You are on page 1of 536

THE LIBRARY OF

BROWN UNIVERSITY

THE CHURCH
COLLECTION
The Bequest of
Colonel George Earl Church
1835-1910

JJarMffuKt Soujpf

ty^t.'rf.i

Yours /c/fi//^/^//

Itlixic

A> /cc/ ///e f/'tu/ //f/

>:
(//f/

//

A M MAT I T E

/'r/uY/r.j /iT/^/w/z/v/?^

^///^////,>/ ////"

Rnioltt^b l^ci^voe^ of $>uviuam,


/ 71

Guiana, o//

riiLu

///c

coast o/

SOFT H A M E

IRv

desciiLiiiQ its Proclnctioirs.


C)u(i(// uj^rdf^xB/'/ (hF/sy/rs, Rqj///f-s, T/ rrs. S// /

%l^

CAPTT

^y^oy/^-uye^

}/:.

////>.

7v ////s,

f-;

Boofx;

STEBMA^N^.

J. (G

Vol.

>^

^^/C^^'^
'I

A^(i//r /c>/;san o/y/t'c

/-fz/.s-

n^ntsr/r// 7trt// //rz/z/rf

C///// /eft/s,f't cy/V/z/z r////z /f/ /// /////// /ce/f/z/ If/ro/l;


Qz/f.s jj//z7f)z7////.'//zi.if^/r>s ////

fz////- fzzz//zzr /zz/zzi/is

.'

Qzz/zz/z zr/r/f//// rvjiz/stzzzzy^zy .szz.yzzzzfZgr/ztz's.'


I'zz/czz'z.'.t

loutlOn. Piiiited for J.Jolr.isoii.S^

Paiil's

amvclj/i aid

,<V

/'Vfzzrzz.s.

Th.Payiie .FaU^faU. i8i;5

TO
II

ROYAL HIGHNESS

IS

GEORGE
PRINCE OF WALES,
THIS

ARTLESS NARRATIVE
IS

WITH ALL HUMILITY,


INSCRIBED,

BY HIS ROYAL HIGH NESS'S


MOST DEVOTED,

AND MOST OBEDIENT,

HUMBLE SERVANT,

/.
Tiverton, Devonftiire,

January

1,

17S6.

G, Stedmdn.

THE

PREFACE.
This Work being perhaps one

of the most sin-

gular productions ever offered to the Public, I


think

it

right to give the

of what he

is

Reader a short sketch

going to peruse.

voured to arrange matters


a

large

garden, where

in

have endea-

some degree

one meets with

like

the

sweet-smelling flower and the thorn, the gold-

bespangled

fly

and loathsome

reptile, the richest

glowing plumage and the darkest shades

whole

so variegated as to afford, I hope,

the

both

information and amusement, without racking or


depressing the

spirits,

and damping the mind;

not indeed in the modern


of style, but in a simple

pomp and

tale,

brilliancy

where truth

is

the chief ornament.

Vol.

I.

Here,

PREFACE.

iv

Here, in the different characters of a

mandera Rebel Negro a


Slave

not

Planter,

Comand a

exposed but be-

onlj tyranny are

nevolence and humanity are unveiled to the

naked

eye.

Here the Warrior the Historian

the Merchant

and

losophy, will
w^hile, for

tures, I

the Lover of Natural Phi-

meet with some

having introduced

my

must make some apology

those of the lovely Slave,

gratification;

private adven-

but none

who makes not

least interesting figure in these

virtue in distress, especially

pages

for

the

as female

when accompanied

with youth and beauty, must ever claim protection.

Upon

the whole, perhaps,

may be made, when


is

the Reader considers

perusing no romance

but a real history,


the marvellous;

some allowance

totally

composed of

he

fiction,

unembellished with

the production

of an Officer,

whose pen and pencil have alone been employed

and

ON THE SPOT,

a circumstance but very

seldom met with.

As

PREFACE.
As

to the shocking cruelties that here are so

frequently exposed, let

it

suffice to say, that to

deter others from similar

and teach them


motive

w^hile,

virtue,

inhuman

my

was

practices,

and only

sole

on the other hand,

it

must be

observed that Liberty, nay even too


lenity,

when suddenhj granted

much

to illiterate

and

unprincipled men, must be to all parties dangerous,

if

not pernicious. Witness the O'^ca and

Saramcca Negroes

in

Surinam the Maroons of

Jamaica, the Canibs of

St.

Vincent, &c.

While the Colony of Surinam however

is

reeking and dyed with the blood of the African


negroes, truth compels

Dutch

me

to observe, that the

there are not the only guilty

but that

to most other nations, and particularly the Jews,


is

owino' this almost constant and diubulical

barbarity.

Reader, peruse the pages annex'^d with impartiality

and with temper sort the ilowers

from the weeds divide the gold


b 2

skilfully

from
the

PREFACE.

vi

the dross

and perhaps you

may not

hours you have thus dedicated.

regret the

Let

it

how-

ever not be understood, that I ever laid claim


to excellence in writing or

plain and

manly truth,

drawing; but if the


so often

spoken

of,

and so seldom found, are of any avail I pre-

sume

to

entirely

Public.

hope, that

unworthy

these

Volumes

the attention of

are

not

British

LIST
OF

SUBSCRIBERS NAMES.

AUCKLAND

(Lord)

Britifli

Ac K LAND (Sir Tho. Dyke)


Anderson (Lady) York.
AsHMEAD (Wm.) Efq. London.

AmbafTador

at the

Hague.

Bart. Killerton.

B.

Bute

(Rt.

Bristol

Hon. Earl

of).

Hon. Earl of).


Bamff (Rt. Hon. Lord) 6th Dragoons.
Barrington (Rt. Hon. Lord Vifcount).
BoYDELL (Rt. Hon. John) Lord Mayor of London.
(Rt.

Baring (Charles) Efq. Exon. 5 Copies.


Barwell (
) El'q. London.
Broadley (R. Cailifle) Efq. York.
Broadley (Ifaac) Efq. Branlingham, Hull.
Barker (Thomas) Efq. Jamaica.
Bain

Burk
Batt

Efq.

(Geo.) Efq.
(J. F.)

Brown
Black

Efq.

M. D. Batli.
Waddon Court, Devon.
Richmond.

(E. H.) Efq. Richmond.

(John) Efq. of the Hon. Eaft India Company's Service.

Besly

SUBSCRIBERS NAMES.
Beslt (Wm.) Efq. Tiverton, Devon.
Bates (Ralpli) Elq. 6th Dragoons.
Bastard (John P.) Elq. Kitley, M. P.
Brown (Wm.) Efq. Wiveiiicombe.
Bush (Baron de) Commandant at Curasao.
Bolls (And.) Efq. Capt. in the Dutch Navy.
Bloys de Treslon (Cor.) Elq. Capt. in the Dutch
Brom'st

Na\'y.

Elq. Briftol.

Bulguin (Mr.
) Briftol.
Blake (Mr. Wm.) London.
BouDLER (Mrs.) Bath.
C.

Canterbury

(His Grace the Archbiihop

Chichester
Chichester
Chichester
Chichester

John) Bart. Youllton.

(Sir

of).

(Mrs.) Arhngton.
(Mils).

(Mifs ]\Iary Macdonald).

Cholwich (John B.) Efq. Faningdon Houfe.


Cambridge (R. O.) Efq. Twickenham.
Cholmley (Nath.) Howlham.

Cowley (John) Efq. London.


Campbell (Rt. Hon. Bay) Edinburgh.
Cholmondeley (G.) Efq. London.
Croft (John) Efq. York.
CooKSLEY (J. Sparkes) Efq.

Alhburton.

D.

Dover (Rt.
Douglas

DuNTz

Drew

Hon. Lord).

(Gen. Robert) Holland.

(Sir

John) Bart. Rockbere Houfe.

(Richard) Efq. Exeter.

Den'nys (Nicholas)

Dowce

Efq. Tiverton.

(Francis) Efq.

Richmond.

Dan by (Wm.) Efq. Swinton.


Drummond (J.) Elq. M. D. Jamaica.
DucARKfcLL

Efq. Exinouth.

Delaval

SUBSCRIBERS NAMES.
Delaval

(E. Hufiey) Efq. London.

Dickenson (Benj.) Elq. Tiverton.


DuNSFORD (Mr. Martin) Author of the Memoirs

De Graav

of Tiverton.

(Gid. And. D.) Efq. Surinam.

Des Borgnes

(Col. Brifeval) Fourgeoud's INIarines.

E.

Erving (George) Efq. London.


EuLER (
) Efq. for the Library

of his

Serene Highnefs the Prince

of Orange.
F.

FiTZWiLLTAM
Ferrier (Col.
Fredericy (

Freeman
Freeman

(Right HoH. Earl).

His Majefty's Scots Brigade.


Efq. Governor of Surinam.

Ilay) of
)

Chute Lodge.

Efq.

(Mrs. Elizabeth)

Fitzgerald (Mifs) Grange, Ireland.


FoLLET (Rev. Mr. John) Tiverton.
Fattet (Mr. Barth. Francois).

Flower (Mr.) London.


Flower (Mr, Benj.) Cambridge.
G.

Guildford

(Right Hon. Earl of).

Gordon

(Col. Robert)

Graham

(John) Efq.

Deputy Governor

M. D.

at the

Cape of Good Hope.

Jamaica.

Grinstone (Henry) Efq. Wefton.


Grinstone (Thomas) Elq. Kilnwick.

Goodwin

(G. R.) Efq. Bath.

Godefrooy

(Mrs. Eliz.) Surinam.

Gray

Jane) Edinburgh

(Mil's

H.

Heathfield

(Rt.

Hon. Lord).

Habrowby (Rt. Hon. Lord) Sandon, StafFordftiire.


Hamilton (Sir Alexander) Bart. Retreat.
HiLDYARD

(Sir

Robert D'Arcy) Bart. Wineftead, York.

Hastings

SUBSCRIBERS NAMES.
Hastings (Warren) Eiq. late Governor General
Hamell (Colonel) Cape of Good Hope.

Home

(Colonel Alexander) His Majefty's Scotch Brigade.

Hamilton
Hunter (
Hamilton
Hilton

(Robert) Efq. of the Hon. Eaft India Company's Service.

