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SUPERTRAINING

Sixth Edition-Expanded Version

Yuri Verkhoshansky
Mel C. Siff

CONTENTS
Acknowledgements.i

1. STRENGTH AND THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM1


Objectives
What is Strength?
The Origins of Strength Training Science
Pioneers of Strength Training
The Divergence of Training Philosophies
The Modern Era Dawns
The Fundamental Principle of Strength Training
Neural Changes with Training
Strength Deficit

1.1 Preliminary Issues.10


1.1.1 Resistance Training for Different Purposes...10
1.1.2 Factors limiting Strength Production.12
Trainability
Neuromuscular Efficiency Biomechanical Efficiency Psychological Factors Pain and Fear of Pain
Injury and Fear of Injury Fatigue

1.2 Fundamental Biomechanics of Strength17


Biomechanics and Training Initial Implications of Mechanics Mass and Acceleration Issues
Muscle Tension and Training Stimulus Application of Basic Biomechanics

1.3 A Philosophy of Physical Training.24


1.4 Specificity in Training.27
1.5 Strength and Fitness32
Fitness, Preparedness and Work Capacity

1.6 The Nature of Strength33


Determinants of Strength Shock Training and Plyometrics Strength and Connective Tissue

1.7 The Muscle Complex...35


1.7.1 The Structure of Muscle35
Further Muscle Research

1.7.2 A Model of the Muscle Complex.40


Further Information on Collagenous Tissues
The Structure and Function of Ligaments and Tendons
Mechanical Loading of Collagenous Tissue
The Role of Stored Elastic Energy
The Influence of Exercise on Connective Tissue
A Modified Muscle Model

1.7.3 Implications of the Muscle Model for Flexibility..48


1.7.4 The Relationship between Stability and Mobility.48

1.8 Classification of Muscle Actions.49


1.9 Cocontraction and Ballistic Movement..50
1.10 Types of Muscle Action..51
Quasi-isometric Action

1.11 The Triphasic Nature of Muscle Action54

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1.12 Types of Muscle Fibre55


Slow and Fast Twitch Muscle Fibres
Muscle Protein Isoforms
Muscle Fibres and Training
Further Aspects of Muscle Plasticity
The Implications of Ballistic Research

1.13 The Mechanism of Muscle Growth...65


The Effects of High versus Moderate Intensity Exercise

1.14 Neurophysiological Aspects of Exercise69


1.15 Bioenergetics and the Energy Systems..73
1.15.1
1.15.2
1.15.3
1.15.4
1.15.5
1.15.6
1.15.7

The Energy Systems and Types of Activity..74


Energy Mechanisms..75
The Short-Term Energy System ...76
The Intermediate Energy System .77
The Long-Term Energy System78
Implications for Physical Conditioning.79
Hormonal Factors and Strength Training..82

1.16 Adaptation and the Training Effect..82


The Effects of Stress

1.16.1 The General Adaptation Syndrome.83


Adaptive Reconstruction versus Supercompensation

1.16.2 The Biochemistry of Adaptation in Sport85


The Specificity of Biochemical Adaptation
The Sequence of Biochemical Changes during Training

1.16.3 General Theories of the Training Process87


Single-Factor Model of Training
Two-Factor Model of Training
The Concept of Progressive Overload Training

1.16.4 A Model of Physical Fitness91

2.

SPORT SPECIFIC STRENGTH TRAINING..95


Special Strength Training
The Russian System of Classifying Athletes
The Early Stages of Strength Training

2.1 Schemes for Perfecting Movements...97


2.1.1 Increasing the Working-Effect of Movements 97
2.1.2 Perfecting the Motor Structure of Sports Movements .100
The Kinematic Pair
The Kinematic Chain
The Kinematic System

2.1.3 Perfecting the Kinesiological Pattern of Movements..105

2.2 Specialisation to Develop Sports Mastery107


2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.4

Specific Forms of Producing Muscular Strength107


Sports Implications of Strength Indices...109
The Functional Topography of the Muscular System 110
Motor Specialisation in Developing Sports Mastery...112
Heterochronicity
Specialisation Processes

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2.3 Characteristics of Physical Fitness...116


2.3.1 The Structure of Physical Fitness116
2.3.2 The Interrelation between Motor Abilities..117
General and Partial Connections
Essential and Non-essential Connections
Positive and Negative Connections
Direct and Indirect Connections

2.3.3 The Structure of Motor Abilities..120


2.3.4 General Concepts of the Structure of Physical Fitness120

3. FACTORS INFLUENCING STRENGTH PRODUCTION..125


3.1 The Regimes of Muscular Work..125
3.2 Qualitative Characteristics of Strength...129
3.2.1 Explosive Strength...129
Quickness and Reactive Ability
Speed, Speed-Strength and Quickness

