# Energy and mass A2 Unit 5

Einstein showed in 1905 that energy and mass are equivalent. Mass is simply another form of energy, and they are related via = • • • = energy (J) = mass (kg) = speed of light in free space = 3.00 × 10

If a 65kg man accelerates from rest to a speed of 7 ms-1, by how much has his mass increased compared with when he is at rest?

Atomic Mass Unit (u)
It is useful to define a unit of mass on the atomic scale. This is the atomic mass unit, u; 1 If 1 = 1.60 × 10 = 1.661 × 10 ≈ 931.3 .

, verify that 1

• • • •

= 5.5 × 10 = 9.11 × 10 = 1.00728 = 1.673 × 10 = 1.00867 > ≫ = 1.675 × 10

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Energy and mass A2 Unit 5
Energy changes in reactions
The polonium isotope emits an particle to form a stable isotope of lead. Write down an equation to represent this reaction and calculate the energy released.

Binding energy
The binding energy of a nucleus is the work that must be done to separate a nucleus into its constituent neutrons and protons. As work must be done to separate the nucleons, energy is released when the nucleus was formed. This energy released is equal to the binding energy, and the release of energy results in a slightly lower mass: The mass defect, ∆m of a nucleus is the difference between the mass of the separated nucleons and the mass of the nucleus. The nuclear mass of the bismuth isotope is 211.80012u. What is its binding energy?

Binding energy per nucleon
The binding energy per nucleon is the work done to remove the average nucleon from a given nucleus. It is, therefore, a measure of stability of a nucleus. What is the binding energy per nucleon of the bismuth isotope ?

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