M. D. York.

Efq.

(Major) Exon.

(William) Elq. Jamaica.

Hecke (C. a.)


Harding (Rev.

2 Copies.

Efq. Demerary.

Mr.) Barnftaple.

Heathfield (Thomas)

Efq. Nutwell.

Heneman (Gylbert) Efq. Hague.


Haringman (John) Efq. Admiral
Hogg

How

of Bengal.

in the

Dutch Navy.

(Jof ) Efq. Tiverton.


(J.

M.)

Efq.

Wifcome Park.

Hartford (Jof) Efq. Briftol.


HoBROiD (Mrs.) Richmond.
I.

Incledon (Robert) Efq. Pilton Houfe.


Incledon (Capt. T.) sd Regiment of Foot.
Jermain (Thomas) Efq. Briftol.
Johnson (J. R.) Efq. Jamaica.
K.

Keates (Rev. Richard) Tiverton.


KiNCAiD (Patrick) Efq. Exon.
Knight (Mr. Charles) Knightfbridge.

Kennedy

(H.J.) Efq. Cleves.

Knollaerdt

Efq. Fourgeoud's Marines.

Lardner (John) Efq. London.


Lardner (Richard) Elq. Tiverton.
Lardner (James) Efq. Axminfter.
Louis (Mr. Jean) Exon.

M. Macphebson

SUBSCRIBERS NAMES.
M.
Macphersont

McQueen

(Sir

John) Bart,

late

(Dundas) Eiq. Edinburgh.

Macallester Loup (Duncan)

Wacauley
Macau ley
Macleod

Mackay
Mackay

Governor of Calcutta.

Efq. Hague.

(Alex.) Efq. London.

(Angus) Efq. Bath.

(Colonel) of His Majefty's Scots Brigade.

(John) Efq. London.


(Heftor) Efq.

Maddison (Thomas)

Mowbray

War Office.
M. P.
M. D. Cocka3n-ny.

Eli^.

(Robert) Efq.

Moore (John HartnoU) Efq. Cadeleigh Court.


Marshall (Mr. Robert) Tiverton.
Moens (Mr. Adrian) Rotterdam.
Medlaer (George Crawford) Efq. Fourgeoud'3 Marines.
N.

NoKTHCOTE

Nagle
Nagle
NiBBs

(Jofeph)

Eliri.

Calverleigh.

(David)

El'q.

Bath.

Langford) Efq. Beauchamp.

(J.

Needham
NooT

(Sir Stafford) Bart. Pine's

Houfe.

2 Copies.

(John) Efq. Gray's Inn.

(Captain) Fourgeoud's Marines.

Nichols

Newte
Newte

(Rev.

INIr.)

Richmond.

(Rev. Mr.) Titcombe, Devon.

(Thomas) Efq.

late

Captain in the Hon. Eaft India Company's

Sei-vice.

Newbiggen

(Mifs Jane) Edinburgh.

O.

Owens

(George) Efq. Tiverton.


P.

Pepperel

(Sir

William) Bart. London.

Palmer (Thomas)
Palmer (William)
Vol.

I.

Efq. Berkley Square.

Efq. London.
c

Plidell

SUBSCRIBERS NAMES.
Plxdell

(J.

M.)

Efq. 6th Dragoons.

Peach EY (John) Efq. M. P.


Prince (J. D.) Efq. Holland.
Perret Gentilly (Major) Fourgeoud's Marines
Poi-SON (Hugh) Efq. Exniouth.

Popple

(Rev. Mr.) York.

R.

Ryder (Right Hon. Dudley) M. P.


RocKBY (Right Hon. Lord) Horton, Kent,
RiCKETTS (Hon. W. H.) Jamaica.
RiCKETTS (E. Jarvis) Efq. Jamaica.

RosENDAAL (CouDtcfs dc) Holland.


RoLLE (John) Efq. M. P. Tidwell.
RiDSDALE (G. W.) Efq. 6th Dragoons.
RoLLAND (Adam) Efq. Advocate, Edinburgh.
Robinson
Robinson

(William) Efq. Writer to the Signet,'Edinburgh.


(Capt.

Thomas) of

RiGAUD (P.) Efq. R. A.


Reynsdorph (Andrew) Efq.

Reay

(Henry N.) Efq,

the

Hon. Eaft India Company's

Service,

Surinam.

Blenliwell,

Durham.
S.

Spencer (Rt. Hon. Lord Henry).


Strickland (Sir George) Bart. Bointon Houfe, York.
Strickland (Lady Eliza Letitia).
Strickland (Mifp Charlotte)
Strickland (William) Efq. York.
Strickland (Capt. Geo.) 8th Regiment.
Sykes (Sir Chriftopher) Bart. York.
Small (Major Charles) Ifle of Man.

Small

2 Copies

(Peter) Efq. Montreal, Canada,

Stuart (Hon. General John).


Sampson (James) Efq. late His

Majefty's Conful General at Morocco.

Suttell

SUBSCRIBERS NAMES.
SUTTELL (G.) Efq. York.
Sturgeon (T. W.) Efq. Trowbridge.
Sm'ale

Efq.

London.

Sheriff (Mv. Robert)

Leith.

Stedman (John) Efq. M. D. Edinburgh.


Stedman (Capt. Wm. George).
Stedman (Mil's Catherine) Edinburgh.
Sharrat (Mr. John) Wahkll.
Sheldon (MifsAnn) Exon.
SoMERViLLE

(Mlfs Ehzabcth) Edinburgh.

T.

Todd

(Mr. John) York. 2 Copies.

TozER (Aaron)

Ei'q.

of the Hon. Eaft India Company's Service.

V.

Vance Agnew
Van Coeverde

(Robert) Efq. Edinburgh.


(Colonel) Fourgeoud's Marines.

W.

WiLLOUGHBY DE Broke (Rt. Hon. Lord).


Westerloo (General) Holland.
Wemyss (Major) nth Regiment of Foot.
Wierts (Francis) Efq. Captain in tlie Dutch Navy.
Winsloe (Thomas) Efq. CoUiprieft.

WooLERY

(R. p.) Efq. Jamaica.

Williams

(Jof) Efq. Jamaica.

Wyville (Rev. Chrillopher) York.


White (James) Efq. Counfellor, Exeter,

Wray
Wood

(G. Lewis) Efq. Spence Farm.


(Bevis) Efq. Tiverton.

Worth
Worth

Wray

(John) Elq. Worth Houfe, Devon.


(Mrs. Mary) Tiverton.

(Mrs.) Richmond.
c 3

Watt

SUBSCRIBERS NAMES.
Watt (Mr.) London.
Ward LAW (Mrs. Sufan)

York (His Grace the


YoRKE (Hon. John).

Edinburgli.

Archbifliop of)

mKHOBBCSKVra

CONTENTS.
CONTENTS

FIRST VOLUME:

of the

Chapter

Page,

I.

I NTRODUCTioN. Rcvolt among the Negroes in


Guiana An Expedition sets out from the Texe^

Account of the Voyage

Surinam

Reception

The

Cn

A p T E K

Short

Fleet arrives in the River

Troops

of the

Sketch of the Lihahitants,

Dutch

in

that

Colony-

Sfc
Pas;e 36.

II.

I?

General Description of Guiana of


Colony of Surinam
Accounts of
Discovery
English hy
by
Dutch Murder of
Governor, Lord Somelsdyk The Settlement taken by
the

in

particular

possessed

its

the

earliest

is

the

the

the

French and ransomed.

Chapter
First

III.

Page

Revolt of the Negroes; Causes

State of the Colony

Rebels

Mutiny of

Forced

59.

Distracted

thereof

Peace concluded

zcith

the

Sailors, Soldiers, ^-c.

Chapter

CONTENTS OF

xvi

Chapter

Page

IV.

Short Interval of Peace and Plenty

new

the

Rebels

Gallant

its

The Colomj plunged

in

and nearly ruined

Distress hy a fresh Insurrection,

"Review of the Troops for

Defence

An

Action

Behaviour of a Black Corps

zvith

The

Arrival of Colonel Fourgeoud's Marines.

Chapter
The Scene changes
Slave

The

Some

Manner of

travelling in

Barbarity of a

Page

114.

Fluctuating

A fairs aS7?o;-^ Glimpse of Peace An

dead; his whole Party cut

to

State

of

Officer shot

and the general

Pieces,

revived throughout the Colony.

Chapter
Armed Barges

are sent

of the Fortress
Parts of

among

The Co-

IVr etched Treatment of some Sailors.

Account of a dreadful Execution

Alarm

Surinam

of the Rivers

Chapter VL
political

93.

Account of a beautiful Female

lonel explores the Situation

Planter

Page

V.

Fvio

up

VII.
to

Page

the Troops

40.

defend the Rivers-~-Description

New Amsterdam A

Cottica and

Patamaca

View of

Cruise in the upper

Great

Mortality

the Military Post at

Devils

Ilarwar.

Chapter

THE FIRST VOLUME.


Chapter

Page

VIII.

xvii

187.

Three Estates burnt, and the Inhabitants murdered by the


Rebels

Real

of a

March through

Picture of Misery and Distress

Fourgeoud and

the

the fVoods

Specimen

of Sui'inam

remaining Troops leave

Colonel
Parama-

ribo.

Chapter
Some Diseases peculiar

to the

newly imported going

Trade
in the

Page 203.

IX.

Climate

to be sold

Groupe

Reflections on the Slave

The Voyhgefrom Africa^ Manner of


Colony

Description of a Cotton

Chapter

X.

Enemy

rious Uses

Account of

March

Some Rebels taken


captive Negro.

to

the

the

Harasses

Manicole Tree, with

its

va-

Mouth of Cormoetibo River

Treatment of a wounded

XI.

Page 268.

The Rebels
Camp Pursued without Success Great Distress
of Water Mineral Mountains The Troops

The Troops march back

for

them

Pao;e 225.

Shocking

Chapter
near the

selling

Plantation.

Colonel Fourgeoud inarches to the JVana Creek


the

of Negroes

to the

JVana Creek

pass^

JVaitt

arrive at

La

Rochelle, in

Patamaca.

Chapter..

CONTENTS.~VoL.

xviii

Chapter.
Description of the

XII.

I.

Page 98.