3.2.2 Strength-Endurance.142

3.3 The Influence of External Conditions on Strength..144


3.3.1 The Influence of the Pre-working State of the Muscles..144
3.3.2 The Effect of the Load on Speed of Muscle Contraction146
Contraction Speed and Strength in Acyclic Activity
Limitations of the Force-Velocity Relationship
Contraction Strength and Speed in Cyclic Activities

3.3.3 The Effect of Strength on Speed of Muscle Action.149


Speed-Strength and Strength-Speed
The Interrelation between Strength and Other Fitness Factors

3.3.4 The Relationship between Strength and Posture.152


3.3.4.1 Strength Variation with Postural Change.152
3.3.4.2 Strength, Safety and Pelvic Tilt153
3.3.4.3 The Effect of Head Position on Strength..154
3.3.4.4 Strength, Symmetry and Limb Alignment....155
3.3.5 The Dependence of Strength on Bodymass.155
3.3.6 The Relationship between Strength and Height...159
3.3.7 The Relationship between Strength and Age...159
3.3.8 The Relationship between Strength and Gender..161
3.3.9 The Increase in Human Strength over Time161

3.4 Factors increasing the Working Effect of Strength162


3.4.1 The Warm-up and Pre-Activity Preparation...162
3.4.2 The After-effect of Muscle Activity164
3.4.3 Additional Movement. 166
3.4.4 Preparatory Movement ...167
3.4.5 Coordination in Muscular Work167
3.4.6 Efficiency of Energy Expenditure.168
3.4.7 Emotion and other Psychological Factors.170
3.4.8 The Effect of Cold Application.171
3.4.9 Breathing and Strength Production172
3.4.10 Strength Development and Proprioception ..173
3.5 Flexibility and Sporting Performance..174
3.5.1 A Definition of Flexibility...174
3.5.2 The Effects of Stretching.176
3.5.3 The Neuromuscular Component of Flexibility176
3.5.4 Components of Joint Flexibility..179
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3.5.5
3.5.6

Parameters of Flexibility..179
Soft Tissue Biomechanics and Flexibility...180
Flexibility, Stability and Muscle Activity

3.5.7 The Influence of Exercise on Connective Tissue...182


3.5.8 Stretching Techniques...183
The Use of Ballistic Stretching

3.5.9 Low Flexibility versus Non-Functional Muscle Tension..187

3.6 The Stretching Matrix System...188


Is Stretching Always Necessary?

3.7 The Movement Matrix System..193


Limitations of Anatomical Movement Analysis

4. THE MEANS OF SPECIAL STRENGTH TRAINING..201


4.1 The Problem of Training Means......201
4.1.1 Characteristics of Strength Increase201
4.1.2 The Effect of Strength Training Means ..204
Algebraic Relations and Training
Steps Towards Structuring the Training Process

4.2 Different Means of Strength Development..207


4.2.1 Electrostimulation..208
4.2.1.1 The Physiological Effects of Electrostimulation.208
4.2.1.2 Reasons for Conflicting Research ...209
4.2.1.3 Clinical Applications of Electrostimulation210
4.2.1.4 Further Research Findings...213
4.2.1.5 An Integrated Theory of Electrostimulation ..214
4.2.1.6 The Use of Electrostimulation in Training..214
The Integrated Use of Electrostimuiation
Sports Functional Electrostimulation
Overtraining and Restoration
Concluding Remarks

4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4

Resistance and Strength Training216


Kinetic Energy and Strength Processes...220
Isometric Training223
Isometric Training and Angular Specificity
Isometric Endurance
Recovery after Isometric Activity
Other Aspects of Isometric Activity
Loadless Training

4.2.5 Eccentric Training230


4.2.6 Isokinetic and Other Training Means..231
4.2.6.1 The Isokinetic Training Method .231
4.2.6.2 Limitations of the Isokinetic Method .233
Fundamental Biomechanics of Isokinetic Devices
Recommended Strength Ratios
Functional Anatomy
Muscle Physiology
The Importance of Specificity
Concluding Remarks

4.2.6.3 Static-Dynamic Methods236


4.2.6.4 Choice of Muscle Training Regimes.......236
4.2.7 The Use Of Training Machines237
4.2.7.1 Functional Resistance Machines..237
4.2.7.2 Non-Functional Resistance Machines..238
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4.2.7.3 Machines and the Variable Resistance Philosophy.239


4.2.7.4 The Training Safety of Machines239
4.2.7.5 The Efficiency of Machine Training239
4.2.8 The Concept of Symmetric Training..240
4.2.9 The Concept of Muscle Isolation ..241

