | Programs icon
for the Tools Management Console, which I had heard was a really great tool
that would somehow help me plug in new utilities in the future. (See point
119(a).)
(e) Window Sizes and Locations. I opened several different programs, one at a
time, and set the sizes and locations I wanted them to use when they were
operating in windows that filled only part of the screen. To do this, I positioned
them the way I wanted them, and then held down the Ctrl key while closing
them, so as to save my settings. The programs for which I did this were Internet
Explorer, Windows Explorer, the MS-DOS Prompt box, and Control Panel.

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(f) Audio Adjustments. For some reason, Windows Media Player had not been
presented as one of the standard Windows 98 downloads. (See point 15.) I had
previously downloaded the latest version to the AMD machine, so I DCC'd it
over from there and installed it on the PENTIUM machine. (See point 93.) Also,
since I didn't always want an audio CD to play as soon as I insert it, I disabled
AutoRun by deselcting Auto Insert Notification in Control Panel | System |
Device Manager | CD-ROM | Properties | Settings. I would do more fiddling
with audio components later. (See point 157.)
(g) Favorites. On my AMD computer, I had collected a number of links to
favorite websites as "Favorites" in Internet Explorer ("IE"). I wanted my
complete setup to include a nicely organized set of these Favorites. After all,
they were the results of many hours of searching online for various bits of
information, and I didn't want to lose them. At this stage in the operation, to
organize them, I wound up spending many hours tinkering with them, using
FrontPage 2000, Word, and Excel. The work was sufficient to test these three
Microsoft Office programs and satisfy me that they were in good working order,
but I don't think it went to the extent of crashing any of these programs or
otherwise messing them up. I stopped partway through the project, when I
decided that all I could do -- indeed, all I really needed to do -- for present
purposes was to set up a few entries in the Links portion of my Favorites folder.
My reasoning went like this: I decided that my Favorites had outgrown their
folder. I had over 1,400 of them, divided into many folders and subfolders
within the C:\Windows\Favorites folder. There was some duplication among
them; it was not always easy to find the one I was looking for; some of them
were no longer working; and while I wanted to preserve the pages that I had
found during my searches, I did not use all of them often enough to remember
precisely what each one was for. What I wanted, instead of a Favorites folder,
was a set of Links pages on my hard disk or, as I preferred, on my website, with
each Links page devoted to a different subject and perhaps dividing its links
among subpages. It would be slightly slower to have to go to a Links web page
instead of pulling down a link from my Favorites list, but on the other hand I
would be able to do things with Links pages that I could not do with Favorites.
For instance, I could rearrange them to put the most frequently used items at the
top, and could add explanatory text to remind me of what the less frequently
used ones were all about, or to point me to the best parts of those pages. (It
would also be one less thing to back up from drive C; instead, it would exist
online, and the original would be on a date drive somewhere, with my other web
pages.) The point is, I now realized I could sort all that out later. All I really
needed to do, right now, was to create links, in my Favorites\Links folder, to
each of the main links category pages that would later appear on my website. I
knew what the main headings would be -- Media & Entertainment, for example,
and Computers (corresponding, in some cases, to the main pages in my website)

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-- and I knew the names of the web pages that would contain them; I just
couldn't go ahead with the full construction of my website quite yet. To start this
process, I went online on the PENTIUM computer and tried out the small
number of web links that the Windows and Office installations had loaded into
my Favorites folder there. In Favorites, I decided to keep Radio Station Guide
and Web Events. Using Windows Explorer, I went into C:\Windows\Favorites
and created a Favorites\Unsorted subfolder. I figured I would be using this for
any future URLs that I wanted to save and, eventually, to add to my Links web
pages. I put the Radio Station Guide and Web Events shortcuts into this folder,
and deleted the MSN shortcut. I went into the Favorites\Links subfolder and
repeated the process. There, I decided to keep the two programs QuickSearch
and Toggle Images, which I had heard could be useful. (Later, I wound up
deciding that I really didnt have much use for QuickSearch. See point 266(d).)
But I decided that the place for them was not on my Links toolbar, since they
weren't websites that I was linking to. Rather, they belonged on an Internet
toolbar that I added to the Office 97 Shortcut Bar. (See point 102.) I verified that
I already had a link to Windows Update on my Start | Programs menu, and then
I deleted it from this Links subfolder. I went online and tried out the other links
that Microsoft had inserted into the Favorites\Links subfolder (e.g., "Microsoft"
and "Channel Guide"). I decided to keep the Microsoft and Windows shortcuts,
at least until I could verify whether I already had similar shortcuts in my full set
of Favorites. I moved these to the Unsorted folder and deleted the rest. "Media"
was the only subfolder I deleted, out of all the subfolders that Microsoft had put
under the Favorites folder -- Channels, Links, Media, or Software Updates -because I had previously heard that deleting the others can screw up your
system. (I had already incorporated the contents of Media into my full Favorites
list on the other machine.) Then I added my half-dozen preferred Links (e.g.,
Yahoo!) from the AMD computer. To do this, I copied the Links folder over on
floppy and inserted the shortcuts from there. All that remained was to add Links
shortcuts for the main Links pages that would appear on my website. For this, I
made a copy of one of the working link shortcuts, changed the URL in that
shortcut to the URL for the home page of my website
(www.geocities.com/Athens/Academy/3097/), made a copy of that altered
shortcut, changed its name so that it would be the first of my top-level links
pages (i.e., the one containing links to Computers sites), and added the name that
this link page would have (i.e., TOP_LINKS_COMPUTERS.HTM) to the end of
the homepage URL. While I was changing its name, I also thought I might be
able to speed things up a bit, when perusing my Links, if I checked the "Make
this page available offline" box and set the Download tab to go three levels
down, into the subfolders that I would probably be creating under
TOP_LINKS_COMPUTERS.HTM. To prevent this from downloading all of the
web pages listed on these links pages, I unchecked the "Follow links outside of
this page's Web site" box. I also made a note to myself to control the number of

86

links to other pages in my own website (e.g., "Home"), so that I wouldn't be


downloading half of my own website every time I synchronized my links. Then
I made copies of this customized Link shortcut and repeated the process for the
other top-level links pages I expected to create (e.g., TOP_LINKS_MEDIA.HTM).
I found that some of these settings didn't take, the first time, so I had to go back
and re-do them. I decided it would probably be easier to find my most
frequently used links that I had brought over from the other computer (e.g.,
Yahoo!) if I put them into a subfolder called "Frequented," so I did that. This
gave me a Links toolbar (see point 105(e) and (j)) whose contents fit nicely into
two rows at the top of my screen, with room to spare. I noticed that, when I
clicked on the Frequented folder, it gave me a nice pull-down menu, and I
thought that I might try to design the top-level Links files on my website so that
they contained nothing but links to subfolders, which I would then somehow
copy into (or duplicate in) my Favorites\Links subfolder, so that perhaps my
Links toolbar would function like a menu bar, with all of the entries on that
toolbar opening up into pull-down menus, giving me two-click access to dozens
of my most frequently used websites. (One advantage would be that I could
then fire up an Internet Explorer session and point it to one of those sites with
just two clicks.) Later, I revised both the Frequented folder and the Favorites
folder. (See point 261.) I also returned, later, to the Favorites project. (See point
327.)
(h) More Power Management. A number of nights had passed during this whole
Win98 installation process, but the previous night's freeze, sometime during or
after the FP2000 link verification process (see point 109(g)) marked the first time
that my pure installation had frozen while sitting overnight. Naturally, I
suspected the changes I had made the previous day, and particularly the power
management changes. (See point 109(a).) I went back into Control Panel |
Power Management and decided to experiment, starting with the System
Standby setting, which I changed to Never. To speed up the test, I changed the
Turn Off Monitor and Turn Off Hard Disks settings to their lowest settings (one
minute and three minutes, respectively). My second try at the link verification
process was still running, so the monitor went off while the hard disks were still
running. I moved the mouse and the monitor came back on. I concluded that
the monitor was probably not to blame, and I put it back to a setting of one hour.
Next, the hard disk setting. At one point, my second try at the link verification
process came to a halt while waiting for input from me (one website needed a
password); and when I provided that input, I could hear the disks spin back up.
So I didn't think the hard disk shutdown had caused the freezeup either, and I
returned their setting to two hours. This left the System Standby setting. It
dawned on me that perhaps I didn't want the system to be on standby after all. I
didn't know whether various programs that I had set to run in the middle of the
night would be able to run if the system was on standby. As I recalled, I had

87

clicked the box that said something like, "Wake the computer to run this
program," but I wasn't sure if that would do the job. Despite these thoughts,
however, I decided to try to make sure there weren't any power management
problems on my system. I was almost tempted to bring over the Power
Management Troubleshooter (see point 105(a)) from the AMD machine and run
it, but then I came across some advice to do just what I had done -- disable
system standby -- and since the freezes were not occurring anymore, and since
the Power Management Troubleshooter had sounded just a tad scary, I decided
to skip it.
(i) Website Passwords. While the Favorites verification process was running (see
point 109(g)), I used Internet Explorer to go to some of my favorite Websites. I
focused specifically on going down my separate list of sites that required a login.
At those sites, I took IE's offer to save my account names and passwords, so that I
wouldn't have to look them up each time I wanted to log into those sites. I also
accepted IE's offer to use AutoComplete, which I realized I did sometimes
appreciate and which I doubted really slowed down my browsing much -- so I
turned it back on, reversing my earlier decision. (See point 105(i).)
110. Latest Downloads. Some days had passed since I had last visited the
Windows Update site (see point 90), and I had never yet visited
www.updates.com to see if there were any other Microsoft downloads for the
software I had installed so far, so I visited those sites now. I had not yet
downloaded Microsoft's Web Folders Internet Publishing Utility, and it sounded
like something I could use, so I downloaded that. At Updates.com, they told me
that I could upgrade to Office 2000, which I knew. They also offered me a slight
upgrade for MSN Messenger Service, which I declined. While checking sites as
part of my Favorites operation (see point 109(g)), I had come across a site that
would not let me proceed without the very latest Macromedia Shockwave
ActiveX Player, so I accepted the Updates.com offer to give me that. The strange
part was that they also offered to give me an upgrade from Microsoft Dial-Up
Networking 98, from version 4.10.1998 to 4.10.2000. Why hadn't Microsoft
offered this? I didn't know. I followed the link, which led to a Microsoft FTP
site, and installed the update from there.
111. Another Disk Image File and CD. I decided that these various operations,
and especially the tinkering I had done in Excel, Word, and FrontPage 2000 as
part of my effort to organize my Favorites (see point 109(g)), had given me
enough opportunity to have at least a preliminary sense that Office 97 was
properly installed and working. (See point 104.) Indeed, I hoped that the work
in FP2000 had not gone to the point of damaging that installation. I didn't think
it had -- there hadn't been any program crashes or reboots in the middle of any
operations -- but it had behaved irregularly enough to raise the question of

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whether I had done sufficient tinkering for now. I had originally planned to
make this go-round the complete and final installation and adjustment of all
things related to Win98 and Office 97. As I had gone further into the subject,
however, I had been surprised at how many more things people had found to do
to those programs, to make them faster or more responsive. Some of those
tweaks were simple and safe, and some were risky and complex, and many were
in between. I was beginning to get nervous, however, at the prospect that all this
work might be lost if I made one false move in one of these alterations. I thought
about taking a break at this point to burn another CD, but then I decided that
was a highly time-consuming operation and that it included the risk of causing a
translation error when I moved my hard disk (on which I would create the image
file) from the PENTIUM computer to the AMD computer, where the CD burner
was located. (See point 59.) The better approach, I decided, was to make another
image file and save it on drive F, with the previous one. That way, unless I
somehow managed to screw up drive F, I would have what I needed to burn a
CD and/or to start over quickly, but I could also continue with my tinkering and
tweaking as long as things continued to work fine. So I created the image file on
F, using the same technique as before. (See point 103.) Specifically, it would be,
once again, an image of drives C and D only. I emptied out the Recycle Bin and
C:\Windows\Temp, since I did not want their contents on any CD that I might
someday burn from this drive image, and also because I had a lot to squeeze into
this image, which would hopefully still be within the 650 MB limit for a CD. (See
point 16.) I didn't bother emptying out the Temporary Internet Files folder
because it was on drive H. (See point 50.) I cleared off the Documents Menu.
(See point 54.) Then I rebooted into real DOS, from the floppy, and ran
DriveImage from the floppy to create the C_D_2.PQI image file on drive F.
DriveImage told me that these C and D partitions contained a total of 891 MB,
which was within my target estimate of what would fit on a CD. (See point 68.)
As before, I chose the Maximum Compression and Verify Disk Writes options. It
took nearly an hour and produced a C_D_2.PQI file of 564 MB, for 63%
compression. This surprised me; if the rate held, I could squeeze more than 1 GB
of program files onto a CD. To make space on F for the next disk images, I
rebooted into Win98 and used Direct Cable Connection (see point 93) to move
my existing image files over to the AMD machine, where I had a little more
space to hold them. (It took about five hours to move them, for a rate of about
200 MB per hour. Also, perhaps because of the increasing instability of the AMD
computer, DCC crashed both computers when I shut it down on the AMD
computer.) And then, realizing that it could be weeks or even months before I
would begin to discover flaws in my Windows installations, I decided to store
C_AND_D.PQI (see point 103) on CD-RW, so that I could go through the full
process of making a bootable CD out of it later if necessary. C_AND_D.PQI
represented a relatively primitive form of the system, and the system had been
stable since then, so I didn't think it would be necessary to go back that far, and

89

this way I would save the time and the cost of burning a CD-R for it. But this
C_D_2.PQI image was another story. So far, this was a stable and more
advanced form of the system, and it might well be something I would reinstall.
Since the PENTIUM computer was apparently unable to read CD-RW disks
burned on the AMD machine (see point 62), I burned this one to CD, using the
same approach as before (see point 65), except that (a) I decided not to bother
making a file list for future comparison (see point 80), (b) I went ahead and
closed the disk, and (c) I realized that I had forgotten to shut off the archive bits
before making the image file. This was not a major problem; I just hoped that the
next image file would turn out to be solid and would become my reference
Win98 system.
112. Office 97 Adjustments. Relieved to have made a backup, and to see I still
had lots of space to work with, I did some more tinkering with my Office 97
installation, as follows:
(a) Expanding Abbreviations. One of the best features of Office 97, for me, has
been the ability to set up its programs to expand a few letters to form a whole
word or phrase. For example, I type "nyc" and I get "New York City." If you
change your computer's date to tomorrow (no guarantees on what this might do
to your calendaring programs), and then go into Word and hit Tools |
AutoCorrect and type in a Replace/With entry, and then change the date back to
today and search for all files that were changed tomorrow, you will see that
Office saves these changes in a file called [username].ACL. For example, mine
are saved in C:\Windows\Ray Woodcock.acl. Anyway, I copied this file
(containing my treasured collection of many such abbreviations) over from the
AMD computer to the PENTIUM computer, renamed the existing Ray
Woodcock.acl to be OLD.ACL, moved it to C:\Temp, put this other one in its
place, and tested it by typing "nyc" and a couple of my other abbreviations.
(b) Outlook 98 Journal. I had heard a horror story about how Tools | Options |
Journal in some version of Outlook comes pre-configured to take down a record
of when you edit your files, and if you leave it on, it will produce a huge file that
slows your system down tremendously. I went into Outlook Express and saw no
such option; I went into Outlook 98 and saw something that might have been
what that story was about. Under the heading "Also record files from," I saw
that the boxes were checked for five Office 97 applications: Word, Excel, etc. To
see what would happen, I went to Outlook 98 on the AMD machine, made sure
the box for Word was checked, did the same date trick as in point 112(a),
changed and saved a file in Word, closed Outlook, and then searched to see
which files had been affected on tomorrow's date. (Note: this maneuver kept
freezing up the Date/Time thingie -- I was using the one at the bottom right
corner of the screen -- so that I had to use Ctrl-Alt-Del to shut it down. I

90

probably should have just used the DATE command in a DOS box instead. I was
glad I was doing this on the AMD machine, whose Windows installation was
going to be replaced soon, and not on my nice, pure PENTIUM machine.) The
file storing this data appeared to be C:\WINDOWS\Application
Data\Microsoft\Outlook\Offitems.log, but I wasn't sure. The Journal definitely
did work, though: the Journal folder in Outlook 98 showed which files I edited
tomorrow and how long I was at it. Just the thing to spy on people, I guess. I
went to the PENTIUM computer, turned off all Journal options, and hoped that
would do the trick.
(c) Outlook 98 OUTLOOK.PST. I guess Outlook is considered part of Office,
even though it didn't come on my Office 97 CD. Anyway, on the AMD machine,
Outlook had saved all my e-mail messages in a file called
C:\EXCHANGE\MAILBOX.PST. I don't know if that's the name that Win95
originally gave it, or if I requested that name. On the PENTIUM computer, the
only .PST file was C:\WINDOWS\OUTLOOK.PST. There were two things
about the old MAILBOX.PST that I didn't want to see on the new
OUTLOOK.PST. First, it was too big. It contained all kinds of junk. I figured
that, rather than bring it over to the new setup, I would just archive it or bleed it
of valuable data and delete it, or possibly all of the above. How to do that -- that
was a question for another day. (See point 192.) Right now, I was more
concerned with the other problem: how could I relocate this OUTLOOK.PST file
so that it would be on a data partition, and not on my program partition? I
wanted it to be in a place that would get frequent backups, since new e-mails and
appointments would be going into it every day. My data partitions would get
that kind of backup attention; my program partitions might not. Outlook 98
itself did not seem to offer an option for where the OUTLOOK.PST file would be
located. When I asked online, they said I could just move it anywhere, as long as
Outlook 98 wasn't running. Outlook would ask for its current location, and I
could tell it. So I tried this. I moved OUTLOOK.PST to E:\MESSAGES and
rebooted. I started Outlook 98 and got the message, "The file
C:\WINDOWS\OUTLOOK.PST could not be found." I clicked OK. This opened
a dialog box that gave me a chance to point to E:\MESSAGES\OUTLOOK.PST.
And that seemed to take care of it. I prepared an e-mail and saved it; I closed
Outlook; I looked at E:\Messages; and sure enough, OUTLOOK.PST had been
updated just a moment before, when I saved that message. Done!
(d) Outlook 98 Address Book. Unlike my old e-mail messages, I did want to
bring my Address Book over from the AMD machine. It was a bit premature
right now -- I didn't want to start using Outlook 98 on the PENTIUM computer
as my regular e-mail program yet, and I might be changing entries in my
Address Book between now and the time when I did begin to use the new
Outlook 98 installation (see point 193) -- but I decided I could go ahead with a

91

test run, to make sure I knew where the Address Book would be stored. On the
AMD machine, I went into Outlook 98 and selected File | Import and Export |
Export to a File | Next | Personal Folder File | Next | Contacts | Next, named
the exported file C:\TEMP\ADDR_BK.PST, selected Allow Duplicate Items to Be
Created (since I didn't know whether the program would consider contacts to be
"duplicate" even if they involved two different e-mail addresses) and went on
with Finish | No Encryption. The resulting file was small, so I tried to put it on a
floppy, but I got the message that Outlook had locked the file. So I closed
Outlook 98 and tried again. This time it worked. I carried it over to the
PENTIUM computer. There, I went into Outlook 98 and, before anything else, I
had to select the Contacts folder. Then I chose File | Import and Export | Import
from Another Program or File | Next | Personal Folder File (.pst) | Next. I
designated A:\ADDR_BK.PST and chose "Import items into the current folder."
This gave me the message that I had chosen to import into a folder of a different
type, and that the contents would instead be imported into a new folder with the
same name. I said OK, and it worked! It didn't bring over the Contacts\People
subfolder, but I supposed I might have forgotten to check the "include
subfolders" box when exporting. Anyway, it was good enough for a dry run. I
searched for all files modified during the previous day and was able to figure out
that the Address Book was being stored in the same
E:\MESSAGES\OUTLOOK.PST file as the e-mail messages, which was fine with
me.
(e) Office Shortcut Bar and Desktop Icons. I decided to clarify the icons on the
shortcut bars at the left side of my screen. (See point 102.) The toolbar there
actually contained three separate bars: Office, Internet, and Desktop. I decided
that I would find items faster if I had no more than about a half-dozen buttons
per bar. So I moved Internet Explorer and Outlook 98 (my e-mail program) from
the Office bar to the Internet bar. I also decided that, since I wasn't going to use
Active Desktop (see point 113(a)), I would use my desktop as the repository of
system-related shortcuts, and that the Desktop bar should show only those
desktop items that had to do with the system. Thus, I hid or removed some
buttons from the Desktop bar. On the desktop itself, I created a folder called
"Was On Desktop" and dragged the Briefcase into it (and expected to drag others
there in the future). (Instead, I later wound up undoing that and getting rid of
this folder.) I also added some items to the desktop itself and reflected them in
the desktop bar. The first of these was the Control Panel. To make that one, I
went into Windows Explorer, right-clicked on Control Panel (near the bottom of
the list on the left side), chose Create Shortcut, and indicated that it should go on
the desktop. (Later, I found that X-Setup made this easier. See point 137(c). But
then I changed my mind on that and came back to this. See point 138(d).)
Another was the direct shortcut to Device Manager. For that one, I right-clicked
on the desktop, chose New | Shortcut, typed C:\WINDOWS\CONTROL.EXE

92

SYSDM.CPL,,1 and clicked Next, named it Device Manager, clicked Properties,


and changed its icon. See http://www.super7.net/tips/Default.htm. (Later, I
deleted both the Control Panel and Device Manager shortcuts from the desktop.
See point 145(i).) To organize my Office Shortcut Bar further, I went into
Windows Explorer, went to the location where these icons were kept
(D:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\Office\Shortcut Bar\Office), and created
some folders and otherwise arranged things, and then I went back to the
Shortcut Bar and hid or moved buttons as I wanted.
113. Still More Windows Adjustments. I returned to the task of digesting the
myriad little tips and ideas I had collected on the subject of how to make Win98
do just what you want. My further adjustments were as follows:
(a) Active Desktop Substitute. I had decided against Active Desktop. (See point
109(b).) Instead, following suggestion no. 4 at
http://x34.deja.com/getdoc.xp?AN=538298873&CONTEXT=948731789.9116057
9&hitnum=41, I decided to develop an HTML page and incorporate the same
kinds of things into it that I would have put onto the Active Desktop. I probably
could have created this page as a strictly local item, stored on my hard disk and
updated there, but then I decided that the most logical time to update it would
be when I was online anyway, and therefore that I should make it part of my
website. This also made the page available for anyone else whose tastes might
match mine and who might prefer to link to my page rather than go to the
trouble of designing their own. The actual design of this page came later. (See
point 327.) All I did at this time was to add an item called "Quick" (short for
"Quick Reference") to my Links toolbar; and in a slightly different approach, I set
the properties of this one to be available offline, to download pages one link
deep, and to follow links outside the page itself. (See point 109(g).)
(b) Mailto Shortcuts. To make a faster way of composing e-mail, I added another
item to my Links toolbar (see point 113(a)) called "E-mail." This item was a
folder containing several different Mailto links. To create a Mailto link, I rightclicked in this folder (using Windows Explorer) and chose New | Shortcut. In
the Command Link blank, I typed the person to whom I wanted the e-mail to go,
such as "mailto:ray-woodcock@usa.net," and then selected Next and named it.
(c) SendTo. On the AMD machine, I had noticed that various utilities had
installed a lot of options on the SendTo choice that comes up when you rightclick on something in Windows Explorer. I modified this list by putting some of
these items in subfolders, and by creating more subfolders for additional items
that I now wanted to install, as follows: (1) Moving Existing SendTos. I created a
subfolder in C:\Windows\SendTo called "Other Destinations," and moved
several of the SendTo options (i.e., Desktop, My Briefcase, and Web Publishing

93

Wizard) to that subfolder. That way, they weren't gone, in case I someday
changed my habits and decided to start using them; but neither were they in my
face every time I used SendTo. (2) Creating New Temp Folder SendTos. I added
several shortcuts to the main SendTo folder, to give me a faster way of moving
things to the Temp folders on each disk (e.g., C:\Temp), since I often use those
folders as a clearinghouse from which I then distribute files elsewhere (e.g.,
review, sort, print, or zip them). To do this, I right-clicked on those Temp folders
in Windows Explorer and selected New | Shortcut. Then I put all those
shortcuts into C:\Windows\SendTo\Folders\Temp Folders. (3) Creating New
Data File Destination SendTos. I did the same thing as above for data folders
that I knew I would frequently want to send items to (e.g., E:\Spreadsheets and
E:\Text). I also created one for the Favorites\Unsorted folder. (See point
109(g).) (4) Creating New Program SendTos. In
C:\Windows\SendTo\Programs, I put SendTo items for the programs that I
often use to open files that are not commonly associated with them. In
particular, I use Word and Excel, and sometimes WordPad and Notepad, to open
all kinds of files that don't have the right extensions. For instance, I might use
Excel to open a .TXT or .DOC file, if it contains data in a format that Excel can
parse effectively. (The advantage of SendTo over the left-click | shift-right-click
| Open With option, for these situations, is that you don't have to hunt down
through a long list of programs to find the one you want to open the file with.)
In these instances, I created the SendTo item by using the right mouse button to
drag icons over from the subfolders under C:\Windows\Start Menu\Programs - the reason being that the New Shortcut approach described above balked at file
or folder names with spaces in them (like "Start Menu"). I also added a copy of
the MS-DOS Prompt icon to this Programs subfolder. I tried sending a DOS
batch file to that prompt, but it didnt run, so I removed the icon. Finally,
applying tip no. 59 from the Weber High School site (see point 105(j)), I went to
the Desktop and created a shortcut to the Recycle Bin. Then I cut that shortcut
from there and pasted it into C:\WINDOWS\SENDTO. This gave me the ability
to delete things by using the Send To right-click option in Windows Explorer. I
didn't expect to use this much at the start, but I had found on the AMD machine
that Windows had reverted to the habit of asking me if I was sure I wanted to
delete a file, even though I had instructed it not to ask me that; someone online
said that this SendTo option would bypass that. (See point 41.)
(d) Drive Speed. Under Control Panel | System | Performance | File System, I
verified that Hard Disk was set to full Read-ahead optimization; I set Floppy
Disk not to search for new floppy drives each time my computer started; and
under CD-ROM, I made sure I was set to the largest cache at Quad-speed. Also,
having heard the same tip several times, I changed the hard disk setting to make
the Typical role of this computer to be a Network Server, which apparently
optimizes Win98's disk caching. Later, I noticed that Cacheman changed this.

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(e) Office 97 Suite. Some projects required me to have several programs open at
once. For example, when I was working through a pile of random stuff that had
suddenly descended upon my desk, I was apt to use an Office 97 suite, consisting
of Word, Excel, Access, Windows Explorer, Internet Explorer, and Outlook 98, at
one point or another as I attempted to dig my way out of the mess. Another
example would arise when I did audio editing: I might use Cool Edit, two
different sessions of Windows Explorer, Volume Control, and a mixer. The latter
example was premature (see point 255(c)), but it illustrated that different jobs
may call for a very different set of programs. I decided to create a new toolbar
that would allow me to click on one icon and thereby open an entire suite of
programs at once. This would free me from having to decide whether to include
a lot of icons in my StartUp folder (under Start | Windows), which is convenient
-- but only as long as I'm using the same programs, and not when I want to boot
the computer to do something simple. Since I hadn't yet installed all my audio
programs and other stuff, the Office 97 suite just mentioned was the only suite I
could set up right now; but that would do for starters. First, I created a subfolder
within my modified Start | Programs structure. (See point 42.) In Windows
Explorer, it was at C:\Windows\Start Menu\Programs\Other
Programs\Miscellany\Toolbars\Suites. Then I copied icons for all the Office 97
programs just mentioned, from other Start | Programs folders to this one. I also
brought over a copy of the MS-DOS Prompt icon from the Utilities subfolder. I
modified this MS-DOS Prompt item in two ways. First, right-clicked on it and
changed its name to "Office Suite." (Later, back in Windows Explorer, I rightclicked on it and changed its name there too.) Second, while I was in its
Properties, I changed its Properties | Program | Batch File line to point to the
D:\DOS_UTIL folder, where I tended to keep my DOS batch files. (See point 64.)
The specific program that this MS-DOS Prompt would run would be a new
program, which I was about to write, called STE_OFC.BAT (short for Suite:
Office: Batch File). Thus, the Batch File line, in its entirety, read as follows:
D:\DOS_UTIL\STE_OFC.BAT. To create this new STE_OFC.BAT program, I
opened a DOS window, typed UTIL (to invoke my previously defined UTIL.BAT
file that takes me immediately to D:\DOS_UTIL), and typed EDIT
STE_OFC.BAT. That put me into the editor, where I could create this new BAT
file. For its first line, I typed @ECHO OFF. For the next line, I switched to
Windows Explorer, right-clicked on the Word icon there in my Suites subfolder,
copied its Properties | Target line with a Ctrl-C, and pasted it into the second
line (using the clipboard icon at the top of the MS-DOS Prompt window,
although I had thought that my previous settings, including a check mark in the
DOS Prompt's "Quick Edit" box, would enable me to just use Ctrl-V or right-click
to paste -- see point 105(l)). I repeated this copy-and-paste process for each of the
programs whose icons I had copied into the Suites folder (Access, Excel, etc.) -except, of course, for the MS-DOS Prompt that I had renamed Office Suite, and

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that was rapidly becoming the focal point of all this attention. (After all, I didn't
want the program to invoke itself, thus creating an endless loop that would soon
crash the computer, although admittedly you could create some pretty good
practical jokes by tinkering with this.) Now I had six program lines in my
STE_OFC.BAT file. I removed the quotation marks from the starts and ends of
the lines that had them. At the start of each line, I put the word START.
Although I wasn't sure it would make much difference, I rearranged the lines so
that the programs I would be most likely to use would start last (i.e., would wind
up somewhere near the top of the heap). I was almost done. The remaining
problem was that DOS abbreviates long filenames like "Program Files," which
appeared in each of the lines I had just added, such as "START D:\Program
Files\Microsoft Office\Office\EXCEL.EXE." It abbreviates them down to eight
characters, ending them with a tilde and a number (e.g., "Program Files" might
become "PROGRA~1"). To find out exactly how it was abbreviating them, I
opened another DOS window and used my WHEREIS utility. (See point 5(g).)
(Alternatives to WHEREIS include FILEFIND and DIR, although the latter may
take some hunting before you find the right file, such as the EXCEL.EXE example
just given.) (I later found that I could also have looked in the Properties to get the
DOS filename.) In most cases, there will be only one long filename of its kind in
a given folder, so it will be given the number one. For instance, in the Excel
example, "Program Files" ordinarily becomes PROGRA~1, but if you add
another "Program ..." item to the list, the number might change and EXCEL.EXE
might become PROGRA~2 -- in which case my STE_OFC.BAT program would
be loading the wrong program, or no program at all, and I would have to edit it
to address the new number. In this case, WHEREIS told me that I had to edit the
Excel command line so that it would read like this: START
D:\PROGRA~1\MICROS~1\OFFICE\EXCEL.EXE. I repeated this process for
each of the lines in my program. (Since several of the programs were in the same
folder on the same drive, I was able to cut and paste duplicate lines and just
change the filenames in several cases -- without all that fuss and muss of using
WHEREIS -- to get this editing job done faster.) Finally, as the last line in
STE_OFC.BAT, I added the simple word EXIT, so that this DOS window would
close when it had done its business. Then I saved and exited the EDIT program
and the DOS window. I tested by double-clicking on my Office Suite icon, and it
worked. I closed all the programs it had opened. Now that I had copied the
Target lines from all these Office 97 icons in my Suites folder, I no longer needed
these icons here, so I deleted them, leaving Office Suite as the sole remaining icon
in the folder. I right-clicked an empty spot on the Taskbar at the bottom of the
screen and selected Toolbars | New Toolbar, called it Suites, and pointed it
toward the C:\Windows\Start Menu\Programs\Other
Programs\Miscellany\Suites folder where I had left the Office Suite icon. To
squeeze things into a tight space there on the Taskbar, I right-clicked on the
Office Suite icon and shut off the Show Text and Show Title options. To make it

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recognizable without those words, I right-clicked on the icon itself and chose
Properties | Program | Change Icon, which gave me a bunch of quasi-unique
alternatives. I chose something suitably dorky and vaguely officeish and then
okayed out of there. Then I put the cursor at the dividing line that separated this
new Suites Toolbar from the rest of the Taskbar, and dragged that line so I wasn't
taking up any more space down there than necessary. The icon itself wouldn't
tell me, later, which suite I was loading, but a little Tool Tip popped up to say it
was the Office Suite, if I left my cursor pointing at the icon for a few seconds.
Later, I did more thinking about the Office Suite. (See point 275.)
(f) System File Editing for DMA. Since Registry editing can really screw things
up, I decided I would postpone making internal changes to the Registry or other
Windows files until after I burned the next CD. But then I decided there was a
difference between performance-enhancing (optional) tweaks and required
tweaks. Specifically, the Tweak3D site at
http://www.tweak3d.net/tweak/harddrive/ told me that, if I was going to turn
on DMA (see point 106), I was also going to have to add the following two lines
to the bottom of the [ESDI_AddReg] section of my
C:\WINDOWS\INF\MSHDC.INF file. Those lines were as follows:
HKR,,IDEDMADrive0,3,01
HKR,,IDEDMADrive1,3,01
I checked to see if everyone agreed that these lines were important and safe.
Apparently the problem in question arises during startup. See
http://www.lucifer1.demon.co.uk/bugrep.htm (last updated 11/11/98). So far,
I wasn't having that problem. "Old Guy," writing at
http://x46.deja.com/getdoc.xp?AN=571745663&CONTEXT=948810240.1975713
797&hitnum=11, said that these lines were to be used only as a last resort, and
that they still might not make DMA work. Old Guy also said that "the operating
system" checks for DMA compatibility anyway and doesn't use DMA if it doesn't
check out properly. I found a Microsoft site on this subject. See
http://www.eu.microsoft.com/hwdev/devdes/idedma.htm. Confusingly, that
site said this: "For Microsoft Windows 98, you just have to enable the driver,
since the fix is already incorporated. In all cases, you must implement the INF
entries described in this article." What's confusing about that is that the word
"driver" does not appear anywhere else in the article, except in some lines of
program code that the article quotes from MSHDC.INF (which is already
installed and does not need to be "implemented"). I looked at my Win98 copy of
MSHDC.INF to see if "the fix" was "already incorporated" on my machine. If "the
fix" refers to the two HKR lines quoted above, then the answer was no, they did
not already appear in my MSHDC.INF file on either computer. The article
referred me to Microsoft article no. QFE513, last updated 10/22/99, but that

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article addressed only a problem in Win95 OSR2. I decided that, when Microsoft
said "you just have to enable the driver," it meant that OEM installers (what's
that stand for -- Original Equipment Manufacturers, maybe -- anyway, the
people who sell computers) had to make sure that MSHDC.INF was included on
the system, and that Win98 incorporated "the fix" in some other file, so that no
adjustment was needed in my case. Since DMA seemed to be working for me
during projects that involved lots of use of Office 97 programs (see point 109(g)),
I didn't see the need for any more fixes. (Note that, if you do make the change
suggested by this Microsoft article, there are additional steps involved in the
process. FYI: if you have "the UDMA CDROM Shutdown Problem," see
http://www.tcecompany.com/tech/udma.htm for more information about
editing MSHDC.INF.) Then again, there was still the fact that the Microsoft page
said, "In all cases, you must implement the INF entries." Did "INF entries" refer
to the HKR lines cited above? At
http://compguystechweb.com/troubleshooting/windows/cdrom_udma.html
(last updated 12/27/99), the writer comments on CD-ROM audio crashes. To fix
these crashes, s/he suggests unchecking DMA for the CD-ROM drive, and also
suggests removing the HKR lines -- the very same lines, quoted above, that
others are telling us to add! S/he also says it might help just to update your
system BIOS. (Side note: disabling UDMA in the BIOS unchecks the DMA box
in Control Panel. See
http://x46.deja.com/getdoc.xp?AN=566786103&CONTEXT=948810240.1975713
797&hitnum=17.) I happened to run across a test for DMA capability at
http://www.windows-help.net/windows98/tune-35.shtml# dmatest. This test
involved using DEBUG, which is not something you want to make a mistake
with. I ran it with a0 for the master drive, using the basic 22 setting for DMA
mode 2, and came back with a 00 result, indicating that my master (Western
Digital 3.1 GB) drive was indeed DMA-compatible. I ran it again with b0 for the
slave (Fujitsu) drive and got another 00, so I was finally sure I had DMAcompatible drives. Getting back to the main issue, I found another interpretation
of the Microsoft page cited above at http://www.windowshelp.net/windows98/tune-35.shtml. This site was specifically oriented toward
Win98. It said to go ahead and add the two HKR lines quoted above. I finally
decided that, although I don't read this kind of programming code too clearly,
the purpose of these lines must be just to inform the system that drives 0 and 1
(i.e., your first and second hard drives) are DMA-compatible. That seemed
compatible with the assumption, in this tune-35.shtml page, that you have a
primary and a secondary drive. (See also
http://www.super7.net/tips/Default.htm, where they advocate other changes
as well. That page has no "last revised" date, and may be obsolete, considering
my difficulties with its instructions regarding Hyperterminal. See point 113(g).)
But suddenly I wondered what would happen if I connected that old Seagate 1
GB drive again (see point 81), to copy files back and forth. It was a lot faster to