Town of Taramariho and

Fo?'t

Zelandia

Colonel Fourgeoud's March


River Marawina A
Strange
Captain wounded Some Privates
Capital Account of Fort Somelsdi/k Of
to the

shot

the

tion in

Hope

in

the

Rio Comewina.

Chapter
A

XIII.

Sugar Plantation described


Cottage

Fjxecu-

Further
in a

Domestic

Happiness

in a

Account of Fourgeoud's Operations

Dreadful Cruelties
of Resentment

Page 324.

inflicted by

some Overseers

Instance

Rebel Negro Captain.

Chapter

XIV.

Page 351.

Example of Ignorance
in a Slave of Ferocity
a
re-enter the Hoods Account

Colonel Fourgeoud at Paramaribo

of Virtue
Commander The Troops

in a

Surgeon

of Loango Dancing

in

Uncommon

Proof of

Fidelity in a

Nes:ro.
"O"

Chapter

XV.

Page 393.

Their
Food Arms Ornaments Employments Diversions
Passions Religion Marriages Funerals,
Of
Caribbee Indians
particular Their Trade mth

Description of the

Indians,

Aborigines of Guiana

<^'C.

in

Europeans.

the

the

/.on,i.u,J't,/'/i.fAt.//iirrQfi;oAMJJr/,ii.--,nX'/Ui,/'t/u.n-/,i:u-,t.

NARRATIVE
OF

AN

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

CHAP.
Introduction.GuianaAn
Account of

Surinam

nmnng

-^R^Yift/^

Expedition

the

Voyage

Reception

The

of

I
"*

HIE

the

out

sets

Sketch of the InhahitantSy

'

I.

Negi-oes

from

Short

the Texel

Fleet arrives in the Hiver

Troops in

the

Dutch

in

that

Colony-

<^-c.

exploring of foreign countries having of late

years,

and particularly

of the immortal

since the recent discoveries

Captain Cook,

so generally been the

object of persons both in private and

pubhc

and the

pursuits being so

histories of their labours

and

situations

interesting to the curiosity of the Public, I have ventured


to offer such observations as 1 have

had an opportunity

of making in a very singular part of the Globe, on which

few Englishmen have been thrown, either by accident

Vol.

I.

or

nav

NARRATIVE OF AN
The colony of Surinam,

or curiosity.
so far as

it is

in

Dutch Guiana^

inhabited and cultivated by Europeans near

known

the sea-coast, has indeed been

for

many

years

But the deep inundations, with the impenetrable

past.

tliickness of the Avoods,

have been such constant discou-

ragements and obstructions to discovery, that but very


little true

information concerning that country hath as yet

been obtained, except what

merce

as are

common

to

such objects of com-

most of the tropical settlements.

This publication, therefore,


larize

relates to

is

chiefly intended to particu-

such circumstances and events as the necessity of

penetrating into the interior parts of the country have

me

enabled

The

make, and forced on

feeling part of

ceive with
officer,

to

my

my

observation.

must hope,

readers, I

will re-

some indulgence a work proceeding from an

who, from

his early 3^outh,

was debarred

quiring perfection, either as a writer or a painter,


military and maritime profession.
flatter

style

myself that whatever

and elegance,

fidelity

and

is

in

I nevertheless

his

humbly
in

some degree compensated by that

correctness, wliich can alone be the

to a few quaint expressions,


soldiers^, sailors^

by

may be found wanting

a pen and pencil employed on the spot.

common

in ac-

and even

With

oaths, as

work of
respect

spoken by

&c. that sometimes unavoidably

occur in the narrative of

this

wonderful expedition,

must humbly request the world not

to

be startled at

them, not only because the shades of black and white


11

enlivea

;; :

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
enliven the picture, but because I

am determined

and expose rzce and foily

truth only,

Come then,

7111/

friends

" Together

let us

to write

in their native colours.

beat

this

ample Jield,

" Try what the open, what the covert yield

'

"

The

".

Of all who

"

Eye Natures

"

And

latent tracts, the giddy heights, explore

blindly creep, or sightless soar


zvalks, shoot Folly as

it flies,

catch the manners living as they rise

" Laugh where we must, be candid where we can

" But vindicate the ways of

God

to

man."

POTE.
I

WILL now boldly launch out on

As the

the difficult task.

nature, however, of these transactions can only

be understood by a reference to the occasion Avhich

me

ed

thither, I feel

myself under the necessity of

callstill

premising a few words upon that subject.

Every part of the World, where domestic


established,

and

disquiet,

may be
more

especially

where the
;

Dutch Guiana, has been

in this respect.

is

occasionally liable to insurrection

the majority of the inhabitants


r'inatn, in

slavery

slaves constitute

but the colony of St^


peculiarly unfortunate

Whether from the

shelter

which

is

af-

forded to the fugitives by the immense forests which

overspread the most considerable part of this country, or

whether the government of


defective, it

is

a certain

this settlement

fact, that its

B 2

be radically

European

settlers

are

NARRATIVE OF AN
are constantly exposed to the moft violent ravages,

Of

most desperate outrage.

not, however, the place for a

and the

these circumstances

minute

Let

detail.

it

this, is

suffice

therefore for the present, only to observe, that these re-

peated

revolts

and

most vigorous measures


peace

this

772, that a considerable

had assembled

description

came extremely formidable


High

at length the

for the restoration of a general

and that the accounts transmitted

the year

of

demanded

insurrections

to Holland, in

body of armed people


in the forests,

and be-

to the colony, determined their

States of the United Provinces

Mightinesses the

to

send out a sufficient maritime force to oppose the insurgents, and, if possible, to quell the insurrection.

The
)>ition,

had ever been

British navy

in

which I

Avas

time of peace, and

my

birth,

choice and am-

recommended

well

fmall hopes of preferment I

my

had naturally

my paternal

but the

to expect in

estate being lost just after

by accidental misfortunes, induced me

to relin-

quish the hopes of advancement in the sea-service, and


to accept

an ensign's commission, presented

me

without

purchase, in one of the Scots brigade regiments in the

pay of Holland, where


at that period was

Siy Joseph

York

(late

Lord Dover)

ambassador from the British court;

before which nobleman 1 had the honour to take the


usual oaths of abjuration and

and Country,

allegiance to

my

King,

as registered at the British war-office.

This point I have also thought

it

right to premise, as

a duty

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM,
a duty owing to myself, to shew the world in general that

me

was necessity not choice that compelled

it

enter

to

though perhaps a more ancient

into a foreign service;

and distinguished corps does not


brigade has proved to be, both in

exist

than the above

and on the

this island

continent, for above two hundred years.

At the time of
in tlie

the above insurrection I M'as Lieutenant

Honourable General

Jolin Stuart's regiment;

impressed by the hopes of traversing the

my favourmy curio-

sea,

element, and in som measure gratifying

ite
sity,

of

exploring a part

in

known;

the

when,

world not

generally

more by the prosped; of that preferment

still

which might be consequent on so dangerous an expedition; I instantly solicited admission into a corps of volunteers

which was preparing to

the honour,

OF

by

Orange,

his Serene

to

Highnefs

from the Alpine

pointed our

Commander

for

ment,

the

V. Prijjce

new

Mountains, Avho was ap-

in Chief.

Having taken the oaths of

sary

William

Loins lienrij Fourgeotid, a Swiss

gentleman,

to the

Gniana, and had

be advanced to the rank of Captain by

brevet*, under Colonel

vember

sail for

corps,

fidelity

on the 12 th of No-

and prepared what was neces-

voyage, I bade farewell to

and immediately

sailed

to the

my

old regi-

island of Texel,

where several of our gentlemen were already assembled


* Each

officer

was permitted

enter his former reg-uieiU,

if

to re-

he fur-

Europe, a vacancy being there preferved for hiui during his abfence.

^jved the expedition; and returned to

and

NARRATIVE OF AN

CHAP,

and where, on going ashore,


boat's shipping a sea,

The

had nearly perished by the

and sinking

island of JViej-higen

in the surf.

was however the spot of ge-

here Colonel Fouigeoud arriving on

neral rendezvous:

the 7th of December, the volunteers were


to the

number of

five

hundred

and embodied

the Boi'eas and

as

IVeJieUingxDerf men-of-war,
Crufs,

com-

into seven

a regiment of marines.

by Captains Van de Velde and


built transports

assembled,

young men; and on

we were formed

the morning of the 8th


panies,

fine

all

three

Besides

commanded
new

frigate-

were put in commission, carrying ensign,

and armed with from ten

jack, and pennant,

guns, as sloops of war; on board ihefe vessels

to sixteen

we embarked

the same afternoon under a general salute, then took the

command, and did

Our

the duty as in the navy.

departure was not however immediately conse-

quent on our embarkation.


Texel roads for

many

young

a Mr.

officers,

with the

small-pox

We

lay

wind-bound

in the

days, during which time one of our


HeJJeling,
this

was unfortunately seized

gentleman, in order to pre-

vent his infecting the ship's company, was ordered on


shore to a town on the land's end, called the Helder, where
I

conducted him in a pinnace, and where we

behind us; but on

my

return, the surgeon declaring

saw the symptoms of the same disorder on myself,


also

him

left

immediately ordered

to the island of Texel.

he

was

Hav-

ing passed a most anxious quarantine in this place, I had


the

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
ma-

the good fortune however to escape the loathsome


lady,

and

appeared once more on

to the Doctor's surprize

board perfectly

well, just before the signal

for the fleet to

weigh anchor.

but induce

me

gun was

fired

This circumstance cannot

who

to wish that those in particular

destined for a rnihtary or a naval

would

life

are

them-

avail

selves of the art of inoculation, in order to avoid a painful

anxiety to themselves, and a most dangerous infection

to their fellow-creatures.

On

Christmas-day our small

o'clock,

A.

M.

fleet

put

to sea, at eight

with a fresh breeze from E. N. E. in com-

pany with above one hundred

bound

vessels

for differ-

ent parts of the globe, and the most beautiful clear


ther.

Having

safely got

without the

saluted each other with nine guns,

of Wight, and Fovtland Point

ellingwerf, having sprung a leak,

and

soundings,

kept our course

Ave

down channel, and soon passed the North


Ijle

wea-

Foreland, the

but here the West-

was obliged

com-

to part

pany, and run into Plymouth for repair.

