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WATER

ION-EXCHANGE

THEORY

III) ION EXCHANGE or DEIONIZATION or DEMINERALIZATION PROCESS

  • The requirement of boiler feed water should not have any impurities or should be very near to distilled water. Such quality of water can be obtained by demineralization process.

mineralized water is soft water.
mineralized water is soft water.
  • The word soft water means it does not contain hardness producing substances or ions (Ca & Mg) & it may contain other ions like Na + , Cl - , K + etc.

  • On the other hand de-mineralized water does not contain any ions including hardness producing one. Thus every soft water is not de-mineralized water whereas

every de-

Ion exchange resin

They are insoluble, cross-linked, long chain organic polymer with micro-porous structure. And the functional group attached to the chain is responsible for the ion-exchanging properties. It may be classified as

WATER ION-EXCHANGE THEORY III) ION EXCHANGE or DEIONIZATION or DEMINERALIZATION PROCESS  The requirement of boiler

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WATER

ION-EXCHANGE

THEORY

1) Cation exchange resin - -

2) Anion exchange resin

It

is capable of exchanging cation

It

is

capable of

exchanging anion By H + ion. eg. Sulphonated coal, tannin formal- resin, -dehyde resin. etc. They are represented as RH 2 . R 1 (OH) 2 - CH 2 CH CH 2 CH - ׀

CH -

By OH - ion. eg. Amino formaldehyde

Copolymer of styrene,

They are represented by

- CH 2 CH CH 2 CH - ׀

׀ C 6 H 5 - CH - C 6 H 5 - ׀ ׀ SO
׀
C 6 H 5
- CH -
C 6 H 5
-
׀
׀
SO - 3 H +
It removes all anion &

Due to which acid is

׀

CH 2 Nme +

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R 1 (OH) 2 + SO 4 2- -R 1 SO 4 + 2 OH - R 1 (OH) 2 + 2Cl - -R 1 Cl 2 + 2OH -

OH -

RH 2 + Ca 2+ ---RCa + 2H +

RH 2 + Mg 2+ ---RMg + 2H +

It removes all cation & releases H + releases OH - Due to which water become acidic. converted into 2H + + SO 4 2- -H 2 SO4

WATER ION-EXCHANGE THEORY 1) Cation exchange resin - - 2) Anion exchange resin It is capable

Water. R 1 (OH) 2 + H 2 SO4R 1 SO 4 + H 2 O

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WATER

  • Diagram

ION-EXCHANGE

THEORY

WATER  Diagram – ION-EXCHANGE THEORY  Regeneration – The exhausted (saturated) cation exchanger is then
WATER  Diagram – ION-EXCHANGE THEORY  Regeneration – The exhausted (saturated) cation exchanger is then
  • Regeneration

The exhausted (saturated) cation exchanger is then regenerated by passing solution of dil HCl or H 2 SO4 RCa + 2HCl RH 2 + CaCl 2 And anoin exchanger is regenerated by solution of caustic soda (NaOH) R 1 Cl 2 + 2NaOH R 1 (OH) 2 + 2NaCl

WATER  Diagram – ION-EXCHANGE THEORY  Regeneration – The exhausted (saturated) cation exchanger is then

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WATER

ION-EXCHANGE

THEORY

  • Advantages

1) It can be used for softening acidic or alkaline waters. 2) The residual hardness after treatment is less than 2 ppm. 3) It can be used for pharmaceutical, cosmetic and other manufacturing processes.

WATER ION-EXCHANGE THEORY  Advantages – 1) It can be used for softening acidic or alkaline
  • Disadvantages

1) The resins used are costly, the regeneration chemicals like acids and alkalis are costlier. 2) The initial investment in equipment is more. 3) Pretreatment is essential to get the best results for turbid water.

WATER ION-EXCHANGE THEORY  Advantages – 1) It can be used for softening acidic or alkaline

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