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switch a hard disk between machines than to cable data back and forth at a rate
of 200 MB per hour. (See point 111.) (I had had problems with the Seagate (see
point 82), but had subsequently thought that perhaps the power supply was
coughing when I asked it to drive three hard disks.) Or what if I used the
Seagate as a secondary slave, where I would locate my Swap files? (See point
44.) The answer from the Microsoft page seemed to be that it would be redetected on reboot, the operating system would detect that it wasn't DMAcapable, and there would be no problem. Anyway, the tide of opinion was
running heavily against Old Guy at this point, so I went ahead and added the
two HKR lines shown above, following the procedure recommended on the
Microsoft page: (1) I modified the MSHDC.INF file by adding the two lines as
indicated above and closed that file; (2) I went into Control Panel | System |
Device Manager | Disk Drives and clicked on each IDE hard disk and then
clicked Remove; (3) I closed Control Panel and rebooted; and (4) I went back into
Control Panel | System | Device Manager | Disk Drives | Properties | Settings,
and there I saw that, this time, unlike before (see point 108), DMA had been
checked automatically during the redetection process.
(g) Modem Fix: Line Quality. I had been blaming my ISP for my frequent
disconnections, but we had only moved to this new location within the past six
months or so, and I slowly realized that the phone company might be to blame.
By now, I had come across a couple of approaches to the problem, and I decided
it was time to try them. First, applying a tip from
http://www.super7.net/tips/Default.htm, I tried to do a test for line quality.
Unfortunately, their instructions did not seem to match what was happening on
my computer. After spending too much time trying to make their apparently
outdated guide work, I got smart and searched for another site. The instructions
at http://www.grso.org/support/printlnt.html did not work either. Finally, I
tried http://www.netassoc.net/techstuff/linetest2.htm. The basic idea, repeated
with variations at all of these sites, was to run HYPERTRM.EXE, cancel its
attempt to dial, and get to a blank screen; then type ATZ and Enter, which
should give you an OK. Then type ATDTXXX-XXXX (where the Xs are your
ISP's local access number). When you get a LOGIN or PASSWORD prompt, you
type +++ and hit Enter. Again, you should get an OK. Then you type AT&V1
exactly like that. (The last character is the number one, not the letter L.) This is
supposed to give you line quality information that these websites interpret as
follows: a value of 25 or more means the modem is sensing excessive line noise.
Run the test at least five times to get a reliable average figure. After many tries, I
finally realized that (1) When you first start up, you have to type your ISP's
phone number and choose the correct modem; (2) I had to repeat the ATZ part
too, and (3) I just had to allow more time after the first LOGIN prompt. I'd get
LOGIN, I'd type +++, and then I'd wait. After it said OK, it would do nothing,
and then was the time to type AT&V1. And then, when I did finally connect and

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get the information, it didn't look anything like the site at


http://www.super7.net/tips/Default.htm, and it didn't have any figure called
"line quality." So I gave up on this thing. (Later, I wound up doing more modem
configuration. See point 181.)
(h) Folder Modifications: Graphics. Using Windows Explorer, I went to the
E:\Graphics folder where I intended to keep images. I right-clicked on it and
chose Properties | General | Enable Thumbnail View. That way, whenever I
selected View | Thumbnails on the Windows Explorer menu bar, I would be able
to see little representations of my actual images. I tried this for folders
containing documents, but it doesn't work. Windows Explorer, unlike
PowerDesk Explorer, doesnt give you a picture of the actual document, just an
icon representing a document, and the process of turning on thumbnails inserts a
hidden DESKTOP.INI that will appear on your file list if you've got Explorer set
to show all files. For viewing the actual documents, apparently you have to
right-click and choose Quick View or use a program like PowerDesk. (See point
135.)
114. ScanDisk Problem. In a previous episode, we had major problems with
drive E. (See point 84.) I thought I had taken care of those problems for the time
being. (See point 85.) Along about this time, I was wrapping up some of the
foregoing adjustments and was going online on the AMD machine to see if there
were any other low-risk tweaks I could be applying at this stage in the game. I
remembered those old problems with drive E and decided to run ScanDisk
(thorough) on it. I don't know if having other programs open was a cause of
what happened next, but for whatever reason I got a message that there wasn't
enough space on drive C to remember what was being changed on drive E. (I
didn't get the exact text of the message, but I think it was something like that.)
This was troubling on two counts: (a) I had more than 250 MB free on C, and (b)
I really didn't want any more problems with E. I tried Ctrl-Alt-Del to kill active
programs, but the system froze, and I wound up having to do a reset. While I
was at it, I made it a cold boot. Then I ran ScanDisk again -- this time, with no
major application programs running. It got most of the way through drive E -back to the neighborhood where the bad sectors had been located previously -and then it stopped. As with the first crash, the mouse was barely crawling. I hit
Ctrl-Alt-Del and got no response for several seconds, and then a blue screen
telling me that the system had become unstable. I hit the computer's Reset
button and, although the BIOS was set to boot from C first, it apparently saw no
program files there, because it gave me a message indicating that it couldn't boot
from the CD-ROM (which was set to second in line in the BIOS). I hit Ctrl-AltDel, and this time Win98 booted OK. I hit Shut Down | restart, and I intercepted
and booted into real DOS. I ran SCANDISK E: /AUTOFIX /NOSAVE
/NOSUMMARY /SURFACE. It slowed down significantly at the same place

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where the Windows version of ScanDisk had stalled, but it didn't die -- leading
me to think that perhaps the Windows version hadn't really died either, but had
just been working very slowly; unfortunately, the Windows version hadn't
reported (or I hadn't asked for) enough information to indicate that it was still
going strong. But I decided that, no, it really had died, because that time it had
been silent, but now, on this DOS rerun, I could hear the disk grinding away.
Anyway, after being stalled for a while, ScanDisk gave me the message that drive
E had sustained physical damage, and then it put me back to the C prompt when
I wasn't looking, before I could get the final tally on the damage. The last I had
seen, it had found a total of four additional bad clusters, out of 157,935. That was
not much, but it was also not good. Coming so soon aftev the very thorough
scrubbing I had given it the last time around, it suggested that the disk was
slowly dying. These new bad clusters were back in that same bad section, so I
decided to go ahead with the plan to create a separate hidden partition for the
damaged area. I tried to run ScanDisk again, but I got "Write fault error reading
drive C." I ran PartitionMagic from the floppy. It was very slow in starting. I
could hear the hard disk (or something) trying again and again to recognize
something. Finally, it started with "Partition table error # 121 found." According
to the manual, this error # 121 was "The first sector of the drive cannot be read." I
left PartitionMagic and ran Norton Disk Doctor (normal test, not thorough) from
D:\DOS_UTIL. It corrected some errors on C and E. On E, it identified the first
bad block as occurring at approximately sector 965,000 out of 1,265,985. That, by
my calculation,was about 76% of the way through drive E. The last bad block
occurred at approximately sector 1,175,000, or about 93% of the way through.
The size of drive E was 618 MB, so it seemed that the bad area began at about 470
MB and ended at about 575 MB. Drive E came at the end of the first hard disk, so
that last piece of about 43 MB would have to stand by itself. I decided it wasn't
worth the bother and that I may as well include it in the hidden partition.
Thanks to Disk Doctor, PartitionMagic was now able to access the drive. I
started PartitionMagic from D:\DOS_UTIL and used it to reduce drive E to 465
MB, leaving a heartbreaking 153 MB of useless space after it. I decided not to
bother putting that free space into a hidden partition; I just let it sit. I ran Norton
Disk Doctor again on E. This time, its normal test identified no errors in the new,
shrunken drive E. I was curious how closely I had calculated the beginning of
the bad part, so I went back into PartitionMagic and converted the free space to a
hidden partition after all. PartitionMagic got a mere 1% through the process
before it began to grind away, trying to recognize and work with the bad sectors.
I tried to cancel it, but it wanted to keep going. When it was done, I ran Norton's
normal test on the new partition, which I had labeled BADSPACE. Sure enough,
Norton showed the first bad sector about 5% of the way through that partition.
So I had wasted, or had allowed a cushion of, about 5% of 153 MB, or 7.7 MB.
Good enough! I went back into PartitionMagic and hid BADSPACE -- i.e.,
partition F -- which allowed the drive letters to go back to where they had been

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before (e.g., H was once again the SWAP partition). (This was a better way to
handle it; with the thing named BADSPACE, I wouldn't later wonder why there
was good free space sitting there unused. Unfortunately, this partition would
pose a quandary later. See point 239.) When PartitionMagic rebooted after
making its change, I didn't stop the system; it went on into Win98 without a
problem. I rebooted into real DOS and ran Disk Doctor on drive E for three
repetitions of its thorough test. It detected no problems. That wasn't necessarily
solid information on a decaying disk -- that's what Norton had said before -- but
since the decay appeared to be occurring at the end, there was some chance that
this disk still had some life left in it.
115. Installing PartitionMagic and DriveImage. By now, I had used these two
programs so frequently over the past year or two, and had had so few problems
with them, that I felt entirely comfortable installing them as important utilities on
my new system. They were the first non-Microsoft products I was installing (or
at least the first ones I was deliberately installing). I made the exception
primarily because I had already been using them anyway, to do things that had
seemed essential in these first stages of my program installation process. But
how much space would they take up? On the AMD machine, I had installed a
valuable little bit of freeware that I use constantly, called TreeSize. (I don't
remember where I got it -- perhaps Hotfiles.com.) I used TreeSize on the
PowerQuest folder containing the program files for PartitionMagic and
DriveImage. It told me that those program files occupied only 20 MB. On the
PENTIUM machine, I typed Start | Run | MSINFO32 and got the system
information that I was now using 600 MB on drive C and 284 MB on drive D.
This told me that I was still well short of my limit of 1 GB. (See point 111.)
Clearly, I had room for 20 MB of PowerQuest files. I installed PartitionMagic
and DriveImage into a PowerQuest folder on drive D (PROGRAMS). On the
AMD machine, I had reached a point of having literally dozens of different
program installation folders, so that it was time-consuming to page up or down
through different directories each time I needed to locate a specific program
folder. I decided to try to arrange my D:\Program Files folder differently this
time around. So far, it contained only a DOS_UTIL folder (see point 80) and a
Microsoft Office folder (see point 91). I reviewed the Program Files folders on
the AMD machine and decided that it would make sense to have a System
Utilities subfolder, so I created one, and that's where I installed the PowerQuest
subfolder. I chose the Custom installation for PartitionMagic, but then decided
not to use the option of installing the DOS version, since I already had that in the
DOS_UTIL folder. I installed DriveImage, and I also installed MagicMover from
the DriveImage CD. Then I rearranged the Start | Programs icons to taste. This
is when I discovered that PartitionMagic had already installed MagicMover, in
its own folder. So I went into Control Panel | Add/Remove Programs and
uninstalled PowerQuest MagicMover. The uninstall seemed to be complete, but

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the MagicMover folder I had created for the purpose was still there, with one
program file in it. I deleted these. The MagicMover folder under PartitionMagic
was still there, with its program files. I rebooted. The MagicMover shortcut
under Start | Programs was no longer able to locate MagicMover.exe. I clicked
on PowerQuest's Uninstall PartitionMagic icon and uninstalled PartitionMagic;
then I rebooted and reinstalled PartitionMagic from CD. This time, I didn't
install the duplicative MagicMover. I started PartitionMagic; it seemed to run
OK. Within PartitionMagic, I clicked on Tools | MagicMover, and it started OK
too. MagicMover also ran from the program icon. After arranging the icons
again, I ran MSINFO32 again. I wasn't using any more space on C, but I was
using 305 MB on D.
116. Standardizing the CD Image Process. At this point, I might not have made
every possible conservative adjustment to Windows 98 and Office 97, but I had
begun to reach a point of diminishing returns. Most of the adjustments I now
wanted to make, or was now hearing about, would require Registry editing or
other riskier tinkering. I did not intend to do anything that had a genuine
likelihood of screwing things up; nevertheless, the level of risk for some of these
other changes felt like it might be higher. So it seemed like a good time to make
another disk image file. I also thought I would try to standardize my procedure
for preparing such disk images, so as to do it more efficiently than last time. (See
point 111.) The steps I took, at this point, were as follows:
(a) I double-checked to make sure that the Temporary Internet Files folder was
still on drive H, in which case I would not need to empty it out for this CD,
which would be addressing only drives C and D. (See point 53.)
(b) I cleared the Documents menu. (See point 54.) (Later, I discovered that I
could automate this step by running the CLR_DOCS.BAT file. (See point 120(i).)
I automated it fully by calling that file from within the CD_PREP.BAT file shown
in point 116(h). To call the file (i.e., to keep DOS from fully detouring to it and
forgetting the rest of what was in CD_PREP), I used this command: CALL
CLR_DOCS.BAT. I put that command immediately after the lines that cleared
the C:\WINDOWS\TEMP folder. Eventually, I decided it was more direct and
easier to proofread the file if I just put the actual DELTREE line from CLR_DOCS
into CD_PREP, instead of calling CLR_DOCS.)
(c) In Windows Explorer, I right-clicked on the Recycle Bin and emptied it.
(Later, I discovered that I could automate this step by creating and calling a
CLR_RECY.BAT file, and therefore I added the corresponding lines to
CD_PREP.BAT, as just described. (See point 120(i).))

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(d) I spiffed up drives C and D by running ScanDisk (thorough) and Disk


Defragmenter. (See points 78 and 84.)
(e) To reassure myself that I was backing up a good, working system, I ran the
System File Checker. (See point 55.) While I was at it, I also ran Registry
Checker. Later, I heard that System File Checker can restore original files rather
than updated files, which could mess up anything that you may have updated
through Windows Update (see point 15), so after that I removed SFC from my
bag of tricks.
(f) I rebooted into real DOS and ran the main line from MAINT_WK.BAT (see
point 105(h)) (i.e., DELTREE /Y C:\WINDOWS\TEMP\*.*). (This, too, later
became a part of CD_PREP.BAT.)
(g) I ran the file-listing program (see point 80), which I had renamed to be
LIST_ALL.BAT. I ran it on drive C, renamed the resulting file list, and ran it
again on drive D -- rediscovering, the hard way, that I had to be careful to type
the backslash after the drive letter. That is, LIST_ALL C:\ would give me a full
file list for drive C, but LIST_ALL C: would give me only the list of files for the
folder that C happened to be set to at that time, plus its subfolders.
(h) To the extent I was able to do it, I automated the task of shutting off the
attribute bits. I did this by building upon the previous experience (see point 88)
to create the following batch file, which I called CD_PREP.BAT:
REM This is CD_PREP.BAT.
REM This file makes lists and changes bits before burning a CD.
REM Get rid of unneeded temp files
deltree /y c:\windows\temp\*.*
REM Delete earlier file lists that might get in the way
if exist c:\temp\filelist.txt del c:\temp\filelist.txt
if exist c:\temp\arc_bits del c:\temp\arc_bits
if exist c:\temp\c_bits del c:\temp\c_bits
if exist c:\temp\d_bits del c:\temp\d_bits
REM Try to shut off archive bits in all copies of MSCREATE.DIR
c:
cd \
attrib -r -h -a mscreate.dir /s
attrib +r +h mscreate.dir /s
d:

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cd \
attrib -r -h -a mscreate.dir /s
attrib +r +h mscreate.dir /s
REM Shut off other attribute bits, to the extent possible
attrib -a c:\*.* /s
attrib -a d:\*.* /s
REM Run LISTBITS.BAT to produce list needed to revise CD_ATT.BAT
c:
cd \temp
call listbits c:\
ren filelist.txt c_bits
call listbits d:\
ren filelist.txt d_bits
copy c_bits+d_bits arc_bits
del c_bits
del d_bits
REM Shut off archive bits on hard-core remaining files
call cd_att.bat
After running these various parts separately, I added the DELTREE command
(see point 116(f)) to the start of CD_PREP.BAT. Having switched back and forth
between DOS and Windows a couple of times in the course of getting this right,
preparing the Excel spreadsheet, etc., I ran through the whole process shown
above once more. Then, after running CD_PREP.BAT, I reviewed the resulting
ARC_BITS list as my last step before making the image file, to satisfy myself that
all the archive bits were shut off. The second time through, there were actually
three new files that should have gone on the CD_ATT.BAT, but instead I just
used CHATT.BAT (see point 88) from D:\DOS_UTIL to shut off their archive bits
manually.
(i) Without going back into Windows (which would turn on a bunch of archive
bits all over again), I ran DriveImage to create the image file. Since I was in Real
DOS, I ran DriveImage from the floppy, to avoid the previous problem of trying
to run DriveImage from the drive that I was imaging. (See points 86 and 115.) It
would have been OK to run it from the Windows version too, if I had been in
Windows already and hadn't cared about the archive bits; the Windows-based
version of DriveImage reboots into DOS anyway in order to create its image files
and thus somehow manages to be able to create an image even of the hard disk
on which the Windows version is located. (See points 58, 103, and 115.) To
create my image file that held the contents of drives C and D, I again chose the

105

Maximum Compression and Verify Disk Writes options. In about an hour, this
converted my total of 908 MB into an image file of 574 MB, continuing the 63%
compression rate. (See point 111.) I called this image file STEP_116.PQI.
(j) I immediately rebooted into Windows, opened a DOS box, and used this batch
file to create a final file list (which I had to do in Windows in order to get long
filenames):
REM This is END_LIST.BAT
c:
cd \temp
call list_all c:\
ren filelist.txt c_files
call list_all d:\
ren filelist.txt d_files
copy c_files+d_files filelist.txt
del c_files
del d_files
cls
dir
(k) I used Direct Cable Connection to move the final file list and the
STEP_116.PQI image file to the AMD computer. At the rate of 200 MB per hour
(see point 111), it took more than three hours. On the AMD computer, I placed
several items into the partition from which I would be burning the CD: the
STEP_116 image file; the DOS_UTIL folder (see point 64); and the final list of files
from C and D that were compressed into the image file. Then I used Easy CD
Creator and the Windows 98 floppy (see point 8) to make the CD bootable. I
decided not to test it at this point. The Win98 installation on the AMD computer
was fading fast -- in recent days, Windows Explorer, Word 97, and Cool Edit had
refused to work at certain times, as had other minor programs -- and I decided
that the best CD test would be, not to wipe out the nascent installation on the
PENTIUM computer, but instead to wait until the time was ripe and try a new
installation on the AMD machine, using the most recently burned CD and
reverting back to previous CDs if the most recent one didn't produce good
results. Who knew? I might need C and D on the PENTIUM computer to be in
good shape, if no CDs worked: that is, I might have to fall back on using
DriveImage to copy disk images directly from the PENTIUM computer to the
AMD machine.
117. Deciding Against TweakUI. Having made my image backup, I was ready
for more advanced adjustment of my Windows installation. TweakUI was a
Microsoft product designed to customize the Windows experience. Since last

106

flirting with TweakUI (see point 109(d)), however, I had learned more about it.
Apparently there were different versions of it, and not all of these versions had
the same glowing reputation with everyone. See
http://www.pcforrest.co.uk/tweakui.htm# foreword. Among other problems,
people had encountered bugs using the tabs for My Computer, New, and IE4
(which also applies to Internet Explorer 5), and with autologon; and the Effects
section was said to be a resource hog. See
http://www.winmag.com/fixes/tweakui.htm. The version to use, it turned out,
was not the version contained in the \Tools\Reskit\Powertoy folder on my
Windows 98 upgrade CD. (See point 71.) Rather, they were recommending an
earlier version. See e.g., http://members.aol.com/axcel216/98-3.htm# TWK98.
(See also http://members.aol.com/axcel216/newtip16.htm# INITBUG and
http://members.aol.com/axcel216/web.htm.) The websites just cited also said,
however, that they would instead recommend X-Setup as a more professional
freeware alternative, unless you're a total beginner, in which case TweakUI
would be simpler to use. (If you do decide to use TweakUI, both of those sites
offer helpful advice, and so does http://newlifewin98.server101.com/tweakui_info.htm, which offers a very clear way to tell
which of the Win98 versions of TweakUI you're using. For another helpful site,
see http://www.ora.com/catalog/win98nut/chapter/index.html# ref8. Note
that some TweakUI settings do not function properly and that using them can
cause problems for you. See
http://www.winmag.com/library/1999/0801/sol0060.htm. For a general
overview of TweakUI, see
http://www.pcplus.co.uk/W98Comp/ptoy/tweakui.htm.) For my purposes,
TweakUI was certainly better than editing the Registry by hand, and there sure
were a lot of people (including me) who had gotten a lot of benefit from it; but
now I was curious about X-Setup. In case I ever decided to go back to it, I also
wanted to keep these other references: http://www.ac.net/~lilesj/tweak.html
and http://www.microsoft.com/Windows/IE/WebAccess/default.asp (using
it); http://members.aol.com/axcel216/toy.htm (related notes); and
http://newlife-win98.server101.com/tweakui_info.htm.
118. Adjustments Rejected. There seems to be no end to the number of ways in
which you can adjust your system. These are a few possible adjustments that I
did seriously consider and then decided not to bother with: (a) Change the
Win98 startup and shutdown screens: replace LOGO.SYS and LOGOW.SYS in
C:\WINDOWS with other bitmap (.BMP) files renamed to be LOGO.SYS and
LOGOW.SYS. (b) Use a bitmap image as an icon by renaming it to have an .ICO
extension. (c) Speed up your system by disabling all audible feedback from
Windows. To do this, go into Control Panel | Sounds | Schemes and select "No
Sounds." (d) Speed up your bootup process (and make it riskier) by selecting
Quick Power On Self Test (POST) in your BIOS. (e) To make your bootup faster,

107

combine all entries from C:\AUTOEXEC.BAT and C:\CONFIG.SYS (which, so


far, were tiny to nonexistent on my PENTIUM computer) into one
C:\MSDOS.BAT file. (f) Clear the Windows Explorer MRU (Most Recently
Used?) lists that drop down when you're trying to type new data into a dialog
box. For instructions on this, see
http://support.microsoft.com/support/kb/ARTICLES/Q142/2/98.asp. I
decided that this should be an occasional thing, best done when the lists get too
long to be useful. (g) Apparently deleting Network Neighborhood from your
desktop also removes your ability to use Direct Cable Connection. (See point 93).
For many other possible adjustments, do a search online for pages whose titles
include words like "tips" and "tweaks." A good source is
http://www.winmag.com.
119. Special Windows Downloads. Now that I had once again made a backup, I
was ready to finish off the possibilities for tinkering within Windows and Office
97, using just the materials that Microsoft had provided. I made the following
additional changes:
(a) Resource Kit Sampler. The Win98 ResKit (see point 109(d)) turned out to
have already installed TweakUI. I reviewed the programs offered in the ResKit
and decided I liked some of them. Visiting the ResKit\PowerToy folder
specifically, however, I saw that, of course, the ResKit had installed the buggy
version of TweakUI contained on the Win98 upgrade CD. (See point 117.) I
decided to uninstall ResKit, reinstall it, and then put the files for the
recommended version of TweakUI in place of the ones that ResKit installed. I
didn't know that I would actually use TweakUI, but if I did, it seemed safer to
use the files from the recommended version than from the Win98 CD version.
(Note: When I installed TweakUI through the ResKit, it didn't install a TweakUI
icon in Control Panel. See point 109(c).) While reinstalling ResKit, I decided not
to put it in a special folder, in the root of D, as D:\ResKit. I reached that decision
because, although I liked the looks of the installed ResKit and thought I would
probably use some of its utilities, it didn't seem important enough to clutter up
the root just to make it slightly more DOS-accessible. Apparently it was called a
resource "sampler" because the full version was available on a CD that was
included in a book from Microsoft Press. List price seems to have been $80
originally, dropped to $70, was available at this point for $56 at Amazon.com,
and someone said they got it for $30 at Costco (which, assuming they were
talking about the same book, may have shown a reduced public interest, now
that Win2000 was coming). According to the Amazon.com reviews, there were
things anyone could use here, but it was primarily intended for the network
administrator. Apparently the book (included for free in the ResKit, but not in
printed form) was over 1,700 pages and contained a lot of details about Win98,
but still didn't answer all questions and was somewhat outdated, since it came

108

out before the latest service releases, Internet Explorer installations, etc. It
seemed that the sampler contained about 25 programs, and the full version about
75. I tried to get more information about the sampler from the Microsoft website,
but I (and others, apparently) couldn't find anything on it -- perhaps because we
weren't looking under Microsoft Press. Anyway, it wasn't that important to me.
The general online reaction seemed to be, Why not use this freebie on the Win98
CD? Nobody seemed to be raving about the full package. After reinstalling
ResKit, I rebooted, and got an error message that someone else had complained
about: "Cannot find WIN.COM, unable to continue loading Windows." Then it
put me at the DOS prompt. I looked on the AMD machine. WIN.COM was in
C:\WINDOWS. I used DIR at the DOS prompt and verified that WIN.COM was
in C:\WINDOWS there too. I cold-rebooted and it happened again. I tried to
reboot into Safe Mode; that worked. I examined AUTOEXEC.BAT and
CONFIG.SYS, since plainly we were getting far enough in the boot process to run
those and get me to a DOS prompt. Sure enough, ResKit had installed a PATH
statement in AUTOEXEC.BAT. This, I believed, was telling the system to look
only at ResKit when it wanted to find WINDOWS.COM. I put a REM in front of
the PATH statement and rebooted successfully in Normal Mode. This PATH
issue raised the question of whether I could dismantle the ResKit and use just the
programs from it that interested me, putting them in an existing folder on my
path (say, DOS_UTIL) rather than have this new addition to my PATH statement
just for a half-dozen utilities I might or might not use. They would be more
convenient that way, and I would be more likely to remember them when I
needed them. As I read through the materials accompanying the ResKit, the
specific programs from the Sampler that seemed most likely to be useful to me
were CHECKLINKS.EXE (finds and eliminates dead links and shortcuts -- a
function provided by Norton's System Checker that might give me one more
reason why I could get by with a minimal Norton installation); CLIPTRAY.EXE
(optimizes and manages the Clipboard); FILEINFO.EXE (provides detailed
information on virtually every file included in Win98 and Internet Explorer 4.0);
LFNBACK.EXE (a long filename backup utility that might help me with some of
the tasks described in this essay); QUIKTRAY.EXE (to organize icons in the
Win98 system tray); TEXTVIEW.EXE (text file viewer); TIMETHIS.EXE
(command-line tool to time how long a command took to execute); WHERE.EXE
(command-line tool to find a specified file); and WINDIFF.EXE (file and
directory comparison tool). For some reason, I couldn't find LFNBACK.EXE -maybe it ran only inside the Tools Management Console that ResKit had
installed -- but the others were all available as seemingly standalone executable
programs. I copied them over to the AMD machine, put them into a temporary
folder, and ran them one at a time. I had a few slight difficulties -- TIMETHIS
and WHERE needed to run from a command line; WINDIFF required an
additional file from the ResKit folder (GUTILS.DLL), which I supplied; likewise,
FILEINFO wanted the WIN98.MFI file -- but otherwise the programs listed

109

above all seemed to run OK by double-clicking on them in Windows Explorer.


This meant that the only ones that really belonged in DOS_UTIL were TIMETHIS
and WHERE, so I put copies of those two there. For the rest, I didn't need a
PATH statement; I just needed to create shortcuts to them and put those
shortcuts into a Utilities folder somewhere on the Start | Programs menu. I also
wanted to use the shortcut to the Resource Kit Online Book, since that appeared
to be the 1,700-page monster mentioned above. Other than that, I didn't need the
whole ponderous machinery of the Tools Management Console. I created a new
sub-subfolder in Start | Programs called "Bury These," and I sank the rest of the
ResKit shortcuts in there. The whole ResKit looked to be about 11 MB, so it was
no big deal to leave it on, and that way I'd have TweakUI if I wanted it and
would also be able to revive the ResKit's machinery later if some good excuse
came along.
(b) PowerTweaks. I was ready, at long last, to revisit the PowerToys or
PowerTweaks or whatever they were called -- the other Microsoft things, similar
to TweakUI, that had confused and spooked me earlier. (See point 71.) The goal
was to sort back through the wreckage of that previous attempt and figure out
what I should and should not try to install. As I browsed around Microsoft's
website, I discovered, first, that its PowerToys -- which maybe I had first heard
about several years earlier -- were some kind of Win95 fix-up. Maybe they were
no good and had been phased out, or maybe they had been built into Win98, but
the message was clear enough: they were "not for Windows 98." See
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/downloaddef.asp?RLD=85. Then, at
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/ie/webaccess/, I discovered several tool
collections that were oriented toward Internet Explorer ("IE") rather than Win98;
apparently they were follow-up products that did for IE 5 what PowerToys had
done for IE 4. They were as follows: (1) IE 5 Web Accessories. These basically
seemed to add a bunch of options to your right-click (context) menu when you're
using IE. The thing is, the version of IE that was now newly installed on the
PENTIUM computer already had some of these options, either on the right-click
menu (e.g., Links and Images lists) or (in the case of Quick Search and Image
Toggler) as Favorites. (See point 109(g).) Based on a year or two of experience
with this download on the AMD machine, I felt that the only feature not
presently found on my new Win98 installation, that I would use at least
occasionally, was Zoom In, and I could replace that with the Magnifier that was
one of the Accessibility options included with Win98. (Indeed, the Magnifier
was a little disconcerting at first, but after a few minute I found that I preferred it
over the Zoom feature.) Moreover, I had found that all these options, including
some I didn't want, had tended to clog up the right-click (context) menu. So I
rejected the Web Accessories. (2) IE 5 Toolbar Wallpaper. I quickly ruled this
out. I was trying to get used to the bare minimum of toolbars in IE, and probably
wouldn't notice the difference much; even if I did have the ability to change the

110

background on those toolbars, I'd probably choose a solid color to enhance


readability, and as I recalled I could do that just by changing my Display settings
in Control Panel; and as it turned out, X-Setup would allow me to adjust the
toolbar background without needing any additional download. (See point 137.)
(3) IE 5 Power Tweaks. There were three tools in this set, and although they
were pretty minor, I decided I might occasionally benefit from having them, so I
downloaded and installed them. (4) Web Developer Accessories ("WDA"). This
one offered a "View Partial Source" option that would allow me to highlight a
certain portion of a web page and look at its source code. The main benefit -- and
it would be a good one -- would be that I could quickly find out whether the
developer of a web page bothered to put any HTML targets in the text at that
point. If s/he did, I could make sure my links pointed right to that desired spot,
rather than merely to the top of the web page. So I downloaded and installed
this as well. I rebooted after installing, went into IE, and experimented. I found
that the Document Tree option (installed by the WDA, if I'm not mistaken) was
strictly over my head and was just an item of clutter on the right-click (context)
menu. But when I highlighted part of a web page, right-clicked, and chose View
Partial Source, it worked as advertised, and I rejoiced and was exceedingly glad.
It had taken me a while to get back to the point of revisiting the tweaks I had
tried to install earlier (see point 71), but I had a much more solid feeling about
the whole thing this time around.
(c) Illegal Operation. To prepare the PENTIUM computer so I could install the IE
5 Power Tweaks and the Web Developer Accessories as just described, I closed
down all open programs. To close down the Office 97 Shortcut Bar, I used CtrlAlt-Del. This gave me, for possibly the first time on this computer, the message
"This program has performed an illegal operation and will be shut down."
Worse, when I hit the Close button, the message did not go away. Hitting CtrlAlt-Del again did not give me an option to close down this message; indeed, it
did nothing at all. Fortunately, when I selected Start | Shut Down | Restart, I
found that Win98 closed itself down gracefully. Not wanting to take any
chances, I ran ScanDisk (standard, drives C and D) and System File Checker.
(See point 116(d) and (e).) I have the sense, or perhaps the superstition, that
Win98 heals itself sometimes just by rebooting (by rebooting into Safe Mode, if
necessary) so after completing these tests successfully, I rebooted. Then I tried
shutting down the Office Shortcut Bar with Ctrl-Alt-Del again. This time it did
not squawk, and I was able to proceed with installing the programs mentioned at
the end of point 119(b).
(d) RegClean. I had seen some positive comments on this program, so I went to
http://support.microsoft.com/support/kb/articles/Q147/7/69.asp and
downloaded Microsoft's RegClean 4.1a Registry cleaner. One person
commented that it was not intended for Win98, but that's not what this Microsoft

111

site seemed to say. The instructions there indicated that I could put this
REGCLEAN.EXE in any folder and just click to run it. The instructions said that
the purpose of RegClean was to clean up unnecessary Registry entries that might
pile up over time as you install and uninstall programs. Those entries could
cause crashes and could slow down your system startup. I hoped the freeze I
had just experienced wasn't an example of that, and I felt that I probably didn't
need to run it now, on this new Win98 installation. The instructions also said
that RegClean was not intended to clean up every possible problem with the
Registry, and that the program will not change any Registry entries that it does
not understand or that might be correct. In rare cases, it said, the program can
cause problems; in such cases you need to undo the changes by double-clicking
on the most recent UNDO.REG file, which stores a record of the way things were
before RegClean ran. Anyway, I put REGCLEAN.EXE in C:\WINDOWS and
put a shortcut to it in a Start | Programs subfolder; and now that I was
sufficiently curious about it, I ran it. And what did I get on my screen, but a
dialog for WinZip, the popular zipping (and unzipping) program. I hadn't
installed it; it must have been included with RegClean itself. Anyway, this called
for a slight readjustment. If RegClean was going to consist of a bunch of files,
then I wanted to put it in its own folder called D:\Program Files\System
Utilities\RegClean. So I closed WinZip and did exactly that. Unfortunately,
WinZip couldn't put it into that kind of folder, so I put it back into D:\TEMP and
tried there. That didn't work either. I tried with the copy I had kept on the AMD
machine. It worked OK there. This was odd, but I went with it for now, and just
copied over the unzipped files to the appropriate folder on the PENTIUM
computer. I created a shortcut and double-clicked on it. RegClean ran for a halfminute and then gave me the option of going ahead and fixing errors. This is
where it created the UNDO.REG file. It said it had fixed the errors it had found,
and since it created an Undo file, I assume it did find some. I rebooted, just to
see if my system would still work, and it did. So maybe running RegClean was a
good idea. So I made a note for myself to set up a some sort of reminder that
would trigger this and other maintenance items occasionally. (Later, I found a
9/14/98 ZDNet article saying that most users should avoid RegClean. See
http://www.zdnet.com/products/stories/reviews/0,4161,347539,00.html. But
they swore by it at http://www.tweak3d.net/tweak/cleanup/, updated
9/25/99, so I go with the latter. Perhaps it was improved in the intervening
year. In a search of newsgroup comments, I found that Win98 users generally
seemed happy with it. But the main point seemed to be that SCANREG did the
same thing, and did it better. (See point 139.) SCANREG is the Win98 Registry
Checker program. See
http://support.microsoft.com/support/kb/articles/Q183/6/03.ASP.) Later, I
decided to remove RegClean. (See point 139(a).)