The wind now freshened


Bifcay, where the

as

mate of the

we approached

vessel directed

attention to a kind of sea-swallow,

commonly

by the name of the

from

Storm-bircl*,

its

is

my

Bay of

particular

distinguished

supposed pro-

perty of foretelling an impending tempest.

of this bird

the

The colour

a very deep blue approaching to black,

and enlivened by some variegated

tints; its

that of a large martin or swallow

it

is

size

is

about

web-footed

the
bill

* The SUrmy Petrel of Pennant.

NARRATIVE OF AN
bill is

very long and sharp, and the wings of an extraor-

dinary length, which enable

it

to fly very fast,

and

for

a considerable time, skimming with incredible velocity

around the horizon


is

probably the cause of

it

then

and

upon

floats

On

being sensible of the


prevent

which

fish,

in-

first

usual supply

its

of

along with extreme swiftness, in order

flies

to avoid the storm

its

may

dications of whatever

food

upon

subsists entirely

it

but

if

overtaken by

it,

drops

its

wings,

the surface of the waves.

the following day, January 2d, 1773, the predidions

of the storm-bird were verified: a heavy gale sprung up from

N. N. E. by which,

off

Cape F'umterre, the Boreas and Vi-

gilance were separated from us.

We kept

our course during

the night with double-reefed top-sails, and


laid,

which made our men

all

the hatches

in general very sick.

Here I

ought not to forget that by way of experiment we had slung


the

hammocks athwart

ships,

and not

which method we found however


convenient,.that
vessel

On

it

to

as usual fore

be both

fo

and

aft

roomy and

has been since adopted by several other

'-,,

the morning of the 4th

windward

we spied a

in the offing, bearing straight

stout ship to

down upon

us.

Conjedturin^ she might be an Algevine pirate from the


African coast, and

pared

to

now but two

ships out of five,

we

pre-

engage her; she however soon proved to be

the Boreas man-of-war, which had parted cotnpany on


the 2d.

From

this

date the

men

were daily exercised at


the

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
the great guns, and by firing at a target suspended from
the yard-arm.

On the 1 4th, in the morning-watch, we passed the Tropic,


when

the usual ceremony of ducking the fresh-water sailors

was ransomed by tipping the foremast men with some

About

silver.

this

time the Boreas most unluckily

lost

one

of her best seamen, the boatswain's mate, whose hand


slipping

by the wet, he pitched from the fore-yard-arm

into the sea.

His presence of mind

captain, as he floated alongside, "


**

sir,"

in the confidence of

peculiar compassion,
as

meeting

not alarmed for me,

Avith relief, attracted

and even caused some murmuring,

no assistance was offered him

after

Be

in calling to the

in

consequence of which,

swimming a considerable time within


young man went

fortunate

We

now

view, the un-

to the bottom.

w^ere got in the tract of the trade winds,

blowing continually

east,

which

and the weather becoming from

day to day more temperate, made the voyage exceedingly


pleasant

more

so

by the many

dolphins or dorados,

which

beautiful fish seem to take pecuHardelightin sporting around


thevessels.

was

The rea/ dolphin, which is of the cetaceous kind,


on account of

anciently celebrated in poetic story

philanthropy and other supposed virtues

or dolphin of the moderns, this character

its

but to the dorado


is

far

from being

applicable, this fish being extremely voracious and destructive,

and

is

known

to follow the ships,

and gambols, not from attachment

VoL.L

and exhibit

to

his sports

mankind, but from


the

NARRATIVE OF AN

10

the more selfish motive of procuring food, particularly on the

eve of an approaching storm, of which he appears perfectly sensible.

The circumstance which

the dorado to our attention


brilliancy of

its

chiefly entitles

the unrivalled and dazzling

is,

colours in the water, the whole of

back

its

being enamelled with spots between azure blue and a


reflecting light sea-green,

on a very dark ground, which

appears as bespangled

all

over with jewels, and forms a

most beautiful contrast

to the belly, Avhich

the fins and

cast

this

animal

is

tail

from

are of a golden

five

to six feet,

fjom the head towards the

tail,

dj'^e

and

which

is

its

of a whitish
the length of

form tapers

divided,

is

minates not unlike the shape of a crescent.

and

ter-

The head

is

round, and preceded by a kind of snout; the jaws are

armed with
large.

and

several sharp teeth,

The

it is

scales of the

furnished with a

and the eyes are remarkably

dorado are uncommonly small,


fin,

which runs along

its

back

from the one extremity to the other.

Our

progress was

now daily marked by

weather, which released

me

increasing

warm

from the confinement of a

agreeable cabin crowded with ofiicers, most of

never been to sea, and enabled

me to

pursue

dis-

whom had

my

favourite

amusements, whether of reading above deck, or exercise in


the rigging.

Thus circumstanced I, on the

7th, had the hap-

piness of rendering a most important service to one of our

a Mr. du Moulin, who by a sudden

young

oflftcers,

vessel

was actually thrown over the gunwale. At that mo3

roll

of the

ment

ty//.^J^u^/ f/ //y / ^.j

/cr/f/y?u, f '7 ^y/^t^^/y ''/'/.

Siy/teyZ^C7'(^^<r o/ -^^^^0////-/^^ ry/

LoiuU'ii.rublishtJ

Dtc/'i-'h-!;)!

A//^-

J.Jcluuon.S.'P.iuls l7mnii I'urJ.

m.

^/(^f/f WAV.

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
ment happening to stand without-board
I fortunately grasped hold of

him

in the

in his

fall,

li

main-chains,

which saved

him, as he could not swim, from inevitable death.

The entrance

warmer regions gave occasion

into

to

an

observation perhaps not generally known, which (though

uncouth) must be of great importance to


that between the Tropics, while vermin

sailors

namely,

may remain

in the

head, none can possibly continue to exist in the bedding,

Having humbly apologized

cloaths, linen, &c.

above remark to

my

for the

delicate readers, I will endeavour to

describe a curious animal with w^hich these seas abound,

and which appears

to sail

on the surface of the waves with

a side-wind, while by the

sailors it is vulgarly called

Portuguese man-of-war, and


tilus

is

probably either the Nau-

or the Argonauta of Linnaeus.

ture, Avhen

is

a beautiful red border, while the lower

fixed to a shell as thin as paper, or rather

a kind of boat, which

is

sunk below or raised above the

any

surface of the sea,

and guided

sure of the animal,

by means of six

it

This wonderful crea-

above water, assumes the shape of an expanded

fan, decorated with

extremity

uses as oars.

When

in

direction, at the plea-

tentacula or limbs, Avhich

these creatures arc touched

by the

hand, they occasion, like the sea blubber or jelly fish, a painful tinkling sensation,

The two
seas

which continues

following days

washed over the

vessel

it
;

for several minutes.

blew very

fresh,

and heavy

during which, while helping to

put a reef in the main-top-sail for a


c 2

little

exercise, I lost

every

NARRATIVE OF AN

12

every one of

my

into the sea.

This

lated,

ring

keys, which dropped from the yard-arm


trifling

accident 1 should never have re-

had it not proved a very great inconvenience, by debar-

me from coming

at

my

private property, particularly

since the Avhole ship's company,


salt provision alone,

included, lived on

officers

a pig and a couple of lean sheep ex-

cepted, whose legs had been broken by the rolling and

This manner of living on salt-beef,

pitching of the vessel.

pork, and peas, like

Commander

in

common

sailors,

was introduced by our

Chief in order to enure us (he said) to such

food as we were likely to be alone supplied with in the woods


of Surinani

American

and from the generous motive of regaling

friends with

live sheep, hogs, fowls,

European refreshments

his

such as

ducks, bacon hams, bullocks tongues,

preserved vegetables, pickles, spices, &c.

of which were

all

But

provided by the town of Amsterdam in profusion.

good intentions do not always meet with


since the worms, without

their rewards

any one's permission,

laid hold of

the greatest part of the dead stock for themselves

who

were, for their punishment, together with their plunder,

thrown overboard into the ocean.

Let

me

add, that, in-

stead of plate, our mpals were frpquently served

wooden tubs of not


once a day

impute

to

chambre.

up

the most cleanly appearance,

Avhich negligence, however, I

am

in small

and only

willing to

Monsieur Laiirant, the colonel's French valet-deIn short, the scurvy and other loathsome dis-

orders began to

make

their

appearance

dejection and low


spirits

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
spirits

took place throughout the ship, while

aloud,

and from that moxne.ut

13

complained

chap.
T

lonel

\hG good-will which Co-

d'dXe

Fourgeoud manifested towards me in

be seen throughout the expedition.

It

particular, as will

is

but no consideration

shall prevent

relate this passage

from bringing to

with pain that I

me

light particular foibles, as it will ever give

nie the greatest pleasure to render virtue conspicuous.

About

the 20th of January,

of flying

fish,

numbers

The back of this animal

and of an olive-brown colour


splendent silvery white

the

is

is flat,

the sides and belly of a re-

mouth

small

the eyes large

bifurcated; and the scales hard, smooth, and silvery.

tail

Upon

great

the exoccetus voUtans of Linnaeus, which

about the size of a herring.

the

we observed

occasion the pectoral

fins

arc used as wings

by

this

yet no longer than while they continue wet, for as soon

fish,

as the moisture

The

is

dried, the animal drops

surface of these fins

is

back into the

of a golden hue, beautifully va-

riegated near the edges with spots of azure blue

length

is

equal to that of the body of the fish

which

is

undertaken

in

dorado, and other large

sea.

and

their

its flight,

order to avoid the pursuit of the


fish, is

always straight forward, and

of short duration, on account of the necessity of repeatedly


wetting
*

its

wings

have never seen

*.

These animals are frequently found

this necessity

properly accounted lor:

probably

itseU'

of

its

cannot endure
proper element

to
:

be long out

either of these

mucus which covers the fins or


wings may become so consolidated

suppositions will account for

by the heat of the sun, and the action


of the air, that it may impede their

on board ships, and into the mouth

the

motion

or

it

may be

that the fish

ping so often as

of

its

it

its

drop-

were involuntarily

enemies, the dolphin, dorado,

&,c.

on

NARRATIVE OF AN

u
on board

vessels,

and sticking

which

in the shrouds,

is

probably to be ascribed, not, according to the opinion of


some, to their seeking a refuge there from the attacks of
fish

or sea-birds, but simply to their flight being obstructed

by an

object, which, as they always fly in a direct line,

The fate of

they have not the power to avoid.

seems peculiarly severe, as

and feathered

creation,

mitted

the prey both of the scaly

it is

and frequently meets

that element to which but a

animal

this

moment

before

its
it

doom

in

had com-

itself for protection.

