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Final Digestion and Absorption

Chapter 11-
The Small
 After the stomach, the thick liquid enters the small intestine

 Small Intestine- part of the digestive system where most of

the chemical digestion takes place.

 Almost all chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients

takes place in the small intestine

 The liquid mixes with enzymes and secretions produced from

3 different organs
The Role of the Liver
 Liver- located in the upper portion of the abdomen, it is the
largest and heaviest organ inside the body

 The liver breaks down medicines and other substances

 Liver produced bile- substance that breaks up fat particles

 Bile flows from the liver to the gallbladder- organ that stores

 Bile flows from the gallbladder into the small intestine after

 Bile breaks up large fat particles

Help from the Pancreas
Pancreas- triangular organ that lies
between the stomach and the first
part of the small intestine
Pancreas produces enzymes that
flow into the small intestine to help
breakdown starches, proteins, and
Absorption in the Small
Intestine  Villi- tiny finger-like structures covering the
surface of the small intestine that absorb
nutrient molecules

 Nutrient molecules pass from cells on the

surface of a villus into blood vessels

 Villi increase the surface area of the small

intestine to increase the rate of digestion
The Large Intestine
 Large intestine- Shapes like a horseshoe, it is the last section of the
digestive system

 Contains E. coli bacteria that feed on material passing through and

make certain vitamins, including vitamin K

 Water is absorbed through the large intestine and into the


 Remaining waste material is readied for elimination from the body

 Rectum- short section at the end of the large intestine that

compresses waste material into a solid form

 Anus- muscular opening at the end of the rectum where waste

material is eliminated from the body
The Digestive System
 What two digestive processes occur in the small intestine?

 Which nutrient is absorbed in the large intestine?

 How do the liver and pancreas function in the digestive process?

 Some people are allergic to a protein in wheat. When these people

eat foods made with wheat, a reaction destroys the villiin the
small intestine. What problems would you expect these people to