112

120. Still More Windows Adjustments. As I was going through the steps
described above, I came across yet more ways to adjust my system, and I realized
that I had not nearly exhausted the list of non-risky things you can do to Win98.
The tips and ideas I found worthwhile were as follows:
(a) CONFIG.SYS: Cannot Open This File. To begin the next step (see point
120(b)), I went into Start | Run | SYSEDIT. This gave me "System Configuration
Error," followed by this CONFIG.SYS error. But it had opened CONFIG.SYS,
and showed that it was a blank file. I exited the System Configuration Editor
and searched for files named CONFIG.SYS. The system had three: one in
D:\DOS_UTIL, one in C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\EBD, and one in a
PartitionMagic subfolder. I opened each in WordPad, and none was a blank file.
So apparently SYSEDIT had looked for a CONFIG.SYS file somewhere else -normally, it would be in C:\ -- and, upon failing to find it, had opened a blank
instead. To check this possibility, I ran SYSEDIT again, looked at the contents of
the AUTOEXEC.BAT file, and verified that the AUTOEXEC.BAT file being
opened was located in C:\. Apparently the C:\CONFIG.SYS file had somehow
gotten deleted during all this fooling around. I recalled it being an empty file at
one point, so I copied one of the other CONFIG.SYS files to C:\, opened it, and
emptied it out. I ran SYSEDIT again, and this time it worked. After changing the
File Cache Settings as described in point 120(b), I rebooted, and that worked fine
too.
(b) File Cache Settings. A note I saw somewhere online reminded me that I had
once researched the question of setting a minimum and maximum cache. The
advice now told me to go to Start | Run | Sysedit | SYSTEM.INI, and to search
there for the [vcache] section. I did this on the AMD machine, and found that I
had entered these two settings:
minfilecache=10240
maxfilecache=10240
I don't know where I got those numbers, but I think the general concept was,
again, that you set the cache to just one size so that Windows won't waste a lot of
energy resizing it. (See point 44.) These numbers differed from the numbers
now recommended by this person online, who wanted the minimum cache to be
1024 and the maximum to be 8192. As I recalled, this was something on which
opinions had varied considerably, and it had turned out that the settings should
depend on how much RAM you have available. I decided to go with my own
research, so I put the above cache settings on the PENTIUM computer at 10240.

113

(c) CONFIG.SYS Tweaks. That CONFIG.SYS file looked a little naked, so I


decided to dress it up by adding these lines to it, mostly to remind me of these
possibilities if they seemed useful in the future:
REM Use the next line if you get Out of Environment Space errors
REM shell=c:\command.com /p /e:4096
REM Make it larger than 4096 bytes if the messages recur.
REM
REM To speed up Windows, try the next line:
REM stacks=0,0
(d) Deleting GID and FTS Files. I found a suggestion that I should delete files
with GID or FTS extensions. These types, according to the tip, were created by
Windows help programs and would be recreated if needed. There certainly
were dozens of them on each of my computers. As far as I could recall, the
Windows Cleanup Wizard had not mentioned these file types. (See point 105(g).
So was it safe to delete them? One bit of advice was to do it in DOS, so that I
wouldn't be deleting any files that Windows was actively using. That made
sense, but what about the part where it said the system would recreate them?
Probing further, I found an article at
http://web.zdnet.com/pcmag/pctech/content/solutions/oe1715a.htm in which
they seem to say that these files will be reconstructed as soon as you try to do a
search in a given program's help files again. The author said you might save 2-7
MB by doing this deletion, but my reaction was that I didn't care to sit there
through all those re-creations again. Indeed, that was why I had gone into those
help files to generate indexes in the first place. (See point 69.) So I was not going
to delete the GID and FTS files.
(e) Deleting TMP and Tilde Files. Everyone seemed agreed that, as long as you
aren't working in Windows (and possibly even if you are), you can delete files
with the TMP extension, and you can also delete files whose names begin with a
tilde (i.e., the ~ character). Some people suggested that, if you're nervous about
it, you can delete these files to your Recycle Bin and leave them there a few days
before eliminating them altogether. I didn't like that suggestion, however,
because one large deletion thereafter could fill the Recycle Bin and could brush
those files right out into oblivion. Also, I had found that Word 97 often created
temporary files whose names began with a tilde, and I had sometimes used those
files to recover lost work. Instead of deleting such files or putting them into the
Recycle Bin, I decided to copy them to C:\WINDOWS\TEMP every week, right
after the MAINT_WK.BAT program had cleaned out the previous week's
collection of files from that folder. (See point 105(h).) But then I decided that it
wasn't worth writing and running a whole batch file for this purpose every
week. This probably wouldn't require my attention more than once every month

114

or two, and the fastest way to do it was just to do a file-find operation in


Windows Explorer, where I could see exactly what I was deleting and where I
would get a shot at hidden TMP files too. This, too, went onto the list of
maintenance items to perform manually every now and then. I tried to automate
it, using SWEEP.COM to move files from each directory, but I found that
SWEEP.COM gets confused when it gets down into deeply nested subdirectories.
(SWEEP.COM is an old utility that you can still find online. See
ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/pcmagvol/vol4n24.zip and point 57. After this effort, I
asked PC Mag if they would be interested in updating it.) Later, I found a way
to put this into MAINT_WK.BAT after all. (See point 124.)
(f) Desktop Tools Folder. I decided it would be helpful to have a toolbar that
gave me quick access to desktop-style tools -- e.g., calculator, WordPad,
magnifier -- that you might have on an ordinary desk. (This isn't what Win98
means by "desktop," but I knew what I meant.) I created the toolbar by rightclicking on the taskbar and creating a new toolbar named Desktop Tools.
Unfortunately, I could not figure out how to drag this toolbar from the taskbar
up to the Links bar at the top of the screen. (See point 105(e).) They said I was
supposed to be able to just drag it up there, but it wouldn't go. I played with it
for quite a while, and then suddenly it worked. I think what I did, in the end,
was to create a shortcut for the folder containing the shortcuts for these desktop
tools, and drag that shortcut down to the taskbar, and then fiddle with it for a
while, and then drag it up to the Links bar. (I figured out the technique later.
See point 120(o).) Then, after all that hard work, I decided I'd rather have it as a
folder with a pull-down menu as part of the Links bar itself. (See point 109(g).)
So I moved the Desktop Tools folder full of shortcuts up to become a subfolder
under the Favorites\Links folder. (Eventually, it landed in a different place. See
point 143.)
(g) Caps Lock Beep. Since I sometimes hit the Caps Lock key without knowing
it, I decided I would like a beep to tell me that I've done it. For this, I went into
Control Panel | Accessibility Options | Keyboard | Toggle Keys. To make sure
the setting would stay on, I went into Accessibility Options | General and
unchecked the Automatic Reset box.
(h) Specifying "Save In" Location. Most of the programs that I used to produce
documents, spreadsheets, and other forms of output had settings that allowed
me to specify the default location where I wanted them to save files unless
instructed otherwise. Four exceptions were Paint, Photo Editor, WordPad, and
Notepad. To specify an output location for these programs, I adjusted their
shortcuts. (It's at times like this that you appreciate not having multiple icons for
the same program scattered around. I later realized I had to do this in the
SendTo folder as well for WordPad and Notepad. (See point 113(c).)) To do this,

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I located the shortcuts. Icons for Paint and Photo Editor were on the Start |
Programs menu, and the other two were on the Desktop Tools button that I had
installed on the Links bar at the top of the screen. (See point 120(f).) In each case,
the change was similar: right-click on the program's shortcut icon, go into
Properties | Shortcut | Start In and set the locations there. In my case, I chose
the TEMP folder on F (AV, short for Audio/Video -- see point 32) for Paint and
Photo Editor, the TEMP folder on E (DATA) for WordPad, and D:\DOS_UTIL
for Notepad.
(i) Clear Documents Automatically. I created a little batch file called
CLR_DOCS.BAT, whose sole purpose was to clean out the Start | Documents
list. The file's sole command line was DELTREE /Y
C:\WINDOWS\RECENT\*.* (which will leave the folder in place and therefore
has a chance of running successfully without the necessity of rebooting to real
DOS). Another approach that someone suggested was to set up a batch file that
would use DELTREE to delete the entire Recent folder, and then set up the
Scheduler (see point 105(g)) to run this batch file every few minutes. If I had
intended CLR_DOCS to be my permanent solution, I would have made a
shortcut to it and/or would have scheduled it to run regularly (or would have
called it from within my AUTOEXEC.BAT); but I expected a tweaking program
to remove the list from my vision (see point 137(h)), so it could stay there if it
wanted, and I made sure there wasn't anything in it before making a CD image
(see point 116(b)). Similarly, I set up a CLR_RECY.BAT file for the Recycled
folder. (See point 116(c).) In this case, however, I used two lines: DELTREE /Y
C:\RECYCLED\*.* plus a similar line for the Recycled Bin on drive D.
(j) Get Rid of "My Documents" Folder. I finally learned how to remove this
turkey. (See point 46.) The key, it seems, was to make sure that each Office 97
program had some other default directory, and to do the deleting in DOS. I had
set other default directories in the programs that I intended to use (see point
102); now I opened a DOS box, typed ATTRIB -S C:\MYDOCU~1, and then
DELTREE C:\MYDOCU~1.
(k) Hourly Maintenance. On reflection, I decided I should set up an
HOURLY.BAT file to run CLR_DOCS (see point 120(i)) every hour, according to
an entry in the Task Scheduler (see point 105(g)). Then, if it turned out that a
tweaking program eliminated the need for CLR_DOCS, no harm would be done:
HOURLY would fire up, find nothing, and go back to sleep, all within one or two
seconds. And this way, while I was on the subject, I would have HOURLY
running and could add more frequently repeated tasks to it anytime I wanted. (I
could schedule each job individually in Task Scheduler, if I wanted, but I saw no
reason to clutter that program with a bunch of separate commands that would

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each require me to go through the same scheduling process, one at a time.) So


far, these were the only lines in HOURLY:
@echo off
REM This file runs other files every hour.
call clr_docs.bat
CLR_DOCS was a good candidate for this because, otherwise, every time I ran
the mouse over the Start | Documents folder, I had a slight delay while
Windows listed all those old documents that I didn't need to see. To put
HOURLY in the Task Scheduler, I used the same procedure as with
MAINT_WK.BAT. (See point 105(h).) For consistency, and to keep these
programs next to each other in file lists, I renamed HOURLY.BAT to be
MAINT_HR.BAT before scheduling it. In Task Scheduler, I ran it through the
wizard, browsed to D:\DOS_UTIL\MAINT_HR.BAT, set it to run daily at 8 AM,
and in the Advanced properties I set the Advanced scheduling to repeat the task
every 60 minutes over a duration of 23 hours and 30 minutes. Back in Windows
Explorer, I right-clicked on MAINT_HR.BAT and set Properties | Program |
Run to minimized, and I checked the "close on exit" box. (I revised MAINT_HR
again later. See point 306.)
(l) Shrink Desktop Icons. I right-clicked on the desktop and chose Properties |
Appearance | Item | Icon and set its size to 16. This was a little too small, so I
tried 24. Then I realized that the monitor was still set to the basic 640 x 480
mode. (See point 15.) I decided to postpone this item until I began to customize
my hardware settings for each of my computers separately, and see then whether
I needed tiny icons. I later heard that any size smaller than 31 causes the little
arrows to disappear from your shortcut icons. Some people consider that good
news, but it disturbs me. I don't mind deleting a shortcut, but I would like some
advance warning before unintentionally deleting an actual executable program.
(m) Multiple File Associations. By default, if I right-clicked on a TXT file in
Windows Explorer and chose Open, it would open in Notepad (unless, if it was
too big, it would open in Wordpad). (I assume it's this way because Notepad
opens so quickly.) I wanted the option to open TXT files in Word 97 as well. To
set this, I went into Windows Explorer | View | Folder Options | File Types. In
the Registered File Types window, I went down to the Text Document entry and
chose Edit | New. On the Action line, I typed "Open in Word." To fill in the
Application line, I couldn't remember offhand exactly where the Word 97
program EXE file was, so I right-clicked on Start and chose Explore, went to the
Word shortcut in the Start menu, right-clicked on it and chose Properties, and
copied the Target from the Shortcut tab there. I didn't know whether to Use
DDE, so I left that box blank. I tried it on a TXT file, and it worked. Later, I

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realized that this duplicated the SendTo option that I had created for Word (see
point 113(c)), and I really didn't need more right-click clutter, so I removed it.
(n) Shortcut to Desktop. "Coolswitching" is the act of using Alt-Tab to switch
from one open window to another. (If you hold Alt-Tab a moment before
releasing, you'll see icons for each program, with a brief descriptive text
underneath, and you'll note that the icons are arranged with the most recently
visited ones coming first.) I heard that you can create an open window
containing the desktop by double-clicking on My Computer to open a window,
making sure View | Toolbar is checked in that window, and clicking on the
yellow folder with the up-arrow on it. This gets you to a window entitled
"Desktop." Now you can coolswitch to this folder, and there's an icon for it on
the taskbar, so you can also use your mouse to get to it. I did this much. The
problem was that the folder would go away each time I would reboot. I knew
there was a simple way to make a permanent shortcut to it, but I couldn't
remember what it was. This wasn't your ordinary folder. I couldn't right-click
on it in Windows Explorer to create a shortcut. So I did it the hard way: I
selected Favorites | Add to Favorites. Then I went into C:\Windows\Favorites
and looked at the new resulting shortcut. Simply enough, it pointed to
C:\Windows\Desktop. Was that what I wanted? To find out, I went to
C:\Windows\Desktop in Windows Explorer, right-clicked on it, and chose
Create Shortcut. It seemed to create a shortcut, but I had no idea where it went.
I searched for all files whose names contained the word "desktop," and found a
"Shortcut to Desktop" in C:\Windows. (Thus, I learned that shortcuts seem to be
created in the parent folder.) I tried this shortcut, and it took me to the folder I
had created, not to the actual desktop -- which explained why it had a plain old
folder icon instead of the shovel icon. So that was the answer. This folder-style
icon was the one that I could put somewhere in the Start menu if I wanted to
have direct access to the desktop folder. By contrast, the shortcut that I had
created in Favorites had the shovel icon, and when I clicked on it, it didn't do
anything: it took me to neither the actual desktop nor the folder, so I deleted it. I
noticed, by the way, that the folder-style shortcut no longer showed me
everything on the desktop, as the original folder had done. It showed items that
I had created, such as the desktop shortcut to Device Manager (see point 112(e)),
but not the items that Win98 put there (e.g., My Computer). I hoped to put this
folder-style shortcut to good use, but I wound up deleting it later. (See point
120(r).)
(o) Toolbar Status Review. At this point, I had three active toolbars: the Links
toolbar, at the top of the screen (see point 109(g)); the Office 97 Shortcut Bar, at
the left side of the screen (see point 102); and the Suites toolbar, occupying a
small part of the taskbar at the bottom of the screen (see point 113(e)). I had set
the properties for all of these bars to include Auto Hide, so they weren't visible

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until I moved the mouse cursor over to those edges. The right side of the screen
was still available for a toolbar, but I didn't plan to put one there because I found
that I often moved the mouse too far over to that edge and pulled out the hidden
toolbar, when all I meant to do was click on the horizontal scrollbar. The only
remaining location for a toolbar, other than to double up with an existing
toolbar, was to create a floating toolbar. For this, I had to create a toolbar, drag it
out into the middle of the screen, and position the cursor at its edges to resize it.
I had difficulty dragging toolbars until I discovered that (1) you have to drag
them by clicking on the bar at their left edge and (2) you get better results when
there are no programs maximized -- that is, when you can see the desktop
plainly.
(p) Floating Toolbar. I created a folder called "Always On" in the Toolbars
subdirectory in my Start | Programs folder, and I put one icon in that folder that
I wanted to have visible at all times. This icon was the folder-style desktop icon
that I had just discovered. (See point 120(n).) The purpose of this icon was, I
thought, to give me a place to drag pieces of text to. (See point 120(r).) Then I
created a toolbar for this Always On folder as described above (see point 113(e)),
dragged that toolbar out into the center of the screen, resized it to be as small as
possible, right-clicked to set it to be Always on Top, and dragged it as far down
in the bottom right corner of the screen as I could go without docking it onto a
side or bottom toolbar. It concealed most of the clock there, but if I held the
mouse on the clock for a minute, I'd get a tool tip that gave me the date and time.
I right-clicked on the folder icon and changed it to the desktop shovel icon.
Unfortunately, tiny as it was, the Always On floating toolbar still got in the way
sometimes -- especially once I learned that I could get rid of the clock down in
the system tray at the bottom right corner of the screen -- and that I preferred life
without that clock -- by right-clicking on it, choosing Properties, and unchecking
the "Show Clock" box. (The tiny floating toolbar used by the ICQ chat program
was the only one I had ever found that I could squeeze into space that no
programs would be using; this Always On toolbar at its smallest size (and
without the folder icon, which turned out to be unnecessary) was still several
times larger than that.) I could have customized the Always On toolbar so that it
would not be Always on Top, but that would have made it less accessible as a
place to drag pieces of text to. Eventually, I found a better approach, and thus
deleted this Always On toolbar. (See point 120(r).)
(q) Right- and Left-Edge Toolbar Options. Revisiting the question (see point
120(o)), I found that I had more right-edge toolbar options than I had thought. If
I shut off Auto Hide, the right-edge toolbar would no longer irritate me by
jumping up every time I tried to use the vertical scroll bar. This made the toolbar
permanently visible, but I found that I could drag its left edge to the right, so as
to make it fairly narrow and unobtrusive. And if I made it Always on Top, it

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would always be available to drag things to. (See point 120(r).) Now that I had
cured the pop-up problem on the right edge, I turned to the left edge. The Office
Shortcut Bar (see point 102) was causing problems with none of the programs I
had installed so far, but I knew it would get in the way when I began to use Cool
Edit 2000, which often required me to work with the left edge of the screen. (See
point 157(a).) I saw no reason to resolve the left-edge pop-up problem by setting
the big Office Shortcut Bar to be Always on Top on the left edge of the screen,
thereby taking another, bigger bite out of my available workspace. I could have
moved it to the top of the screen, but it would either obscure or be obscured by
the Links bar I had up there already. (See point 109(g).) I decided to try a
different approach: I right-clicked on it and customized it to be Auto Hide and
not Always on Top, and then I dragged it across to the right edge of the screen.
It docked itself to the right of the permanent right-edge toolbar that I had just
created. Now it would come up only if I moved the cursor to the right, past the
vertical scroll bar and also past the permanent right-edge toolbar. There might
still be times when it would pop up when I didn't want it, but that was less likely
because it was more out of the way now; and even if it did happen, the pop-up
Office Shortcut Bar wasn't so much wider than the permanent right-edge bar that
it would entirely cover both the permanent bar and the vertical scroll bar; so it
might not actually get in my way much at all. (This was not my ultimate
solution to the problem, however. See point 120(ab).)
(r) Dragging Things to the Desktop. I had heard that you could drag a piece of a
document to the desktop and this would create an icon there, and when you
clicked on that icon, it would open up that document and take you back to the
place where you had been in that document. This was my reason for creating the
desktop folder. (See point 120(n).) When I experimented, however, I found that
this was not how it worked on my machine. If I dragged a piece from a Word
document to the desktop, I got a "Document scrap" that consisted only of the
piece I had dragged, not the entire document. I found that this dragging
technique worked with Word and WordPad excerpts, but not with pieces from
Notepad, Excel, Outlook 98, or Internet Explorer. (For the approaches that
failed, copy and paste didn't work either, because right-clicking on the Scraps
toolbar (see paragraph (s), below) always brought up a toolbar-related context
menu (with options like "Show Title"), not a document-related menu (with
options like Cut and Paste).) (Later, I discovered that I was supposed to be
dragging the excerpt with the right mouse button, not the left, and choosing
"Create shortcut here." I did this with the Desktop Folder that I created later, and
it worked just fine. (See point 120(ac).))
(s) Dragging Things to a Folder. The dragging technique just mentioned also
worked when I dragged to a folder instead of to the desktop. A folder seemed
likely to be more useful for me: I usually used my programs in maximized

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windows, and thus rarely saw the desktop. Hence, I created the floating Always
On toolbar. (See point 120(p).) I found, however, that in addition to the
problems I had with floating toolbars, I also had not chosen my folder well. The
document scraps that I dragged to this toolbar were stored in the Toolbars
subfolder under the Start | Programs menu. That subfolder, residing on drive C,
was no place to store documents. So I got rid of it and decided, instead, to create
a folder named E:\Temp\Scraps (drive E was named DATA), and I created a
new Scraps Toolbar based on that folder. This was the permanent right-edge
toolbar described a moment ago. (See point 120(q).) I went into Windows
Explorer; right-clicked on that Scraps folder and created a shortcut to it, which
went into the subfolder's parent directory (i.e., into E:\Temp); dragged that
shortcut to the head of the new Scraps toolbar (i.e., ahead of the document scraps
that I had dragged there during my experimentation); and right-clicked on it and
renamed it "View Scraps." Each scrap added its own little page-like icon to the
Scraps toolbar, but since those icons told me virtually nothing about the scraps, I
decided to use the space for other things. To do this, I moved the Suites toolbar
(see point 113(e)) up right below the Scrap toolbar. This way, if there were any
document scraps in the Scraps folder, the toolbar would have space only to show
a ">>" that I could click on to get those scraps; or I could just click on the Scraps
folder icon to bring up a little window containing the full list of scraps. I could
select them all and open them all at once as separate documents in the programs
from which they had come (i.e., either Word or WordPad). I figured the SendTo
toolbar could keep a folder-style icon (see point 120(u)), since folders was what it
was all about, but I changed the Scraps icon by right-clicking and selecting
Properties | Shortcut | Change Icon. Since I figured I would be constantly
deleting things from this folder, I protected that icon by right-clicking on it and
setting its Properties | General tab so that it would be Read-Only. Finally,
somewhere along the way, I found that although I could not drag text from a
web page to Scraps, I could drag the little icon at the left end of the Internet
Explorer Address bar to Scraps. I figured this would be useful to preserve a
quick way to find a web page I was looking at, at those times when Windows
was looking like it might crash.
(t) SendTo SendTo. In my SendTo folder, I now had subfolders named Folders,
Programs, and Other Destinations. (See point 113(c).) Under Folders, I had an
entry called Temp Folders, and I created a new one called Data Folders, so that I
could quickly send a document directly to the default folders containing e.g., my
Word and Excel files. Under Programs, I had Word, Excel, and other programs.
(See point 120(m).) Under Other Destinations, I now added a folder called
Unsorted. The purpose of this folder was to contain new items that I might
decide to add to my SendTo options, in existing or future folders. (See e.g., point
120(u).) To enable this option, I just created a shortcut to the Unsorted folder,
put it in the Other Destinations folder, and renamed it "Add This Item to

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Unsorted." I used this shortcut to accumulate the list of folders that belonged in
the Data Folders group. The basic idea here is that a destination has to exist in a
SendTo folder before you can send anything there, and this shortcut is the
destination for items (i.e., folders) that don't yet exist in Unsorted.
(u) Folders Toolbar. I began to see a need for another toolbar, one that would
take me to various folders quickly. If I just wanted to send a file to those folders,
I could add a SendTo item (see point 113(c)); but if I wanted to see and work with
their contents, I needed something different. Right now, for instance, I wanted to
get to the SendTo folder so that I could organize the items that I had just added
to the Unsorted subfolder there. (See point 120(t).) I didn't want a complete list
of folders, of course -- Windows Explorer gave me that, and the whole point was
to avoid having to page down through many folders to reach a buried one like
SendTo. I also didn't see any need to create a new list of frequently visited
folders, since I already had a good start on that in the SendTo folder. All I really
needed was another small, one-icon folder on the right toolbar (like the Scraps
folder) that would point to SendTo. (See point 120(s).) The subfolders under
SendTo just contained shortcuts to the actual folders, but these shortcuts worked
fine to get me to the folders themselves. (See point 113(c).) Thus, I created a new
toolbar based on C:\Windows\SendTo and dragged it to the right side, to share
that edge with the Scraps and Suites toolbars. Again, to keep it compact, I
temporarily dragged the Suites toolbar off to float, getting it out of the way; and
then, after I had installed this Folders toolbar, I brought Suites back in as the
bottom toolbar and squeezed it right up against the Folders toolbar.
(v) Dynamic SendTo. I thought it would be handy to have a self-updating list of
most-recently-visited folders in SendTo. The basic idea was to ask a program
like HOURLY.BAT (see point 120(k)) to call some other program, each hour (or
at least each day), that would examine all files on selected disks, take note of the
dates on which they were last revised, make a list of the files that were modified
within the last 72 hours, and produce a list of the folders in which those recently
modified files appeared. I could have done that much by using the information
gathered in LIST_ALL.BAS. (See point 116(g).) The part that I didn't know how
to do, unfortunately, was to automatically convert those folder names into Win98
shortcuts in a folder called C:\Windows\SendTo\Folders\Most Recent. I record
the idea here nevertheless, in case I later discover a way to automate that last
part of the process.
(w) Screen Saver Shortcuts. Traditionally, I had used Flying through Space as
my screen saver. I thought I might be able to use a shortcut to set my screen
saver, so that I could use one click to change screen savers instead of the multistep process of going into Control Panel | Display. I made a shortcut to
C:\Windows\System\Flying Through Space.scr. Unfortunately, this only

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turned on the screen saver for the moment, and did not change my default screen
saver, so I deleted the shortcut. It would still be useful for someone who just
wants a fast screen saver, although I note that the Office Shortcut Bar already
comes with that feature. Another option would be to right-click on the taskbar
and choose Minimize All Windows.
(x) Removing Extraneous Screen Savers and Control Panel Elements. There were
some screen savers that I felt confident I would never use. Each screen saver was
powered by an SCR file in C:\Windows\System. I sorted the contents of that
folder by clicking on the Type heading and marked the ones I didn't plan on ever
using. Rather than delete them, however, I decided to save them to a
C:\Windows\System\Extraneous Items folder. (As you'll see, that folder name
stands out among the DOS-style names of the other subfolders under
C:\Windows\System.) Similarly, each Control Panel element had a
corresponding CPL file in C:\Windows\System, and there were a few of them
(FindFast, Fonts, Game Controllers, Passwords, and Users) that I didn't think I
would need. These, however, had short filenames and therefore were not as easy
to identify in C:\Windows\System. Also, as I thought about it, I realized that I
had repeatedly had the experience of clicking on some previously unused item in
the Control Panel in order to work out some kind of bug. This, I felt, was not as
innocent as shedding a couple of unused screen savers. I decided not to remove
any Control Panel elements after all, with one exception. Following the advice of
many people, I made an exception for FINDFAST.CPL, which apparently drags
down your system more than it's worth. I added it to the Extraneous Items
folder, and eventually I compressed the contents of that folder into a ZIP file.
Later, I found that X-Setup made it easier to hide or unhide Control Panel items.
(See point 137(b).) Unfortunately, this FindFast item wasn't on their list. So I left
it changed here and didn't use X-Setup for that.
(y) Mouse Speed. I went into Control Panel | Mouse | Buttons and set the
double-click speed slow, because I was sometimes a little slow on the draw with
the mouse and would wind up getting two single clicks (i.e., changing the name
of the file instead of opening it). I also sped up the pointer under the Motion tab
by just one notch. The tradeoff there is that, if you set it too fast, it becomes
harder to get the mouse targeted on small things you want to click on -- it shoots
right past them.
(z) Windows Text Files. Following a suggestion in
http://www.cots.com/html/body_general_1.htm, I searched (in Windows
Explorer, I used Tools | Find | Files) in C:\Windows (but not its subfolders) for
all files ending in TXT. I selected them all, right-clicked on the group of them,
and chose Quick View. This opened a boatload of viewers, some of which
informed me that I couldn't access the file in question. I closed the viewers that

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showed me a file with no useful information for me, including a number of log
files that apparently came into existence during the installation of various
Windows programs. I also closed the ones that were over my head. The
following files remained: PRINTERS.TXT (see point 224(a)) and TIPS.TXT (see
point 120(aa)).
(aa) Rooted Folders. According to TIPS.TXT (see point 120(z)), I could have
created "rooted" folders in Windows Explorer -- that is, I could have doctored a
copy of Explorer so that it would automatically open in a specified folder. The
options were to open Explorer in either Explorer View (showing what you
normally see in Explorer, with folders on the left side and files on the right) or
Open View (showing just the file part). I could even command this rooted folder
to select and/or open a certain item in the specified folder. I had noticed that my
Folders toolbar (see point 120(u)) opened its folders in Open View, whereas I
would have preferred Explorer View, and at first I hoped that maybe this Rooted
Folder concept could change that; but as I thought about it, I didn't see how that
would work, since the Folders toolbar was relying on SendTo shortcuts, which
(as far as I could tell) I couldn't program to open in any special way. Maybe I
could have designed a BASIC program to create a regularly updated set of
rooted folder commands to mirror the latest developments in my set of SendTo
shortcuts, but it didn't seem worth the work. And I really didn't want yet
another set of links to folders lying around. Besides, I had noticed that I could
use the left and right arrows in the folders opened by my Folders toolbar to
accomplish approximately the same thing as I would have accomplished by
opening those folders in full Explorer View. I figured that I'd just have to wait
for some future insight to tell me how I could put rooted folders to any practical
use. Finally, I found that I could not figure out how to tell Windows Explorer to
open up without expanding drive C, which I wanted because half the time I was
going somewhere other than drive C and I didn't like having to collapse it each
time I used WinEx. (Later, I found that PowerDesk's replacement for Windows
Explorer did do what I wanted in this regard, as long as I saved the screen size
and location by holding Ctrl-Shift while clicking on the X in the upper right
corner. Note that this same trick works for some other windows too, but not
necessarily for those that open inside another program. Apparently Windows
can remember only a limited number of settings this way, so you have to redo it
sometimes for some windows.)
(ab) Problems with the Office 97 Shortcut Bar. I rebooted and did a number of
things after repositioning the Office Shortcut Bar on the right edge of my screen.
During these activities, I had no problem with the Office Shortcut Bar. At one
point several days later, however, I found that it was no longer willing to reside
at the extreme right edge of my screen. Instead, it had repositioned itself at the
left edge of the vertical toolbar that ran down the right side of my screen. (See

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point 120(q).) Thus, I had to go through it every time I wanted to hit one of the
buttons on the right edge. I went online and found that other people had had
repeated problems with this shortcut bar's tendency to vanish or otherwise
behave erratically. I tried resizing and moving a couple of the right-edge
toolbars around, but this did not fix the problem. Besides, I didn't want to have
to go through all those steps repeatedly, perhaps many times a day, as some
people were doing. I had never had that problem before; then again, I had never
before tried to position it on the same edge as another toolbar. I had had a
similar problem, though: on the AMD machine, I had found that, when set to
Auto Hide, the toolbar would not come up when I was running Word in fullscreen mode. As I thought about it, I decided that the Office Shortcut Bar had
not been perfect for me. It did present a number of progam icons, but they were
divided among three separate sub-toolbars, and I often had to stop and think for
a minute to remember which of those sub-toolbars contained the icon for the
program I wished to run. (The toolbars I had selected were called Office,
Desktop, and Internet. Other choices were possible. (See point 120(q).) I needed
several toolbars because the program icons I wanted wouldn't all fit on one
toolbar. They might have, if Microsoft hadn't designed the thing to allow a lot of
space for the name of the toolbar (e.g., "Office") running vertically down the
toolbar.) Another problem with the Office Shortcut Bar was that it was actually a
running program. I didn't know whether it dragged down any of the system's
resources, but I did know that it took an extra few seconds to load, each time I
booted the machine, and also that I had to shut it down every time I wanted to
install software or run diagnostics or system repair utilities. For all these
reasons, I decided, instead, to accept the suggestion to shut off the Office
Shortcut Bar. I right-clicked on Start, chose Explore, went into the Start Menu |
Programs subfolder called StartUp, and moved the three icons that Office had
installed there (Microsoft Office, Microsoft Office Shortcut Bar, and Office
Startup) to another subfolder that I had created to hold StartUp items that I
might want to put back on my StartUp roster someday but did not want to use
now, which I had called Other Startup Icons.
(ac) Replacing Office Shortcut Bar with Desktop Toolbar. Before rebooting, I
consulted the Office Shortcut Bar, to see which program icons I had there and to
decide where else I could put them, now that the Office Shortcut Bar would no
longer be installed automatically. The vertical toolbar at the right edge of the
screen was the obvious candidate: so far, it contained only three icons. (See
point 120(u).) I was not sure it would have space for all these program icons,
however. Instead, I elected to use a divide-and-conquer strategy. For the icons
on the Desktop sub-toolbar (see point 120(ab)), I decided to create my own
Desktop Toolbar. I could have used Win98's Desktop toolbar, but it showed
every item on the desktop, including some that didn't interest me. I hoped that a
tweaking program would eventually hide those items (see point 145(j)), but I did

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not yet know for sure that it would, and in the meantime I didn't want to have to
choose among all those icons every time I used this toolbar. Also, I believed my
own Desktop Toolbar would have several advantages. To create this toolbar, I
went into Windows Explorer and opened the Toolbars subfolder of my Start |
Programs folder. I added a new subfolder there called Desktop. Other had said
that I could right-click in this subfolder, choose New | Shortcut, and type
C:\WINDOWS\EXPLORER.EXE /root to create a folder that would contain
every item on my desktop. As I say, this wasn't exactly what I wanted, but I
tried it anyway. For me, it didn't work. Clicking on the resulting shortcut did
nothing. So I was forced to take the same approach as I had taken the last time I
had worked on this problem (see point 120(n)): I created a shortcut to
C:\Windows\Desktop, renamed it "Win98 Desktop," and put it in this Desktop
subfolder under Start | Programs. As before, this gave me only the items that I
had added to the desktop; for example, it didn't show the Recycle Bin. Its
advantage was that, since it was a folder (or at least a shortcut to one), I could
drag things to it and they would land on the actual desktop. I thought this was
nifty, so I made a copy of this shortcut and put it into my
C:\Windows\SendTo\Folders\Data Folders folder. (See point 113(c).) Then, to
provide quick access to the Recycle Bin and the other actual desktop items that I
did want to visit occasionally, I did a Tools | Find | Files in Windows Explorer,
searched for "Desktop," and copied the Show Desktop item with the shovel icon
from the Quick Launch Toolbar's folder, because this was really the only icon I
needed from that toolbar. (Later, I found that you can also get to the desktop
quickly by typing Ctrl-Esc and then Alt-M.) Finally, I cut the Desktop Tools
folder (the one containing the calculator etc.) from the Links Toolbar -- that is,
from C:\Windows\Favorites\Links (see point 120(f)), where it really didn't
belong, and pasted it into this Desktop Toolbar folder. It really didn't belong
here either, but I thought maybe the word "Desktop" would eventually make this
seem like the logical place for it. These steps gave me some of what I wanted in
my customized Desktop Toolbar. Now I was ready to create the toolbar itself.
To do this, I right-clicked on the taskbar, chose Toolbars | New Toolbar, and
pointed toward this Desktop subfolder under Start | Programs. I right-clicked
on the newly created Desktop toolbar and shut off its text and title. I dragged
the left edge of this Desktop toolbar up to the top edge of the screen and installed
it next to the Links toolbar. (See point 105(e).) For some reason, I had to do this
in two stages, hauling it first to the middle of the desktop (with all other
windows minimized) and then dragging it from there to the top. Now I made
another discovery: the Desktop Tools folder was not working right. When it
was on the Links Toolbar, it served as the top item in a submenu. That is, if I
clicked on it, a pull-down menu dropped out below it, and I could slide down
and choose the desktop tool I wanted (e.g., calculator). But now, on the Desktop
Toolbar, there was no menu function. If I clicked on it, it would open up a folder
off in the middle of the screen somewhere, and I'd have to go down there to start