Becoming extremely

low-spirited towards the close of

now had

recourse to daily sea-bathing, and

our voyage,

to a chearing glass of claret,

two ankers of which had

been provided

independently of his

for

each

officer,

stock.

These means proved

self in

a few days perfectly recovered from

On

plaint.

the 30th the weather

ships brought-to
foul water.

efficacious,

The

found my-

my com-

became hazy, when the

and hove the lead


following day

and

own

in thirteen

we passed

fathom

several large

black rocks to windward, called The Constables, and cast

anchor near the Euripice, or Devil's


of South America.

The Euripice

Islands, off the coast

Islands

are situated

about twenty-four miles from the French settlement of


Cayenne,
grees

bearing N. N,

twenty minutes,

W.

and

in

North

latitude,

five de-

consist of a ridge of small

uninhabited and very dangerous rocks for shipping.

Here

the current runs constantly from the S. E. to the N.


at the rate of sixty English

W.

miles in twenty-four hours

consequently

iu^^iroi^.tA^a?i^H^/^//;<-J^wv^j, (^^^ay.-^dyn^y7V79t/>-yy. G^.

^y^zry^^^ai/^^^^-i

^y/yyr

/' rr/ '/-///._

///yy// r^:?yi^:r./f-/'.

London.ruhlL^iud JytcTi i^j^i.t>v J.Johnji'n. SSJ*uii^

('/tnn-fi

Vnni.

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

15

consequently every vessel which happens to pass the mouth


of the river Surinam must

make a

considerable circuit in

order to regain the possibility of entering that

While we remained

in this situation,

river.

we observed

narwhal, or sea-unicorn, and

one or two large

floating past the ship's side.

The former

large

crescence on

its

one we saw at
or

this

fishes,

(either in hardness or whiteness)

is

is

markable in the male.


confounded
it

this

It

its

considered not to be
is

of the cetais

climates.

more

fre-

The female

be unprovided with that protuberance so

to

however,

warm

and

and when polished

The narwhal, which

quently found in cold than


said

The

dreadfully offensive to

ceous kind, and consequently viviparous,

is

spiral ex-

six or eight feet in length,

especially to the whale

inferior to ivory.

time (though some are said to be forty

horn about four, which weapon

many

is

nose, like a tapering twisted rope.

appeared but

fifty)

turtles,

of these

and very distinguishable by a long

fish,

the

re-

appears that some authors have

animal with the

sword-Jish,

to

which,

does not prove to have the very smallest

resemblance.

Another animal, which

is

called the saw-Jish, carries also

an offensive weapon.

The projectmg bone of this is

or four feet long,

and both

flat,

sharp-pointed spikes, which give

a saw

this

saw, which

is

sides
it

three

armed with strong

somewhat the form of

covered over with the same

rough, slimy, darkish-coloured skin that covers the whole


animal,

NARRATIVE OF AN

16

animal, begins to spread itself near the eyes, and thus continues spi-eading

till it

forms the head of a

flattish triangular

appearance, close to which are the two pectoral fins. Above


the eyes are two large holes, which I apprehend to be the

organs of hearing, and not, as some suppose, intended by


nature for the purpose of spouting water.

under them

is

the mouth, which

Almost directly

something in the form

is

of an halt-moon, apparently without teeth, and between


that and the under part of the spiked saw are the nostrils.

The body of the

saw-fish

with two strong dorsal


other near the

not

much larger

than the head,

the one near the middle, the

fins,

which

tail,

is

and

partly bifurcated,

is

raised

The

perpendicular, the largest part upwards, without rays.

back

is

covered over

a dark slimy skin

Avith

forming a very hideous appearance.


the largest whales,

seldom quitting
killed
its

it.

till

its

the sea

all

adversary

have seen

this

This

around
till

it

is

green

turtle,

and

two

respect to

is

carett.

The former of

both in

shell,

which

more convex form.


their eggs,

feet.

and are gene-

Surinam by the names of calapee or

inferior

its

with

died with blood,

species,

weighs four hundred pounds, and has a


the carett

fish fights

monster out of the water, and

turtles are divided into

rally distinguished in

the whole

has vanquished and

whole length measured about fourteen

The

size
is

and

these sometimes

fliattish shell

but

quality, except with

more valuable, and of a

Both the calapee and

which are very excellent food,

carett deposit
in the sand,

where

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
where they are hatched

manner of taking

these animals

by turning them on

is

and leaving them

shore,

in this situation

nient opportunity occurs for carrying them


is

The chap.

the heat of the sun.

"oy

backs with a handspike, Avhen they are discovered

their

on

17

a conve-

till

away

for

such

the heaviness of their structure, or so languid are their

powers, that they are utterly unable to turn themselves,

and

They

effect their escape.

by the butchers

in

Surinam,

are publicly exposed to sale

like the

shambles meat in the

European markets, and are esteemed the most

May.

food between the months of February and

On

when we came

evening,
river

Marawina. This

seamen

ships, b}^

to which

What

we now once

the morning of the 1st of February

more went under weigh, and kept course

its

to

an anchor

river has

in shore

it

till

the

mouth of the

off the

occasioned the

fatally mistaking

delicate

loss

for the river

of

many

Surinam,

entry bears indeed a very great resemblance.

renders the first so dangerous are the numerous

rocks, small islands,

croudcd

besides

its

and quick-sands with which

it

is

being so shallow at high-water mark

(and even with spring-tides) that all ships of any considerable

burthen immediately run a-ground, and go to pieces.

On the
we again

2d, having got our anchor a-peak b}^ day-break,


set sail,

keeping course along the coast; when,

having doubled Braam's


top and top-gallant
river

Surinam

before the

Vql.

I.

new

and

Poijit

sails,

we

wdth a light breeze, under

finally

entered the beautiful

at three o'clock, p.

fortress

called
jD

bi.

Amsterdam

dropped anchor
;

and here we
were

I.

NARRATIVE OF AN

18

were extremely happy to meet with our friends


huice,

which

pany with

vessel (as I

in the Vigi-

have mentioned) had parted eom-

a gale of wind, on the 2d of January,

us, in

Cape Finisterre, and arrived two days

Our ships crews now were


seemed

before us in this river.

in the highest flow of spirits^,

seeing themselves siu'rounded


dure, while the river

oft"

b}^

the most delightful ver-

alive

by the many boats and

barges passing and re-passing to see us, while groups of

naked boys and

girls

flouncing, like so

many

The scene was new

were promiscuously playing and


Tritons

and Mermaids,

in the water.

and nothing was heard but

to all,

music, singing, and cheering on deck, as well as in the


rigging,

from the ideas of happiness which each individual

now promised

himself in

ihis>

luxmiant flourishing spot,

while between decks the heat was

become insupportable

but how miserably these poor fellows were mistaken in


their

reckoning

I mvist

shall

soon be seen.

indeed acknowledge that nothing could equal

the delicious sensations with

which we seemed intoxicated,

by the fragrance of the lemons,

limes, oranges,

and

flowerSj

wafted over from the adjoining plantations that line the

banks of all the

rivers in this

of Mhich charming

fruit,

ever-blooming settlement, and

&c. large clusters were sent on

board our ships by Colonel de Ponchera of the colonial


troops.

This gentleman, being the

Amsterdam,

also saluted the vessels with nine

the batteries, while with an equal


the compliment from the ships.
7

commandant of Fort
guns from

number we returned

A long-boat,

liim-

with one

of

i^'

Barfploxzi-

J^KS^^??zaAy^ysa'n?-^:/la't^, -u^cl/ttf. /^.^('M/i/^c/m//ie>

J'cu.Jp.''

/Z/ n^i/^^^ic/!!e^

/
LondfTi. .Fublithed Dec r ii:' i/i^^. I'y

JfhiX'roii

S.'PtinJ^

I'/ttu'c/i

Jlwrf.

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
of our
to

19

captains, was aftenvards dispatclied to Paramaribo,

announce to the Governor the

chap.

arrival of the troops in the ,,^^^U*

colony.

During our stay


M-alked on shore,
sions

in this place the

and

companies frequently

accompanied them

but the pleasure

had

flattered

in their excur-

myself with, from

exchanging the confinement of a ship for the liberty of


ranging over a delicious country, was
object which presented itself after

a young female

slave,

by

skin,

the stroke of the whip.

been committed by

landing.

the

first

This was

whose only covering was a rag tied

round her loins, which, like her


places

my

damped by

this

was lacerated

in several

The crime which had

miserable victim of tj'ranny was

the non-performance of a task to which she was apparently

unequal, for which she was sentenced to receive two hun-

dred lashes, and to drag, during some months, a chain


several yards in length, one

end of which was locked round

her ancle, and to the other was affixed a weight of at least

a hundred pounds.
circumstance,

Strongly affected

v.ith this

took a draft of the unhappy

shocking

sufferer,

and

retained a dreadful idea of the inhumanity of the planters

towards these miserable subjects to their power.

The
coarse,

grass in this part of the country was very long

and

two species of very

dis-

and afforded a harbour

to

agreeable insects, termed Pattat and Scrapat lice by the


colonists,

which settled on every part of our persons.

former of these

is

so small as to

be scarcely

visible

The
;

the

latter

NARRATIVE OF AN

20
latter

is

something larger, and formed

like

a crab, and botk

agree in adhering closely to the skin, and occasioning aa


intolerable itching.

the rainy season


attacks

is

These insects abound most during

when

tlie

best

means of avoiding

their

supposed to be by walking barefoot, as they are

believed to fasten

numbers, upon

more

tlie

speedily find their

easily,

cloaths,

way

or lemons,

in greater

whence, however, they very

to the skin.

our disagreeable companions

when we washed

and consequently

till

We

did not get rid of

our return to the ship,

the affected parts with the juice of limes

which considerably

alleviated our troublesome

sensations.

