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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Alcohol-Impaired Driving Among Adults — United States, 2012 Amy Jewext, MPH; Ruth A Shu, PRD! Alcohol-inpaiced driving crashes account for approximately ‘one third ofall crash fatalities in the United States (J). In2013, 10,076 persons died in crashes in which at least one driver had «blood alcohol concentration (BAC) 20.08 grams per deciliter (g/dL), the legal limit for adult drivers in the United States (2). ‘To estimate the prevalence, number of episodes, and anmual rate of alcohol-impaired driving, CDC analyzed self-reported data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. An estimated 4.2 million adults reported at lease one alcohol-impaired driving episode in the preceding 30 days, resulting in an estimated 121 million episodes and a rational rate of 505 episodes per 1,000 population annually. Alcohol-impaired driving rates varied by more than fourfold among states, and were highest in the Midwest U.S. Census region, Men accounted for 80% of episodes, with young men aged 21~34 years accounting for 32% of all episodes. ‘Additionally, 85% of alcohol-impaired driving episodes were reported by persons who also reported binge drinking, and the 4% of the adult population who reported binge deink- ing at least four times per month accounted for 61% of all alcohol-impaiced driving episodes. Effective strategies to reduce alcohol-impaired driving include publicized sobricty check- points (3), enforcement of 0.08 g/dL BAC laws (3), requiring alcohol ignition interlocks for everyone convicted of driving while intoxicated (3) and increasing alcohol taxes (4). BRFSS is an ongoing, state-based, random-digit-dialed telephone survey thar collects health sk data from noninst- tutionalized adults aged 218 years (5). Data from the 2012 BRFSS survey were analyzed to estimate prevalence, number of episodes, and rate of alcohol-impaired driving by selected individual characteristics and rates by state and U.S. Census region. Data from all 50 states and the District of Columbia ‘were included. In 2011, BRFSS began conducting interviews ‘of respondents with mobile phones in addition to landline interviews (6). In 2012, approximately 78% of respondents completed the survey using a landline phone; response rates ‘were 49% for landline and 35% for mobile phones (5), with 467,334 completed interviews. The 2012 BRESS data were ‘weighted using the raking method, which reduces the poten- tial for bias (6). Respondents who reported consuming any alcoholic beverages within the past 30 days were then asked, “During the past 30 days, how many times have you driven when you've had perhaps too much to drink” Estimates of the annual number of alcohol-impaired driving episodes per respondent were calculated by multiplying the as MONWR / August 7.2015 / Vol.66 J o.30 ima Banerjee, MS*; Gwen Bergen, PAD* reported episodes during the preceding 30 days by 12. These numbers of episodes were summed to obtain state and national estimates of alcohol-impaired driving episodes. Annual rates of aleohol-impaired driving episodes were calculated by divid- ing the annual number of epitodes by the respective weighted ‘population estimate from BRESS for 2012. For the 13 respon dents who reported more than one episode daily, annualized aleohol-impaired driving episodes were truncated at 360. Races ‘were suppressed for five states because the number of episodes was <50 or the standard error was >30%. ‘Alcohol-impaired driving prevalence was stratified by sex and reported by age, race/ethnicity, education level, marital status, household income, number of binge drinking episodes, seat bbeleuse (ahvays wear orless than always wear) and U.S. Census region, Binge drinking was defined as women drinking four ‘or more alcoholic beverages per occasion and men drinking five or more alcoholic beverages per occasion. Seat belt use among akcohol-impaired drivers was examined separately by type of state seat belt law, Primary enforcement seat belt laws (primary laws) permit law enforcement to stop motorists solely for being unbelted, whereas secondary laws permit ticketing tunbelted motorists only if they are stopped for another reason (D.New Hampshire, the only state without a seatbelt law for adults, was included with the secondary law states. Differences between subgroups were analyzed using t-tests, with a p-value of 30.05 indicating statistical significance. In 2012, 1.8% of respondents reported at least one alcohol- impaired driving episode during the preceding 30 days, This represented 4.2 muillion adults who reported an estimated 121 million annual alcohol-impaired driving episodes, a rate of 505 per 1,000 population (Table 1). Among those who repotted driving while impaired, 58% indicated one episode, 23% indicated two episodes, and 17% indicated 3-10 episodes in the past 30 days; 0.8% of respondents reported they drove while impaired at least daily. Men accounted for 80% of aleo- hhol-impaire driving episodes. Young men aged 21-34 