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my chosen desktop tool, and then I'd have to come back and close that folder.
The change in behavior seemed to accompany a change of icon. When the
Desktop Tools folder was in the Links Toolbar, it was a plain old folder, but in
the Desktop Toolbar, it became a folder with two colored dots on it. Lacking a
better solution, I dragged the folder back to the Links Toolbar, where once again
it worked as I wanted. The other problem was that I couldn't change the icons
on the folders to make them distinguishable from one another, so I had to restore
the text accompanying the icons and make the toolbar two lines high again.
(ad) Replacing Links Toolbar Text with Icons. In all this tinkering, I had noticed
that the Links Toolbar (see point 109(g)) sometimes got in the way. I had set it to
Auto Hide at the top of the screen, so as to keep it from taking up precious real
estate; but this meant that it popped up every time I moved the cursor too far
that way, which I was doing often enough. I thought it might be less obtrusive if
I could boil its two lines down to one; in that case, it seemed that even if I did
arouse it accidentally, it would be less likely to be in my way: it would just fill
the title bar, which I used only to minimize, maximize, and close windows. At
this point, I had text (e.g., "Health," "Media") next to each website icon on the
Links Toolbar. As I thought about it, I also felt that maybe it would be faster to
identify my web link pages with discrete, colorful icons, each located in its own
place on the Links Toolbar, instead of reading through the list of ten entries on
that bar to find the page I wanted. So for each page, I right-clicked and chose
Web Document | Change Icon, and then selected one that seemed fitting. The
icon files I knew of were all in C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM, and the ones I preferred
were the Windows-style icons in SHELL32.DLL and the less orthodox icons in
PIFMGR.DLL, rather than from the four measly options available in the default
C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\URL.DLL. More impressive, it seemed, were the four
billion icons available online. The first site I found offered GIF and JPG icons,
which are better suited for web pages. I downloaded a couple and used
PowerDesk (see point 135) to convert them to ICO format, but the colors were all
messed up; perhaps a different converter would have worked better. I tried
again with a more specialized search in Northern Light (title:(win98 or "win 98"
or "windows 98") and icon) and got several sites that offered files full of free
icons, but without any advance indication of what kinds of icons I was
downloading. The other option was to create my own, which I had heard I could
do just by renaming a bitmap (BMP) file to be an ICO file. I didn't have any
items I thought would be good for icons, however. Eventually, I searched
Hotfiles.com and found Icon Snatcher, a free download that I could use to search
my computer for icons that might be suitable for the job. I started to use Icon
Snatcher, but it looked like I would have to examine hundreds of files
individually in search of the icons they might contain. I bailed out of that and
just chose some reasonably good icons from the three DLLs mentioned above.
Then I right-clicked on the Links Toolbar, removed its text labels, and squeezed

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it down to one line, as I had planned. (Later, I found that I could also search for
icons in C:\WINDOWS\MORICONS.DLL (although many of those had print on
them and seemed related to various software packages, including some old ones)
and in PROGMAN.EXE and COOL.DLL.)
(ae) Replacing Office Shortcut Bar with Programs Toolbar. The Desktop Toolbar
handled some of the functions of the former Office Shortcut Bar (see point
120(ac)), but I did not yet have a complete substitute for that Shortcut Bar. The
next essential ingredient was a Programs Toolbar that would contain program
icons that had formerly been on the Shortcut Bar. The two remaining categories
of icons were the Internet icons and the Office icons. (See point 112(e).) I left the
Office Shortcut Bar icons as I had arranged them in D:\Program Files\Microsoft
Office\Office\Shortcut Bar\Office, but I also copied over the ones I wanted to a
new subfolder under my Toolbars folder (see point 113(e)) called
Toolbars\Programs\Main. That is, the toolbar would be based on this
Toolbars\Programs subfolder, and one of the folders listed under it would be
Main. A second one was, of course, Internet. I decided to add a third one for
Utilities. To each of these folders, I added icons for the programs I used
frequently, aiming to keep it down to approximately five icons in each case. This
was not a substitute for the Start | Programs menu; it was a distillation from -- a
simplification of -- the complexity that would exist on that menu when I had
finished installing dozens of different programs. I then created the Programs
toolbar, using the same method as above (see point 120(ac)), shut off its title but
not the text descriptions of the individual items, and dragged it to join the Links
Toolbar at the top of the screen. Unfortunately, I had the same problem with
these items as I'd had with the Desktop Toolbar (see point 120(ac): I couldn't get
them to present pull-down menus. I created a shortcut to the Programs
subfolder and put it in C:\Windows\Favorites\Links, hoping that this would
give me multi-level pulldown menus, but that didn't work; it just opened a
window when I clicked on it. So I moved the folders for clarity -- Main
Programs, Internet Programs, and Utility Programs -- and moved them all to
C:\Windows\Favorites\Links. Of course, that bloated the Links Toolbar. The
only way I could keep all this stuff within two lines on that Toolbar was to move
the Desktop Toolbar down to join the other toolbars on the right side of the
screen (see point 120(q)), and even then I had to shorten some folder names to
squeeze them in. This proved to be unnecessary, however. (See point 121.)
(af) Web Suite. I had created a Suites Toolbar. (See point 113(e).) The purpose of
that toolbar was to give me a single button that, if clicked, would open a number
of programs at the same time. The idea was that some projects required me to
open a predictable set of two, three, or more programs, and that this was an
easier way to get started in those projects. I had added other suites to that
toolbar. (See point 120(o).) By this time, I had realized that I could use another

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suite. This one would be for certain websites. I would not use it every time I
went online, but it would be useful once or twice a day, when I would check up
on the news, weather, and Hotmail e-mail of the morning or afternoon. I created
the toolbar itself in the same general manner as before. This time, the shortcut
pointed at a different DOS batch file, named STE_WEB.BAT. The lines of this
batch file could just be a series of commands like this: START
HTTP://WWW.CNN.COM and START HTTP://WWW.INFO.COM. This
would start a session of Internet Explorer and send it to CNN.COM and then,
immediately, to INFO.COM. But I wanted separate sessions of Internet Explorer
to run, with each ending up on the different pages that I wanted to see. To do
this, I alternated lines, as follows:
START C:\PROGRA~1\INTERN~1\IEXPLORE.EXE
START HTTP://WWW.CNN.COM
START C:\PROGRA~1\INTERN~1\IEXPLORE.EXE
START HTTP://WWW.INFO.COM
and so forth. Right now, I added just these two lines, to remind me of how this
thing worked; I figured I'd come back later, when I had the situation all sorted
out with my Favorites, and add more lines then. (See point 261.) I gave it a
unique icon, applied my changes, made it Read-Only, applied my changes again,
clicked OK, made room for it on the right-side toolbar, and there it was.
(ag) Moving the History Folder. I belatedly discovered that I could move the
History folder and that Internet Explorer would figure out a response. Using
Windows Explorer, I tried to move it to drive H, where I had put the Temporary
Internet Files. (See point 38.) It started to do it, but then gave me a sharing
violation error message. Oops. I realized I probably should have attempted to
do this in DOS, where Windows would not be using the History folder. I clicked
on Shut Down | Restart. I got a "This program is not responding" error message.
I clicked OK and rebooted into real DOS. The History folder was hidden, so it
didn't show up on a normal DIR command. After playing around with DIR and
ATTRIB for a while, and getting myself into progressively deeper levels of
hidden directories in C:\WINDOWS\HISTORY, I realized that I might have had
better luck if I'd used a Copy command instead of Cut and Paste in Windows
Explorer. I rebooted into Windows and tried that. It seemed to work. Now I
rebooted back into real DOS, made sure I was at the prompt for drive C, and
typed DELTREE C:\WINDOWS\HISTORY. I rebooted into Windows, went
online, and discovered that Windows now had History folders on both drives C
and H, and was updating them both for my current activity. I went to drive H
and typed DELTREE H:\HISTORY. I rebooted into Windows.
C:\WINDOWS\HISTORY was still there; H:\WINDOWS\HISTORY was gone.
Having returned to my starting point, I gave up.

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(ah) Conceal Cloud Logo. I didn't really mind the blue sky and clouds that filled
my screen when Windows loaded; but now that I had gotten concerned about all
kinds of Windows details, I decided I would rather see what was happening
when Windows was loading. To do this, I added the line "logo=0" (without
quotes) to the [options] section of C:\MSDOS.SYS. (I could also change this
using X-Setup. See point 137(k).) (Technically, editing MSDOS.SYS amounts to
editing your Registry, but I reserve that term for the more intimidating
procedure described in point 146.) I had to shut off its read-only attribute before
doing so and turn it back on afterwards. I rebooted and, as it turned out, I didn't
get any more details than I ordinarily got when booting, just more time to look at
the ones that were already there. I liked it better this way, though, so I left it.
Later, I went back and added the line Bootdelay=0 to remove the two-second
delay from the Windows startup that makes it easier to hit F8 and get into Safe
Mode. I also found out, eventually, that instead of setting logo=0 in
MSDOS.SYS, I could have just hit the Esc key while Windows was booting.
(ai) Freeing Leaked RAM. Applying another tip from
http://www.tweak3d.net/tweak/harddrive/, I did the following: (1) In
Notepad, on the AMD computer, I typed this: Mystring = Space(80000000).
(That's seven zeros.) (2) I saved the file as C:\TEMP\FREE_RAM.VBS. (3) In
Windows Explorer, I double-clicked on the file. This provoked a lot of hard disk
activity for a minute or so. (4) I noticed that my various program windows (such
as the screen on which I was writing these words) took longer to start back up
afterwards, and I decided that the program had succeeded in cleaning stuff out
of RAM. (5) Otherwise, it seemed to do no harm, so I decided it might be worth
adding to my bag of tricks. I copied it to D:\DOS_UTIL on the PENTIUM
computer and set up a Task Scheduler item (see point 105(g)) to run it once every
six hours, hoping that it would serve me as well as it served the guy at Tweak3D,
who said that it allowed him to keep Win98 running for a week without
rebooting. He recommended playing with the number (it was originally
16000000, he said) to get a setting that was right for your system. Later, I found a
more informative site (but unfortunately lost track of which one it was). This site
called the program FREEMEM.VBS and said the following: (1) You needed at
least version 5.1 of Microsoft Scripting Engines to run VBS scripts like this; MSE
came with Win98. (2) The number in parentheses was the amount by which your
free memory would increase, so you could have different VBS scripts to free
different amounts of memory. (3) The number should not exceed half of your
installed RAM. Since I had at least 64 MB on each computer, I decided that a
reasonable setting would be 24000000. (4) He said to make sure all programs
were closed before running it, but he also said that it would be reasonable to set
Task Scheduler to run it every hour, so I decided to experiment with running it
every six hours unattended and see if I had any problems.

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(aj) Resizing Desktop. I decided to try again to resize the display to 800 x 600.
Last time around, I had gotten a message that the system needed to restart
immediately in order to display things properly, and then it had refused to work
properly when I did restart. (See point 105(k).) This time, I decided that if I got
that message, I would back out of it and revert to 640 x 480 mode. So I went into
Control Panel | Display | Settings and moved the Screen Area slider over to 800
by 600, and clicked OK. No restart message. Just to be sure, I rebooted, and it
came back up fine in 800 x 600 mode.
(ak) Quick Shutdown and Restart. It seemed that, for shutting down and
restarting the computer, there were more ways than met the eye. In addition to
hardware solutions (i.e., turning off the power or hitting the reset button (if any)
on the computer), and the old Ctrl-Alt-Del, and the options that came up when
you hit Start | Shut Down, there was also a fast restart (after selecting Start |
Shut Down | Restart, hold the shift bar down when you click OK), and there
were myriad Win98 programs designed to shut you down in various times and
ways. (Search Hotfiles.com for "shutdown," or see e.g.,
http://www.topfile.com/win/Desktop/Shell_Enhancements/Quick_Shutdown
/.) (See point 128.)
(al) Always Boot in DOS. I did not ordinarily need to work in DOS, so I
ordinarily wanted my machine to boot in Windows. It was not difficult to
accomodate the occasional times when a person needed to boot into real DOS:
you could either set your BIOS to boot from a DOS floppy, or else hit F8 right
after the BIOS does its thing and then choose the Command Line option. On the
other hand, there were going to be a few times when I would need to boot into
DOS, and there was one real advantage to making that, not Windows, the
ordinary bootup. The advantage was simply that I knew how to program DOS
to go on into Windows automatically, and moreover to choose either Safe Mode
or Normal Mode; but I did not know how to program Windows to boot
automatically into DOS or into its own other mode. To set up all these
alternatives the way I wanted, then, I proceeded as follows: (1) I removed the
Read-Only attribute from C:\MSDOS.SYS, went to its [Options] section, changed
the BootGUI line to read BootGUI=0, saved MSDOS.SYS, and restored its ReadOnly attribute. This would make DOS the default operating system. (2) I booted
into DOS and added this line at the beginning of its AUTOEXEC.BAT file:
D:\DOS_UTIL\BOOT_MGR.BAT. That line would guarantee that, upon
booting, DOS would look to the BOOT_MGR file for its next instructions. (3) I
created D:\DOS_UTIL\BOOT_MGR.BAT with just one line in it:
C:\WINDOWS\WIN.COM. That would tell the program to load Windows. If
we left things like this, we would just have invented a roundabout way of
booting Win98 Normal Mode. My computer was now set to boot in DOS, but to

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go right on to Win98, just like before. But if I removed or altered the


BOOT_MGR file, it might stay in DOS or go to Safe Mode and do other things.
(Later, I heard that, instead of using AUTOEXEC.BAT, I could have used a
procedure that would have been invisible to users and that users could not have
interrupted, which might have been important if I had been administering a
system for multiple users. According to one source, IO.SYS was the program
that ran CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT. After doing that, IO.SYS would
then run WIN.COM. But DOS and Windows would apparently execute BAT
files before COM files. So if you created a file called WIN.BAT, IO.SYS would
execute that WIN.BAT file instead of WIN.COM. You could put your special
commands in WIN.BAT and then have it run WIN.COM, and you could mark it
read-only and hidden just as you might mark AUTOEXEC and the others.)
(am) Refine the DOS Boot with BOOT_MGR. This new BOOT_MGR.BAT file
gave me the option of specifying which mode I wanted to boot in. This way, I
could remove the BOOT_MGR line from AUTOEXEC.BAT, which would dump
me at the DOS prompt; and then I could type BOOT_MGR NM to boot on into
Normal Mode, or BOOT_MGR SM for Safe Mode, or perhaps I could figure out
how to engineer a shortcut in Windows so that, if I clicked on it, it would reboot
and run BOOT_MGR DOS to put me into Real DOS. My new BOOT_MGR.BAT
file looked like this:
@echo off
REM This is BOOT_MGR.BAT. It lets you boot into different modes.
REM Check for valid input
if %1==DOS goto MAIN
if %1==NM goto MAIN
if %1==SM goto MAIN
echo You didn't specify DOS, NM (normal mode), or SM (safe mode) (all caps).
echo If you let this program continue, you'll go back to the same mode.
pause Hit Ctrl-C to bail out and try again with DOS, NM, or SM.
goto DONE
:MAIN
if %1==DOS call DOSSTART.BAT
if %1==NM call C:\WINDOWS\WIN.COM
if %1==SM call C:\WINDOWS\WIN.COM /D:M
goto DONE

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:DONE
Note that the DOS option points toward a DOSSTART file, which contains the
commands that were formerly in AUTOEXEC.BAT. (See point 105(l).) I put
them there because I didn't want to run them if I was going right on into Normal
Mode or Safe Mode. (I later found that I had to put the PATH statement back at
the start of AUTOEXEC.BAT after all.) Note, also, that the line involving
WIN.COM /D:M was the command needed to start Safe Mode. For now, the
only other change I made was to change AUTOEXEC.BAT (see point 120(al)) so
that its main line read D:\DOS_UTIL\BOOT_MGR.BAT NM. The last two
letters would insure that the default continued to be Normal Mode. I knew I
could come back later and tinker with it more, if I wanted. (See point 129.) For
right now, it was handy enough to be able to type BOOT_MGR NM or SM to go
directly from DOS to Normal Mode or Safe Mode.
(an) Increase Number of Registry Backups. Tip no. 56 from the Weber High
School site (see point 105(j)) recommends increasing the number of backups that
Registry Checker creates by finding C:\WINDOWS\SCANREG.INI and
changing MaxBackupCopies from 5 to 10. Someone online said that Microsoft
recommends leaving it at the default. I decided to increase it to 8 because there
was one time when I came close to running out of recent backups. (Win98 made
Registry backups automatically -- once a day, I believe -- but you could also
make them manually by going into the Win98 System Information tool (or just
hitting Start | Run | MSINFO32 | Tools) and running Registry Checker.) The
copies of USER.DAT and SYSTEM.DAT (the two main Registry files) took 10 MB
on my AMD computer, but the additional backups went into compressed CAB
files that took much less space. I had to jump through a couple of hoops to view
more than five or six Registry backups when I needed them, though. (See point
148 and point 149.)
121. Verifying That Office Program Toolbars Fit on One Line. When I had set up
the toolbars in Word, Excel, and other Office 97 programs, I had noticed that my
customized toolbars extended over to a second line in some cases. Now that I
had readjusted the monitor to run in a higher resolution, I needed to verify that
the icons did all fit on one line. They did in every case, and usually with room to
spare.
Problem with Win98 Disk Defragmenter
122. Problem: Disk Defragmenter Near-Freeze. One morning, during the
process of working through the foregoing list of tweaks, I saw that the
PENTIUM computer had seemingly frozen up during the night. As I recall, it
took a minute or two to get it going again. The disk defragmenter had been set

133

to run overnight. (See point 105(g).) It had not completed its job, and I had to
bail out of it with Ctrl-Alt-Del. I went online and saw a comment by an MS-MVP
(which is, I believe, a non-Microsoft employee who has somehow become
certified as having sufficient knowledge about various Microsoft programs to
help users with their questions about those programs). His comment began
with, "DEFRAG DOESN'T WORK PROPERLY." At first, I thought he put those
words in all caps to emphasize them, but later I wondered whether this was just
the title of an article he was quoting. He pointed toward Microsoft
Knowledgebase Article no. Q96519, but that turned out to be an article about
running a DOS defragmenter. Other online comments said that you should only
run the Win98 defragmenter in Safe Mode; or only after turning off your
antivirus program or screen saver or perhaps all other programs except Explorer
and Systray; or only after emptying your Temporary Internet Files,
C:\WINDOWS\TEMP, and Recycle Bin; or that, if you're scheduling things to
run automatically, you should allow a half-hour between running the
defragmenter or any other programs; or that you should set the defragmenter to
work on each disk separately; or set power management settings (see point
109(h)) so that they never shut off; or never let the defragmenter (or perhaps they
meant SCANDISK) correct errors automatically; or that the defragmenter that
comes with earlier versions (of Win98? Win95? Internet Explorer 4?) is no good;
or use a DOS defragmenter; or run SCANDISK first; or all of the above.
123. First Attempted Solution: Run Defragmenter Automatically in Safe Mode.
The foregoing advice put me in a quandary. I certainly intended to continue
running my disk repair and defragmentation programs in auto-repair mode:
they took too much time to let them have the computer during the day, and I
sure wasn't going to stay up to babysit them at night. At the same time, I could
see that things were not working out as planned. Previously, on the AMD
machine, Norton's SpeedDisk defragmenting program had balked if I had other
things running at the same time, and now Defragmenter was doing the same
thing. It seemed that I had to set aside perhaps one night a week to do nothing
but run my preferred defragmenter on all hard disks, and hope that it would be
done by morning. (Running Norton's defragmenter was no solution for another
reason: by this time I had seen many comments online indicating that certain
Norton programs caused problems, and that they added lots of potentially
troublesome lines to the Registry, and I myself had had to troubleshoot enough
problems caused by Norton programs under Win95/98, that I wanted to
minimize my reliance on Norton Utilities. (See point 105(g).) So I was doing my
best, here, to arrive at a scheme that would work with Win98's defragmenter.)
Moreover, to insure that my preferred defragmenter would run without
interference by other programs, I pretty much had to run it in DOS or Safe Mode.
Experience suggested that, in Normal Mode, there could be any number of other
nocturnal operations interfering with it. I found that the Win98 Disk

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Defragmenter did not run in Real DOS. (In the view of one writer, this was
good: s/he said that DOS defragmenters will mess up your hard disk.) This left
Safe Mode as the only option. I hoped there would be a way to run
Defragmenter automatically in Safe Mode, but my early options weren't good:
the Task Scheduler icon (see point 105(g)) did not show up in the system tray
(lower right corner of the screen), and it seemed that an AUTOEXEC or other
autostart batch file would be foiled by Safe Mode's habit of giving you an
introductory box that tells you that you're in Safe Mode. For the time being,
then, my weekly maintenance thing was going to involve an automatic DOSbased process, followed by a manual Safe Mode process.
124. Second Attempted Solution: DOS Weekly Maintenance. I decided to set up
DOS so that it would intercept the boot process on Wednesday afternoons
around 5 PM, in order to run a set of maintenance programs. I would need to
come up with some kind of Windows-based utility to force a reboot then. After
running the DOS utilities, the system would automatically go into Normal Mode,
and I would then try to find a way to suppress all other programs and run
Defragmenter automatically. (See point 127.) First, to configure my DOS
maintenance program, I drew upon information presented above and on other
sources. I set up MAINT_WK.BAT to run certain DOS programs, as follows:
@echo off
REM This is MAINT_WK.BAT
REM This file runs maintenance items weekly
REM Delete files in Windows temp directory
deltree /y c:\windows\temp\*.*
REM Delete TMP files on all disks
if exist c:\temp\filelist.txt del c:\temp\filelist.txt
for %%c in (c d e f g h) do dir %%c:\*.tmp /a:-d /b /s >> c:\temp\filelist.txt
del < c:\temp\filelist.txt *.tmp
REM Delete Tilde files on all disks
if exist c:\temp\filelist.txt del c:\temp\filelist.txt
for %%c in (c d e f g h) do dir %%c:\~*.* /a:-d /b /s >> c:\temp\filelist.txt
del < c:\temp\filelist.txt ~*.*
del c:\temp\filelist.txt
REM Clear the Start--Documents list
deltree /y c:\windows\recent\*.*
REM Empty the Recycled Bins

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for %%c in (c d e f g h) do deltree /y %%c:\recycled\*.*


REM Now the main attractions
call scandisk /custom /all /surface
call scanreg /fix
call scanreg /backup
REM End of file.
For other information on the lines used here, see points 116, 119, and 120. I
wound up revising this program a bit later. (See point 130.) I could have run
SCANDSKW (apparently the version of ScanDisk designed to run in DOS boxes),
but I preferred to work in real DOS to insure that there wouldn't be any other
programs interfering with them, and to minimize the risk of interference by
Win98's power management system. (See point 109(a).) I configured the
/CUSTOM setting of SCANDISK by editing SCANDISK.INI, including
specifically NumPasses, which will set the thing to examine a cluster repeatedly
if you wish. I wondered if maybe this was the secret that had enabled Norton's
Disk Doctor to solve a problem for me that SCANDISK hadn't solved. (See point
78.) I decided to reset NumPasses from 1, where it had been, to 5. In practice,
however, this didn't seem to have any impact on the performance of the surface
scan, which was where Norton's product had excelled. Finally, I wanted to run
SCANREG from real DOS if possible because apparently the Win98 version has
to switch to DOS anyway before it can make changes to the Registry.
125. Registry Problem. In the course of preparing that MAINT_WK.BAT
program, I experimented with SWEEP.COM to delete TMP and Tilde files. (See
point 120(e).) It got into a loop that it didn't seem to be getting out of, so I hit
Ctrl-C to break out. Then, when I experimented with the SCANDISK command
line shown in MAINT_WK.BAT, the system froze halfway through the line in
which it was telling me that /AUTOFIX and /CUSTOM were mutually
exclusive. (Custom covers everything in Autofix, it seems.) I rebooted, tried to
run MAINT_WK again, and found myself in the Microsoft Registry Checker after
a very brief error message of some kind -- it went past too quickly for me to read
it. Eventually, it dawned on me that MAINT_WK was working just fine, at least
as far as the SCANREG command was concerned, but for some reason it had
skipped over the SCANDISK command. SCANREG ran for five or ten minutes
and then quit. Now I tried running just my original SCANDISK line: CALL
SCANDISK /CUSTOM /ALL /NOSAVE /NOSUMMARY /SURFACE. It told
me that /NOSAVE and /NOSUMMARY were mutually exclusive vis-a-vis
/CUSTOM, so I wound up with just the line shown above. This line examined a
little more than 1 GB of disk space per hour.

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126. DOS Maintenance Scheduler. To implement the DOS part of the


MAINT_WK plan (see point 124), I needed a DOS batch file that would detect the
date and time and would run MAINT_WK if the time was between 5 and 6 pm
on a Wednesday. I prepared the following batch file:
@echo off
REM This is WEEKDAY.BAT
REM
REM

It runs WEEKDAY.BAS in order to determine whether it is the right


day and time to run MAINT_WK.BAT.

c:
cd \temp
if exist datetime.tmp del datetime.tmp
if exist doit.bat del doit.bat
echo.| date | find "Current" > datetime.tmp
echo.| time | find "Current" >> datetime.tmp
call qbasic /run d:\dos_util\weekday.bas
call doit.bat
if exist datetime.tmp del datetime.tmp
if exist doit.bat del doit.bat
This called the WEEKDAY.BAS file. The actual contents of that QBASIC
program (see point 80) were as follows:
REM This is WEEKDAY.BAS
REM It runs MAINT_WK.BAT on certain days and times.
DIM dayin AS STRING
DIM hourin AS STRING
DIM hourval AS INTEGER
DIM ampmin AS STRING
DIM marchorder AS STRING
OPEN "c:\temp\datetime.tmp" FOR INPUT AS # 1
OPEN "c:\temp\doit.bat" FOR OUTPUT AS # 2
FOR i% = 1 TO 2
LINE INPUT # 1, linein$

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keypiece$ = MID$(linein$, 17, LEN(linein$))


IF i% = 1 THEN
dayin$ = LEFT$(keypiece$, 3)
END IF
IF i% = 2 THEN
hourin$ = LEFT$(keypiece$, 2)
IF LEFT$(hourin$, 1) = " " THEN
hourin$ = RIGHT$(hourin$, 1)
END IF
hourval = VAL(hourin$)
ampmin$ = RIGHT$(keypiece$, 1)
IF ampmin$ = "p" THEN
hourval = hourval + 12
END IF
END IF
NEXT
marchorder$ = "ECHO Hi"
IF dayin$ = "Wed" THEN
IF hourval = 17 THEN
marchorder$ = "CALL D:\DOS_UTIL\MAINT_WK.BAT"
END IF
END IF
PRINT # 2, marchorder$
CLOSE
SYSTEM
Finally, to make this program run automatically whenever the computer booted
up, I added this line to AUTOEXEC.BAT, immediately before the
BOOT_MGR.BAT command (see point 120(al)): CALL
D:\DOS_UTIL\WEEKDAY.BAT. This scheme would run MAINT_WK.BAT
every time the computer rebooted. According to theory, I would be playing pool
and drinking beer on Wednesday evenings between 5 and 6 PM, and otherwise
the computer would be in the control of these programs I had set up, so there
wouldn't be any reason why WEEKDAY would run more than once a week.
127. Win98 Maintenance Scheduler. Having thought further about it, I decided
that I could not gracefully link my Win98 maintenance schedule (featuring
Defragmenter) to my DOS maintenance schedule (as run by MAINT_WK.BAT).

138

The two needed to operate separately, and Defragmenter really did need to run
every night. I was not certain I could make this happen, given my recent
difficulty with Defragmenter and the advice I had found on that subject (see
point 122), but I hoped that perhaps a weekly doctoring by SCANDISK and
SCANREG would put things in good enough shape for Defragmenter to run
without the necessity of running SCANDISK right before it every night. Not that
there would have been time for that in any event: experience with SCANDISK
and Defragmenter showed that the two of them could consume many hours. So
I turned, now, from my DOS maintenance schedule to the entirely separate
subject of my Win98 maintenance schedule. Again, I wanted this to run
automatically, and to process things one at a time, not beginning the one until
the previous one had finished; again, a batch file seemed like a good solution. I
decided to call this Win98 batch file MAINTWIN. I would then have two entries
in Task Scheduler: one to force a reboot, somehow, at 5 PM on Wednesdays, so
that MAINT_WK could run (see point 124), and the other to start MAINTWIN
late in the evening on every night except Wednesday. I saw the Win98 process
as involving three steps: (a) shut down all running programs, (b) start
Defragmenter, and (c) reboot the system so that I would have a fresh system with
all of my normal startup programs running. The shutdown would ideally be
sensitive, somehow, to the presence of any active processes. That is, I wouldn't
mind if it shut down a program that wasn't doing anything, but I wouldn't want
an automatic shutdown if I had deliberately scheduled a time-intensive task to
run overnight. It took me a while to work this thing out. (See point 131.)
128. Rebooter. I had found utility programs that would do things like shut
down the computer at a certain time, but I wanted to try to do as much as
possible within Win98 itself, rather than add a thousand little single-purpose
utilities. DOS and QBASIC were not sophisticated, but they were stable.
Browsing online, I found several one-line commands that would shut down
Win98 in various ways. The following examples assume that C:\Windows is on
your PATH statement. (To find out, type PATH at a DOS prompt. Since these
would be running in a DOS box in Win98, I verified within that DOS box; real
DOS had an entirely different and irrelevant PATH.) If C:\Windows is not on
your PATH statement, then you may want to fix your PATH or type in the
needed directory names where appropriate. For example, instead of typing
simply RUNDLL32.EXE, you might preface those with C:\WINDOWS. I think
that will also hold true for USER.EXE and SHELL32.DLL.
(a) To shut down the computer (two different commands):
RUNDLL32.EXE USER.EXE,ExitWindows or:
RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,SHExitWindowsEx 5
(b) To reboot the computer:

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RUNDLL32.EXE USER.EXE,ExitWindowsExec 5 or:


RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,SHExitWindowsEx 2
(c) To restart Windows without rebooting (fastest but least thorough):
RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,SHExitWindowsEx or:
@EXIT
(d) To restart Windows in MS-DOS mode, someone said that I could create a
batch file with these two lines: MEM/C/P and EXIT. This didn't make sense to
me, since MEM is just a program that tells you about your memory status. I
didn't know another DOS command that would do this, so for Windows
purposes I just made a copy of the Exit to DOS shortcut I had developed earlier.
(See point 105(l).)
See http://www.zdnet.com/pcmag/pctech/content/solutions/oe1804a.htm. I
didn't test these extensively, but I imagined that the SHExit commands worked
faster, so I put the one from point (a) into a one-line batch file called
D:\DOS_UTIL\SHUTDOWN.BAT; I put the one from point (b) into a one-line
batch file called REBOOTER.BAT; I put the one from point (c) into a one-line
batch file called RESTART.BAT; and the one from point (d) went into
WINDOSBT.BAT. I didn't suppose I'd have much need for SHUTDOWN, and
RESTART might be handy occasionally, but REBOOTER was about to become
central to my maintenance scheme. (I didn't have to create batch files for these
commands. I could have just created shortcuts incorporating them. See the
ZDNet site just cited for instructions. I wanted a batch file so that I could also
run them from DOS if the mood struck, and also because I like to have my
homemade solutions in my DOS_UTIL folder to find them more easily if I forget
their names someday, and also because I would be needing a batch file to execute
more than just this one command. See point 129.) Later, I found
http://support.microsoft.com/support/kb/articles/Q234/2/16.ASP, which
informed me that I could use the command rundll32.exe
shell32.dll,SHExitWindowsEx 6 to restart with force -- i.e., to shut programs
down even if it means losing unsaved data. I put this line into a batch file called
FORCBOOT.BAT. Later, I added another option, REBOOTGO, to this list. (See
point 130.) But eventually I decided that FORCBOOT and REBOOTGO did the
same thing, and I deleted FORCBOOT. That gave me, eventually, a total of five
batch files: SHUTDOWN, REBOOTER, RESTART, WINDOSBT, and
REBOOTGO. Later, I discovered that RESTART would wipe out the TweakUI
setting that allowed me to get through the network logon screen. (See point 199.)
So when I eventually built a toolbar with shortcuts to these different ways of
shutting down or rebooting (see point 138(c)), it had only these options: Shut
Down, Rebooter, MS-DOS Mode (WINDOSBT), and Force Reboot (REBOOTGO).
To that toolbar, I added three options that would allow me to set the mode in

140

which the computer would reboot: Safe Mode, Normal Mode, and Real DOS.
These shortcuts ran batch files that looked like this:
@echo off
:: This is BOOTSAFE.BAT
d:
cd \dos_util
echo Safe Mode > bootcall.txt
RUNDLL32.EXE SHELL32.DLL,SHExitWindowsEx 2
(For more information on BOOTCALL, see point 129.) Later, I substantially
revised some of the batch files shown here. (See point 262.)
129. REBOOTER Plus BOOT_MGR. I now had a way to flesh out BOOT_MGR -or, more precisely, to supersede it. The problem, until now, had been that I had
no automated way to tell BOOT_MGR whether to boot the system in Normal
Mode, Safe Mode, or Real DOS. (See point 120(am).) I just had AUTOEXEC set
to run Normal Mode automatically with the BOOT_MGR NM command, and I
had the option of typing BOOT_MGR SM or BOOT_MGR DOS if I wanted to
boot into one of those two other modes. I could have left it like that, but I
decided things would be simpler if I took a slightly different approach. First, I
modified my real DOS AUTOEXEC.BAT file (available in either real DOS or in a
DOS box, but saved under another name when you run the step-by-step
command prompt bootup). The modification consisted basically of importing
the main lines from BOOT_MGR into AUTOEXEC. Second, I changed those
lines so that, instead of looking for a two- or three-letter command from the
keyboard (i.e., NM, SM, or DOS), they would look at the contents of a file called
D:\DOS_UTIL\BOOTCALL.TXT. So my AUTOEXEC.BAT file now looked like
this:
@echo off
path c:\windows;c:\windows\command;d:\dos_util
call d:\dos_util\weekday.bat
REM Choose which mode to boot in, depending on contents of
BOOTCALL.TXT.
find "Normal Mode" d:\dos_util\bootcall.txt
if not errorlevel=1 c:\windows\win.com
if not errorlevel=1 goto DONE
find "Safe Mode" d:\dos_util\bootcall.txt
if not errorlevel=1 c:\windows\win.com /d:m

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if not errorlevel=1 goto DONE


find "Real DOS" d:\dos_util\bootcall.txt
if not errorlevel=1 d:\dos_util\dosstart.bat
if not errorlevel=1 goto DONE
echo BOOTCALL.TXT doesn't contain a required entry,
echo either "Real DOS" or "Normal Mode" or "Safe Mode."
:DONE
(I did not fully understand this ERRORLEVEL command; it didn't seem to be
working for me like it was supposed to, but this particular configuration seemed
to work.) Next, I created a new BOOT_MGR.BAT to put the proper text into
BOOTCALL.TXT: either "Real DOS" or "Normal Mode" or "Safe Mode." The
lines of this new and improved BOOT_MGR.BAT looked like this:
@echo off
REM This is BOOT_MGR.BAT.
REM This file inserts an instruction into BOOTCALL.TXT, so that
REM AUTOEXEC.BAT knows which mode to boot into.
:MAIN
if %1==DOS echo Real DOS > d:\dos_util\bootcall.txt
if %1==DOS goto DONE
if %1==NM echo Normal Mode > d:\dos_util\bootcall.txt
if %1==NM goto DONE
if %1==SM echo Safe Mode > d:\dos_util\bootcall.txt
if %1==SM goto DONE
:BOOBOO
cls
echo You didn't type DOS, NM, or SM to indicate which mode.
:DONE
Later, I added lines to accommodate lowercase commands. I might have
incorporated this file into one of the others that I'm discussing here, but I wanted
it to be available for direct command line use too. In other words, I wanted to

142

have the option of typing BOOT_MGR DOS (or NM, or SM) to prime the pump
for the next reboot, which might not occur until later. (Note the relationship
between this and X-Setup. See point 137(p).) To reduce typing, I created a little
file called BM.BAT whose sole purpose was to run BOOT_MGR. Finally, I
created a BOOT_DOS.BAT file that would tell BOOT_MGR that the system
should reboot in DOS, and then run REBOOTER to restart the computer and let
AUTOEXEC do its thing. BOOT_DOS looked like this:
@echo off
REM This is BOOT_DOS.BAT.
REM This file tells BOOT_MGR to prepare the computer to boot DOS. It
REM also tells REBOOTGO to reboot the system.
call d:\dos_util\boot_mgr.bat DOS
d:\dos_util\rebootgo.bat
(Later, I created a shortcut to BOOT_DOS.BAT and put it on my Shutdown
toolbar. See point 142.) I didn't need to create similar files for booting into
Win98 in Normal Mode or Safe Mode. To make one of them my new default
operating mode, I could type BM NM or BM SM. If I wanted to proceed on into
one of those modes (regardless of which mode was the default), I could just type
WIN (or WIN /D:M) at the command prompt. (See the relevant lines from
AUTOEXEC, above.) Someone said that if you enter Safe Mode this way (by
WIN /D:M), your CD-ROM drivers will be installed. I did not find this to be the
case.
130. Final Touches on a DOS Weekly Maintenance Batch File. So far,
MAINT_WK.BAT was set to do its thing and then stop at a DOS prompt. I
wanted it to return the system to Normal Mode when it was done. For this, I
changed the program's ending from the lines shown above (see point 124) to the
following:
echo.| call scanreg /fix /backup
REM Set up the reboot scenario
echo Normal Mode > d:\dos_util\bootcall.txt
c:\windows\win.com
REM End of file.
The echo thing was there to supply a carriage return, so that SCANREG wouldn't
sit at its final "OK" dialog box, waiting for me to hit the Enter key. The
BOOTCALL line came from BOOT_MGR.BAT. (See point 129.) Once this was