On

the 3d of

officers

March we

received a

visit

from several

of the Society, or West India Company's troops,

accompanied by a number of other gentlemen,

to wel-

Nor were they

satisfied

come our

arrival in the colony.

with paying us merely a compliment in words, but regaled us with a large quantity of excellent fruits and other

They came

refreshments.

boats, adorned with flags,

The

music.

who were

vessels

in very elegant barges or tent-

and attended by small bands of

were rowed by

six or eight negroes,,

entirely without cloaths, except a small stripe of

check or other linen cloth, which was passed between their


thighs,

and fastened before and behind

string tied

make

round their

loins.

As the

to a thin

cotton

colonists generally

choice of their handsomest slaves for this office, and

to attend

them

at table, &c. the rowers,

who were

healthy,

young,

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM,
young, and vigorous, looked extremely
being naked gave us a

full

and

Avell,

their

opportunity of observing their

which was shining, and nearly

skin,

51

as black as ebony.

This scene was, however, contrasted by the arrival of two

canoes

filled

morously

who

with emaciated starving wretches,

from the

solicited relief

soldiers,

cla-

and were ready

to fight for the possession of a bone.

The day

following our

Commander

in

by a Mr. Rynsdorp, who introduced


soldiers,

manumized

slaves,

Chief was visited

to

who composed

him two

part of a corps

of three hundred Avhich had been lately formed.

men were

exhibited by

]VIr.

black

These

R3'nsdorp as specimens of

that valiant body which, but a short time before, had most
distinguished itself by the

gallantly

protection

it

had

afforded to the colony.

Whilst -we

Amsterdam,

still

remained at anchor before the

I received a polite invitation

Lolkens, a planter, to

whom

fortress

from one

]\Ir.

had been recommended,

to

accept the use of his house and table on our arrival at

Paramaribo, the capital of the colony.

On

the 8th Ave once

more went under way, and,

after

the usual ceremonies on both sides on leaving the fortress^

the river Surinam with drums beating, colours

sailed

up

flying,

and a guard of marines drawn up on the quarter-

deck of each
ribo,

we

vessel.

finally

came

Having
to

at length reached

Parama-

an anchor within pistol-shot off the

shore, receiving a salute of eleven guns from the citadel

Zealandia,

NARRATIVE OF AN

22

Zealandia, which was returned bj

all

the ships of our small

fleet.

After being confined nearly the whole of sixty-three

days within the limits of a small

ment

to

vessel,

and upon an

ele-

which few of the troops had been accustomed,

would not be easy

to describe the pleasure

it

we experienced

on finding ourselves once more on land, and surrounded

by a thousand agreeable
Tlie

circumstances.

town appeared uncommonly neat and pleasing, the

shipping extremely beautiful, the adjacent woods adorned

with the most luxuriant verdure, the

utmost fragrance, and


of an unclouded sun.

tlie

air

perfumed with the

whole scene gilded by the rays

We

did not, however, take leave

of our wooden habitation at

this time,

but the next day

were formally disembarked with a general appearance of


rejoicing

all

the ships in the roads being in

and the guns keeping up an incessant

fire till

full

dress,

the whole of

the troops were landed.

All the inhabitants of Paramaribo were collected to beliold this splendid scene,

had formed disappointed.


five

hundred young men,

nor were the expectations they

The
(for

corps consisted of neaily

we had been

so fortunate

as only to lose one during the voyage) the oldest of

was scarcely more than


cloathed in their

new

thirty,

whom

and the whole party neatly

uniforms, and in caps ornamented

with twigs of orange-blossom.

We

paraded on a large

green plain between the town and the citadel, opposite


to

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
lo the Governor's palace; during the

23

course of which

chap.

ceremonies several soldiers fainted from the excessive heat. ^.^^"

The

troops then

marched

into quarters prepared for their

reception, Avhilst the oflicers were regaled with a dinner

by

the Governor, which -w'oukl have derived a considerable


relish

had

from

its

so long

succeeding the

salt provisions, to

been confined, had any contrast been neces-

sary to heighten our oi)inion of

and served up

But the

elegance.

its

choicest delicacies of America and


this repast,

which we

Europe were united

in silver.

great varietj' of

the richest wines were poured out with profusion


desert was

composed of the mbst

company were attended by a

delicious fruits,

considerable

country

to the

the

and the

number of

tremely handsome negro and mulatto maids,

from the waist upwards, according

in

all

ex^

naked

custom of the

but the other parts of their persons arraj^ed in

the finest

India

chintzes,

and the whole adorned with

golden chains, medals, beads, bracelets, and sweet-smelling


flowers.

After partaking of this superb entertainment

seven o'clock,

set

me

place, but

to

my

make

it

my

own.

who had
I

so obligingly

soon discovered- the

reception was so ludicrous that I cannot

forbear relating the particulars.


it

about

out in search of the house of Mr.

Lolkens, the hospitable gentleman


invited

till

On knocking at the

door^.

was opened by a young female negro, of a masculind-

appearance, whose whole dress consisted of a single petticoat,.

NARRATIVE OF AN

24

and who held a hghtcd to'jacco-pipe

coat,

and a burning candle


to

my

in the other,

face, in order to reconnoitre

which she brought close


me.

enquired

master was at home, to which she replied,

guage

totally unintelligible to

one hanc]

in

me.

jjut in

her

if

a lan-

then mentioned his

name, on Avhich she burst into an immoderate

fit

laughter, displaying two rows of very beautiful teeth

at the

loss

gi]"l

and

same time laying hold of the breast-buttons of my

made me a

coat, she

of

how

signal to follow her.

went

to act, but

was

much

and was ushered by the

in,

into a very neat apartment, whither she brought

and a

excellent fruit,

bottle of

she was able, informed

me

some

Madeira wine, which she

She then,

placed upon the table.

at

in

the best

manner

that her masera, with the rest

of his family, was gone to spend a few days at his planta-

and that she was

tion,

Captain,

whom

was, and

filled

utmost

left

behind to receive an English

she supposed to be me.

her out a tumbler of wine, which I had the

difficulty to

persuade her to accept

the degrading light in which these


considered, that

it is

them

pean.

I contrived for

^ Tired

it

.spm.e rest,

some time
this

by recurring

Avith the

for such

unhappy beings

to eat or drink in the presence of

a conversation with

put an end to

is

are

accounted a high degree of presuujp-

tion in

like

I signified that I

to carry

on something

woman, but was soon glad


to

my

to

to

bottle.

employments of the day,

and made a signal

an Euro-

I longed for

my attendant that I wanted


to

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

25

she

my motion was strangelj'^ misconstrued for


immediatel}^ seized me by the neck, and imprinted on

my

lips

to sleep

but

a most ardent

Heartily provoked at this

kiss.

unexpected and (from one of her colour) unwelcome salumyself from her embraces, and

I disentangled

tation,

angrily flung into the apartment allotted for

was again pursued by

my black

rest.

But here

who,

in opposition to all I could say, insisted

my

place of

tormentor,

upon pulling

my shoes and stockings, and in a moment disencumbered


me of that part of my apparel. I was extremely chagrined
off

at her

conduct

formed by the

though

this

an

office

Suriimm, to

commonly

per-

all

ranks and sexes

Nor ought any one

to conceive that

slaves in

without exception.

this is

apparently extraordinary conduct resulted from any

peculiarity of disposition in the girl

her behaviour was

only such as would have been practised by the generality


of female negro slaves, and what
visit

will

be found, by

all

who

the "West India settlements, to be characteristic of the

whole dark sisterhood.


Finding in the morning, that

was not returned,

my

friend, the planter,

and very

I took leave of his mansion,

hospitable servant; and, after visiting the soldiers in their

new

abodes, was conducted, by the quarter-master, to a

neat habitation appropriated to

my

use.

found the

house entirely unfurnished, though not destitute of inhabitants

for leaving

my

Captain's commission, which was

of parchment, in the window the

Vol.

I.

first

night, I

had the
morti-

NARRATIVE OF AN

26

mortification to find, in the morning, that

by the

was devoured

it

rats.

Having taken possession of my habitation,


was

to furnish

it

properly

but

all

my next wish

cares of this nature were

rendered unnecessary by the generous hospitality of the


inhabitants
glasses,

the ladies supplied

me

and even plate and china,

me

and the gentlemen loaded

with

chairs,

tallies,

abundance

in great

with presents of Madeira

wine, porter, cyder, rum, and sugar, besides a quantity of


the most exquisite

ticularly struck with the

of these, which

is

Amongst

fruits.

the latter I was par-

shaddock and awara

the former

of a very agreeable flavour, between a

sweet and an acid,

is

produced from a tree supposed to be

transplanted from the coast of Guinea*, by a Captain

Shaddock, whose name

it

still

English West India islands, but

Surinam.

but
old

is
:

is

throughout the

retains

called

pompelmoose

in

This fruit appears to be of the orange species,

as large as the

the skin

is

head of a child of eight or ten years

extremely thick, of a bitterish

pale yellow or citron colour.

of the other a beautiful pale red, which


:

and a

There are two species of the

shaddock, of which the pulp of the one

in considerable quantities

taste,

indeed

is

white,

may be

it is

and that

safely eaten

esteemed by the

Exotic of Cerean dye.

Sweet acid offspring of an injur'd sky;


O Shaddock ]ike thy country, captive
!

And doom'd

to

led,

grace the board her children spread.

natives.

o.
-'y/f/y (>y/u/,/yor/-

/.,<ii,l.'n.7'ul'li.f/,c,l /-)Kri",^,ii,l,,

(\ //y?/ry.

./.Jn^-im..<:'i\,i,l.r </,<.,./, >'i)-J.

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
who

natives,

are in general remarkably fond of

it,

S7
as very

^*

salubrious.

The

or avoira, which

axzHira,

excellence of

upon a

groAvs

about the

its

flavour than

is less

its

species of palm-tree,

size

remarkable for the

beautiful appearance,

and

of an oval form,

is

of an Orlean plum, and of a rich deep

orange colour, nearly approaching to red.

It

much

is

esteemed by the negroes, who exercise their ingenuity in


forming rings out of the stones, which they decorate with
cyphers, initial letters, and other devices

them

to the

then dispose of

Europeans, who mount them in gold.

stones are large, extremely hard,

ebony

and

These

as black as jet or

but the pulp which surrounds them

is

very thin.