years, ‘who represented 11% of the U.S. adult population, reported 32% of all episodes. Persons who reported binge drinking accounted for 85% of alcohol-impaired driving episodes, and the 4% of the adult population who reported binge drinking at least four times ‘per month accounted for 61% of all alcoholimpaired driving episodes. Persons who wore a scat belt less than always had ‘an annual aloohol-impaired driving rate (1,321) three times higher than those who always wore a scat belt (398). Among Mosbidity and Mortalty Weekly Report ‘TABLE 1.Percentage of adults reporting alcohot-impalred driving episodes during the preceding 30 days and annual rate of epicades per 1,000 population, by sexand selected characteristics — Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States, 2012 ‘Overt en women ‘Annual Nowof Annual Newot Annual Characteristic __%_Nowotepicodes “rate (95%C) oh _epiodes rate —(95%6C)_—% ees rata (9556) Tout TB aama6n sO 4GI-S50 2B ORIG7AIe 6B —7aI-Si4 OB 24708205 207-208 ‘ge sroup (rs) 18-20 1a Gene 43104-50922 agssi761 6507-873 = 7 2-24 42 16709635 Loh BIg 58 2ST IRE AsO LNTST7ET 268 atom © 540 373-708 2534 3D z6s2609 794 GOSEE 45 26597672 Tzez B621602 15 GoKKgS7 207 240-355 35.54 19 aeasnes) 527 as0-605 | 30. Ssaamaz1 ‘Bea 7OO-SRE 9177250 716 1SHLITA 355 08 20681882 252-210-205 14 TORTI? 483 3eS-SAI 03 «36HEATS 6-10 Race/ethnty Whe non-Hispanie 19 81257806 528-472-575 30 36U7535 BAH 7HT-OMS | ITATORS) «I 184.288 Blackinon-Hspanic 18 12252181 44549-53127 —«BSUTSSD BE MB-BG9 103.5 22_—137-308 Hispanic 1B 16939930 S18 363-673 29 T6s70202 O17 sIt-tz2 a6 059688 S781 Other non-Hipane 13° SA65051 398-717-580 214597655 Gas 780-9620 N267AI) DTT Muiacia, Te anges 355 eae] 27 S66 S67 Sot 1574-239 ‘om Hispnic ‘education Uessthonhigh 1.2 1563682445 «306-586 20 TAADTABD 78 SIT-NOSH 03144300 e612 ‘school High schoo! 1 335340ns 4a 22-551 26 «D7REHTIG «7676-90706 6168209179 120-259 Somecolge -«20-=«42780497 578 a72-60K«-33—«SBsUKO2S 1012 7EBAT7 10 TS4ATD. «219 142-275 College 22 ieAe 74 ae 32 EI MOTTE 13 266 79-313 Marital status Manied 1234823609 209 ae0-sis 19 7665608 ae? ats) 8, ms 9-137 Unmariedcouple 3212386722 052 697-1408 47 10903950 1790 1ter-2a72 18 2st 1735 Provouslymaried 18 24538321 S21 A-GID «3018620055 105) I-19 OF a) 138-255 Newermatred 30 4B228711 798 030. alcohol-impaired drivers, those living in states with second- ary seat bele law were less likely wo always wear their seatbelt (55%) compared with those in states witha primary law (74%). ‘Annual aloohol-impaired driving episode rates varied more than fourfold among states, from 217 (Utah) to 995 (Hawaii) per 1,000 population (Table 2, Figure). The Midwest U.S. ‘Census region had the highest annual alcohol-impaired driving rate a 573 per 1,000 popula Discussion During 2012, an esimated 4.2 million U.S. adults reported, driving while impaired by alcohol at least once in the preceding, 30 days, esuting in an estimated 121 million aloohol-impaired diving episodes annually, and a national rte of 505 episodes per 1,000 population. Alcohol-impaired driving rates varied more than fourfold among states. Because BRFSS made changes in the survey weighting methodology and added a mobile telephone sampling frame since the alcohol-impaired driving question was last asked, direct comparisons of the 2012 results with those from earlier years were not possible. ‘Nonetheless, theestimated number ofalcohol-impaired driving episodes reported by U.S. adults in 2012 fell within the range of the 112 million to 161 million annual episodes reported from 1998 to 2010 (8). Also, young men aged 21-34 years IMMA 7 August7,2015 / VOLS J No.30 ais Mocbidty and Mortality Weekly Report TABLE 2. Annual rate of self-reported alcohol-impaired driving {episodes per 1,000 population, among adults by US.Censusregion and state ~ Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United, States, 2012 US. Censusregion ate (5%) National 505, (a6i-550) Northeast a (309-572) Vermont aa (200.1452) Pennsyhania 70! (409-992) Connecticut 558 (aoo-n17 Rhodelsand 522 (363-600) Masachinets 510 (390-630) NewYork 372 (209-536), Now Jersey 360" (252-458) Maine 324 ore476) New Hampshire 313" (203-23) South 35 (33-616) touts ar (263-1159) Deswire 7 (429-1028) Tome 703 (348-1953) Southcooing 663 (346-900) ‘Alabama 59 ar-a37) Fords 58 (346-733) Maryland sur (35e-690) ceargia a 30-750 xiahoma 1 (250-5851 Diet of 9 (152-665) ‘columbia NerhCerolna 389 (253-525) eneucky 238 (51-525) Veginia 00" (205-409) kansas t Misssppt Tennessee West Vigna = = ‘west 2, (351-453) Havas goss 4-349) Montana Bess (85-1116) Wyoming a Washington 706 Nevada = Colorado a7 Colors 35 idaho. 352 Prizona 300° ‘oregon ase NewMesico 273" Utah 2" 68-337) Aska = a Midwest 57, (98-649) Nebrsk 3558 (629-1220) NortnDakota SS (ar3-1338) Wisconsin cy (36-1920) South Oakora 733 10-346) lowe m5 (Ga7-082) Minnesote 646, (as7-835) Missout 369 (294-843) Ohio 568, (ais-716) Mihigon “7 (326-667) ansae a 35-629) ios a5 car) Incona a 24839) ‘Ribrevitions = confidence terval *Signtcanty lower than the rattonal ate. 1 Sample se wins