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all taken care of, the only remaining problem regarding MAINT_WK was to
figure out how to get it to run. Task Scheduler would have to trigger a reboot
between 5 and 6 PM on a Wednesday. (See point 124.) Then AUTOEXEC would
call WEEKDAY (see point 126), which would decide whether to call MAINT_WK
or instead to let Windows reboot in Normal Mode. For Task Scheduler to trigger
a reboot on Wednesday at 5 PM, it would need to run REBOOTER. (See point
129.) To make that possible, I went into Windows Explorer, right-clicked on
REBOOTER.BAT, created a shortcut, and set up the options for that shortcut like
I had set up those of the MAINT_WK shortcut. (See point 105(h).) I could have
set the shortcut's Program | Advanced option to "MS-DOS Mode," but then I
realized that this would just make the computer reboot into Win98's DOScompatible mode (i.e., not real DOS), and I had no idea whether REBOOTER
would be able to reboot the computer into real DOS from there. So instead, I
added a warning line to REBOOTER with the PAUSE command. This would
prevent REBOOTER from being an automatic rebooter; so in case I might need
an automatic rebooter, I made a copy of REBOOTER without the PAUSE
command, for immediate rebooting, and called it REBOOTGO. I thought that I
might not need a shortcut to REBOOTER, but I wasn't sure whether Task
Scheduler would run a batch file directly, so I kept the shortcut and told Task
Scheduler to run that at 5:01 PM on Wednesdays. To avoid having it pester me
or interrupt a project underway, I told Task Scheduler not to start it unless the
computer had been idle for at least 15 minutes. While I was in Task Scheduler, I
deleted all the other scheduled tasks that MAINT_WK was replacing. I also
deleted the tasks that MAINTWIN would be replacing, including particularly the
Defragmenter entry that had caused the problem in the first place. (See point
122.)
131. A Win98 Nightly Maintenance Batch File. I had not yet done anything with
MAINTWIN, other than identify its general tasks: kill running programs, start
Defragmenter, and reboot the system so that I would have a fresh start. (See
point 127.) I decided that I could safely kill other tasks if I instructed Task
Scheduler not to start MAINTWIN until after a certain period of inactivity on the
computer. Then MAINTWIN would somehow kill those tasks, run
Defragmenter, and then use REBOOTER to reset a fresh system in Normal Mode.
(See point 128.) But how could MAINTWIN kill running processes? One
possibility would be to use RESTART to do a quick restart of Windows. (See
point 128.) But that would reload and run any program shortcuts I had in my
StartUp folder. I couldn't very well tell my computer to load nothing at startup:
there might be some things, such as my appointment scheduler, that I would
always want to load at bootup except during this overnight maintenance. Again,
I knew there were third-party programs, but I was interested in working out a
Windows-only solution if possible. I went online and got the general message
that this is not something DOS can do. I didn't know if the Windows Scripting

144

Host could do this, but it didn't matter, because I wasn't about to learn how to
use it. See
http://www.zdnet.com/pcmag/pctech/content/17/03/os1703.001.html. I was
tempted to cook up a batch file that would temporarily swap contents out of the
StartUp folder and then back in, but that sounded like a kludge. I decided I
should wait and see what was available in third-party programs for this purpose.
And since I was still working here on a nearly pure Microsoft system, that would
have to wait. (See point 141(k).)
132. CD Backup. By now, it had been a long time since I had last made an image
file to record my progress in this whole process. (See point 116.) I chuckled
when I looked back at that effort: at that time, I had believed that I had done
most of what I could do within the limits of keeping my system limited to
Microsoft programs. It wasn't that I had added major new capabilities; I had just
made a lot more of the available materials. Anyway, to make the image file, I
applied the same technique as before and found that I was getting faster at it.
Altering the order slightly, I began with the Win98 utilities (System File Checker,
Registry Checker, and Defragmenter) before going into real DOS to run
CD_PREP.BAT. This time, ARC_BITS showed perhaps twenty hidden files
whose archive bits needed to be turned off manually. This wasn't a crucial task,
but it was probably more important on this backup than on the previous ones:
this would be the final CD burned from a disk image. After this, I would be
using XCOPY to capture just those files that were new or changed since the date
of this one. Every file with an archive bit on after this would go onto the next
CD; the rest would not. So shutting off the archive bits basically prevented me
from doing a duplicate backup of files that would not in fact have changed
between the date of this CD and the date of the next, supplemental one. I ran a
subset of CD_PREP again, just to be sure I had no files left with archive bits still
on. I ran DriveImage from the floppy with the usual maximum/secure settings.
Despite increasing the number of Registry backups and doing all those tweaks,
the total volume of material backed up had somehow increased by only 5 MB
(see point 116(i)), to 913 MB. (Later, I learned that these backups are kept in
compressed CAB files in C:\WINDOWS\SYSBCKUP. When I looked there, I
saw that the backed-up files -- which included WIN.INI, SYSTEM.INI,
SYSTEM.DAT, and USER.DAT -- were only about 1.3 MB each. Interestingly, I
also saw that, although I had rebooted many times in recent days, the oldest one
dated from more than a week earlier.) The DriveImage file, called
STEP_132.PQI, was 579 MB, so the compression ratio was still 63%. Since the
boot files and DOS utilities (see point 64) took only about 6 MB on the CD, I still
had a great deal of space left on the CD after all -- perhaps as much as 100 MB, if
the 63% compression rate held. So perhaps this would not be the last
DriveImage CD after all. I rebooted to Windows, ran END_LIST, and used

145

Direct Cable Connection to move the resulting file list and the STEP_132.PQI
image file to the AMD machine, where I burned it onto CD.
Installing System Utilities
133. Decision to Install System Utilities. Using Direct Cable Connection, I
brought over a large number of downloaded programs that I had been storing on
the AMD machine. In the spirit of what I had been doing so far, I decided to
keep on installing and configuring tweak-style programs that required little disk
space but a lot of my time. The idea was that if I could get this time-consuming
stuff all squeezed onto the first CD, it might not be such a big deal to install the
rest from CD or other sources if my XCOPY scheme (see point 132) didn't work
out.
134. Programs Not Installed. Here, I decided to start a list of programs that I
was not going to be installing. I planned to continue adding items to this list
throughout the rest of the installation process. Thus, this list is not limited to
system-related programs. The programs and my reasons for not installing were
as follows:
(a) TweakUI. I was going to use X-Setup instead. (See point 117. But see point
145(f).)
(b) mIRC. I had heard that Internet Relay Chat was a great way to get quick tech
support information, but also that IRC opened up a whole new channel for
hackers to attack your system. I really would have liked to use it, but it didn't
seem worth the risk.
(c) ICQ. This was an alternative to IRC; but although it was more instantaneous
and fun, I had found it to be something of a time-waster, with my friends and I
sitting there typing comments to one another -- which was fun, but didn't last
long. Once the novelty wore off, I found myself mostly just disliking the
occasional ways in which ICQ conflicted with other programs, and I really didn't
use it much. E-mail was better than chat, for purposes of composing my
thoughts or thinking through a problem.
(d) PC Magazine's ShutUp. This is a program that shuts down the computer.
(See point 134(l).) It looks good, and it's free, but it doesn't have a command-line
option, and I needed something I could run from a batch file. (See point 134(l).)
(Later, I recalled that this program had the ability to run programs that the user
might want to run at the last minute before shutting down the computer; I think
that by this point I had decided I would rather do such things through batch
files.)

146

(e) CabView and other Cab File Viewers. PowerDesk (see point 135) had this
capability already. Nevertheless, I went for CabWiz because it was small,
simple, and might provide some functionality that I would appreciate when the
crucial moment came. (See point 141(u).) When that didnt work out (see point
166(d)), I decided that PowerDesk and
C:\WINDOWS\COMMANDS\EXTRACT.EXE would probably do the job for
me.
(f) TreeSize. This was a handy little program that installed itself as a context
menu option. Just right-click on a disk or folder and TreeSize calculates how
much space its contents are taking. You can expand the view into subdirectories.
I liked the right-click convenience, but I decided I would rather not have the
extra item on the context menu, because it was one more thing I had to read and
scroll past when I was trying to find the right selection for many other frequent
context menu operations. Instead, I added a shortcut to PowerDesk's Size
Manager program (see point 135), which did the same things in an arguably
better way and gave me one less little utility to install. The other thing to
remember was that, if I selected a bunch of files, I could get their combined space
by right-clicking on one of them and choosing Properties.
(g) Registry Cleaners. I decided against CleanReg because its README.TXT file
indicated that it had been created in September 1996, leaving me to wonder how
it would fare with the Win98 Registry. Similarly, both RegMaid and Registry
Saver 1.2 appeared to have been created in October 1997. In a quick search on
Hotfiles.com, I found precious few Registry cleaners that had been developed
during the past year; most seemed to be much older. Perhaps a more careful
search would find more. Regarding my reasons for rejecting RegClean, see point
139(a).
(h) Process Viewer 2000. ZDNet gave this one four stars -- but gave five stars to
PrcView. (See point 141(f).) A review at
http://www.rocketdownload.com/Details/Util/prcview.htm gave PrcView
"three smileys" out of an unknown total number possible -- the site doesn't seem
to say -- but I suppose the real point is that the reviewer had nothing bad to say
about it. I did experiment briefly with Process Viewer 2000 on the AMD
computer, but found that while it provided a more colorful interface, it also
provided less information and gave me less of a sense of control.
(i) WinKey. I had no problem finding this program: it got four dudes at
FileDudes; four cows at Tucows; etc. I now saw that it relied on the Windows
Key, i.e., the special-purpose key at the lower left corner of newer keyboards.
See http://www.copernic.com/winkey/. I had thought it would allow me to

147

program Ctrl- and Alt- key combinations. One of my two keyboards was old
and did not have the Windows Key. I decided to postpone further consideration
of this program until later, when I might install it on just one machine or might
upgrade my keyboard. Really, I hoped instead to come across a hotkey program
that would let me assign any allowable hotkey and would show me what I (or
my programs) had assigned. Unfortunately, I never came up with a way of
finding a complete listing.
(j) Clipboard Enhancers. I found five free clipboard enhancers that got four or
five stars at ZDNet. They were: AAA (Corsolini); Clip-It!; Clipboard Magic;
Clipboard Pile; and Yankee Clipper Plus. (I did not attempt to do an exhaustive
search; there may have been others.) I wanted, specifically, a clipboard enhancer
that would store graphics and other items as well as text. Since I had previously
tried and failed to get comfortable with two different clipboard enhances, I relied
in part on the ease-of-use description in the reviews at ZDNet. This narrowed
me down to two options: the four-star Clipboard Pile, which could handle BMP
graphics and perhaps others but which did not have the greatest documentation;
or the five-star, easy-to-use Clipboard Magic, which unfortunately (like all the
others) could handle only text. I decided to start with Clipboard Pile. (See point
141(h).) Another approach would have been to obtain QUIKTRAY.EXE from the
Resource Kit folder on the Windows 98 CD (see point 119(a)) and use that to
create a constantly available icon in the system tray for a text file in which I could
put notes. For my purposes, Clipboard Pile turned out to be superior because I
did not have to drag or paste anything; it went into the "clipboard pile" as soon
as I marked and copied it. Later, I found problems with Clipboard Pile. (See
point 315.)
(k) ShortCutter 2.0. The purpose of this program is to look for and remove
broken links among files. The README file left me totally in the dark, and when
I ran it briefly on the AMD computer, it seemed to be asking me if I wanted to
delete various Windows system folders! Or perhaps "seemed to" is the wrong
phrasing: when I killed the program, I got several error messages telling me that
Win98 would not allow me to delete this or that system folder! I could only
wonder what the program had deleted without my knowing about it. Maybe I
misunderstood the program; but if not, this is the worst piece of software I have
seen in a long time.
(l) Auto-Shutdown Programs. I considered Exits 95/98 by Moon in June
Software because it was a five-star free download at Hotfiles.com with
command-line abilities. (See point 134(d).) Others I was considering included
AutoExit, Log Me Out, KillWin, and JustExit. Ultimately, I found better
programs to shut down programs that were in use (see point 141(g)), as distinct
from shutting down the computer itself (see point 128).

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(m) PC Magazine's RunPlus. It looked like I was going to be able to get the
features of this program through a collection of other programs and techniques
described in this document.
(q) Screen Capture Software. On the AMD machine, I had used the free version
of HyperSnap. It had worked OK, but had inserted a "Free Version" notice in the
upper left corner of each image. I can't believe I didn't know this, but it was also
possible to use PrintScreen to capture the entire screen to the clipboard. (I had
yet to experiment with capturing multiple screens to Clipboard Pile. See point
141(h).) I had some trouble with this at first, and maybe that's why I hadn't used
it previously. On my keyboard, the PrintScreen key also had SysRq on it.
PrintScreen was above SysRq, so it looked like you had to use the Shift key to use
PrintScreen. Anyway, when I just hit the key by itself, it worked. I found that I
couldn't paste the image into the Photo Editor program that came with Windows
98 or Office 97, but I could paste it into the free Paint program. They said I could
also paste it into Word or WordPad. The other thing was that they said I could
use Alt-PrintScreen to capture the active window only, instead of the whole
screen.
(r) Connection Keepers. The other part of the download story was keeping your
connection alive while programs were downloading. Maybe Go!Zilla (see point
156(c)) took care of that while it was downloading -- I wasn't too sure about that - but there were times when Go!Zilla wouldn't work. An example would be
downloading Windows updates: the Microsoft site took control of the process
and there wasn't really an opportunity for a third-party utility like Go!Zilla to
stick its nose in there. ZDNet gave Internet Loafer five stars, but it was
shareware; it gave Connection Keeper four stars, but that was shareware too; it
gave Keep It Alive three stars, and it was freeware, but it only pinged one site,
and I suspected that my ISP's eager shutdown software would find something
fishy about that sort of arrangement. So I gave up on this category of software,
at least for now.
(s) Ferret User Power Pack. This was a five-star, 5 MB download that contained a
half-dozen highly rated online tools. These ferrets, which I had not previously
used, were supposedly very good at finding information in different ways, using
multiple search engines for general searches on the Web (WebFerret) or in
newsgroups (NewsFerret), for specific searches within categories (InfoFerret), to
find e-mail addresses (EmailFerret) or phone numbers (PhoneFerret) or IRC
addresses (IRCFerret), or to locate specific files online (FileFerret). I did install
them, although I wasn't sure I needed or wanted them all. I could have installed
them individually. What turned me against them as a group was the absence of
support for Boolean searches. (See point 156(b).) So I uninstalled them.

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(t) Dial-Up Networking (DUN) Enhancements. Dunce (Dial-Up Networking


Connection Enhancement) was supposed to aid in connecting to your ISP, but I
didn't really need that help. It also offered the ability to connect and disconnect
at preset times, but I believed I was going to be able to do that on my own, in
ways that would fit better with my system as I was setting it up. ZDNet gave
Dunce four stars; they gave NetLaunch three. The latter sounded simpler and
not without its virtues, but I didn't see that I needed it either. Later, I changed
my mind on this. (See point 272.)
(u) PC Magazines LFNDir. This program sounded useful -- to be able to do a
DOS-style DIR listing that would show long filenames -- but when I tried to use
it, it informed me that it did not support FAT32 disks -- which is, of course,
precisely the format that Win98 prefers to use.
(v) TweakBIOS. As I learned from this programs homepage at
www.miro.pair.com/tweakbios/, this program came in both freeware and
shareware versions. The freeware version would not allow you to save your
changes. Thus, you would have to reconfigure your BIOS settings after each
reboot. Registration cost $20. I had heard about this program often enough to
suspect that it might really improve performance. Unfortunately, given the
magnitude of this project already, I decided that it belonged in the same category
as overclocking. (See point 288.) That is, it was something that would yield a
faster computer if I wished to devote the time, but it would do so at the expense
of stability and might not yield enough time savings to justify the time invested.
(w) AirEase. The purpose of this program was to track frequent flier mileage.
The idea was that you would enter your miles into the program, and the
program would then tell you how you were doing in light of the latest news
from the various airlines. How would your copy of AirEase get the latest news?
You would download the latest update of the program. How old was the latest
revision of the program, at the time when I considered installing it? Not quite a
year old. Not too impressive.
(x) File List Printing Programs. PowerDesk would allow me to print a list of
some or all files in a folder. (See point 135.) Also, the DOS command DIR would
allow me to print lists of files, for directories and subdirectories, in a wide variety
of formats. (For examples, see the DIR commands used in point 88.) In any
event, I rarely needed printed lists of files. For all these reasons, I did not install
software dedicated to the task of printing file lists.

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Obviously, I did not attempt to list every program in the world that I decided
against. The foregoing list merely discusses some that I had used or at least had
considered seriously.
135. PowerDesk 98. I had found the Mijenix PowerDesk program to contain
many useful tools. (See point 70.) It had won many awards and I could not be
certain that any of my previous concerns were really its fault. (See points 25 and
74.) Anyway, I needed an unzipper before I could install these other programs
that I was about to install, and PowerDesk had one. So I went ahead with it.
Before installing, I ran PartitionMagic for just a moment and got an indication
that I had used 608 MB on drive C and 309 MB on drive D. After installing from
the CD, I rebooted to make sure the program was happy with its new home, and
then installed an update that I had downloaded previously. Then I went back
into PartitionMagic and saw that the amount on C had not changed, but I was
now using 327 MB on D. I had used 18 MB; I still had room for a lot more before
burning another CD. I went into PowerDesk and configured its options to suit
me. For the toolbar, in particular, I decided to show these buttons:
collapse/expand drives and folders, view single and dual (horizontal and
vertical) panes, filter, swap panes, empty recycle bin, open DOS window, go up
one level, go back and forward, find, compare folders, synchronize folders,
create folder and shortcut, show command line, associate file, select, print file
and print list of files, set file date/time, encrypt/decrypt, and set viewer pane
options. Mijenix had mailed me a floppy that would enable DES encryption,
which apparently is a lot more powerful; I loaded this as well. Subsequently,
when installing programs, I decided that PowerDesk was more of a "running
program" than Windows Explorer had been, so I tried to be more careful to shut
it down when installing software that told me to shut down all working
programs; that had never seemed like an issue with Windows Explorer, although
perhaps it should have. (Note: PowerDesk lacks an Address toolbar option. See
point 141(c).) I also set up a separate icon to run the Size Manager utility that
came with PowerDesk. (See point 134(f).)
136. Microsoft Visual Basic Runtime. I had downloaded some utilities from the
WinMag.com site one time, and some of those utilities required this program in
order to run. I had downloaded this program, and now I double-clicked on the
EXE file. It gave a momentary dialog box indicating that it was copying some
files to somewhere, but I couldn't tell exactly where. I looked in Control Panel |
Add/Remove Programs and didn't see anything listed. I didn't know what that
meant.
137. X-Setup: Plug-Ins. The X-Setup page said that a half-million people had
downloaded it. See http://www.xteq.com/main.html. The first thing I noticed
was that, unlike TweakUI (which Microsoft refused to support), there seemed to

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be a currently active support area at Xteq. See


http://www.xteq.com/support/index.html. Their awards page was quite
impressive: five stars at Hotfiles, six ducks at Nonags, etc. See
http://www.xteq.com/products/xset/awards.html. I downloaded X-Setup and
a bunch of plug-ins and related files, and then wondered how to make it all
work. I started by unzipping and installing the XQ-XSETUP.ZIP file. At 3 MB,
this program was already a lot larger than TweakUI. (See point 117.) The XSetup READ-ME file told me that I needed some Microsoft scripting files, but
that I already had those if I had Win98. As with PowerDesk and other programs
mentioned above, I told the program to install on drive D (PROGRAMS) rather
than on C (WIN98). I had downloaded about twenty add-ins from the X-Setup
site, and now I started through the list. As I unzipped them, I saw that some
required a separate installation, and others just required me to move their
contents (usually an XPL file) to the Plugins subfolder under my X-Setup folder
on D. Some of these programs were add-ons that didn't seem to have a lot to do
with X-Setup which, to my knowledge, was a system utility kind of program like
TweakUI. An example was XShooter, which had no purpose other than let you
set up your computer (or someone else's) so that each time they click on their
screen, an imitation gunshot goes off and a "hole" appears in the page where they
were clicking. A better example might be URL Bandit, which scans every page
you work on and copies URLs from it, so you can have them for reference later.
(I thought this might be useful for those times when I was pursuing something
useful online and suddenly Internet Explorer or Windows Explorer would crash;
but I wouldn't have installed it at this point if it hadn't been affiliated with XSetup.) Some of my downloads said that they would not run without Visual
Basic; the purposes of some were unclear; and when I tried to get back to
www.xteq.com to figure out why I had downloaded them, I found that their
server wasn't functioning. So after a couple of false starts, I decided that I really
should install only the add-ins that I could understand and see some need for.
Apparently X-Setup was a sort of programmer's development environment, or a
mini-operating system, or something more than just a system tweaker. When I
had done what I was going to do with these additional downloads, I started XSetup. It had a Windows Explorer type of interface. Its status bar told me that it
now contained 254 plug-ins with 655 items, 32 wizards with 148 linked plug-ins,
and 27 tools. I went to the top item on the list and hit Shift-* (that's shift-asterisk
on the numeric keypad, a nifty little trick I had just learned while browsing
through endless Win98 tweak websites; it isn't necessary in most cases when
you've got PowerDesk's Expand option (see point 135), but of course I couldn't
use PowerDesk inside X-Setup), and that expanded the entire list of plug-ins.
And now, as I went down through the list of plug-ins, I began to see why people
were so excited about it. The plug-ins that I used, or thought I might use in the
future, were as follows:

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(a) Appearance: Context Menu: Drive Commands. Add one or two commands
to the right-click context menu. These appear only if you right-click a drive. See
paragraph (d), below.
(b) Appearance: Control Panel: General Icons. Display or hide icons. (See point
120(x).)
(c) Appearance: Desktop: Icons. Change or remove names of icons on desktop.
Hide stubborn desktop icons. Add icons to desktop (e.g., Control Panel -- see
point 112(e)).
(d) Appearance: Explorer: Context Menu. Enable QuickView for any file.
Enable "Open With" for any file. (Then I decided not to use this, on the grounds
that I didn't need another item cluttering my right-click context menu and I
knew I could get "Open With" by selecting a file and then using Shift-Right-Click
on it.) Enable DOS Prompt Here for Directories (i.e., you can right-click on a
folder and open a DOS window where the command prompt will be prepositioned at that folder). Add two commands to the context menu for any file
or folder in Windows Explorer.
(e) Appearance: Explorer: Files. Set up to two programs to open DOC files by
default. (This seems inferior to the approach described in point 120(m),
however.) Display CPL files as icon (i.e., have WinEx show the icons that appear
inside the Control Panel).
(f) Appearance: Explorer: Options. Enable fast update. Wrap long icon titles.
(g) Appearance: General: Cool Switch (display more icons when coolswitching);
Effects (set width of borders around windows, enable smooth scrolling, disable
taskbar zoom).
(h) Appearance: Start Menu: Options (disable adding documents to Recent
Documents list -- see point 120(i) -- and set Menu Reaction Speed to 150) ; Visible
Items (hide Favorites, Documents, Log Off, etc. in Start Menu).
(i) Hardware: Modem. Speed up COM ports.
(j) Internet: DUN (set TTL to 64, IPMTU to 576, COM Boost to 2); Internet
Explorer (Appearance: Window Title: change to a single underscore; also clear
typed URLs); Nuke Protection.
(k) Network: Login (change picture shown when booting Windows); Logoff
(enable fast shutdown).

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(l) Program Options: Notepad (enable default word-wrap); Office 97 (enable


quick scrolling in Word).
(m) System: File System: Folders: Data: General (relocate Internet Explorer
Favorites to E:\Favorites, IE downloads to E:\Temp); Media Folders (put
graphics files in E:\Graphics); Office 97 Folders (put Word 97 Clipart in
E:\Graphics\Office 97 Clipart) (see point 76); Program Files Folder (tell
programs to use D:\Program Files). I would still have to move the Clipart to the
new folder manually. That task posed some difficulties. (See point 138(b).)
(n) System: File System: Folders: System: Windows Folder. Set your Setup
folder (e.g., C:\WIN98 -- see point 31), your StartUp folder (see point 42), and
your Temporary Internet Files location (see point 38)). Options: File Allocation
Cache (reduce fragmentation by setting a large cache if you work with large
files).
(o) System: Timeouts: AutoEnd Programs (so hung programs can't keep
Windows from shutting down).
(p) System: Windows 95/98 Boot Options: Advanced Options II: Set the boot
menu -- the one that you get when you hit F8 at startup -- to be displayed for a
certain number of seconds at startup; then tell it which mode (e.g., Command
line) to use. The only setting I changed was to set Def Menu Display for 2
seconds, just in case I had forgotten to run BM with the preferred mode. (See
point 129.) This did not work on my machine. (See point 138(a).)
(r) Others that I found interesting but did not plan to use included these:
Appearance: Desktop: ToolTips (put whatever you want your pop-up ToolTip
to say when you point your mouse cursor at a desktop item); Appearance:
Explorer: Shortcuts (hide the little arrows that appear by default on shortcuts, or
the words "Shortcut to ..."); Appearance: General: Effects (cursor blink rate);
Software: Accessories (clear recent file lists for Wordpad, Photo Editor, etc.);
System: Misc: Windows PID (tells you your Windows product ID number);
System: Startup: AutoRun Services (lets you delete LoadPowerProfile and
SchedulingAgent, which run automatically when you start up; I wanted to use
PC Magazines Start Manager instead (see point 158(b)); System: User Data: MS
Setup Default Names (change your user name) and Windows Update
Registration (set your system so that it appears to be registered, for purposes of
using Windows Update online);

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138. X-Setup Troubleshooting. X-Setup seemed to work, but I had a few kinks to
work out. Some developed immediately, and some came up later. They were as
follows:
(a) General Observations. I discovered, when I was partway through, that I
could have turned on Record Mode to keep track of all these changes and make
them automatically if I needed to do this over again. I made all my changes at
once, without rebooting, and then rebooted once to make them all happen at the
same time. That seemed riskier than doing them one at a time, but it was a lot
faster, and I figured if it trashed the Registry, I wouldn't have used up all my
good backup copies in the process. (Note: you don't have to shut off everything
that's checked in X-Setup. Checkmarks and blanks apply only when you hit the
"Apply Changes" button.) After rebooting, I noticed that the instruction to show
the boot menu for two seconds (see paragraph (p)) did not work (which was
perhaps not surprising, given X-Setup's notice that some such items might not
work in Win98), but there were fewer icons on the desktop and fewer options on
the Start menu, so that was good. Having gone down the long list of plug-ins, I
went through X-Setup's Wizards, but I quickly concluded that they just
presented another way to step through the same options as I had just gotten by
going down the tree view.
(b) Moving the Clipart Folder. A long time before, I had gotten a bit spooked
when moving the Clipart folder had seemed to cause problems. (See point 76.) I
still wasn't eager to go moving Office 97 folders around. But I did like the idea of
having my clipart concentrated in one place, so that all kinds of programs (not
just Office 97) could use it. So I had decided to try again, using X-Setup to move
it. (See point 137(m).) Unfortunately, this did not seem to work. X-Setup's
function here seemed to be limited to telling Word where to look for its clipart.
It did succeed in doing that much. I went into Word's
Tools | Options | File Locations screen and saw that, sure enough, Word was
indeed supposed to be looking, now, for clipart in the E:\Graphics\Office 97
Clipart folder that I had just created. To complete the transition, X-Setup had
told me that I had to move the actual files myself. But from where? When I did a
search, I found that Office 97 had put clipart in two different places, namely,
C:\Program Files\Common Files\Microsoft Shared\Clipart and D:\Program
Files\Microsoft Office\Clipart. Which one was linked with Word 97? To find
out, I copied the contents of both of those existing Clipart folders into my new
E:\Graphics\Office 97 Clipart folder, and then I moved the contents of both of
those folders to D:\Temp. I rebooted (see paragraph (c), below) and went into
Word, but now it failed to find any Clipart. I restored everything back to
C:\Program Files\Common Files\Microsoft Shared\Clipart, but not to the
clipart folder that had been on drive D, and tried again in Word. That did it. So
the C location was the one with the Word clipart files. Why hadn't Word found

155

the clipart I had moved to E? I removed the clipart from the C folder back to
D:\Temp again, double-checked the setting in X-Setup, and rebooted. Still no
luck. I went online for guidance and got the impression that, as I had feared, the
C folder was a central clipart place for other Microsoft programs in addition to
Word. I put the contents back into the C and D folders as they had been
originally, deleted the E folder, and quit while I was ahead.
(c) No More Shutdown? The first time I tried to reboot after making my changes
in X-Setup (see paragraph (b), above), I found that I had accidentally removed
the Shut Down option from the Start menu. Then I decided that was not a
problem, since I had intended to set up some shortcuts for my six
reboot/shutdown batch programs (REBOOTER, REBOOTGO, RESTART,
SHUTDOWN, WINDOSBT, and FORCBOOT) anyway, and would prefer to use
them. (See point 128(d).) I decided they had to go into an item in the Links
toolbar, because that was the only toolbar that would allow them to appear on a
pull-down menu. (See point 109(g).) Another option would have been to put
them onto the Start menu somehow, but I didn't know how to do that. I couldn't
just put them into a folder on some other toolbar, because opening that folder
and then clicking on one of these shutdown options might close down the
machine with the folder still open. Sometimes Windows remembered that
folders were open and recreated them on reboot, and I didn't want that to
happen. For the details on this "fix" for the problem created by X-Setup, see
point 142.
(d) Nonworking Control Panel Icon. The Control Panel icon that X-Setup had
placed on the desktop (see point 137(c)) did not work when I double-clicked on
it. I went back into X-Setup, changed this item back the way it had been, and
reinstalled the Control Panel shortcut that I had placed there previously. (See
point 112(e).) This was better anyway, because I had noticed that my desktop
folder on my right-edge toolbar had not shown the Control Panel icon that XSetup had created, presumably because it was no longer behaving like an icon
that I had added to the desktop. (See point 120(ac).)
139. Registry Cleaners. I had previously rejected Microsoft's RegClean in favor
of Microsoft's ScanReg. (See point 119(d).) ScanReg had now become a part of
my regular system maintenance program. (See point 124.) While researching the
issue of Registry cleaning, I had heard about and downloaded several other
programs. The idea seemed to be that the Registry could be huge and complex,
and that it took several different Registry cleaners, each with its own special kind
of competence, to do a really good job of cleaning up the Registry.
(a) RegClean. I had previously installed RegClean, but had decided that ScanReg
was the better solution. (See point 119(d).) Now I decided to remove RegClean.

156

This should have been simpler than I made it. The ReadMe.txt file contained no
information on uninstalling, and I didn't see an entry for RegClean in Control
Panel | Add/Remove Programs. Not thinking, I clicked on the file in the
RegClean folder called "Undo PENTIUM 200000128 ..." (a long number). It asked
me if I wanted to restore the information to the Registry. I couldn't imagine why
it was asking me to restore stuff when I was trying to uninstall, i.e., remove, but
since it was four in the morning and I was not entirely awake I said sure, go for
it. As soon as I did, I realized that this was probably a file containing the bad
entries that RegClean had previously gleaned from the Registry. Oops.
RegClean itself, I decided, had never really been "installed" in the first place; it
was just a standalone program that sat on my disk until I felt like running it. So
now I figured I could delete it just as easily, just by wiping out its folder. So
that's what I did.
(b) EasyCleaner 1.71. Unlike most freeware Registry cleaners (see point 134(g)),
this one seemed to be actively maintained. See
http://www.saunalahti.fi/tonihele/. It was recommended by the people at
Tweak3D. (See point 119(d).) Also, in a Deja.com search for "best Registry
cleaner," it came up more than any other except possibly RegClean. (Another
recommended one was Fix-It by Mijenix, the same people who made
PowerDesk, but I didn't feel like paying if I could do the job with good freeware.
Also, there were some complaints that made Fix-It sound a little like Norton's
CrashGuard, which got a lot of bad reactions from users.) I downloaded and
installed EasyCleaner and, now that I had perhaps accidentally reinstalled a
bunch of junk that RegClean had previously removed, I ran EasyCleaner to see
how I liked it. Doing so also seemed timely because, before I had begun fooling
with RegClean as just described, PowerDesk had crashed for some reason. I ran
the Registry Checker to make a backup of the Registry, but it told me that one
had already been made today, and I didn't see much reason to add a confusing
backup of the current, potentially bad Registry to my set of good Registry
backups. (See point 120(an).) Before I had thought of that, I had hit Start | Run
| SCANREG /BACKUP, which also presumably gave me a backup, although at
this point I was not yet certain how to check my list of Registry backup files. (See
point 145(p).) Anyway, in EasyCleaner I started with the Clean Registry button.
It did its thing and reported that I had 172 invalid references. Some of them, I
could plainly see, were references to files that no longer existed. So I hit Select
All and then Delete. Next, I ran the Duplicate Files test. (Note that you can go
into Options to tell the program how it should define "duplicate.") In this case, it
didn't find any that surprised me, but I also knew there were some programs in
my DOS_UTIL folder (see point 64) that were older versions of some files on
C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND and were probably not advisable for use under
Win98, so I went into DOS_UTIL, zipped the obsolete programs, and made
subfolders for some of the others. Next, I ran EasyCleaner's search for

157

Unnecessary Files. It found eighteen. Most were TMP and BAK files, which I
didn't mind deleting. I selected all and then unselected three or four files that I
wasn't so sure I was ready to delete -- especially including two with archive bits
(N.B.: this cool program actually showed those bit settings) that had been set just
since the time when I had last shut them all off. (See point 132.)
140. Fifty Best Freeware Programs. A discussion on alt.comp.freeware at the
end of 1999 came up with a list of the 50 best freeware programs. See
http://www.deja.com/getdoc.xp?AN=566474443&fmt=text. This was hardly an
authoritative source, but I found it interesting. I added two items suggested later
in that discussion and then reduced the list, for my purposes, as follows:
(a) Eliminated because I already had installed, or soon would be installing,
something that worked well enough for my purposes: Best picture file viewer:
IRFANVIEW. Best Text Editor: NOTEPAD+/NOTETAB LITE/STRATUSPAD.
Best graphics editor: THE GIMP. Best newsreader: FREE AGENT. Best email
client: PEGASUS (big) or FOXMAIL (small). Best calendar maker: DAYSEASE
(on disk) CALENDAR CREATOR (on site). Best Registry cleaner: EASY
CLEANER. Best duplicate file finder: EASY CLEANER/DUPELESS. Best archive
utility: EASYZIP2000 / ZIPCENTRAL. Best HTML Editor: ARACHNOPHILIA
(text) XSITE (wysiwyg). Also noteworthy 1STPAGE2000 (ONLY IF you run
Internet Explorer). Best anti-virus: INOCULATEIT PE. Best spreadsheet:
SPHYGMIC SPREADSHEET/STAR OFFICE. Best disk space information tool:
TREESIZE/DISKDATA/STATS99. Best OCR: WOCAR. Best encryption utility:
CITADEL SAFSTORE. Best Word Processor:
WORDWRIGHT/XPERTWORD/STAR OFFICE. Best CD burning utility:
EASYCDPRO 95. Best disk/directory synchronization: MEHUL'S
BACKUP/SYNCHRONIZE IT!. Best disk/file wiper: BCWIPE. Best Mouse
Enhancement: COOL MOUSE 97. (See point 286.)
(b) Eliminated because I didnt want or need such programs: Best translator:
ALTAVISTA (online) DICTIONARY2000 (on disk). Best screensaver maker:
FLASHER (on disk) ALCYONE (to send to others). Best family tree maker:
KINDRED CONNECTIONS. Best CAD program: CADSTD. Best Bible:
THEOPHILOUS (huge) BIBLE PLUS (small). Best chat/on-line tool: ICQ. Best
currency converter: CURRENCY CONVERTER. Best Desktop Security: BLACK
SCREEN/DESKTOP ENFORCER. Best disk/file explorer: FMEDIT98/WINKEY.
Best File Splitter: CHAINSAW/SPLITIT95.
(c) System-Related Programs to Consider Now: Best program installation
monitor: INCTRL4. (See point 141(d).) Best free clipboard-extender: YANKEE
CLIPPER. (See point 134(j).)