4.3 Dynamic Correspondence as a Means of Strength Training..241


4.3.1 The Amplitude and Direction of Movement..242
Parachute Resistance Training

4.3.2 The Accentuated Region of Force Production.244


4.3.3 The Dynamics of the Effort.245
4.3.4 The Rate and Time of Maximal Force Production..246
4.3.5 The Regime of Muscular Work...247
4.3.6 Correspondence of Training Means to the Sports Movements..247

4.4 Strength Training and General Endurance248


Oxidative Capacity and Muscular Endurance
Strength Training and General Endurance
The Process of Functional Specialisation
Factor Analysis

5. THE METHODS OF SPECIAL STRENGTH TRAINING255


5.1 The Problem of Methods...255
Some Implications of the Laws of Dynamics

5.2 General Principles of Special Strength Training257


5.2.1 The Development of Maximum Strength ..258
The Repetitive Effort Method
The Brief Maximal Tension Method

5.2.2 Autoregulating Progressive Resistance Exercise (APRE)...261


5.2.3 The Development of Speed-Strength..264
5.2.4 The Development of Explosive Strength and Reactive Ability..267
The Plyometric Method
Plyometrics as a Discrete Training System
Plyometric Training and Safety
The Fundamental Theory of Plyometrics
The Prescription of Plyometric Exercise
Asymmetric Plyometrics
Non-Impact Plyometrics
Non-Impact Plyometrics in Sports Training
Resisted and Water Plyometric Training
Analysis of Popular Texts on Plyometrics
Plyometrics and the Brain
Various Shock Methods

5.2.5 The Development of Strength-Endurance285

5.3 Application of Special Strength Training Means.287


5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3

Interaction between Different Training Means....291


A Sequential System of Training Means.....291
The Conjugate Sequence System of Training Means..292

5.4 The Principal Aims of Special Strength Training294


5.4.1
5.4.2
5.4.3
5.4.4

5.5
5.6

Converging the Partial Effects of Strength Training Means294


Acceleration of Specific Adaptation ...296
Specific Correspondence of The Training Effect ...296
Maintaining the Strength Training Effect297

Cross Training in Sport.298


Circuit Training.300
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6.
6.1

ORGANISATION OF TRAINING.313
The Development of Training Organisation...313
Ways of Organising Training314

6.2

Periodisation as a Form of Organisation.316


Definitions and Fundamental Concepts
Preparatory Phases of Training
Further Phases and Principles
Acquisition and Stabilisation of Technical Skills

6.2.1 Types of Periodisation.319


6.2.2 Calculation of the Parameters of Periodisation ..323
Drawing up the Periodisation Scheme
Cybernetic Programming and Periodisation
Training Intensity, Heart Rate and Other Tests
Non Technological Testing

6.2.3 The Relationship between Intensity and Volume332

6.3

The Periodisation Controversy.333


Chronobiology and Periodisation

6.4
6.5
6.6

Training as an Objective of Management...336


Prerequisites for Organising Training.338
Basic Management Theory339
6.6.1 Human Needs and Motivation 339
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Other Theories of Needs
Expectancy Theory of Motivation

6.6.2 Management Models ...342


The Traditional Model
The Managerial Grid
Situational Leadership
The Leadership Continuum
Decision Making and Problem Solving

6.7
6.8

Classification of Sports..345
Characteristics of the Training Process...346
6.8.1
6.8.2
6.8.3

6.9

Adaptation to Intense Muscular Work346


Structural-Functional Specialisation in Training.350
The Structure of Special Physical Preparedness .352

Preparedness and the Training Load..352


6.9.1 The Training Load and its Effect352
6.9.2 Factors determining the Training Effect .355
6.9.3 The Contents of the Loading ...356
Specificity of the Load
Training Potential of the Loading

6.9.4 The Volume of the Training Load...358


6.9.5 The Organisation of Training Loads ...359

6.10 The Long-Term Delayed Training Effect..362


The Delayed Training Effect and Long Duration Work
Concluding Comments

6.11 The Dynamics of Training in the Annual Cycle368

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6.12 Principles of Programming and Organising Training.368


6.12.1 Forms of Constructing Training368
6.12.2 Organisational Aspects of Structuring Training368
Complex Training
Unidirectional Training
Concentrated Loading
Problems with Concentrated Loading
The Use of Concentrated Loading
Use of the Conjugate Sequence System

6.12.3 Constructing Training by Functional Indicators...374

6.13 Primary Aims in Programming Training...378


6.14 Models for Structuring Annual Training...379
Examples of Descriptive Modelling
The Composition of the Concentrated Loading Volume

6.14.1 A Model for Sports requiring Explosive Strength.383


6.14.2 A Model for Medium Duration Endurance Sports ...384
6.14.3 A Model for Long Duration Endurance Sports.385
6.14.4 A Model for Sports requiring Tricyclic Periodisation...386
More Advanced Use of Concentrated Loading