This dav, on examining into the state of our remaining


live stock,

such as hogs, sheep, ducks, geese,

turkies,

we found them

we

sailed

first

nearly as

from Holland

many

in

these were

all
;

and

fowls,

number

Colonel's povdtry-yard, at the head-quarters

as

when

sent to the

while

we had

the additional morlification of seeing above sixty large

kegs with preserved vegetables, &c. and just as

many

fine

Westphalia hams (being perfectly rotten) thrown into the


Surinam, to feed the sharks.

river

now

ing, that

observed, on the second morning after our land-

my

face,

my

breast,

and hands, were

spotted over like the skin of a leopard,

entirely

occasioned by

myriads of gnats or musquitoes, which, flying in clouds, had

kept

c n a p.

me company

during the night

E 2

though the fatigue


from

NARRATIVE OF AN

28
c

II

P.

my

from

had sunk

voyage, and the oppressive heat of the climate^

me into

of their stings

so profound a sleep that I

These insects

effet^is.

numerous here during the rainy season,

are inconceivably

and

I perceived the

till

was insensible

None

particularly on the banks of creeks or rivers.

are secured from their attacks, but they peculiarly infest


strangers in preference to the natives
insert their proboscis,

the blood

till

ture they

make

they are scarcely able to


is

itcliing

is

name

is

almost in-

is

indicated

by

sufficient to

make one

so very disagreeable to those

who have

which alone

is

suffered from their stings, as to

the

which

The presence of the musquitoes

and which

Every punc-

fly.

succeeded by a large blotch, or rather

their buzzing noise,

sweat,

and wherever they

and remain unmolested, they suck

tumour, accompanied with an


tolerable.

have obtained

of the Devil's Trumpeters.

They

inconceivably troublesome in every respect.

for

them

are, indeed,

The candles

are no sooner lighted in an evening than they are stuck


full

of them

all

kinds of food and drink are exposed to

their disagreeable visits,

from which even the mouth and

eyes are not exempted.

The

best cure for their stings

juice of lemons or limes,

mixed

is

an application of the

Avith water,

a tolerable preservative against their attacks.

which

Immediately

before shutting the windows, the inhabitants

burn tobacco

in their apartments, the

also

is

commonly

smoke of which

oc-

casions the insects to fly about the room, wlien the negro
girls

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
gills

29

unresen'edly tlirow off their petticoats, Avhich

Avhole of their covering, and, running

is

the

naked about the

chamber, chase the gnats therewith out at the windows,

The more dehcate

or destroy them.

the natives

still

employ their

or luxurious amongst

slaves in fanning

them during

the whole night, excepting such as have green gauze doors


to their beds or pavilions
in

Surinam sleep

but the generality of the people

roomy cotton hammocks,

in

Avhich are

covered with a very large thin sheet, suspended from a


tight

immediately over them, something

line

awning of a

which

ship,

serves, in

like

some measure,

to

the

keep

off these

troublesome insects, and the want of which had

exposed

me

to

There are

be thus stung

also in

all over.

Surinam a

or musquitoes, called mawkers,

extremely painful indeed

larger species of gnats,

still

the stings of which are

but, as they

much

are

numerous than the former, they are not nearly

some

marked.

On

But to proceed

so trouble-

are, consequently, less re-

the morning of the 22d, an elderly negro-womarr,

with a black
it

and

to the inhabitants,

less

would be

girl

about fourteen, entering

difficult to express

gravely presented

was pleased

me

to term

my

however, as to reject the

wife.

apartment,

astonishment when she

her daughter, to

my

my

had

offer Avith

become
so

little

Avhat she
gallantry,

a loud laugh

but at

the same time accompanied the refusal with a small but

welcome

present,

with which they appeared perfectly


satisfied

,^

NARRATIVE OF AN

tio

satisfied,

and departed

Avitb

every possible demonstration

The

of gratitude and respect.

here

girls

who

voluntarily

connections are sometimes mulattoes,

enter into these

They

sometimes Indians, and often negroes.

whom,

the circumstance of living with an European,


general, they serve with the utmost tenderness

and

tacitly reprove those

through

ties

numerous

exult in

all

and

in

fidelity,

who break

fai?- ones

Young women of

more sacred and solemn.

this description

cannot indeed be married or connected in

any other way,

as

a state of slavery
that,

most of them are born or trained up

and

so little

is

the practice

while they continue faithful

partner by

whom

condemned,

and constant

to the

they are chosen, they are countenanced

and encouraged by their nearest relations and


call this

in

friends,

who

a lawful marriage; nay, even the clergy avail

themselves of this custom without restraint; Avitness the

Rev. Mr.

S dh

coloured beauties

Mr.

s,

will,

T11

t,

&c.

Many of the sable-

however, follow their

own penchant

without any restraint whatever, refusing, with contempt,


the golden bribes of some, Avhile on others they bestow their
favours for a

or a broken tobacco-pipe, if not for

dram

nothing.

The

hospitality I

had experienced on our

first arrival

the colony was not confined to that time only


general invitation to
vernor,

and Colonel

twenty respectable

visit,

in

had a

besides his excellency the Go-

Texier, the
families,

commandant,

whenever

it

in

suited

more than

my

conve-

nience

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
nience

though the

so that,

formed a regnnental mess,

One

company.

their

3i

of our corps had

officers

had seldom the honour of

gentleman, a Mr. Kennedy, in par-

ticular, carried his politeness so far, as

not only to

offer

me

the use of his carriage, saddle-horses, and table, but even


to present

my

carry

me

with a fine negro boy,

to

The

met with great

civi-

and the whole colony seemed anxious to testify their

by vying with each other

respect,
festivity.

cies of

Qiiaco,

vimbrella as long as 1 remained in Surinam.

other gentlemen of the regiment also


lities

named

in

a constant round of

Balls, concerts, card assemblies,

amusement

and every spe-

in their power, Avere constantly con-

The

trived for our entertainment.

next reached on board the

men

spirit

of conviviality

of war, where

we

enter-

tained the ladies with cold suppers and dancing

upon the

quarter-deck, under an awning,

morning,

generally concluding the frolic

six in the

by a cavalcade, or an

which was rendered

still

more pernicious by the enervating

of an intensely hot climate, where one

is

in a per-

become

petual state of perspiration, already threatened to

fatal to two or three of our

ample, I retired from

by such means

airing

This constant routine of dissipation,

in their carriages.

effects

till

all

officers.

Warned by

their ex-

public companies, sensible that

could alone preserve

my

health, in a

country which has such a tendency to debilitate the

human

frame, thatan European, however cautious to avoid excesses,

has always reason to apprehend

its

dreadful effects.
Dissipa-

NARRATIVE OF AN

32

Dissipation and luxury appear to be congenial to the


inhabitants of this climate, and great numbers must an-

nually
fatal

fall

victims to their very destructive influence. Their

consequences are indeed too

men, who

visible in the

have indulged themselves in intemperance and other sensual gratifications, and


in the

extreme

exhibit a

who appear withered and enervated

nor do the generality of the Creole females

more

and the skin even of the

their complexions are sallow,

young

ladies

they are languid,

alluring appearance;

This

frequently shrivelled.

is

not the case with

all

and

is,

have been acquainted with

some who, preserving a glow of health and


their lovely countenance,

freshness in

were entitled to contend

prize of beauty with the fairest European.

numbers of

however,

for the

But, alas

the

this last description are so small, that the colo-

nists in their

and mulatto

amours most usually prefer the Indian negro


girls,

particularly

on account of

able cleanliness, health, and vivacity.

of the husbands

in. this

respect,

their

remark-

For the excesses

and the marked neglect

which they meet from them, the Creole

ladies

most com-

monly, at a very early period, appear in mourning weeds,


with the agreeable privilege, however, of making another
choice, in the hopes of a better partner

without another mate.

Such indeed

longevity of the fair females of Surinam,

nor are they


is

the

long-

superior

compared

to that

of the males (owing chiefly, as I said, to their excesses of


all

sorts) that I
1

have frequently known wives who have


buried

EXl^EDITION TO SURINAM.
buried four husbands, but never met a

who had
The

man

33

in this country

survived two wives.

do

ladies

becommg

not, however, always bear with the

most

patience the slights and insults they thus meet

with, in the expectation of a sudden release, but mostly

persecute their successful sable rivals (even on suspicion)


with implacable hatred and the most unrelenting barbarity

while they chastise their partners not only with a shew of

but with giving

ineffable contempt,

in public the

most

unequivocal marks of preference towards those gentlemen

who newly
trite

from Europe

arrive

which occasioned the

proverb and observation in the colony, that the

pical ladies

and the musquitoes have an

ference for a newly -landed

European

indeed so very extreme, and the proofs of


rent

tro-

instinctive pre-

this partiality is
it

so very appa-

and nauseous, that some command of temper

is

necessary to prevent the disgust which such behaviour

must naturally

excite, particularly

very inviting

nay,

it

where the object

was even publicly reported

is

not

at Para-

maribo, that two of these Tropical Amazons had fought a


duel for the sake of one of our officers.
I

must now mention a word or two of the Governor and

Colonel Fourgeoud

when

to this long chapter

for,

tion our whole corps

ed

in the colony, it

I will endeavour to put

notwithstanding the polite recep-

had met

v/ith ever since

I.

we

first

land-

was evident to perceive that mutual

coolness which subsisted between

Vol.

an end

him and our Commander


in

NARRATIVE OF AN

34
ill

oiosity,

up

who indeed gave

Chief,

his

the

pubhc cause of

first

ani-

on the very day of our debarkation, by drawing


regiment with their backs toward the Govenior's-

palace.
It

is

easy to conceive that the disgust Avhich so early

and so reciprocally manifested

between the above

itself

two gentlemen, who were both of them our commanders,


but totally independent of each other, could not but make
our stay at Paramaribo extremely disagreeable to

our regiment, as well as those of the Society

officers in

corps

the

all

the consequence of which was, that, having resided

but a few weeks in the colony,

it

Avas

thought proper by

the Governor to acquaint Colonel Fourgeoud, that, " as

" the rebel negroes seemed no further disposed to disturb


" the tranquillity of the settlement,
" the corps of black rangers, were
"

its

defence

" geoud,

in

to

own

deemed

and

troops,

sufficient for

consequence of Avhich, Colonel Four-

Avith his marines,

" at liberty
'1

its

return to

no longer being wanted,

Avas

Europe whenever he thought

proper."