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(d) Postponed for Later Consideration, Internet-Related: Best at sharing internet


connection: WINGATE. (Turned out to be designed for networked computers.)
Best Freeware Site : Son Of Spy/Freewarehome. (I tended to use Hotfiles
because they rated the programs, as did Tucows and some others.) Best web
search utility: COPERNIC99. (See point 156(b).) Best netsurfing speed-up etc.:
NAVISCOPE/ISPEED. (See point 156(d).) Best free download aid:
OCTOPUS/GET RIGHT (freeware version). (See point 156(c).) Best webpage
spam & content filter: PROXOMITRON/WEBWASHER. (See point 156(e).) Best
DUN application: NETLAUNCH. (See point 134(t).)
(e) Postponed for Later Consideration, for Graphics Work: Best thumbnail
maker: IRFANVIEW/MY THUMBS. Best graphics button & title maker: DD
TITLE. Best diagram and chart drawing tool: GRIDS. Best screen capture:
PRINTKEY/HARDCOPY. Best image gallery website creator: IMAGEJEN. (See
point 224(i).)
(f) Postponed for Later Consideration, Productivity Division: Best information
management: SKWYRUL PRO/FUNNELVISION. Best lightweight
organizer/PIM: DIGITA ORGANIZER. Best versatile PIM/Organizer/planner:
SIDEKICK95/HJTREEPAD/COMMENCE. Best time/project manager:
MYOCLOCKER/DONE2000. Best planner: SPHYGMIC PLANNER. (Later, I
decided that I probably had the software that I needed along these lines, at least
for the present.)
(g) Postponed Until I Could Figure Out What They Were or for Other Reasons:
Best setup/installation builder: GKSETUP. (Turned out to be for programmers.)
Best cataloguer: CATFISH. (Later found that ZDNet gave it two stars out of five
and only reported 573 downloads.) Best free astronomy prg: ADASTRA. (See
point 159(a).)
141. Assorted System Utilities. In the effort to squeeze as much as possible into a
basic Windows system CD, I decided to install a bunch of minor utilities that
have been useful and didn't seem likely to take up too much space. I began with
a couple that had been on my mind, and then took care of the system-related
freeware programs recommended in point 140(c). The programs I installed were
as follows:
(a) PC Magazine's MultiRen. This handy little free download had been quite
useful for me. I didn't know if its command syntax was the best in the world, but
there were really only three or four things to learn, and once you got onto it, this
was an excellent way to rename multiple files with a right-click.

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(b) PC Magazine's ImgView. I did a search for TIF, GIF, and JPG files, rightclicked on one of each, and chose QuickView. It worked for two out of three, but
for the GIF file I got the message, "There is no viewer capable of viewing GIF
Image files." The readme file for ImgView told me that it might be able to detect
whether there was a viewer already installed for a given file type. I installed
ImgView according to instructions. All boxes were checked, indicating that there
were no QuickView viewers for any of the formats that ImgView covered (i.e.,
GIF, JPG, PCD, PCX, PNG, TGA, and TIF). I installed them all. I tested
QuickView on GIF, TIF, and JPG files, and it worked on all.
(c) GO.BAT. Not really a system utility, but it is relevant now because, now that
I had installed PowerDesk, I had quick access to a command line, just by clicking
the Command Line button on the PowerDesk toolbar as I had customized it.
(See point 135.) With a command line, the quickest way to load Internet Explorer
and reach websites whose names came readily to mind (like Hotfiles.com) was to
prepare GO.BAT and run it. GO contained this one line: START
HTTP://WWW.%1.COM. The "%1" was a variable, a placeholder for whatever
you type after the word GO on the command line. So now it was just GO
HOTFILES to get the Hotfiles website. I believe Internet Explorer provides a
similar function; the advantage here is that you don't even have to have IE
running: GO.BAT itself will start IE and then search for the website.
(d) PC Magazines InCtrl4. It seemed like high time to learn how to use a
program that would monitor the actions taken during the installation of various
programs, so that I could roll them back without having to wipe my hard disk
and begin again with the most recent CD backup I had made. This was the
purpose of PC Magazine's InCtrl4. I installed it and set its default paths to
E:\Temp for reports and H:\Temp for temporary files. It seemed that, basically,
if you wanted it to track an installation, you had to enter the installation file
name in InCtrl4 and let the installation proceed through it. I felt that I might do
this only for some programs. First, if I was installing a major program, I needed
to keep on my newfound attitude of researching the program before installing it,
as I was now doing with everything. If I had done that with the
Norton/Symantec programs that had caused me problems, I might have thought
twice before installing them, or at least might then have felt that it was important
to use InCtrl4 and install nothing else for a while afterwards. Second, if it was a
minor program that people swore by -- such as, for instance, a program from this
list of fifty best freeware programs -- and if it also had good reviews from CNET,
Tucows, ZDNet, or some other similar establishment, I might not worry as much
about installing it through an uninstaller, although it might still be easy and
wise. Third, I probably wouldn't bother doing this with programs that I had
already used for some time. Fourth, I was not going to jump through a lot of
hoops for programs that I was installing shortly after having made a DriveImage

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image file and burning a CD that I could easily use to put me back together if
things did go wrong. PC Mag did not rate its own programs, and I could not
find other reviews of it, but newsgroup comments led me to think that it would
be stable and useful. For example, one person mentioned using it to find files
that had changed when s/he rebooted, and said that it found files that had
changed that Win98's file finder did not report until s/he got down to the
particular folder where the changed file was located. Basically, InCtrl4 was
supposedly able to monitor the execution of any software function. For a
description of my first use of InCtrl4, see the following paragraph. Later, I found
a suggestion for a partial alternative to InCtrl4 that would work when InCtrl4
wasn't active. (See point 149.) Another manual alternative involved looking at
the INF file that accompanied a program that you were about to install; the
AddReg= and DelReg= lines in that file apparently told you what lines were
going to be added to or deleted from the Registry. I also found that GoBack
made InCtrl4 unnecessary for many purposes. (See point 236.) And one time
when I tried using InCtrl4 just to see if a program made Registry changes, it gave
me an Invalid file error. (See point 240.)
(e) Clean System Directory. This free download (CLNSYS.EXE) was a highly
recommended utility for removing unused DLL files which, if numerous, could
take up space and slow the system down. The program would search to see
which programs might be using a DLL and if it found none, it would move the
DLL into temporary storage for later deletion. It apparently focused only on
DLLs in C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM. To test InCtrl4, I used it during both the
installation and the first run of Clean System Directory. I set it to give a "Disk
contents comparison," which I gathered would be the most thorough report of
what had happened during the installation of Clean System Directory. InCtrl4
slowed down the installation quite a bit -- or so I assume, from the fact that it
took nearly a minute before it even showed me the first installation screen for
Clean System Directory; and it also required maybe two minutes afterwards to
complete its report. InCtrl4 also seemed to have detected the fact that I opened a
DOS box during the installation. I say that because, after the installation had
finished and I had clicked the "Install Complete" button in InCtrl4, it told me that
it was tracking an install program that still seemed to be running. (I opened the
DOS box to copy and paste the full pathname for the folder where I wanted to
install Clean System Directory. I opened a DOS box for this purpose because I
suddenly discovered that PowerDesk, unlike Windows Explorer, did not have an
Address box that I could click on to retrieve this pathname quickly, so I used
PowerDesk's right-click "DOS Prompt Here" option to get the DOS box opened at
the right folder quickly. But now it seemed that my installation report would be
a little fogged up by this extraneous activity going on during the install. When
InCtrl4 was ready, it gave me a "Report Preview" which turned out to contain the
full report. The report said, in brief, that the installation had added one Registry

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key value, changed 14 others, added 16 files and directories, and changed 11 preexisting files. The report had its interesting parts; for example, I had to wonder
why Clean System Directory would change the Office 97 PowerPoint INI
(initialization) file. (There might be a good reason; it just seemed funny.) The
report was saved as a small (3K) file in E:\Temp (see previous paragraph), so I
guess I could have used it to go back and undo the changes. I was not sure about
that, though: it did report what the previous Registry values were and what
they were changed to, but of course it did not report the changes made to those
11 pre-existing files, so I really have no idea whether I could go back and make,
say, the PowerPoint INI file what it used to be. For purposes of program
installation, InCtrl4 seemed mostly informational. If this were more of a concern,
I thought it would be tempting to find out whether, say, the EasyUninstall 2000
program by Mijenix (the people who make PowerDesk -- see point 135) would
do a better job. I decided that, if I were planning to buy another utility suite
now, I'd probably give their new 2000 suite ($60) a whirl. Anyway, it was
somewhat helpful to have the list of folders that had been created or changed,
because it turned out that the Clean System Directory installation interface -which had indeed looked a lot like it was designed for Windows 3.1 -- had not
been able to handle the long directory filenames that I had typed into it, and had
therefore instead installed itself into a new folder called
D:\PROGRAM\SYSTEM U\MISCELLA\CLEAN SY. Time to uninstall! Clean
System Directory didn't have its own uninstaller, so I turned to the one in
Control Panel | Add/Remove Programs. (The InCtrl4 log file was handy here,
because it told me that the Registry had indeed been changed and therefore I
couldn't get away with just deleting the newly installed program files, like I
might have done with e.g., a DOS batch file.) Unfortunately, it didn't show any
record of an installation by Clean System Directory. So how was I supposed to
uninstall the thing? I rebooted and took another look and no, it definitely wasn't
in Add/Remove Programs. There were no uninstall instructions in the
documents accompanying the program. I decided the best approach would be to
delete the wrongly named folder and try again with a DOS-friendly folder name,
hoping that the second installation would cancel out or fix whatever had
happened during the first. I got the reminder that this deletion could impact one
or more registered programs, but I went ahead with it. I rebooted and
reinstalled Clean System Directory. This time, I did it without running InCtrl4.
To get the right DOS-compatible path name, I went to a DOS box and typed DIR
/Z, and then copied and pasted that into the Clean System Directory installation
window. When the installation was done, I looked again in Add/Remove
Programs, and saw that Clean System Directory and CLNSYS etc. still weren't
listed. Whatever. On to the first run of CLNSYS. I ran it through InCtrl4. Only
now, as I was using Start | Programs, did I see that Clean System Directory had
indeed given me an "Uninstall" icon there; I had only looked in the program's
folder on drive D. Oops. Anyway, I started InCtrl4 and told it that the Install

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Program was the same as the program listed as "Target" when I right-clicked on
the Clean System Directory icon in Start | Programs and looked at its Properties.
Clean System Directory ran; it was sort of interesting to watch it count and
examine DLLs; and when it was done, five or ten minutes later, it told me that it
had found that 19 DLLs, occupying 2.8 MB, appeared to be unused. For four of
them, it was able to provide a description. Two of those descriptions involved
Visual Basic. I had downloaded and installed that runtime module in order to
run certain software. (See point 136.) Evidently I hadn't actually installed
anything yet that needed the module, but I figured I probably would a bit later. I
certainly wasn't ready to have its DLLs archived. I saw that two other DLLs also
had names beginning, like these, with the letters "vb" which told me that there
might be other Visual Basic DLLs here. I decided to cancel out of Clean System
Directory and to postpone further use of it until I had a pretty stable and
established system that had been working for a while. I told InCtrl4 that the
"install" was complete, and it prepared its report. It said that the process of
running Clean System Directory had added one Registry key value and had
changed one file. This wasn't too exciting, so I decided I probably wouldn't use
InCtrl4 for this kind of tracking on a regular basis.
(f) PrcView. This program came highly rated. (See point 134(h).) It was
designed to show all processes currently running on the computer, and to give
you the option of shutting them down. (Note: I found that the Resource Kit
Book Online did not define process in its Glossary.) PrcView got five stars at
ZDNet, and I thought it might be useful at times. Plus, it was very small.
Another important plus: it came with a command line version called PV.EXE.
(See point 153.) There was no installation process; I just moved the unzipped
files to a new D:\Program Files\System Utilities\Miscellaneous\PrcView folder
(exception: I moved PV.EXE to D:\DOS_UTIL instead) and put a shortcut to
PrcView.exe under Start | Programs. I ran the program once and it showed me a
list of ten processes. (Comparison: at this time, Ctrl-Alt-Del showed me five
running programs, and that list did not include some programs shown on this
PrcView list.) For each process, it showed me a PID (Process ID, I assume), its
Base Priority (e.g., Normal, High), the number of threads it had open, whether it
was 16-bit or 32-bit, and the path where the executable file that triggered it (such
as C:\WINDOWS\EXPLORER.EXE) was located. Right-clicking on any process
gave me the same options as I got from the Process menu option: Threads,
Module, Heap, Memory, Version, Switch to, Bring to Front, Set Priority, Debug,
or Kill. The View item on the menu gave me the option of showing a Process
Tree (which showed that nine processes were divided into two groups under a
tenth process, i.e., KERNEL32.DLL, and that five processes fell into one of those
subgroups). The Module Usage item under the View option showed the full
pathnames and other details about the DLLs in use. The Applications view
option showed that I had two applications running -- that is, it repeated what the

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taskbar said. There was other information here too. It was basically a nerdy
little tool that would be handy for those desperate late-night emergencies when
you need to know what processes are running on your computer, you barely
understand why you need to know this, and you have no idea how to find out.
(I later decided that Start | Run | MSINFO32 | Software Environment might
actually be more informative under its three headings of 16-bit Modules
Loaded, 32-bit Modules Loaded, and Running Tasks, but it didnt have
PrcViews ability to kill processes.)
(g) PC Magazine's EndItAll. EndItAll was the other half of the PrcView picture.
That one provided the details; this one provided a simple overview. I had used
EndItAll previously and had enjoyed using it. It showed me the actual names of
the running programs in plain English, and let me mark them for shutdown. It
was better than Win98's TaskManager, better than Ctrl-Alt-Del, and simpler than
PcrView for ordinary purposes. (See point 141(s).) It lacked the ability to
automate shutdown from a command line, however. (See point 141(s).)
(h) Clipboard Pile. I selected this one after reviewing several others briefly. (See
point 134(j).) I tested it briefly on the AMD computer and found that I agreed
with ZDNet's assessment, which was that this had the potential to be one of the
best clipboard extenders. Like the others, it ran in the system tray on a
constantly available basis, which was both essential and a minor annoyance. I
was not certain that I would love this program, but it had some prospects for
significantly speeding up some of my tasks, so I felt it would be wise to give it a
good go. Later, I wound up having some problems with it and stopped using it,
at least for the duration of this somewhat sensitive installation project. (See point
224(f).) Ultimately, I uninstalled it. (See point 315.)
(i) PC Magazine's Slice32. Although Chainsaw and Splitit95 might have been
excellent file splitters (see point 140(b)), Slice had the indisputable advantages of
being (1) something I had successfully used for a number of years, (2) something
that I also used infrequently, and therefore didn't plan to spend a lot of time
analyzing, (3) already downloaded and waiting on my PENTIUM computer for
installation, and (4) able to run from the command prompt. Therefore, I installed
Slice32. This involved just moving it to the right folder and creating a shortcut to
it. Another way of saving a large file in pieces among multiple floppies was to
use Win98's Backup utility, but I didn't like it as much. Later, I used Slice32. (See
point 269(i).)
(j) WinMag's Registry Pruner. I had the impression that one Registry cleaner
would find things that another would not. So even though I ran EasyCleaner
(see point 139(b)), I thought there might still be room for WinMag's Registry
Pruner -- which is actively maintained, like EasyCleaner and unlike the others

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that I had considered earlier (see point 134(g)). See


http://www.winmag.com/karen/ptpruner.htm. I downloaded, installed, and
ran it. It showed me a list of 305 entries that evidently appear in the Registry's
SharedDLLs list. It checkmarked 11 of them and told me that the files to which
these DLLs point no longer exist. I could believe that, since the ones I could see
were looking at drive I, my CD-ROM drive, and I had no disk in it. So I clicked
on the "Remove selected entries" button. And that's all this program did. So I
guess it was OK to have it, but no big deal. Just to make sure I hadn't totally
hosed my Registry yet, I rebooted. No worries.
(k) WinMag's Defrag Registry Fix. Apparently Win98 contained a Registry
option that would let you run a program just once, after the next reboot. In other
words, you could turn it on before a reboot, and then come back some other time
and turn it on again before another reboot, and so forth. On reboot, this option
would suspend Win98 until that one program finished running. WinMag took
this and set it so that the first program that would run after reboot would be
Defragmenter. Presto! No more disk interruptions during defragmentation. See
http://www.winmag.com/fixes/defrag.htm. It appeared that I had what I
needed, now, to set up MAINTWIN so that it would run Defragmenter every
night. (See point 131.) I downloaded this file (called DEFRAG.REG), ran it, and
rebooted. The system did indeed begin running Defragmenter before anything
else, as promised. One minor quibble: the screen saver still worked, and caused
the Defragmenter to start over, but presumably that would happen only once
during the Defragmentation -- but what if it ran long enough to let other energysaving features shut down? Anyway, in this case, the defrag operation finished
and the system went on to the dialog box that asked me, "Do you want to quit
Disk Defragmenter?" So my reboots would all go exactly as before, except if I
ran DEFRAG.REG before rebooting. I contacted the guy who wrote the WinMag
thing, and he told me that if I'd just look at the contents of DEFRAG.REG in
Notepad, I would see that I could type in whatever command I wanted. In other
words, (1) Defragmenter wasn't the only program that could run in this isolated
early boot environment, (2) I could make copies of DEFRAG.REG with different
names, containing different commands, and called by different batch files, to
accomplish different things in the early boot environment, and (3) if I did use
DEFRAG.REG for the purpose of calling Defragmenter, I could add other
switches to the command line. Based on comments I found in a newsgroup
posting, I changed the command in DEFRAG.REG to be this: DEFRAG.EXE
/ALL /F /NOPROMPT /DETAILED. The NOPROMPT part would get rid of
that closing dialog box and would boot my system right back up after
MAINTWIN was finished. A while later, I found a way to deal with the Screen
Saver problem. (See point 145(l).) I still had a problem, however, in dealing with
the dialog boxes that prevented this thing from running automatically. (See
point 264.)

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(l) MAINTWIN. Thanks to the Defrag Registry Fix just mentioned, I now had
what I needed for my MAINTWIN daily defragmentation batch file.
MAINTWIN now looked like this:
@echo off
start /w d:\DOS_UTIL\DEFRAG.REG
d:\DOS_UTIL\REBOOTGO
(The /W switch told the system to linger at this START command until
DEFRAG.REG had done its thing.) Of course, I had to put DEFRAG.REG into
DOS_UTIL for this to work. I chose REBOOTGO because it would not require
my presence to hit a button before it even tried to shut things down, as
REBOOTER would do. (See point 130.) But it also would not force a reboot at
the expense of losing data, as FORCBOOT would do. I tested this by opening
Word and typing the letter X into a new document. Without saving it, I ran
REBOOTGO. Word opened a dialog box asking, "Do you want to save the
changes you made to Document 1?" I clicked on Cancel, and that was the end of
REBOOTGO. Next, I tried REBOOTGO again, but this time after saving the
document as file X. REBOOTGO shut down the document and Word and
rebooted without hesitation. This put me on a fine line where I wanted to be:
MAINTWIN wouldn't knock the props out from under me if I happened to be
busily at work but had just saved all my documents; but it also wouldn't trash
the work that the computer might be doing on a long overnight assignment.
Instead, it would wait until morning, when I could save my work, let
REBOOTGO restart the machine, and then run Defragmenter unless I decided I
had no patience for it. In net terms, Defragmenter would run some evenings but
not others, but it would run often enough that I wouldn't have to worry about
fragmentation, and often enough that the defragmenting process would not
usually require hours, as it would otherwise do if I allowed my disks to become
severely fragmented. To finish this up, I created a shortcut for MAINTWIN.BAT,
set it to close on exit (in its Properties | Advanced tab), went into Task
Scheduler, and scheduled it as follows: daily at 9 PM; only start if the computer
has been idle for at least 30 minutes; retry for up to 480 minutes; and wake the
computer to run this task. I didn't have to exclude Wednesday nights, when
MAINT_WK would be running (see point 127), because MAINT_WK would
probably have the computer in Real DOS at that point, so that the Task Schedule
trigger would never even go off on Wednesdays. Later, I decided to take an
entirely different approach to this problem. (See point 264.)
(m) PC Magazine's HDValet. I had previously spent some time considering
which "junk" files I could safely delete. HDValet offered to get rid of the
following file types (usually by deleting them or backing them up to a temporary

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holding folder), and here were my reactions to that offer: (1) No problem:
backup files (BAK and OLD); Borland C++ temporary files; lost cluster files;
Visual Studio temp files; Windows diagnostic files; and WS_FTP temporary files.
(2) Go ahead, for what it's worth: (i) Setup temporary files (i.e.,
MSCREATE.DIR): I was delighted to discover that they could be deleted,
contrary to rumor. (See point 88.) (ii) C:\WINDOWS\TEMP (but not its
subfolders): MAINT_WK did a better job. (See point 124.) (iii) Temporary files
(including tilde and TMP files): HDValet looked like it would do a more
thorough job. (See point 120(e).) I was concerned that it might delete temporary
Word files that I might still need, however, so I would need to be careful when I
ran it. (3) I had good, specific reasons for not wanting some "junk" files to be
deleted: (i) Help temporary files (GID, FTS, and FTG): see point 120(d)). (ii)
Temporary Internet Files: they weren't hurting anything on drive H; I had set up
Internet Explorer to keep that folder to an appropriate size; and as long as I had
them, I didn't have to download them again when I revisited those web pages.
Note that HDValet would also allow me to define other junk file types, if I
wished. HDValet did not have a DOS command-line mode, so I could not build
it into MAINT_WK anyway. It would run from the command line in a DOS box,
but it still required user input to run. I decided that this would complicate my
MAINT_WK scheme, and that I may as well add it to the list of items to run
manually from time to time. (See point 152.) But I also ran it now, just to clean
things up a bit. Interestingly, it defaulted to a Test Mode which told me that, if I
went ahead with it, I would delete 169 junk files and free up 1.9 MB of disk
space. I said go ahead. It told me that one of those 169 files could not be deleted,
and it gave me the option of looking at the log file. Nice and simple. Shortly
afterwards, I saw that the program had created a folder called
D:\HDVAL$$$.$$$. I was not familiar with the dollar-sign usage, except that it
probably indicated a temporary folder that might vanish at some point soon. I
hoped so, or at least that I could delete it, because I did not want something like
that in my root. (Later, I came back and looked at this folder. It turned out to
contain a complete empty copy of my directory structure -- which might be
useful in itself for some purposes. Empty, I say, except for whatever files
HDValet had removed. It wasn't a bad concept -- keep the files in a place where
it's super-easy to figure out where they came from -- but by this point I wasn't
worried anymore about what HDValet had done some time earlier, so I just
deleted this whole folder and figured that HDV could recreate it again next
time.)
(n) Cacheman. Although I had mostly heard this program mentioned (and very
favorably) in the audio context, it sounded like an all-purpose memory manager
that would have general value. Its installation was rather abrupt: it did its thing
and vanished without a word of introduction or explanation. Under its Settings
| Windows 98 menu option, it gave me six scenarios: Standard System, CD

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Writer, Power User, Low Memory System, Multimedia, and Quake 2/Unreal
(i.e., a game-player's machine). I chose Power User. It set values for Minimal
and Maximal Disk Cache, Chunk Size, and Filename and Directory caches.
Again, I had to think that these values would be different on the AMD computer,
which would have more RAM than this PENTIUM computer; in other words, it
looked like I had installed a bit of hardware-specific software prematurely. (But
see point 329.) I clicked on File | Save & Exit and got a reminder from the
creator, asking me to send him/her a postcard if I liked the program. (See point
330.) The reminder also told me that I would have to reboot to finish the
optimization process; and it said that Cacheman changed the disk cache, not
virtual memory. Thus, it did not eliminate the need for the tinkering I had done
with virtual memory earlier. (See point 44.)
(o) PC Magazine's WinBench 99 Version 1.1. This was a relatively large (10 MB)
system utility, but it was able to give information about many aspects of my
computer. The only system utilities I had left to install were information-related,
and I wanted to see if this would eliminate the need for those others. It had a
Windows 3.1-style interface, so I knew I had to use DOS-style folder names to
indicate where I wanted to install it. (See point 141(e).) I opened Windows
Explorer, created the target folder, right-clicked on it, chose DOS Prompt Here,
typed DIR /Z in the DOS box, used the toolbar buttons to copy the resulting
DOS-style filename, pasted it into the WinBench 99 installation screen, closed the
DOS box and WinEx, and proceeded. When the installation was finished, I
clicked on the "All Tests" icon that the program had placed on my Start |
Programs menu. (As always, I rearranged those icons according to my
preferences. Later, I added those that I thought might belong on the quick-start
toolbars I had put at the top of the screen. See point 143.) The tests began by
running Defragmenter again. Somewhere along the line (I stepped away from
the machine), the program ran into problems. When I came back, it reported that
it was missing some files -- PROGRAM and some others. The program had
originally wanted to be installed in a folder right off the root with a short DOSstyle filename; perhaps the long pathname to the place where I was installing it
had confused it. Anyway, I had second thoughts about taking up so much of my
remaining space on the first CD with this hardware-specific program, and
decided to uninstall it and reinstall it again later. (See point 158(a).)
(p) Fax. Only now did I discover that Microsoft Fax was not yet installed. I went
to \TOOLS\OLDWIN95\MESSAGE\US on the Windows 98 CD. There, I
started to read WMS-FAX.TXT. It seemed to say two things that I didn't like:
first, that the program was not updated from Win95 (which I had already
gathered from the OLDWIN95 pathname), and second, that installing it would
require the same old agglomeration of Windows Messaging, Microsoft Mail
Postoffice, and God knew what else, along with an assortment of desktop icons

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and other complexities that, as I recalled, had frustrated me and caused various
incompatibilities or system issues in the past. I did a little searching online and
found that many fax programs are large -- in the vicinity of 10 MB or more.
CallCenter seemed to be one of the most frequently mentioned and highly
regarded freeware fax programs: it got five cows at Tucows
(http://tucows.revealed.net/fax95.html). (Oddly, ZDNet did not seem to be
aware of it.) Thinking of the earlier experience with Microsoft Fax, however, I
decided I would like to avoid installing fax software if possible. After all, I sent
faxes infrequently, I was interested in minimizing the amount of disk space
devoted to software, and I wanted to avoid unnecessary programs which, for all
I knew, might be the source of my next software conflict or crash. So although
there were whole lists of fax freeware at
http://www.freewarehome.com/business/faxing.html and
http://www.savetz.com/fax/, I didn't leap at the opportunity. Rather, I found
some positive comments on Websites through which I could send faxes for free.
See e.g., http://www-usa.tpc.int/tpc_home.html and
http://www7.fax4free.com/home.asp. On the receiving end, there were
programs that allowed you to receive faxes as incoming e-mail. See e.g.,
http://www.jfax.com/gm/ and http://www.efax.com/. I decided I would
prefer to avoid the kind of receiving software that would require me to keep the
phone line free, since I had only one phone line and it was already busy with
phone calls and Internet use. For what I wanted, Fax4Free and eFax looked best
and seemed to be the most highly praised. I signed up with Fax4Free, but I got
the impression that their website was not being entirely up-front with me. For
instance, it seemed to say that I would not have to download software, but then
it turned out that I would have to do so after all; and their introductory e-mail
said they had merged with another company and I would now be getting
somewhat different services than I had expected, whereas their Website said
nothing about this. I started out disliking their site anyway, because it required
me to register before it really gave me any information, and I never did figure
out what I was supposed to do in order to send faxes through them, whereas
eFax's site was open and informative. Besides, eFax was easier to remember. So
I decided to try eFax. Their download was small, about 380 KB. Later, I would
do a little more tinkering (see point 224(n)) and testing (see point 247) of this
program. This seemed to take care of the task of receiving faxes. For sending
faxes, which I virtually never did, I decided I would just use the online form at
www-usa.tpc.int/sendfax.html for now, so I saved that page as a Favorite. Later,
I decided that this was not a good solution for outgoing faxes. (See point 224(n).)
(q) QBASIC and Other Tools on the Win98 CD. I also discovered, at this point,
that the \TOOLS\OLDMSDOS folder on the Win98 CD contained 16 old DOS
programs, all dated 5/11/98. Had they been updated from the versions that I
already had, or had the dates just been changed? I could see that the time had

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come to synchronize (in some sense) the contents of my DOS_UTIL folder (see
point 64) and the C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND folder. I started by copying over
the contents of the CD's \TOOLS\OLDMSDOS folder to DOS_UTIL, confirming
an overwrite whenever the former were newer than files contained in the latter.
I got a sharing violation for EMM.386, and then realized that it was because I had
an MS-DOS Prompt window open. But that wasn't it; it persisted after I shut
down that Window. I wondered if it was because I was using PowerDesk for the
operation, so I tried again in Windows Explorer. At this point, the system
became unresponsive. I used Ctrl-Alt-Del to shut off Explorer, which got me a
Start button again; I chose Shut Down and did a cold reboot. Then it worked
fine. I used PowerDesk to compare the contents of DOS_UTIL and
C:\WINDOWS, and deleted several files from the former that (1) existed in the
latter and (2) would not be needed in the DOS_UTIL folder on a bootable CD.
(See point 64.) I repeated the exercise with C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND, where
I found 28 duplicative files. PowerDesk was not able to fit the details of these
files into one screen without rearranging panes etc., so I decided it would be
easier to copy the contents of C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND into D:\DOS_UTIL,
allowing an overwrite whenever the files were newer and making a note in all
other instances. ANSI.SYS was newer on the AMD machine -- i.e., among the
files that I had copied into DOS_UTIL -- but I allowed an overwrite, reasoning
that I wanted the PENTIUM computer to have its own system files and not those
for some other computer. I used the same logic with XCOPY32.MOD. I did not
allow an overwrite of SCANDISK.INI; for some reason, it appeared that the one I
had been editing (see e.g., point 124) was the one in D:\DOS_UTIL, so I copied it
over to C. Once that was done, another comparison allowed me to delete all
duplicative files from DOS_UTIL, thus reducing some of the growing clutter in
that folder. I just had to remember that, when I began burning bootable CDs on
the new system I was developing, I would want its DOS_UTIL file to include the
contents of C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND. (See point 269(h).)
(r) MDEL. This was a little DOS utility that allowed multiple file deletions. I
downloaded it and used it to simplify the deletion of MSCREATE.DIR files in
CD_PREP.BAT (see point 116(h)), now that I knew this was what they did
anyway in PC Magazine's HDValet. (See point 141(m).)
(s) CloseAll. This program provided another way to close things down. (See
point 141(g).) When reviewed by PC Magazine in early 1999, CloseAll could
close only My Computer windows. It was evidently revised since then so that
you could add a "total" switch on the command line and shut down all open
windows. I went through the ordinary installation process and, although I had
read the ReadMe.txt file, had not really comprehended that it would add itself as
a right-click option. No thank you! I sure didn't need a one-click way of wiping
out all my current work. All I really needed was a command-line option, and I

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believed I could get that from just the CLOSEALL.EXE file by itself, since the size
and other features of that file were the same before and after installation. So I
decided I would uninstall the program to get it off my context menu, and would
then just copy the CLOSEALL.EXE back to a suitable directory -- probably
D:\DOS_UTIL. I uninstalled the program through Control Panel |
Add/Remove Programs, rebooted, and found that the right-click option was still
there. This prompted me to try editing the Registry to remove it. (See point
146(l).) Eventually, however, I stumbled across a non-Registry way of doing
that. (See point 146(m).) When I was all done with the CloseAll uninstallation
hassle, I copied CLOSEALL.EXE to D:\DOS_UTIL. I typed CLOSEALL TOTAL
on the DOS command line and, what do you know, it worked. It didn't shut
down everything, just the application programs. I mean, the toolbars etc. still
worked. Finally, I created a CLOSEALL.BAT file to contain that command line,
so that I wouldn't lose track of it, because the command CLOSEALL /? didn't
show any information. I also renamed the ReadMe.txt file to be CloseAll.txt and
I put that, too, in DOS_UTIL. Later, I rediscovered that PrcView also had a
command-line option that might do the same thing. (See point 141(f).) Typing
PV /? at the command line revealed far more options than CloseAll offered.
CloseAll was small, so I decided to keep it, but it also seemed that I would
probably rely primarily on PrcView. (See point 153.)
(t) PC Magazine's MenuEdit. The CloseAll episode alerted me to the fact that
some of my wonderful programs had installed unwanted options on my rightclick context menus. I tried using some suggestions that I had gotten online, but
these suggestions did not do the whole job. (See point 146(m).) It now seemed
that I would have to search through the Registry manually, seeking the locations
of entries that added those unwanted context menu options. This did not sound
like the way I wanted things to go. So first I took some advice and downloaded
MenuEdit. Unfortunately, the program dated from 1996. I was not confident
that I could trust it to work properly with my Registry. On the other hand,
ZDNet said it was suitable for Windows 95, so that was at least in the right
neighborhood. Also, installation amounted to nothing more than moving the
executable file to an appropriate folder and creating a shortcut to it. I went
ahead and gave it a try. As its documentation had seemed to suggest, however,
it worked only on file types, not on folders. Nevertheless, it was small and it
might be convenient, and it wasn't going to draw down any system resources
just by sitting there in its folder, so I kept it.
(u) CabWiz. This tiny, free download had, as its only purpose in life, the ability
to display (and/or save to a text file) the contents of any or all Windows CAB
files. CAB files contained Windows program files in a compressed format. (See
point 85(a).) I knew that I had at least one or two other ways to extract files from

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a CAB file, once I knew what I was looking for: PowerDesk (see point 134(e))
and the System File Checker (see point 55).
(v) Cottonwood Software's Delayer. Again, this free utility had the kind of
installation that I preferred for utilities: just copy its files to a folder and make a
shortcut to its EXE file, which I did. The program had the ability to delay the
running of a program or a series of programs (e.g., to load programs in sequence
at startup), or to run programs repeatedly at certain time intervals. I would have
to set up command line instructions for whatever I wanted it to do, which was
fine with me. Right now, I had most of my repeated reminders (e.g., once a day)
running through Outlook 98, and I expected that to continue, but it seemed like
this tiny program might come in useful for some of my batch file work.
142. Add Shutdown Folder to Links Toolbar. I had created the Links toolbar at
the bottom of the screen and had dragged it up to the top. (See point 105(e).)
Then, as noted in point 138(c), I decided to add a Shutdown folder to that
toolbar. This folder would contain a shortcut for each of my shutdown options
(e.g., refresh, reboot immediately, reboot after getting permission, etc.). So I
created shortcuts to each of my six shutdown batch programs and put those
shortcuts into C:\Windows\Favorites\Links\Shutdown. Unfortunately, this
Shutdown folder did not automatically appear on the Links toolbar. So how was
I supposed to fix that? Rebooting didn't change anything, and neither did rightclicking on the Links toolbar and selecting Refresh. I found no answers online. I
posted a question to a newsgroup, and in a day or two I had an answer. To make
the folder appear on the toolbar, I dragged it from Windows Explorer to the
desktop, and then dragged it from the desktop to the toolbar. See
http://support.microsoft.com/support/kb/articles/Q171/2/28.ASP. Now I
had a Shutdown folder on the desktop (i.e., in C:\Windows\Desktop), and also
on the toolbar. I didn't want any copies of it on the desktop, so I dragged that
copy back to C:\Windows\Favorites\Links. Meanwhile, where was this other
copy of the Shutdown folder being stored, the copy that appeared on the Links
toolbar? I did a search and found it in E:\Favorites\Links. Say what? Certainly
it made sense to have something as changeable as the Links folder on E (DATA)
rather than on C (WIN98), for purposes of backing it up frequently and avoiding
fragmentation to my operating system drive. (See point 44.) But how did it get
here? [I saw, later, that I had forgotten that I had set it this way in X-Setup.] Last
time I checked, the toolbar was derived from C:\Windows\Favorites\Links.
(See point 120(ae).) The problem I saw, having it on drive E, was that I'd have
two separate Links folders. I figured this would be necessary because Links was
a system folder that, according to what I had heard, you couldn't remove from
C:\Windows\Favorites without causing malfunctions in Internet Explorer; and
this C version of Links would be where Internet Explorer would save new
Favorites. Also, the risk of fragmentation, and the need for backup, would be

