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Robert owen Advocate concern for the working and living conditions of workers

Charles babbage Build the first practical mechanical calculator and prototype of
modern computers; predicted the specialization of mental work;
suggested profit sharing

Henry towne

Outline the importance of management as a science and called for

the development of management principles


Frederick winslow taylor Father or Scientific Management

Four (4) Principles of Scientific Management
1. Develop a science for each element of a mans work,
which replaces the old rule-of-thumb method.
2. Scientifically selected and then train, teach, and develop
the workman, whereas in the past he chose his own work
and trained himself as best as he could
3. Heartily cooperate with the men so as to ensure all the
work being done is in accordance with the principles of the
science that has been developed.
4. There is almost equal division of the work and the
responsibility between the management and the workmen.
The management take over all the work for which they are
better fitted than the workmen, while in the past almost all of
the work and the greater part of the responsibility were
thrown upon the men.
Also strove to simplify work but he did so by managing time
rather than motion (Time Study and considered a fair days
work. Time study worked by timing how long it took a firstclass man to complete each part of his job and a standard
time was established.
The gilbreths (frank & Lillian) Motion Studies: the greatest waste in the world
comes from needless, ill-directed and ineffective motions
MOTION STUDY broke each task or job into separate motions
and then eliminated those that were unnecessary or repetitive.
Lillian was particularly concerned with the human side of work and
was one of the first contributors to industrial psychology.
Established ways to improve office communication, incentive
programs, job satisfaction, and management training. Her work
convinced the government to enact laws regarding workplace
safety, ergonomics and child labor.

Hentry gantt

Gantt chart visually indicates what task must be completed at

which time in order to complete a project. such sheet show at
glance where the delays occur, and indicate what must have our
attention in order to keep up the proper output.
One of those strongly recommend that companies train and
develop their workers.
Approach to training:
1. A scientific investigation in detail of each piece of work, and
the determination of the best method and the shortest time in
which the work can be done.
2. A teacher capable of teaching the best method and the
shortest time.
3. Reward for both teacher and pupil when the latter is


Max weber

bureaucracy the exercise of control on the basis of

Elements of Bureaucratic Organization:
1. Qualification-based hiring employees are hired on the basis
of their technical training or educational background.
2. Merit-based promotion promotion is based on experience or
achievement. Managers, not organizational owners, decided
who is promoted.
3. Chain of command each job occurs within a hierarchy, the
chain of command, in which each position reports and is
accountable to a higher position. A grievance procedure and a
right to appeal protect people in lower positions.
4. Division of Labor Task, responsibilities, and authority are
clearly divided and defined.
5. Impartial application of rules and procedures rules and
procedures apply to all members of the organization and will
be applied in an impartial manner, regardless of ones position
or status.
6. Recorded in writing all administrative decisions, acts, rules
or procedures will be recorded in writing.
7. Managers separate from owners the owners of an
organization should not manage or supervise the organization.

Henry fayol
the success of an enterprise generally depends much more on
the administrative ability of its leader than on their technical ability
Argued that managers need to perform five managerial functions if
they are to be successful : planning, organizing, coordinating,
commanding and controlling.
Fayols Fourteen Principles of Management
1. Division of Work increase production by dividing work so

that each worker completes smaller task or job element.

2. Authority and responsibility A managers authority which is

the right to give orders should be commensurate with the

managers responsibility, but controlled by organization so it
will not be abused.
3. Discipline clearly defined rules and procedures are needed at
all organizational levels to ensure order and proper behavior
4. Unity of Command to avoid confusion and conflict, each
employee should report to and received orders from just one
5. Unity of Direction One person and one plan should be used in
deciding the activities to be carried out to accomplish each
organizational objective.
6. Subordination of individual interest to the general interest

employees must put the organizations interest before their

7. Remuneration compensation should be fair and satisfactory
to both the employees and the organization, that is, dont
overpay or underpay employees.
8. Centralization avoid too much centralization or
decentralization. Strike balance depending on the
circumstances and employees involved.
9. Scalar Chain from the top to bottom of an organizationeash
position is part of vertical chain of authority in which each
worker reports to just one boss. For the sake of simplicity,
communication outside normal work groups or department
should follow the vertical chain of command.
10. Order to avoid conflict and confusion, order can be obtained
by having a place for everyone and having everyone in his or
her place, in other words there should be no overlapping
11. Equity- kind, fair, and just treatment for all will develop
devotion and loyalty. This does not exclude discipline , if
warranted and consideration of the broader general interest of
the organization.
12. Stability of Tenure of Personnel low turn-over, meaning a
stable work force with high tenure, benefits an organization by
improving performance, lowering of cost and giving emplouees
especially managers, time to learn their jobs
13. Initiative because it is a great source of strength for
business managers should encourage the development of
initiative or the ability to develop and implement a plan, in
14. Esprit de corps- develop a strong sense of morale and unity
among workers that encourage coordination of efforts.