6.14.5 Practical Principles of Programming.389

6.15 A Sequence for Programming Annual Training...389


6.16 Managing the Training Process..391
6.17 The Future of Programming Training392
7. STRENGTH TRAINING METHODS393
7.1 Bodybuilding and Other Strength Training Methods...394
Maximal Methods
Supramaximal Methods
Circa-maximal Methods
Submaximal Methods
Reactive Methods
Miscellaneous Methods
Methods for Overcoming Barriers
Concluding Remarks

7.2

PNF as a Training System...403


7.2.1 Definition and Scope of PNF...404
7.2.2 Relationship of PNF to Physical Conditioning405
7.2.3 The Fundamentals of PNF...405
7.2.3.1 The Principles of PNF..405
7.2.3.2 Procedures of PNF406
7.2.3.3 Patterns of PNF.407
7.2.3.4 Positions and Postures of PNF..410
7.2.3.5 Pacing in PNF...410
7.2.4 Modifications to PNF..410
Pattern Deviations and Safety Factors

7.2.5 Functional Neuromuscular Conditioning411

7.3

Combinations of Resistance Methods.411


Scientific Analysis of Different Combinations412
Accelerated Powermetrics415

7.4

Muscle Training416
7.4.1 A Summary of Movements of the Joints416
7.4.2 Examination of Some Joint Actions ...418
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7.5 Use of the Strength Training Compendium...418


7.6 Training for Hypertrophy?............................................................................................419
8.
DESIGNING SPORT SPECIFIC STRENGTH PROGRAMMES...421
8.1
Preliminary Considerations..421
8.2
Needs Analysis and Sports Modelling..423
Selection of Training Needs
General Fitness Issues
Injuries
Training to Avoid Injury
Training of the Soft Tissues

8.3

The Training Programme428


Components of the Training Programme
Statute of Fitness Limitations
The Minimax Principle and Training Economics
List of Popular Resistance Exercises

8.4 Classification of Exercises for Sports Training..433


8.4.1 Principles of Exercise Classification...433
8.4.2 Classification of Weightlifting Exercises434
Categorisation of Fundamental and Additional Exercises
General Preparatory Exercises in Weightlifting
List of Exercises in Weightlifting Training
Examples of Powerlifting Exercises
Examples of Hybrid Lifting Exercises

8.5 Overtraining..441
8.6 Restoration and Stress Management..444
Stress and Restorative Measures
Application of Restorative Measures
Restorative Means
Massage Methods
Massage Variables
Further Fundamentals of Sports Recovery
Complexes and Periodisation in Restoration
Research into Restoration Methods
Sports Science and Stress Management

8.7 The Use Of Testing456


The Vertical Jumping Test
Muscle Strength Ratios
Work Capacity and Functional Pressure Tests

8.8

Injury and Safety in Strength Training..460


Biomechanics of the Injury Process
General Biomechanical Causes of Injury
Injury Prevention by Imperfection Training

8.9

Safety and Training Apparel...467


8.9.1 Lifting, Belts and Breathing 467
8.9.2 Shoes and Safety..468
Shoe Design
Shoes in the Weights Facility

8.10 Safety and Machine Training..469


8.11 Protection by the Muscles472

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8.12 Towards the Future473


Non-Physical Factors
Lessons from Modern Physics
Changes of State
Fuzzy Fitness
Application of New Methods
Innovations in Testing
Kinaesthetic Manipulation and Education
Advances in Methods of Coaching
Concluding Remarks

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY481


INDEX.495
9. ADDENDUM...503
9.1 Laws of Sports Mastery: Principles of Training..504
Introduction.504
9.1.1. Understanding compensatory adaptation.510
9.1.2. Current adaptation reserves of the body...510
9.1.3. The adaptation strategy511
9.1.4. Specificity of protein synthesis during adaptation...513
9.1.5. Essentials of the constructive effects of the adaptational process519
9.1.6. Heterochronism of the adaptational restructuring527
9.1.7. Functional economy of the adapted body530
9.1.8. The optimal regime of adaptation533
9.1.9. The phenomena of decreasing of immunological reactivity541
9.1.10.
General schematic of the adaptational process during sports activity.542
CONCLUSIONS544

Bibliography in Russian552
Bibliography not in Russian..556
9.2 The Shock Method for Developing Power563
What is reactive ability?.....................................................................................................................563
What is the Shock method?................................................................................................................563
History of the Shock Method..563
Guidelines for using the shock method...565
Technique of the depth jump..565
Recommendations for using depth-jumps..566
Program to develop explosive strength and reactive ability of the leg muscles.567
Program for Perfecting Starting Acceleration572
Program for improvement of ball throwing speed..575
CONCLUSIONS577