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much smaller than normal in my case, because I intended to keep most of my


Favorites in web pages devoted to specific topics (e.g., Media, Computers). (See
point 109(g).) The only Favorites going into Internet Explorer's Favorites folder
would be new ones that I had not yet put into those web pages. These didn't
seem likely to cause much fragmentation or require much backup. So I decided
that, on balance, I should keep the Links folder on C, and should try to create the
Links toolbar from there. I used Windows Explorer to copy E:\Favorites
(including Links and other folders) to C:\Windows\Favorites, and then
rebooted. Sure enough, the toolbar was still there, and now it was reflecting the
contents of C:\Windows\Favorites\Links rather than the no-longer-existing
E:\Favorites\Links folder. To make sure, I changed the names of some
subfolders in the Links folder on C, and the Links toolbar immediately reflected
those changes.
143. Cascading Programs Toolbar. So far, Links was the only toolbar that had
given me a cascading effect. That is, when I moved the mouse to a folder on the
Links toolbar (such as the Shutdown folder described in point 142), the folder
would open up and show me its contents with just a single click; and since I had
my Links toolbar at the top of the screen, the contents would unfold down from
the top in a pull-down menu; and when I clicked on one of them, the toolbar and
the menu would get out of the way. (See point 109(g).) By contrast, when I put a
folder on any other toolbar (such as the one at the right side -- see point 120(q)), it
would not react until I double-clicked on it, and then it would open up a folder
on the desktop that I would then have to close after selecting the item that I
wanted from it. Now, however, thanks to a response to a question I had posed in
a newsgroup, I found that I could get this pull-down menu effect from other
toolbars as well. The how-to guide appeared at
http://www.angelfire.com/biz/serenitymacros/ie5.html. My steps were as
follows: (1) I went to the Toolbars subfolder that I had created under my Start |
Programs folder. There, I created a subfolder called Programs. (2) I created a
new toolbar by right-clicking on the taskbar, choosing Toolbars | New Toolbar,
and navigating to this new Toolbars\Programs subfolder (way down the line
under C:\Windows\Start Menu). (3) I moved this toolbar up to the top of the
screen, and resized it over at the right edge, so that only the word "Programs"
was visible. (It actually took two steps: drag it onto the desktop, and then drag
it up from there.) (4) So far, my Links toolbar contained two types of entries. Its
original purpose was to hold links to web pages on which I planned to put links
to many different Favorites. (See point 109(g).) I wanted those to stay after the
present operation. But besides the ten links to ten different Favorites web pages
(e.g., Media, Computers), on which I planned to organize my Favorites
pertaining to ten different topics (see point 327), I also had a half-dozen folders
there. There were two types of folders. One was the "Frequented" folder, which
contained links to a half-dozen websites that I visited often. I wanted that folder

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to stay with the other items on the Links toolbar. But the rest of the folders on
the Links toolbars contained shortcuts for programs that I wanted to be able to
load quickly. These were programs that I used often, and these folders contained
a select list. Basically, there was a different philosophy here as compared to the
Start | Programs menu: the latter needed to contain my standard, complete set
of shortcuts to all programs that I might care to run, and therefore could be
slower to navigate through, whereas these Links folders were designed for
speedy selection among a small number of frequently used programs. There
were several such folders, named Main Programs, Internet Programs, and Utility
Programs (see point 120(ae)), Desktop Tools (see point 120(f)), and this newly
added Shutdown folder (see point 142). I wasn't crazy about putting these
folders into a different toolbar that might require an additional click, but I
decided to give it a try. So I cut each of the folder icons from the Links toolbar
and pasted them into the new Toolbars\Programs subfolder that I mentioned a
moment ago. I also decided to move the E-mail folder (the one containing fast
links to create e-mail messages to people whom I e-mail often -- see point 113(b))
to that Toolbars\Programs subfolder. This left only the Frequented folder. Since
I had given unique icons to each of the links to my Favorites web pages (e.g.,
Media, Computers), and since tool tips would pop up to show me the meaning of
an icon if I forgot what it stood for, I could now right-click on an empty part of
the Links toolbar and shut off the Show Text option. This made is possible to
drag the bottom edge of the Links toolbar up so that the toolbar would occupy
just one line, which would make it less obtrusive on those occasions when I hit it
by accident. (It was set to Auto Hide.) This left a lot of room for growth, either
by adding more icons on the Links toolbar or by adding another toolbar to share
the top of the screen with it. Meanwhile, over in the top right corner, I had just
the word "Programs" for the Programs toolbar, and accompanying it was a little
">>" indicator. If I clicked on the >> indicator, I now had a set of pull-down (or
should I say roll-out) menus that acted a lot like the Start | Programs option in
the opposite corner of the screen -- with, as I say, a very different philosophy. If I
clicked once on any of these menus, then I was able to click and drag them (but
not their subcomponents) so that the ones I expected to use the most were near
the top of the list. I was thinking of moving this Programs toolbar to the rightedge toolbar, just to see if it would function the same there, and suddenly
realized that I could have figured all this out much earlier, if I had just
contemplated it for a minute, because the >> indicators that appeared under two
of the items that already existed on that right-edge toolbar (namely, the Folders
toolbar (see point 120(u)) and the Scraps toolbar (see point 120(s)), and they
functioned the same way there. Anyway, with all the extra space I now had on
the top toolbar, I decided to make these frequently-used programs more
accessible by putting each of these program folders into its own toolbar. To
make them all fit into the new, slimmer top toolbar, I shortened their names. So
now, instead of a Programs folder and toolbar (or, more precisely, under the

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Programs folder, which I kept under Start | Programs because it made things
more organized), I had folders and toolbars for Desk (Desktop Tools), E (E-mail),
I (Internet Programs), Main (Main Programs), Bye (Shutdown), and Util (Utility
Programs). (I revised the Bye toolbar later. See point 262(c). Likewise the Util
toolbar. See point 310.) I figured it would take me a little while to remember
what the letters meant, but probably not long. (As it turned out, I could have
used a few more letters for each one -- I still had a lot of space to spare on that
top toolbar.) I did it in stages, dragging them all onto the desktop first, and then
onto the top toolbar. In that latter step, I found that they filled in from left to
right. That is, the last one I dragged to the top toolbar would be all the way to
the right. So I began with the ones I wanted to use most often, since this would
put them at the center of the screen (to the right of the first toolbar there, the
Links toolbar). When I was done dragging, I resized them all (except Links) so
that only the letter and the >> indicator showed. Finally, I created a Dummy
toolbar, named "____," to fill the right end of the toolbar, so that the right-edge
toolbar would never obscure a working item, and this was the last one I dragged
to the top toolbar. Now I had the same quick access as before, and without a lot
of folder icons filling an entire second row of the Links toolbar, and I also had a
greater ability to rearrange the icons on these menus. The only drawback was
that I had to look a little harder to navigate the mouse to the little >> indicator
instead of clicking on the former, slightly larger folder icon.
144. PowerDesk Problem: Error Message When Closing. Twice, now, I had
gotten a message indicating that something wasn't working right when I clicked
on the X in the upper right corner of the PowerDesk screen (see point 135) to
close down that program. (During this time, I had also gotten an error message
indicating that Explorer was shutting down, but that hadn't actually crashed the
system; nevertheless, I had rebooted.) I didn't write down the error message that
PowerDesk had provoked; it wasn't occurring regularly; and I couldn't get it to
happen again now. I decided maybe EasyCleaner could help, even though I had
just run it a few hours earlier. (See point 139(b).) It found no invalid Registry
entries, however. I went to the Mijenix website but couldn't find an FAQ there; it
appeared that I would have to call or e-mail them, which were options that I
would normally appreciate but in this case I didn't remember enough about the
problem to do that. I decided to forge ahead with my software installation
process, wait to see if it happened again, and reserve the option of possibly
uninstalling and reinstalling. This error message had not been appearing on the
AMD machine during the year or two that I had been using PowerDesk there, so
I wasn't thinking of trashing the program.
145. Other Tweaks. These adjustments did not require Registry editing. I
started these steps before taking the steps shown in point 146, but the later items
in this point 145 occurred to me only after I had begun the items shown in point

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146.
(a) Auto-Complete in Internet Explorer. I decided to supply information
commonly requested in various websites. I would not actually send this
information without reviewing the website, of course, but this would enable
Internet Explorer to fill in the most likely answers. To do this, I went into
Internet Explorer and selected Tools | Internet Options | Content | My Profile.
All I really filled in was name, address, and phone number, but that seemed
likely to save a lot of typing.
(b) Larger DOS Box. Following instructions from
http://www.chami.com/tips/windows/050298W.html -- which was,
incidentally, one of the most useful and interesting of all tips sites I reviewed
during this whole process -- I opened a DOS box, right-clicked on its title bar,
and set Properties | Screen | Initial Size to 43 lines, and set the dimensions on
the toolbar to be 8 x 12. I closed the box, opened a new one, saw that it was
larger, dragged the box up and left, and dragged its bottom right corner until the
toolbars disappeared. Then I helt Ctrl and Alt while clicking on the X in its
upper right corner. Just like that, a larger and more informative DOS box. I had
opened that box from the toolbar at the top of my screen (see point 143). I copied
that shortcut to the other Start | Programs location where I had a DOS box icon.
(c) Following a tip from TweakHomePC
(http://tweakhomepc.virtualave.net/top20.html), I used Notepad to add this
line to the [386enh] section of C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM.INI: PageBuffers=32.
The next couple of tips are from that same website.
(d) MSINFO32. I ran MSINFO32 (see the first paragraph of point 146) and chose
Tools | System Configuration Utility | Startup. (I could also have used this to
edit SYSTEM.INI in paragraph (c), above.) I looked for startup programs that
use lots of memory, such as FindFast, Office Startup, System Agent, Active
Movie, and NetMeeting, but found none. I did see, however, that the same
LoadPowerProfile command was listed twice, so I unchecked one of those two
instances. I also unchecked the entry for the Microsoft Messenger there; I had
downloaded and installed it, but I wasn't using it, and I didn't want its icon to
keep showing up in the system tray. This was all very helpful, but I knew there
were other ways to examine and deal with programs that run on startup, either
by editing the Registry (see point 147) or by using the Start Manager utility that
came with PC Magazine's benchmark package (see point 158(b)).
(e) IP Packet Size. In Control Panel | Network, I selected Dial-Up Adapter and
then clicked on Properties | Advanced | IP Packet Size and set Value to Small. I

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did the same for Dial-Up Adapter # 2 (VPN Support).


(f) TweakUI Once More. My attempts to remove unwanted items from the Start
menu (see point 146(c)) led me back to TweakUI as perhaps the only way to deal
with some of them. I looked again at point 117, and decided to review the
"TweakUI Information Page" at http://newlifewin98.server101.com/tweakui_info.htm to see which version I had installed.
Then I remembered that it was part of the Resource Kit, so I looked back at point
119(a). This told me that I could get to my installed version of TweakUI through
the Resource Kit Sampler. I went to the PowerToy subfolder there and
compared the file list against the one shown on the TweakUI Information Page to
confirm that I had indeed installed the recommended version. Then I reviewed
http://members.aol.com/axcel216/98-3.htm# TWK98 to see if the New tab in
TweakUI (which was apparently the tab I would be using) had any significant
bugs. It looked OK. I hit the Tools Management Console / Resource Kit icon
under Start | Programs, found TweakUI under Tools A-Z, and saw that the only
thing installed so far for TweakUI was its documentation. Its instructions on
installing TweakUI assumed I was installing the buggy version from the Win98
CD, but the basic idea was the same: right-click on TWEAKUI.INF and choose
install. It told me I needed the program disk, but I just browsed the installer
back to this folder containing TWEAKUI.INF. I closed its little "Introduction"
box and went to Control Panel. There, I saw the TweakUI icon. I decided to
reboot before using it. Then I clicked on the Control Panel icon; used the right
arrow (in the upper right corner of the TweakUI screen); moved directly to the
New tab; unclicked Briefcase, My Documents Folder on Desktop, and Other
Office Documents; clicked Apply and OK; and saw in Windows Explorer that the
New list was now down to just the four items I wanted. I did not care to add any
new items to the File | New list right now, but I made a note to myself to consult
PCForrest's site at http://www.pcforrest.co.uk/tweakui.htm# t98new when I
did.
(g) "Find" Shortcut. Following the very helpful instructions at
http://members.xoom.com/rwbadour/html/tips_a_-_d.html, I opened a Find
box (from either the Start menu or Windows Explorer) and clicked on Save
Search. This gave me an All files.fnd file; I right-clicked on it and made a
shortcut. Then I moved All files.fnd to C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM, and I put the
shortcut into the Desktop Tools toolbar. (See point 109(f).)
(h) Install Printer. Although this was a hardware-specific item, I decided to go
ahead with it, and probably should have done so long before now. I needed to
test some things, and anyway both computers would be using the same printer
for at least the foreseeable future. To add the printer, I went into Control Panel |
Add Printer and provided the requested information.

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(i) Control Panel on Start Menu. Instead of having Control Panel icons on the
desktop, the Start | Settings submenu, and perhaps other places, I decided to
have just one quickly accessible Control Panel location: on the Start Menu itself.
(See point 146(e).) (Again, things are slightly out of order here because I was
pursuing several approaches at once, just trying to get through the welter of tips
and suggestions that people have cooked up; so some parts of point 146 come
before some parts of this point 145. This item is here rather than there because it
did not involve an actual Registry edit.) I used Control Panel often enough to
justify putting it on the Start menu, and as a part of the Start menu it would be
cascading -- that is, I wouldn't have to open or delete a window to find the
Control Panel's components. To create this Start menu item, I right-clicked on
Start and chose Explore. This brought up a session of Windows Explorer with
Start Menu highlighted. Right there I clicked menu items File | New | Folder
and, following instructions, I typed this long name: Control Panel.{21EC20203AEA-1069-A2DD-08002B30309D} and hit Enter. (There are other weird items
like that you can add to the Start menu -- just do a search online for at least a part
of that long number to find lists of them.) Then I wanted to rearrange the long
menu of Control Panel icons into submenus. I clicked on Start and then rightclicked on Control Panel and chose Explore. Unfortunately, it was not possible
to create subfolders from this Control Panel entry. Oh, well. A question came to
mind, though, as I was reviewing the Properties of this entry: would it be
possible to enable sharing and then to use Direct Cable Connection to tinker with
this computer's Control Panel from the other computer? Another note: they told
me that I could add other items, like Dial-Up Networking, to this Control Panel,
but I didn't have any special need for that.
(j) Empty Desktop. Around this time, I deleted the Control Panel icon from the
desktop, because I had found a way to make it even more accessible. (See point
145(i).) Having concealed some items with X-Setup (see point 137(c)), this left
three icons: the one for Device Manager (see point 112(e)) and those for My
Computer and Recycle Bin. I had come across instructions for hiding the last
two, and I did decide to move the icon for Device Manager to my Desktop
toolbar (see point 120(ac)); but I decided there was no special reason to do so,
since I had nothing else happening on the desktop at that time. To prepare for
the possibility that I might decide to use Active Desktop (see point 109(b)) at
some point in the future, which would probably be the only thing that would
make me crave an empty desktop, I took the easier approach: I right-clicked on
the desktop and chose Active Desktop | Customize My Desktop | Effects | Hide
icons when the desktop is viewed as a Web page.
(k) Run Screen Savers from Batch Files. It turned out that you could create a
shortcut to an SCR file -- a screen saver -- and that you could run these screen

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saver shortcuts by a batch file command. I decided that I wanted a special screen
saver which would run right at the beginning of my nightly defragmentation -the reason being that, otherwise, the regular screen saver would kick in after 15
minutes and interrupt the defragmentation process temporarily. (See point
145(l).) To create my special screen saver, I made a copy of the Scrolling
Marquee screen saver (C:\Windows\System\Scrolling Marquee.scr). I called it
Defrag Underway.scr. Then I went into Control Panel | Display and configured
its settings so that it would go into action after one minute and would be small
and slow, so as not to drain resources from the defragmentation process. I soon
found, however, that this did not defuse the regular screen saver. My special one
would run for 15 minutes, and then the regular one would kick in and take over
and interrupt the defragmentation process as usual. So creating a special screen
saver hadn't accomplished a thing, so far, other than to give me a nice scrolling
message that said "Defragmentation Underway" during the first 15 minutes of
the defrag process. I really didn't mind the interruption of the defragmentation
all that much. It made the process start over, but theoretically the defragger had
all night anyway. It was mostly the principal of the thing: I wanted to know
how to use specialized screen savers for whatever purpose. I went online and
got the suggestion that I could set up a batch file to temporarily alter the
SYSTEM.INI file so that it would look for a different screen saver, or none at all.
I decided it would be easier to make my batch file swap the regular SYSTEM.INI
with a temporary alternate SYSTEM.INI by swapping their names; and then the
batch file would rename them back to their original selves at the end. This led to
the thought that it would actually be easier to leave poor SYSTEM.INI alone and,
instead, set up batch files that would swap screen saver (SCR) files. I would set
SYSTEM.INI to look for DEFAULT.SCR, but the identity of DEFAULT.SCR
would change as often as I wished. I decided to do this, and I proceeded as
follows:
(1) Rearrange Screen Savers. To keep things straight, I created a Screen Savers
subfolder under C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM, and moved all my SCR files there. I
had previously placed them into C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\Extraneous Items
(see point 120(x)), but now I made that Extraneous Items folder a subfolder
under this Screen Savers folder, the difference being that Screen Savers contained
SCR files that I might actually use and the Extraneous Items folder contained
items that I was just too chicken to delete. I moved the Channel Screen Saver
from C:\WINDOWS to this Extraneous Items folder as well. (Later, I
compressed these items into a ZIP file and deleted the Extraneous Items folder.)
Moving the last screen saver was difficult, since it was the one that was currently
registered in SYSTEM.INI. To do this, I made a copy of it, renamed the copy
DEFAULT.SCR, and set Control Panel to look at DEFAULT.SCR instead of the
other. Now, when I went into Control Panel, I saw only two options for screen
savers: Default or None.

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(2) Screen Saver Changer. To introduce a new SCR file as the default screen
saver, I thought the simplest approach might be to copy that SCR file to a file
named C:\Windows\System\Screen Savers\Default.scr, and then copy it to
C:\Windows\System, thus replacing the Default.scr file that had been there
previously. So at all times, there would be only one SCR file in
C:\Windows\System, and its name would be Default.scr. Note: the settings for
different screen savers (e.g., number of minutes until startup, speed of operation,
colors used) seemed to travel with the SCR files, not with SYSTEM.INI; so if I
wanted a different version of a given screen saver, I needed to take the steps I
had already taken with the Defrag Underway screen saver: make a copy of it,
temporarily put that copy into C:\Windows\System so that the Control Panel |
Display | Screen Saver page could see it, use that page to adjust its settings, save
it, and then move it back to the Screen Saver folder. These observations led to
the following batch files:
@echo off
REM This is SCR_TEMP.BAT
REM This file replaces the existing screen saver with another.
REM Syntax is SCR_TEMP <screen saver filename in quotes>
for %%v in (%1) do set infile=c:\Windows\System\Screen Savers\%%v
copy %infile% c:\Windows\System\Default.scr /y
REM End of file
@echo off
REM This is SCR_ORIG.BAT
REM This file restores the original default screen saver.
set x="c:\Windows\System\Screen Savers\Flying Through Space.scr"
copy %x% c:\Windows\System\Default.scr /y
So at the start of an action, I would call SCR_TEMP with the name of the
preferred screen saver, which I would have set up as described in paragraph (2),
above; and at the end of an action, I would run SCR_ORIG to restore my original
screen saver. The former would use a copy of the preferred temporary screen
saver, so the latter would be free to write over it with a copy of the original.
(l) Screen Saver Solution for MAINTWIN.BAT. I now had a fix for
MAINTWIN.BAT. (See point 141(l).) I changed it so that now DEFRAG.REG
would run the following batch file:
@echo off
REM This is DEFRAG.BAT
REM This file runs things in the early boot environment.

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call SCR_TEMP.BAT "Defrag Underway.scr"


DEFRAG.EXE /ALL /F /NOPROMPT /DETAILED
SCR_ORIG
(m) HWINFO. Win98 came with a Hardware Diagnostic Tool. To see it at work,
and to get its output all in one long text file, you could type HWINFO /UI at the
command prompt. This was the same information as that produced by Start |
Run | MSINFO32; it was just presented differently. (For more information, see
http://support.microsoft.com/support/kb/articles/q185/9/56.asp.) I created a
shortcut to HWINFO, made sure its target included the /UI switch, and put this
shortcut in the System\Information subfolder under Start | Programs. The
output of this program was a color-coded screen display. Green items were
Registry entries; brown items belonged to the Configuration Manager; magenta
were file attributes; blue were warning messages; and red were error messages.
To get rid of the data files that HWINFO produced each time it ran, I added these
lines to CD_PREP.BAT (see point 116(h)):
REM Delete files produced by HWINFO.EXE.
if exist C:\WINDOWS\HWINFO.DAT attrib -r -h
C:\WINDOWS\HWINFO.DAT
if exist C:\WINDOWS\HWINFO.DAT del C:\WINDOWS\HWINFO.DAT
if exist C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\HWINFOD.VXD del
C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\HWINFOD.VXD
(n) Make Help Useful. This seems to have been an original contribution by me -the idea, at least. Or at least I didn't find anyone else who had come up with it
before. People had figured out how to get rid of most of the other items on the
Start menu, but the Help item was pretty much accepted as fixed in stone, which
people regretted because the Windows online help was pretty useless. I
suggested making Start | Help point, instead, to the voluminous manual that
came with the Resource Kit. (See point 119(a).) I posted a newsgroup query on
how to do this, and the answer came back: basically, Windows help manuals are
in the CHM form (which I think is short for "compiled help manual"). The steps
are: (1) Rename the original Win98 help manual, which I found at
C:\WINDOWS\HELP\WINDOWS.CHM. I renamed mine to be Original
Windows.chm. (2) Make a copy of RK98BOOK.CHM from the Resource Kit
(ResKit) folder, and name the copy to be WINDOWS.CHM. (3) Move that copy
to where the original one was, i.e., so that it will now be
C:\WINDOWS\HELP\WINDOWS.CHM. Just out of curiosity, I did a search
for other CHM files on my system, and found that another large one was called
HTMLREF.CHM. I double-clicked on it and it opened up. As its name
suggested, it turned out to be a large guide to advanced HTML programming. I
took a brief look online, wondering if it would be possible for me to create my

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own CHM file. It looked like it would produce really interesting results -- you
could basically have a help file full of links to everything around your hard disk
and on the Internet -- but people were saying that you needed Microsoft's HTML
Help Workshop to do this, and that it was not at all easy to learn. I decided I
really didn't need it enough to fool with it, and that I would stick with using the
Resource Kit manual as my Start | Help option. I clicked on Start | Help just to
make sure it worked, and it did.
(o) Wildcard Link. I added another icon to the Links Toolbar. (See point 143.)
This item incorporated four separate tips that I had gotten from others: (1) You
could open Internet Explorer and send it looking for a specific website just by
typing the right command in the Start | Run box or at a DOS prompt. For
example, START HTTP://WWW.CNN.COM would take me to the CNN site.
(2) You could set up a DOS batch file to run this command automatically. I had
used both of these tips in preparing my Web Suite. (See point 120(af).) (3) You
could use this same command to go to different websites if, instead of typing e.g.,
CNN, you inserted a DOS variable like %1. The command would then be START
HTTP://WWW.%1.COM, and if you put it into a batch file called
WILDCARD.BAT, you would run it by typing WILDCARD CNN to go to the
CNN site, or WILDCARD ABC to go to ABC.COM, etc. (4) You could set up a
shortcut to run a batch file that required user input, such as this
WILDCARD.BAT file, as follows: create WILDCARD.BAT with the line just
shown; create a shortcut to it, and set the shortcut's Properties | Program options
as follows: (i) add a space and then a question mark to the end of the Cmd Line,
(ii) set it to Run Minimized and Close on Exit, and (iii) change its icon to
something snappy. I did this, and then moved the shortcut to the Links Toolbar.
Now, when I would click on my Wildcard icon, I would get a Parameters dialog,
and all I had to type into it was the core name of the website I wanted to visit. I
souped it up a bit by allowing some abbreviations for sites I visited often. The
basic idea was like this:
@echo off
set core=%1
if %core%==Y set core=yahoo
if %core%==y set core=yahoo
start http://www.%core%.com
I thought maybe later, if the need was there, I might add to this by setting it so
that a one-letter abbreviation could work for other types of URLs, i.e., those that
did not begin with HTTP://WWW. and end with .COM. Just one letter would
produce the whole complicated URL. Later, I revised this. (See point 261(f).)

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(p) Relocate SCANREG Backups. I hoped, someday, to have a working backup


tape or CD backup system covering drive C. At present, I was going with the
default location on drive C for my 12 backups of the Registry. (See point 147.)
But there was a problem. My backup system would almost certainly look at
archive bits to determine which files had changed, at least for purposes of
incremental backups. Since these 12 backups would probably be different every
time I backed up, I would probably be spending 10-20 MB of backup space on
making backups of these backups. In other words, it seemed like those backups
should be somewhere other than drive C -- and as I thought about it, that seemed
like it might provide a little more safety too. To fix this, I edited
C:\WINDOWS\SCANREG.INI to change its BackupDirectory line to read
BackupDirectory=H:\Backups. I made sure there was such a thing as an
H:\Backups folder (which may not have been necessary -- see point 242(f)), and
then I exited SCANREG.INI, ran SCANREG /BACKUP, and took a look at
H:\Backups. Sure enough, the folder contained a new RB000.CAB file. I moved
all of the RB*.CAB files (which did indeed total more than 15 MB) from
C:\WINDOWS\SYSBCKUP to H:\Backups. (Drive H was my SWAP drive, and
I did not plan to back it up. See point 32.) I felt that, ideally, I should have some
kind of report on things like this, just to let me know that nothing had happened
to the CABs on drive H. As a quick-and-dirty way of accomplishing that, I
inserted these lines at the end of DOSSTART.BAT (see point 105(l)):
:: Make sure my Registry backups are intact
echo Total number of good Registry backups:
dir h:\backups\rb*.cab /b | find /c "rb"
That way, every time I would start DOS or a DOS box, I would get a reminder.
(Later, I thought that I would like, if possible, to revise this file to show the date
of the most recent one, or a list, and put its output all on one line.)
146. Registry Edits. It was time to adjust the Registry to handle issues that XSetup and the other programs discussed above did not address. (In one sense,
this was my first direct Registry editing. See point 120(ah).) Also, some of the
new programs mentioned above had created new opportunities and needs for
adjustment. To edit the Registry, I made sure all other windows were closed.
Then I backed up the Registry by using Start | Run | MSINFO32 | Tools |
Registry Checker | Yes. Then I used Start | Run | REGEDIT to get into the
Registry. Finally, after I was done, I selected Registry | Exit. In some but
perhaps not all cases, as it turned out, I had to reboot to get the changes to take
effect. In this instance, I made the following adjustments:
(a) Eliminate Office 97 Assistants. I had had Office 97 for several years and had
almost never used the animated characters that pop up sometimes when you're

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trying to do something. Once or twice, they had actually been helpful, but in
most cases I had seen them as an annoyance. Certainly I did not think they had
helped me in ways that the Help menu could not. So I took the opportunity to
edit the Registry and shut them off. In the Registry, I went to
HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Office\8.0\Common\ and
deleted Assistant. I also deleted Assistant at
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\OFFICE\8.0\COMMO
N\. I rebooted, went into Word, opened up the Standard toolbar (View |
Toolbars | Standard), clicked on the question mark box, and got plain old Help.
I compared this on the AMD machine, and sure enough, over there the question
mark box still brought up the Assistant.
(b) Rename "Microsoft Internet Explorer." That name shows up when
coolswitching (Alt-Tab) and in other places. I wanted to shorten it to just "IE." I
went back into the Registry and went to
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\Main.
There, I looked at "Window Title" in the right pane. It was indeed a simple
underscore, as I had instructed X-Setup. (See point 137(j).) Yet IE itself was still
showing the full "Microsoft Internet Explorer" title. Maybe something that I had
downloaded from Microsoft since the date of the website from which I was
deriving these tweaks (http://win98central.acauth.com/win98/regtweaks.htm)
had set up the title in an alternate location. Anyway, it looked like this tweak
failed. But then, later, I noticed at times that it seemed to have succeeded.
(c) Remove Items from the File | New List. This tip came from the Windows 98
Unleashed online book at
http://www.usalatino.net/computadoras/win98_frankenbook/chapters/0-67231235-2/ch13/ch13.htm# Heading4. (The next few tips also came from this
page.) In Windows Explorer, I clicked on the File | New menu option. Along
with the several items there that I did use (i.e., new Folder, new Shortcut, new
Text Document, and new Microsoft Word Document), I saw numerous items that
I didn't. These bits of clutter were probably the reason why I never used the File
| New option except to create new folders. To make the File | New menu
option more useful, I decided to start by getting rid of the ones I didn't want.
First, I needed to know which kinds of files they created. So in C:\Temp, I used
File | New and created one item for each of the options I didn't expect to use.
This gave me a bunch of files with names like "New Bitmap Image.bmp."
Without thinking, I included the New My Documents Folder item, and therefore
had to take a moment to go back and repeat the steps I had previously taken in
point 120(j) to get rid of it. (Later, I saw that it was also necessary to repeat the
steps in point 41.) Also, the New Microsoft Office Database item didn't create an
item in C:\Temp; instead, it opened Access and was prepared to create the
database that way, so I just had to remember that Access uses files with an .MDB

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extension. The "Other Office Documents" option also didn't create anything; it
just gave me a choice among scads of templates that I could use to create
something. When I was finished creating new items in C:\Temp, then, I saw that
the kinds of files that I did not want listed on the File | New menu were those
with the following extensions: BMP, HTML, MDB, OBD, PPT, UDL, WAV, XLS;
and there was also the New Briefcase item. I deleted those items, closed all
programs, ran Start | Run | REGEDIT, and clicked on the plus sign next to
HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT. This opened up a list of many different file types. I
went to the first one on my list, BMP, and clicked on the plus sign next to it. This
opened up its list of subkeys. The one I wanted was ShellNew. I could have
deleted it, but I had the impression that this could prevent me from ever adding
it back if I wanted to, so instead I renamed it to ShellNewNope. I did the same
for the others on my list. I didn't see ShellNew options for HTML, OBD, PPT, or
XLS, and of course there was no "New Briefcase" filename extension. The
Windows 98 Unleashed web page didn't say what to do with these. I decided to
experiment -- always a risky thing in the Registry, but I did have a backup, and I
believed I understood the concept. I went back to these items there in the
Registry and looked into their other subkeys. Under HTML, for example, I saw
two subkeys: htmlfile and ShellEx; and under htmlfile I did find a ShellNew
subkey. I renamed it to ShellNewNope and repeated this approach for the others
just listed. This worked for them all, leaving only the New Briefcase item to
wonder about. (Note: for some of these items, there was more than one
ShellNew sub-subkey.) This left the New Briefcase item. I found a ShellNew
entry under .BFC, but this ShellNew item was different from the others: it had a
subkey of its own, called Config. I decided to lock in my gains: I exited,
rebooted, took a look in Windows Explorer, and saw that File | New had lost
weight. What remained was New Briefcase, and also the Other Office
Documents and My Documents Folder items. (The last would apparently
disappear from File | New whenever it was actually installed on the desktop.) I
searched newsgroups in Deja.com and got the impression that the experts just
used TweakUI to handle this. This prompted the TweakUI review described in
point 145(f).
(d) System Policy Editor (POLEDIT). I saw a comment online that made me
think this Microsoft program might simplify some of my Registry editing. I
gathered that the POLEDIT program existed on the Win98 CD, in
TOOLS\RESKIT\NETADMIN\POLEDIT. A search of the PENTIUM computer
turned up POLEDIT.CNT and POLEDIT.HLP in the Resource Kit folder (see
point 145(f), above), but no System Policy Editor. I ran the Resource Kit Console
again, but did not see anything there. I checked the Helmig site at
http://helmig.com/j_helmig/polediti.htm and decided that I did not remember
installing POLEDIT. Following the instructions at that site, I went to the Win98
CD ResKit folder just mentioned, read the POLEDIT.TXT file, and followed its

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installation instructions: use Control Panel | Add/Remove Programs |


Windows Setup, choose Have Disk, and point toward the CD's ResKit folder.
This did not tell me which INF file to choose, GROUPPOL.INF or POLEDIT.INF,
so I chose the latter. Then I selected System Policy Editor, and it ran. I went to
Start | Programs, rearranged my icons, and clicked on System Policy Editor.
This opened POLEDIT in an empty screen. I chose File | Open Policy. It didn't
seem to know where to find any policies. I searched in PowerDesk and found no
POL files on the computer. Reading at
http://www.cadvision.com/redicks/security.htm -- a fairly clear and
informative site -- I got the impression that the primary purpose of POLEDIT
was to set up a system administrator and separate user accounts, where the
system administrator would have full access and the users might not see
individual items, such as the Start menu options that I was trying to get rid of.
This model would not really apply for my purposes, though, because I was both
the administrator and the user, both I and me would be working on the same
computer, and I was not interested in setting up separate user and administrator
passwords that I would have to fiddle with each time I rebooted. Moreover, as I
tried to see how far I could get with it, I found that the options on my screen did
not match those on the website. So I bailed out of that page and tried Microsoft's
own instructions, at
http://support.microsoft.com/support/kb/articles/q147/3/81.asp. This was
more like it. Following their guidance (using single or double clicks on various
parts of the icons or lines as needed), I chose File | Open Registry | Local
Computer | Windows 98 Network | Update | Remote Update. I set Update
Mode to Manual and indicated a path of C:\WINDOWS\POLEDIT.POL for my
not-yet-existing system policy file, and then OK. I chose that folder because
POLEDIT.EXE had now been installed in C:\WINDOWS. Next, I chose File |
Save. At this point, the Microsoft site left me hanging. It said, "Select the system
policy settings you want to use." OK, uh ... after playing with POLEDIT's menu
options for a minute, I went to the PC Mag site at
http://www.zdnet.com/pcmag/pctech/content/solutions/uu1513a.htm, but
that was group-oriented too. Eventually, someone reminded me that I had that
huge 1,700-page guide to this stuff that had come with the Resource Kit. (See
point 119(a).) So, being open to suggestions, I looked at that. It told me that I
could use POLEDIT as a direct Registry editor. This did not add anything to
what I already had. Indeed, it looked like this just gave me a subset of the total
number of things that I could do in REGEDIT. So I went into Control Panel |
Add/Remove Programs and removed System Policy Editor. It seemed to do a
pretty good job of uninstalling: I ran a search for poledit or policy, and the only
thing left to delete (aside from the documents that the Resource Kit had installed
previously, which I didn't want to delete) was the Start | Programs shortcut. I
rebooted, and everything looked OK, except that I got two little pops from the
computer's speaker when it had nearly completed rebooting. I rebooted again,