Chester Bernard defined organization as a system of consciously coordinated

activities or forces of two or more persons. Emphasis
cooperation because its not the normal state of affairs.
The extent to which people willingly cooperate in an organization
depends on how workers perceive executive authority and
whether theyre willing to accept it.
Refer the authority of managers as fiction of superior authority
but instead believed that workers ultimately grant managers their
Hugo Munsterberg
- pioneered in the field of industrial psychology or the
father of industrial psychology. He was specially interested in
identifying the conditions that would promote an individuals best
work and in finding ways to influence workers to act in accord
with management interest.

Mary parker follet Constructive Conflict. Believed that the best way to deal with
conflict was not domination, where one side wins and the other
loses, or compromise, where each side gives up some of what it
wants, but integration.
Integrative conflict resolution = is to have both parties indicate
their preferences and then work together to find an alternative that
meets the needs of both.
Contribution to management in her own words:
1. as conflict- difference is here in this world, as we cannot avoid
it, we should, I think use it to work for us. Instead of
condemning it, we should set it to work for us.
2. Authority should go with knowledge and experience, that is
where obedience is due, no matter whether it is up the line or

Hawthorne studies (Elton Mayo) for the first time, human factors related to
work were found to be more important than the physical
conditions of designs of the work; it found out that workers
feelings and attitudes affected their work.
The studies demonstrated that the workplace was more complex,
that workers were not just extensions of machines, and that
financial incentives werent necessarily the most important
motivator for workers.
ABRAHAM MASLOW contributed to the human relations movement with his theory of
motivation. Concluded that human needs go beyond the most
basic ones for food and shelter, The discovery of selfactualization (developing ones potential) has provided managers
with new insights on how to motivate workers.

DOUGLAS MACGREGOR maintained that managers who expect the worst of their
employees and treat them accordingly often find that the
employees respond in ways that reinforce these assumptions.
But managers who assume the best about their employees and give them wide latitude
to perform are generally rewarded with committed and satisfied
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------OPERATION MANAGEMENT uses quantitative or mathematical approach to find
ways to increase productivity, improve quality, and manage or
reduce costly inventories.
Most commonly used operation management tools and methods:
1. quality control
2. forecasting techniques
3. capacity planning
4. productivity measurement and improvements
5. linear programming
6. scheduling system
7. inventory system
8. work measurement system (similar to motion study gilbreth)
9. project management (similar to Gantt chart)
10. cost-benefit analysis
INFORMATION MANAGEMENT - the field of management that focuses on designing
and implementing computer-based information systems for use of
management. Such system turns raw data into information that is
useful into various levels of management
It is a powerful competitive weapon because it organization can
handle large amount of information in new and better ways.
SYSTEM MANAGEMENT - System Theory approach based on the notion that
organization can be visualized as system.
System is a set of interrelated parts that operate as a whole in
pursuit of common goals.
Four major components for organization system:
1. Inputs are the various human, material, financial,
equipments, and informational resources required to produce
goods and services.
2. Transformational process are the organizations managerial
and technological abilities that are applied to convert inputs
into output.
3. Outputs the products, services and other outcome produced
by the organization.
4. Feedback is information about results and organizational
status relative to the environment.
Advantages of system approach:
1. analyze system at different level
2. provides a framework for assessing how well the various parts
of an organization interact to achieve a common purpose.

3. it emphasize that a change in one part of the system may

affect other parts.
4. consider how an organization interacts with its environment ~
the factors outside the organization that can affect its
In order to consider the environment adequately, an
organization needs to operate as an open system.
OPEN SYSTEM ~ one that operates in continual interaction with
its environment. Through such interaction, the system takes in
new inputs and learns about how its output are received by
various important outside elements.
CLOSED SYSTEM ~ does little or no interacting with its
environment and receives little feedback.
Characteristic of Open System
1. Negative entropy the tendency of systems to decay over
time. While negative entropy is the ability of open system to
bring in new energy
2. Synergy the ability of the whole to equal more than the sum
of its parts. It means that an organization ought to be able to
achieve its goals more effectively and efficiently than would be
possible if the parts operated separately.
contingency theory ~ a viewpoint that argues that appropriate
managerial action depends on the particular parameters of the
situation. Hence, rather than seeking universal principles that
apply to every situation, contingency theory attempts to identify
contingency principle that prescribe actions to take depending on
the characteristic of the situation.
There isnt one best way to approach management. There are always clear
boundaries and limitations for every principles that been mentioned above.
None is universal and you cannot applied one principle for every situation.
The most effective management theories or idea depends on the kind of
problems or situations that managers or organizations are facing at a
particular time.

Management 4th Edition by Chuck Williams, CENGAGE Learning
Management by Britol and Martin
Weihrich, Heinz, Management: A Global Perspective, 2005
Albright, Management science modeling, 2007 edition.
Kinicki, Management: a practical introduction, 2008
Bateman, Management: leading & collaborating in a competitive world, 2007
Harvey, Maylor, Researching business and management, 2005

Robbins, Introduction to management, 2007