186

and it did it again. This eventually provoked a whole troublesetting session that
led to restoring an earlier copy of my Registry and redoing a bunch of steps. I
didn't get to that point until after point 146(h) below, however. In the meantime,
I kept on making more adjustments and hoped it would go away. I have broken
out the troubleshooting process in a separate discussion at point 147.
(e) Removing Help and Settings from Start Menu. A newsgroup search
suggested that there is no way to remove the Help item from the Start menu. I
had better luck with Settings. An MS-MVP advised, in a recent posting, as
follows: go into
HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Polic
ies\Explorer. This shows options in the right pane. Right-click anywhere in the
right-side pane, choose New | Binary Value, and name it NoSetFolders. In my
case, I screwed it up, so I had to right-click on it and get Modify to continue with
the rest of the process, which was this: type the following numbers and spaces,
as shown: 01 00 00 00. (In my case, I figured I should type this in place of the
0000 that came up in the Value Data box, because that's what other items in this
right-hand pane looked like. But it turned out that I couldn't delete those four
zeros, so I left them and just typed the 01 00 00 00 after them.) Then I clicked OK.
The MS-MVP said this would remove the Control Panel and Printers subfolders
from the Start | Settings menu. Next, he told me to do exactly the same thing for
a different entry in the right-hand pane, except that I was supposed to call this
one NoSetTaskbar. But this was a screwup because, as the Registry Editor
informed me, that one already existed. I looked up the list and, oops, there it
was. So I right-clicked on this New Value # 1 entry that I had just created, and
deleted it. Then I right-clicked on the pre-existing NoSetTaskbar item, chose
Modify, and tried typing in those digits (01 00 00 00) again. This time, the dialog
box looked different; it didn't let me enter spaces; and when I was done, it didn't
show a value of 01 00 00 00 in the Data column; instead, it showed 0x01000000
(16777216). I hadn't written down the previous value, but as I recalled it was
simply 1, and that's what I saw in other items above it on the list, so I modified it
again and set it to be just 1, and now it looked like those other items. (Later, I set
this value to 0, after discovering that it had also removed my ability to right-click
on the taskbar and get options there.) I saved my work and exited the Registry
Editor, counting on my backup to save me if I was wrong. I rebooted with no
problem, went back to Start | Settings, and sure enough, Control Panel and
Printers were gone; but now there was a Windows Update item there on the
Settings submenu, in addition to the Folder Options item that had been there
previously. I dunno; maybe the Windows Update item had been there already
and I just hadn't noticed it. Anyway, being even braver or more foolhardy than
before, I reasoned that perhaps it would all work right if I first deleted the
existing NoSetTaskbar item and then added it back as the MS-MVP advised. I
went into the Registry again, did this, saved and rebooted, went back to the Start

187

menu, and saw that Settings was still on the Start menu, and now so was another
new item: a Windows Update icon. They were multiplying! I stamped it out on
the Start menu but could not eradicate it from the Settings submenu. Then I had
another thought: what if removing Settings, with its Folder Options subitem,
also removed Folder Options from Windows Explorer? That would suck. I had
heard something about that sort of thing. I soon found that it was even worse
than that: I no longer had a functioning Control Panel icon anywhere! Time to
restore things to the way they had been before. Only question was, how had
they been? I went back into the Registry and deleted the NoSetFolders item,
exited, and rebooted, and that brought back the Control Panel icons. (Later, I
decided to get rid of these Control Panel icons after all, because I found another
approach I liked better. See point 145(i).) Now, what to do with the
NoSetTaskbar item? I checked the Registry on the AMD machine and saw that it
didn't even have a NoSetTaskbar item, and eventually realized that this was
probably why its Start menu still had a Settings option called "Taskbar & Start
Menu." This same part of the Registry also had a NoClose item, and I guessed
that X-Setup might have created this; it was, in any event, the reason why I had
no Start | Shut Down option. I left it that way, though, because I was fine with
using the "Bye" menu at the top of the screen (see point 143) or, in a pinch, typing
REBOOTGO at the command line (see point 130). (Later, though, I decided to
add it back, which I did by changing the value of NoClose to 0.) I exited the
Registry, rebooted, and saw that the Start Menu looked like it was about as fixed
as I was going to be able to make it. For future reference, the other items for this
part of the Registry were as follows, where you would use 01 00 00 00 if you
wanted to shut off the item (i.e., "Yes, give me NoClose" etc.) or 00 00 00 00 if you
wanted to leave the item on the Start menu:
To remove Documents, name the binary value: NoRecentDocsMenu
To remove Favorites, name the binary value: NoFavoritesMenu
To remove Find, name the binary value: NoFind
To remove Log Off, name the binary value: NoLogOff
To remove Run, name the binary value: NoRun
To disable Shut Down, name the binary value: NoClose
To disable Control Panel and Printer folders, name the binary value:
NoSetFolders
To disable Taskbar context menu, name the binary value: NoTrayContextMenu
(f) "New" Option Missing from Right-Click Context Menu. According to
http://members.xoom.com/rwbadour/html/tips_e_-_p.html, the absence of a
"New" option on the context menu meant that your Registry was damaged. I
wasn't so sure -- although I had seen one sometimes, I didn't recall ever seeing
one on the new Win98 installation that I was putting onto the PENTIUM
computer. Nonetheless, I took the advice and used Start | Run to run this line:

188

regsvr32.exe /i shdoc401.dll. (There's a different line for users of Internet


Explorer 4.) I got a dialog informing me that the thing had run successfully, but
God only knew what it had done to my Registry. It didn't do what the MS-MVP
said it would do, as I still did not have a "New" option on my context menu.
(g) Hide Network Neighborhood Icon on Desktop. I went to Start | Run |
REGEDIT and went into this key:
HKEY_USERS\.Default\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Polici
es\Explorer. I right-clicked on the right pane and chose New | DWORD Value,
which I named NoNetHood. I right-clicked on it, selected Modify, typed in the
value 1 (which gave me a result like other items that appeared there in that key),
hit Registry | Exit, and rebooted. (Note: I did this before point 145(j).)
(h) Rearranging Desktop Shortcuts. It looked like I was going to have only a few
desktop shortcuts, and that I probably had most of the ones I was going to have.
Now I decided that I wanted them at the right side of the screen. I decided this
because I had a permanent toolbar on the right side of the screen (see point
120(q)) where I had put my Show Desktop icon (see point 120(ac)). I figured it
would make things a little easier if I only had to move the mouse a tiny bit to go
from the Show Desktop icon to the actual icons that appeared on the desktop.
This involved the following steps: (1) Drag the icons where I wanted them.
There are ways to remove the names of desktop items, or at least rename them to
a blank, but I couldn't find those instructions at this moment (X-Setup only does
some of them). The other thing was that I would have to use two different
procedures to get rid of those names. As I say, there would be one procedure for
the standard desktop items, but then there would probably be some other
procedure for the items that I had added to the desktop. I mean, how do you
have a Control Panel shortcut, appearing in a desktop folder (see point 138(d)),
that has no name? For these reasons, I decided it would be easier -- and perhaps
more functional -- to keep the names with the desktop icons. (2) To keep the
icons where I wanted them after rearranging them, I applied a tip from
http://www.usalatino.net/computadoras/win98_frankenbook/chapters/0-67231235-2/ch13/ch13.htm# Heading12. It went like this: go to the same Registry
key as described in point 146(e), i.e.,
HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Polic
ies\Explorer. Find the NoSaveSettings item in the right pane. If it's not there,
add it by right-clicking in the right pane and choosing New | Binary Value.
Right-click on it, choose modify, and type 00 00 00 00. (This is in addition to the
0000 that you may already see there.) Like other such settings, the alternative is
01 00 00 00. Note: as I soon discovered, Safe Mode would still screw up my
arrangement, forcing me to do a manual rearrangement. I was not certain that it
would have done so if I hadn't had my icons at the extreme right of the screen; it

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seemed that the problem might have been related to the different resolutions
(800 x 600 in Normal Mode, 640 x 480 in Safe Mode).
(i) Always Display Startup Menu. TweakUI could do this, but I did it manually,
starting with advice from
http://malektips.envprogramming.com/98rsw0004.html. The Startup Menu
was not the Start | Programs menu. Rather, the Startup Menu was the one that
came up when you first boot the computer, after your BIOS has finished loading.
The Startup Menu gave you (usually) five choices of how to boot, including
Normal Mode, Safe Mode, and Command Mode (DOS). Normally, to see the
Startup Menu, you had to hit F8 when the BIOS is finishing its loading. But you
could also set it to show up every time you boot. This was appropriate for my
system because there would be times when Win98 wanted to boot in Safe Mode
but would be foiled by my DOS-based boot system. (See point 120(am).) By
showing the Startup Menu, at least I would see that something other than
Normal Mode was highlighted, and could tell the system to boot in the desired
way. To display the Startup Menu, I ran MSCONFIG and chose General |
Advanced | Enable Startup Menu. This created a new problem: now was that
the Startup Menu would ordinarily display itself for 30 seconds before
proceeding on to boot in whatever way it (or I) wanted, unless I told it to
proceed sooner. So if I looked away, it would just be sitting there twiddling its
thumbs for a half-minute. The only solution I knew for this was to go into
TweakUI, select Boot, and set the thing so that it would continue booting after,
say, three seconds. I checked my sources on TweakUI (see point 145(f)) and saw
that the coast was clear, so I went ahead with it. I rebooted and saw that the
timer was now down to three seconds instead of 30. I told it to go into Safe
Mode, but to no avail: the MSDOS setting intervened (see point 120(al)) and
dumped me at the DOS prompt. But then, when I typed WIN, expecting to go
into Normal Mode, the computer did honor my Safe Mode request. It put me
into Safe Mode after all. When I rebooted from Safe Mode, I selected Command
mode at the Startup Menu, but the system ignored that and put me into Normal
Mode, just as it would have done if I hadn't made my system always (or nearly
always) DOS-booting. On reflection, I decided that this was really the ideal state
of affairs: I could control the booting the way I wanted to, except when the
system had a bad desire to go one way or the other, in which case the most I
could do would be to delay the booting into Safe Mode by screwing around at
the DOS prompt for a while before typing WIN.
(j) Speed Up Program Shutdown. Sometimes, I had noticed, it could take a long
time for Windows to shut down a program after I had told it to do so in the CtrlAlt-Del dialog box. To speed this up, I went into
HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Control Panel\Desktop. I right-clicked in the righthand pane and chose New | String Value. I named it HungAppTimeout. I

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double-clicked on it and entered a value of 1000 milliseconds. I repeated these


steps for another String Value called WaitToKillAppTimeout, giving it, too, a
value of 1000. My advisor told me that the default values for these two strings
were 5000 and 20000 milliseconds, respectively, so I guessed that these string
values were built into the Registry at those values and that what I was doing
here was altering them, not really creating them. Anyway, this seemed likely to
speed things up dramatically. Apparently you could go as low as 1 millisecond,
at the risk of crashing Windows.
(k) Editing Context Menus: Bigger DOS Prompt Here. I had enabled the item
that would give me a "DOS Prompt Here" option whenever I right-clicked on a
folder in Windows Explorer. (See point 137(d).) I noticed, however, that this
option opened a standard-sized DOS window, whereas I had revised my MSDOS Prompt icons elsewhere to open larger DOS windows so that I could see
more lines. (See point 145(b).) Now that I had that feature in some DOS
windows, I was spoiled, and I wanted it in the rest of them. Editing the context
menu options required different procedures, depending on whether you were
dealing with the context menus for file icons, folders, or desktop items. File
options didn't require a Registry edit: you would just go into Windows Explorer,
choose Tools | Folder Options | File Types, select the type of file, click on Edit,
and add or change the kinds of Actions you wanted for that file type. For folder
options like this DOS Prompt Here option, I had to go into the Registry and
choose HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\Directory\Shell. There, to add a new item to
the context menu, my online sources of wisdom told me that I would take the
following steps: I would go to the Edit menu item, choose New | Key, type the
name of the item I wanted to add to the list, and hit Enter. Then I would
highlight the new key and choose Edit | New | Key again. I would name this
one "command" and hit Enter. In the right pane, I would double-click on the
default value and type the full path and filename of the application program that
I wanted to associate with that entry. But in my case, I was editing an existing
item, not adding a new one. I noticed that
HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\Directory\Shell had a subkey called DosHere, and I
could see how the "command" thing just described was working in that case:
Command was a subkey underneath DosHere, and in the right pane I saw that
the Command key did point to C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND.COM. There were
some additional parameters with it: it actually said
"C:\WINDOWS\command.com /k cd "%1"" with quotation marks exactly like
that. I wasn't too sure what it all meant, but I thought maybe I could try
tinkering ... at which point I remembered my manners and realized that I had
probably better back up the Registry first. I got out of the Registry, did that (see
the first paragraph of this point 146), and then came back to this DosHere key.
Now I could fiddle around. My idea was to find the location of one of the DOS
Prompt shortcuts that I had set the way I liked, copy it to C:\WINDOWS (so that

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it would be around even if I happened to rearrange my shortcuts), and point this


Registry item to it instead of pointing it to C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND.COM. I
didn't know if this was like having a shortcut to a shortcut, and I didn't know if
that was legal, but it's what I tried. I right-clicked on the "Default" word next to
this COMMAND.COM entry there in the Registry and chose Modify. Also, I
opened a session of Windows Explorer, which might not have been wise to do
while the Registry was being edited, but it was what I needed to do. Next
unknown: I wasn't sure I could get by with a long filename for "MS-DOS
Prompt" in this Registry thing. Also, I wanted to signal to myself that this wasn't
your ordinary DOS shortcut. So in Windows Explorer, I shortened the shortcut's
name to C:\WINDOWS\REGPRMT.PIF, and I also typed that same thing into
the Edit String box that had appeared when I chose Modify in the Registry
Editor. I left the Edit String box hanging for a minute, went back to Windows
Explorer, and further edited the Properties for REGPRMT.PIF as follows: (1) In
its Program tab, I saw that it, like the Registry entry, referred to
C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND.COM, so I added the /k switch here and I took it
away from the Registry entry because, while /k might have meant a lot to
COMMAND.COM, I was willing to bet that it didn't mean anything to a PIF file.
(2) I was tempted to add a space and a question mark after the /k switch on the
REGPRMT.PIF command line, as I had recently done in with my WILDCARD
icon (see point 145(o)), but then I realized that this would give me a dialog box
asking what folder I wanted to open a DOS prompt for. I didn't want that; I
wanted the right-click DOS Prompt Here selection to do it automatically. So I
went with the "%1" variable approach: I put that, in quotes, on both the Registry
line and the REGPRMT.PIF command line, with a CD in front of the latter. (I had
belatedly figured out that the CD was the ordinary DOS CD (i.e., Change
Directory) command, and that this was how the thing would know which folder
we were going to open a DOS prompt for.) In other words, the command line for
REGPRMT.PIF was now exactly what it had been for the Registry item, as shown
above, except that there wasn't a second set of quotes around it all; and the
command line for the Registry item was now C:\WINDOWS\REGPRMT.PIF
"%1" which, when I hit Enter, became wrapped in another set of quotes, as the
original entry had been. I went back to the REGPRMT.PIF Properties screen,
changed its tooltip name (on the Programs tab) to DOS Box Here, set it to Run
Minimized, and closed it. Then I opened its Properties again, switched to the
General tab, made it read-only, and exited. I closed down Windows Explorer,
exited the Registry, and rebooted. I went into Windows Explorer, right-clicked
on a folder, chose DOS Prompt Here, and got a dialog box that said, "Windows
cannot find REGPRMT.PIF." Well, that was interesting. Its Properties showed
that its MS-DOS name was actually REGPRM~1.PIF; it seemed weird that it was
getting a shortened (tilde ~) filename when its name was only seven letters long.
I copied it, renamed the copy R.PIF, and looked at the Properties for that. Its
DOS filename was RPIF~1.PIF. Bizarre. OK, I deleted R.PIF. I renamed

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REGPRMT.PIF to be REGPRMPT.PIF, since I liked that better. I looked at its


Properties, and now its DOS filename was REGPRM~2.PIF. I thought I
remembered hearing that the Registry kept track of every file that ever was, even
if they were gone, and assigned them these Tilde filenames to keep them all
straight. So what would happen after I ran a registry cleaning program -- would
this file then have the name of REGPRM~1.PIF? I renamed it to DPHERE.PIF
and looked at the Properties again. Now it was DPHERE~1.PIF. OK, I went
back into the Registry, and modified the line to read
C:\WINDOWS\DPHERE~1.PIF "%1" and exited the Registry and tried it
without bothering to reboot. And you know what? It worked! I decided to
change its name back from DOS Box Here, since that's what appeared on the title
line, and I saw that running it minimized instead of Normal was a mistake
because, that way, it appeared only on the taskbar until I brought it back to
regular size. So I fixed those things and I was set. Later, I discovered that it was
always opening this window in C:\Temp, regardless of which folder I clicked on.
The culprit, I found, was that there should not be quotation marks around the %1
after all, in either the Registry or in DPHERE.PIF, and also that I should not have
a line like CD \TEMP in DOSSTART.BAT, which I had set DPHERE.PIF to run
(so that each DOS box would start with DOSKEY running and with the right
PATH statement). (See point 120(am).)
(l) Remove Unwanted Right-Click Options for Files. So now I knew a little about
editing the context menus. (See point 146(k).) I needed that knowledge, because
CloseAll had inserted an entry in the context menu, and that entry persisted after
I used Control Panel | Add/Remove Programs to uninstall the program. (See
point 141(s).) I went to the same HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\Directory\Shell
location in the Registry. (Evidently Windows Explorer was a directory shell,
whatever that meant.) I clicked once on Shell and hit the asterisk key on the
numeric keypad on my keyboard, to expand all its subfolders, and I arrowed
down through them, but I didn't see anything that looked relevant to CloseAll. I
decided to try installing CloseAll again, this time through the embrace of InCtrl4.
(See point 141(d).) I exited the Registry, turned on InCtrl4, browsed to the
E:\Temp\Staging Area folder where I had put the CloseAll installation files, set
it to Disk Contents Comparison, and hit Go. InCtrl4 took some time, but when it
was done it gave me a complete report of what had happened during
installation. Now I wanted to produce another report for the uninstallation
process, for purposes of comparison; but I didn't know what program to tell
InCtrl4 to track. I fired up PrcView (see point 141(f)) and saved a copy of its
process view as BEFORE.TXT; I started Add/Remove Programs and saved
another PrcView as AFTER.TXT; I compared them using FC; and from this
comparison of running processes, I concluded that Add/Remove Programs was
using RUNDLL32.EXE and WINOA386.MOD, the latter being short for
Windows Old Applications, I believe. This was pretty murky to me, so I posted

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a question about it online, but nobody snapped to attention within the


increasingly short amounts of time remaining on my patience horizon, so I
forged ahead on my own. I started InCtrl4 again, browsed to
C:\WINDOWS\RUNDLL32.EXE on the command line, typed WINOA386.MOD
on the parameters line, and hit go. InCtrl4 ran, all right, but it reported no
changes. So InCtrl4 wasn't going to help me this time around. Fortunately, by
now I had found that I had been making a mistake all along here: everything
that I wanted to remove -- or at least everything that really got in my way -involved the context menu for folders, not files. Also, by this time my attempts
to tinker with folder context menus had incidentally led me to the location of the
CloseAll folder menu item. (See next paragraph.) So I had solved the problem
while trying to do something else. Also, for future reference, by this time I had
downloaded a copy of PC Magazine's MenuEdit utility, which seemed like it
might be useful for some kinds of file- (not folder-) related context menu editing
in the future. (See point 141(t).)
(m) Remove Unwanted Right-Click Options for Folders. PowerDesk, I believe,
was responsible for adding a bunch of new options to my context menus. Some
of those options came up when I right-clicked on folders. This included the Start
button itself which, I was told, would function like any other folder for these
purposes. So if I edited the Registry to remove unwanted options from folder
context menus, they would also disappear from the Start button's context menu.
Anyway, there were evidently two ways to get rid of folder context menu
options. Either you could search the Registry for the name of the individual
menu entry and delete it, or you could edit the Registry so that these options
would become editable through Windows Explorer's View | Folder Options |
File Types menu. The latter sounded safer and more flexible, so I chose that
route. The change was simple enough: in the Registry, go to
HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\Folder, right-click on EditFlags, choose Modify, and
replace the present value with D2 01 00 00. That's already what it was in my
case, so (duh) it appeared that I could have made the change simply by going
into Windows Explorer's View | Folder Options | File Types menu, as just
described. I bailed out of the Registry and tried that. Once I was there, I hit the
letter F to get to the vicinity of the "Folders" file type. I saw I had two different
folder types: one was "File Folder," which was set to open with Explorer, and the
other was simply "Folder," which was set to open with "PDEXPLO," which I
guessed meant PowerDesk Explorer. I had checked previously and had verified
that the unwanted context menu options appeared in both Windows Explorer
and PowerDesk Explorer. Starting with the "File Folder" type, I clicked on Edit,
but saw that unfortunately there were only two unwanted actions here. I clicked
on the first one, "File Finder," but found that the Remove button did not light up.
Same for the second option, which was simply "Find." I went to the "Folder" (i.e.,
PowerDesk) file type and tried again. Here, there were three options that I

194

wanted to remove: PowerDesk, Explore, and CloseAllWindows. (See point


146(l).) Unfortunately, only the CloseAllWindows option was actually
removable. When I did remove it, I saw that it was gone from the context menus
for both Windows Explorer and PowerDesk Explorer -- which suggested that I
was looking for only one set, not two sets, of unwanted context menu options.
The next bit of advice I found online was to go into the Registry, to
HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\Directory\Shell, and delete any offending keys that I
might find there, and also under HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\Folder\Shell. I had
been in this neighborhood just recently (see point 146(l)), but on a different
mission. This time, I saw keys for File Finder and also for Find. I looked at their
Command subkeys and, sure enough, the one for File Finder pointed to the
PowerDesk program folder. I exited, backed up the Registry, came back in, and
deleted it. Now, Find was a little trickier -- it pointed to Windows Explorer's
EXPLORER.EXE program -- but I realized that this key was just running WinEx
for a particular purpose; I was not actually deleting Windows Explorer. So I
deleted the Find key too. Under the Shell key just mentioned, I found subkeys
for Explore, Open, and PowerDesk. Each of them had a command subkey (see
point 146(k)), which gave me more confidence that I was dealing with the right
kind of item. I deleted the PowerDesk key without much hesitation. Open, I
knew, had to stay. How about Explore? The only time I ever really used it was
to open the Start | Programs menu structure by right-clicking on the Start
button. I decided to copy down the contents of its Command subkey, which
were as follows: C:\WINDOWS\Explorer.exe /e,/idlist,%I,%L. I knew, by
now, that I could accomplish the same thing just by going into Start | Programs,
double-clicking on one of the submenus shown there, and navigating within the
Explorer box that would open up for me then. So I deleted Explore too. I exited
the Registry, rebooted, and went into Windows Explorer and PowerDesk to see
how it looked. Well, it was definitely an improvement. The only remaining
objectionable folder context menu item was PowerDesk, which somehow had not
disappeared. I went back into the Registry and used Edit | Find to search for
PowerDesk. I found a bunch of references to PowerDesk, but none referred to
Shell ... until I got back to the same Folder\Shell key as before, and saw that
PowerDesk was back! I deleted it again, but it seemed that PowerDesk knew
how to resuscitate itself. I searched some more and found several Shell keys
under various PowerDesk keys, but since they weren't familiar to me, I left them
alone. I exited the Registry, tried to load PowerDesk before rebooting, and got
an error message indicating that PowerDesk had performed an illegal operation
and would be shut down. I rebooted and tried PowerDesk again. It started this
time, but the PowerDesk context menu item was still there. I gave up and sent
an e-mail to support@mijenix.com. A few days later, they responded.
(n) Bad Advice from Mijenix. Their first answer was along the lines of, "Gee, I
don't know if it is possible to edit the context menu to get rid of that item." I

195

tried again and got another reply, from a different person, who said that he had
tried something and it had seemed to work. Not very confidence-inspiring! But
I went with his suggestion, which was to delete this key:
HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\PowerDesk Archive\shell\open\command. I noticed
that there was also a
HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\PowerDesk\shell\open\command key (i.e., without
the word "Archive"), and I didn't know for sure what the difference was between
PowerDesk and PowerDesk Archive, but I did it his way. I should have looked
at the context menu before doing this, to make sure I would recognize what had
changed, if anything. As I recalled, "PowerDesk" had been in big bold letters at
the top of the context menu. If so, this had done something: "PowerDesk" now
appeared in normal letters partway down the menu. But I checked on the AMD
machine, whose Registry I had not edited, and that's how it was there too, so
evidently the advice did not accomplish what I had wanted. So what had I done
by deleting that key? I wondered whether I should restore the Registry, just to
be on the safe side; but then I thought I would rather just keep on using
PowerDesk, and if I ran into no difficulties, I would assume that the key deletion
had done some kind of good. By this time, I had worked through the process of
restoring a backup copy of the Registry (see point 147), so I was more or less
prepared when, after rebooting, I got this message: "Windows could not
upgrade one or more system files before starting. Windows may not start or run
properly. If Windows fails to start, run SETUP again. Press any key to
continue." I did so, and the system froze. I rebooted from a floppy, rearranged
the excess CAB files from H:\Backup so that they would not get in the way (see
point 148), ran SCANREG /RESTORE, rebooted without difficulty, and redid the
installations that I had done since making that Registry backup -- which,
fortunately, had been only one hour before. I restored the other CAB files to
H:\Backup and noticed that, even though I was now keeping a dozen backups of
the Registry, they still stretched back only six days and would have extended
back even less than that if I had been making Registry backups as frequently as
my many edits, during these days, would warrant.
Restoring a Backup Copy of the Registry
147. Fixing a Startup "Pop" Problem. To find the source of the two little pops
that I just mentioned, that occurred each time I rebooted, I went into the Startup
tab in MSINFO32 (see point 146(d)) to see if some new program was trying to
start on reboot. Unfortunately, I saw nothing new. Then I ran SYSEDIT (i.e.,
Start | Run | Sysedit) and looked in WIN.INI for lines beginning with Load= or
Run=. Again, no luck. I closed that and ran REGEDIT. They said I was
supposed to look in HKEY_CURRENT_USER\
SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\ for programs listed under
either the Run or the RunOnce subkeys. Nothing noteworthy in either place.

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Next, I went to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\


SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\ and looked at Run,
RunOnce, RunServices, and RunServicesOnce. Apparently the keys just listed
are the ones that control what programs will load at startup. I saw some items
that had appeared during my glance at MSINFO32, but again nothing surprising.
There were a couple of items in subkeys under Run that could conceivably have
been the problem, but I really had no idea what they did, and I wasn't about to
delete them. I was out of my depth. It was time to get out of the Registry and
use my cleanup utilities to maybe get rid of a program that was trying to do
something with the no-longer-existing POLEDIT. The system cleanup utilities
that I had recently reviewed and installed were SCANREG (or its Windows
cousin, SCANREGW), EasyCleaner (see point 139(b)), Clean System Directory
(see point 141(e)), and WinMag's Registry Pruner (see point 141(j)), and I
discovered that I had also forgotten CHECKLINKS (see point 119(a)). I rebooted
into real DOS and ran SCANREG /FIX. Then I came back into Windows and ran
EasyCleaner's "Clean Registry" option. It found eight invalid references, and I
selected them and told it to delete them. I hadn't paid attention when Windows
was rebooting, but now I rebooted to see if I could still hear those two little pops.
I got distracted again during reboot. While in Windows, I took a moment to
change the icons for the Shutdown toolbar (see point 143) so that most of them
(except REBOOTER) would run minimized and would close upon exit. I
rebooted again, and this time the system froze. I cold-rebooted, and this time it
booted into Normal Mode without difficulty. I think the explanation was that
SCANREG detected a screwed Registry and replaced it with a good one. To test
this, I looked at the CAB files in C:\WINDOWS\SYSBCKUP. (See point 132.) I
couldn't be certain, but it appeared that my most recent backups were not there.
But no, the more interesting point was that the most recent CAB file was from
just twenty minutes ago, and was named RBBAD.CAB, unlike the others, which
were named RB000.CAB and RB001.CAB and so forth. The other interesting
thing was that there were a total of only nine files there, whereas I had gone back
into SCANREG.INI an hour or two earlier (and had not yet noted the fact here)
and had changed the number of backups to 12. Could that be too great a
number? Was that the problem? I deleted RBBAD.CAB, went to
C:\WINDOWS\SCANREG.INI, changed the line to MaxBackupCopies=10 (see
point 120(an)), saved that file, and rebooted. That wasn't the explanation for the
pops, though, because I heard them again. Since I seemed to have an otherwise
working Registry, I ran Registry Checker (see the first paragraph of point 146)
and made a backup of the Registry. Then I looked again at the CAB files, to be
sure that it had made this backup. It had, but a curious thing was going on: the
program seemed to be cycling through the same numbers rather than adding
new ones. That is, this backup had been saved as RB002.CAB, and the highest
numbered CAB file was still RB008.CAB. I ran Registry Checker again, made
another backup, and took another look. No, this time it had added RB009.CAB.

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I changed the number back to 12 in SCANREG.INI. Now another idea suggested


itself. In each of these reboots, I had left Control Panel open, so that it would
come back up on reboot and remind me of something that I wanted to look at in
it; and each time, I had noticed that only half of its icons had been colored in. I
had assumed that the source of the pops was interfering with the coloring
process, but now I wondered whether it was the other way around. I closed
Control Panel and rebooted. But no, that wasn't it; the pops were still there. I
ran RegistryPruner. It found one item -- FFASTLOG.TXT -- whose linked DLL
no longer existed. I removed it. I ran CHECKLINKS. It found six dead links; I
told it to remove them. I ran Clean System Directory, which now appeared to
duplicate the functions of one or more of the other programs just mentioned; it
did find files that appeared to be unused, but now I remembered that I had
hesitated to turn it loose on the files it couldn't recognize, so I just cancelled out.
Lacking other ideas, I posted a note online and waited for enlightenment. I did
get a response. (See point 148.)
148. Identifying and Using a Previous Copy of the Registry. The advice I got,
about fixing the pops that seemed to come from my tinkering with POLEDIT,
was to run SCANREG /RESTORE in real DOS and restore a copy of the Registry
that dated from before my tinkering with POLEDIT. This seemed like a good
way to free myself from worrying about what damage I might have done by
running another seemingly inappropriate Registry fix as well. (See point 146(f).)
The only problem was that, by that time, I did not remember exactly when I had
done the POLEDIT tinkering. If I restored a copy of the Registry that was too
old, I would lose other, earlier changes as well; but if I restored one that was too
new, the startup pops would still be there, so I would have to do it again with
the next earlier copy of the Registry. I decided that the latter was the better
course of action. I ran SCANREG /RESTORE, but it showed me only five or six
backups, whereas I had set the number to 12. (See point 147.) I canceled and
went to C:\WINDOWS\SYSBCKUP. (Note: this is a hidden folder. It won't
show up in DIR unless you type DIR /AH. Or you can just change directories to
it, i.e., CD \WINDOWS\SYSBCKUP.) There, I saw 12 CAB files, numbered from
RB000 through RB011. I moved the oldest ones to C:\TEMP, leaving five CABs
in C:\WINDOWS\SYSBCKUP. (Note: the CAB files were not numbered
chronologically. For example, RB008.CAB was older than RB002.CAB.) (To
move these CAB files, I used the old DOS utility RED, short for Redirect: RED
RB001.CAB \TEMP. It's RED.COM, dated 11/28/84, and I think it came from
PC Magazine. You can use COPY instead, or maybe you have a MOVE utility
that will accomplish the same thing; and of course you can do it in Windows
Explorer.) After moving those older CABs out of the way, I now saw five recent
registry backups in C:\WINDOWS\SYSBCKUP. There was only one from the
present day and one from the previous day. I knew I had had the two-pops
problem on the previous day, but I wasn't sure when, so I started by restoring

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that one. (Use your up and down arrow keys and your Tab key to navigate
here.) SCANREG then made me restart the computer. I did this, went into
Windows, and still got the two pops. I went back into real DOS and tried again.
I saw that I had made three CAB files on the next preceding day, so this time I
instructed SCANREG /RESTORE to use the last of those three. Again I rebooted
into Windows, and again I got the two pops. I tried again with the second of
those three CAB files. Along about this time, I realized that SCANREG was
changing the dates and times of my CAB files, making a holy hash out of them,
so that I would not be able to figure out which of the CAB files contained my
most recent Registry backup. That's how it looked within SCANREG, anyway. I
canceled out and looked at the SYSBCKUP directory in DOS, and saw that what
was really happening was that SCANREG was creating copies of those original
CAB files with today's date. The way to tell them apart was that the copies were
much larger (around 5 MB) than the originals (around 1 MB). SCANREG was
giving the copies new numbers, like RB003.CAB, which happened to be used also
by the CAB files that I had moved to C:\TEMP. So when I brought those files
back from C:\TEMP, they would overwrite these newly created copies. Or,
more to the point, this list of copies was cluttering up the list of originals that
SCANREG was showing me. For all I could tell, I had been re-installing the same
CAB file, last of the three that I had made on the second preceding day. So I
renamed the CAB files that looked like copies to be e.g., RB003.CP1, and moved
them to C:\TEMP. While in DOS, I verified that SCANREG was showing me the
files in the proper order, i.e., that the most recent ones were on top. Just to be
safe, I tried again on the second of those three CAB files, confirmed that it still
gave me the two pops, and then tried the first of the three. No pops! Now I just
had to clean up. I went into C:\TEMP, deleted the CP1 files I had just created,
and moved the CAB files back to C:\WINDOWS\SYSBCKUP, letting them
overwrite existing CAB files if necessary. And now I could begin reconstructing
things.
149. Reconstructing After Restoring a Registry Backup. The Registry backup
that succeeded in removing the two pops (see previous paragraph) was more
than 48 hours old, so evidently I was going to be losing two days' worth of
Registry changes. Since I was really doing nothing on the PENTIUM computer
except installing and tinkering with software as described here, I hoped that my
notes in this document would allow me to bring my system back exactly to
where I had taken it, as described in point 146. I could see two different ways of
proceeding at this point:
(a) Having restored the Registry to its condition two days earlier, I could figure
out which of the changes described in point 146 (and earlier) had already been
achieved by that time, and then I could re-do the remaining changes that had not
yet occurred by that time. (Obviously, I would leave out ill-advised steps,

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specifically the POLEDIT tinkering and the MS-MVP advice described in point
146(f), both of which had failed to work as hoped.) One problem with this
approach was that I could not be absolutely certain that I would retrace all of the
steps. Admittedly, this document presents a highly linear description of my
actions, with action A generally coming before action B; but in some cases it has
been necessary to revise earlier notes or otherwise depart from a strict linear
treatment. So starting with point 144, or 146(a), or whatever, might leave out
some steps. Also, it could be potentially time-consuming to figure out where in
the process I had made that Registry backup.
(b) Alternately, I could use an approach that others recommended. The basic
idea was that I would export copies of the Registry as text files, and would then
compare those text files. The copies to compare would be the Registry in its most
recent condition, with all the bells and whistles (including the ones I didn't
want), and the Registry in its stable condition, from two days ago. Whatever else
this approach might be, it would be exact: I would see every single difference
between the two versions of the Registry. WinDiff (see point 119(a)) was the
recommended tool for comparing these files, although they said you could also
use your word processor or even the old FC tool from DOS.
I decided to use the second approach. Following the advice, I went into my new
Registry -- i.e., the one that I had restored from two days ago. (Again, I got there
by using Start | Run | REGEDIT.) I selected My Computer at the top of the lefthand pane and chose Registry | Export Registry File. I saved the file as
C:\TEMP\BEFORE.TXT. I chose that name because, although it was now the
current state of my operating system, it was also two days old. Now I needed to
create AFTER.TXT, using a similar technique. AFTER.TXT would reflect the
most recent version of my operating system, containing all the latest changes -which, I knew, would include the bugs that I wanted to get rid of. To create
AFTER.TXT, I needed to restore today's Registry backup and then export
AFTER.TXT from it, using the steps just described. (Or, more precisely, I needed
to restore the first of today's Registry backups. I had done another after the
moment when I had first begun this whole SCANREG procedure.
Unfortunately, when I rebooted into real DOS, I saw that SCANREG /RESTORE
showed no Registry backups from today. I rebooted into Windows, looked at
C:\WINDOWS\SYSBCKUP, and remembered the problem: SCANREG would
show only five or six backups. I would still have expected it to show the most
recent ones, but apparently it didn't always work that way after all. (Maybe
increasing the number of backups beyond the original five (see point 147) caused
SCANREG to become somewhat confused