Various

v/ere the feelings

of pleasure and reluctance

with which our gentlemen received this news


tions were, hoAvever,

made

for

prepara-

our departure; but

in

days these were again suspended by the inhabitants,

fev/

who

clamorously insisted on our staying; when the M'ooding

and watering the


the ships

still

vessels

was provisionally stopped, but

kept in commission on speculation.


,

It was,

during

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

'J5

during this interval of leisure and uncertainty that I


riously thought of

employing myself

history of the colony,

in writing

se-

a short

and of drawing such objects as

thought most suitable to complete

my

little

plan.

In

these designs, besides consulting the best authors on the


subject, I

had the honour

excellency the Governor',

to

be materially assisted by

his

who not only favoured me with

several manuscripts, but daily furnished

me

with such a

succession of animals, shrubs, &c. as 1 was desirous of being acquainted with

thus,

independant of that coolness

Avhich was so evident betAveen these two veteran officers,


I

made

keep

it

my

earnest study

friends with

duty which

and endeavour,

both parties

and, independant of that

owed Colonel Fourgeoud,

in Chief, to treat the

if possible, to

as

my Commander

Governor of the colony with that

respect which I thought was due to his dignit}^ his rank,

and
I

his

conduct

and

in

which motive (though not by

was steadily supported by the most respectable

all)

officers

in the corps.
I will

taken

now endeavour

to fulfil the task I

have under-

and commence with a general description of

WONDERFUL COUNTRY."

P 2

this

NARRATIVE OF AN

36

CHAP.
General Description of Guiana

earliest

its

by the

Governor,

of the Colony of Surinam


Discovery pos-

Accounts of
English by
Dutch Murder of
Lord Somelsdyk The Settlement taken by

in particular

sessed

II.

is

the

the
the

French, and ransomed.

THE

discovery of Guiana, by some called " the Wild

" Coast," has been long (though Avith uncertainty)


attributed to the Spanish

commander

in the year 1504, after discovering

Vasco Nwies, who,

Cuba

be an island,

to

landed on the continent of South America, penetrated as


far as

between the

rivers

Oroonoko and Amazon, and com-

prehended that country in the extensive tract of land, to


which, in contradistinction to
islands,

he gave the name of

Cuba and

the adjacent

Terra Firma.

This country, the length of which

is

about 1220, and

breadth about 680 geographical miles,

the

is

situated

between eight degrees twenty minutes north, and three


degrees south latitude, and between

fifty

and seventy de-

grees twenty minutes west longitude from the meridian

of London, in the N. E. part of South America.


daries are

the N.
S.

E.

the

marked by the

W. and by

The N. E.

1'iver

11

the
is

rivers

Maranon

Its

boun-

Viapary or Oroonoko on
or river

Amazon on the

washed by the Atlantic Ocean

Negris, or Black river, terminates

and

extent on

'the
its

''^

''<:

,JI''
.(IV /"'I'"

IF/-

^V

ri'i//i.;}/iiJ-

tif die

}^rit''t

/T//.^./'

|j^-<'

ji'"'

^ifiiiiiio

.*

>

3*.
"w./

;i

j/'miA'"K,

with

"

Jlnjh''"""^

/*'-

f^iiium/'Hiaitr

fy

{'</ ^yci/n/n lilt

.'(*!//

Hutx"

(_'/

Brffi.ffi

St,iti,/r

.S(//rj:

iifiii Ai'tr

frrofia.

.f.Mm,U .;

&L

/.,',:f'u'.i.

.^r
l.m./-i>. ruMi.'f:./

fl:-ri'.'i},,

fi_,

.f.

./,>/m.n;,

;,,.;y >.-

/.-,-/./.

l?r^J

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
W. which form it into a kind of island, and
from New Grenada, Peru, and the Brazils.

the S.
it

Though

situated,

much more

on that part of the African

from the sea

Guiana

supportable than those

coast.

The scorching

by the wind blowing continually over

rays of

by cooling breezes

daily tempered

while in Guinea the intense heat

separate

Hke Guinea, under the Torrid Zone,

the heats in Guiana are

the sun are in

37

is

increased

the land, and in

passage traversing numerous sandy desarts.

The

its

easterly

or trade winds, Avhich generally blow between the Tropics,


are extremely refreshing to the coast of Guiana,

between

the hours of eight or ten in the morning, and six o'clock in


the evening,

when they cease

and a zephyr

to operate,

scarcely ever heard to whisper during the night.

winds are succeeded by thick

fogs,

is

These

and vapours exhaled

from the earth, which render the nights in

damp and

this

country not

unhealthy.

The

length of the days and nights in Guiana never varies

much

only very chilly, but extremely

more than

forty minutes during the course of the year, as

the sun always rises about six in the morning, and sets at

the same hour in the evening.

The

rainy and dry seasons which divide the year, as

cold and

warm weather divide

the winter and

summer of

ever one remarkable

it

in

Europe,

this country.

difference

may be termed
There

is

how-

between the European

seasons and those in Guiana, wdiich

is,

that

Guiana has

annually two winters and two summers, which are distin-

guished

NARRATIVE OF AN

3S

c H A
II.

r.

guislied

from each other by the appellation of the greater

and the

smaller, not

two

because the rains are

latter seasons, or the

heat

less violent in

from an

intense, but

less

the

opinion which has prevailed, that their period of duration

This dis-

but about half as long as that of the former.

is

tinction

however appears

to

be more imaginary

as far as respects the rainy seasons

of water orxly take place


is

when

tb.an real,

for as these downfalls

the sun

is

vertical,

which

it

near the line twice a year, and for an equal portion of

time, the continuance of the rains will probably be equal


in

both seasons.

The

difference

accounted
the time

between the dry seasons indeed may be

from the greater commencing

for

when

the sun

is

about

in

Surinam

at

to cross the equator, in its

when a

course to the tropic of Capricorn, often in Odober,

continual drought and scorching heat begiji to take place,


till its

return in March.

interrupted rains

till

This

is

succeeded by violent un-

June, during which time the sun has

travelled to the tropic of Cancer,

and a short season of

parching heat again takes place,

till

is

about July, which

once more followed by incessant rains

and thus the revolution of the


pleted
*

till

October,

ditferent seasons

is

com-

*.

cannot but notice

the sun

is

strangeenor, into which Mr. Guthrie

pricorn

hasinadvertently fallen, in dating the

nuing

commencement of

Cancer, or from the beginning of Ja-

the north tropic,

in this place

the dry season at

from the time when

till

vertical at the tropic of

and describing
the sun

nuary to the

latter

is

it

Ca-

as conti-

again vertical at

end of May.

The

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
The continuance of
sun

is

the rains during the time

chmate,

vertical in this

of animal and vegetable

is

50

when

the

necessary to the existence

which without these season-

life,

able refreshments must languish and expire under the fervid


influence of

But though

rays.

its

I have

mentioned stated

periods for the variations of the seasons in Guiana, yet


is

it

necessary to remark, that these changes are not uni^

formly produced at the same time, but, like the European

The changes

seasons, occasionally vary.

are always ac-

companied by tremendous claps of thunder, and very

vivid

flashes of lightning,which continue during several weekSi,

and
of

are frequently fatal both to the cattle

this

and inhabitants

country.

Some

parts of

Guiana present a barren and mountainous

aspect, but in general the soil

abundantly

is

fruitful,

the

earth during the whole of the year adorned with continual

verdure, the trees loaded at the

and ripe

fruit,

and the whole presenting to the view the

delightful union of spring

pearance of

same time with blossoms

fertility,

and summer.

This general ap-

particularly in Surinam,

ascribed not only to the rains and

but also toits low and marshy

warmth

situation,

may be

in this climate,

which prevents the

intense heats from destroying vegetation, and from the

extreme richness of the

soil,

particularly in those parts

must

which are cultivated by European industry.

It

deed be confessed, that such situations are

from being;

favourable to health

but the

spirit

of gain

is

far

in-

a very powerful
principle^

NARRATIVE OF AN

40
principle,

and the certainty of present

profit

Avill

generally

be considered as a weighty counterpoise to those


which,

if

evils

ever encountered, appear at a considerable dis-

tance; and as they are sometimes escaped,

may be always

esteemed as uncertain.

The
mense

uncultivated parts of Guiana are covered with imforests, rocks,

and mountains

some of the

enriched with a great variety of mineral substances


the whole country

is

intersected

latter
;

and

by very deep marshes or

swamps, and by extensive heaths or savannas.

The stream

along the coast flows continually towards the north-Avest

and the whole shore


its

is

rendered almost inaccessible from

being covered with dangerous banks, quicksands, bogs,

and

rocks, with prodigious bushes,

and a large quantity of

brushwood, which are so closely interwoven as to be impenetrable.

The
tions

Spanish, Portugueze, and Dutch, are the only na-

which possess settlements

in this part of

Terra Firma,

excepting the small colony of Cayenne, belonging to the

French, which

is

situated

between the

river

Cape Orange. The dominions in Guiana,

Marawina and

subject to Spain,

are situated on the banks of the Oronoque,

and those of

Portugal extend along the shores of the river Amazon.

The Dutch settlements, which spread along


Atlantic ocean, and reach from

the coasts of the

Cape Nassau to the river Ma-

rawina, are Essequibo, Demerary, Berbice, and Surinam*;


* See the

Map

prefixed to this work,

the

P.XPEDITIOK TO SURINAM.
of

tlie last

wliicli is

that portion of the

ceeding account

41

the most extensive and valuable, and

Dutch

will

possessions to which the suc-

This industrious

be chiefly confined.

nation endeavoured, in the year I6.i7, to estal^lish a small

colony on the banks of the river Poumeron, but in lfi66


this settlement
tliey

more

Nor were

was demolished by the English.

successful in one which they founded in 1677,

on the river ^Viapoko or Oyapocko, Avhich was inuiiediately invaded

and destroyed by the French.

The Dutch

consider the beautiful and once flourishing

colony of Surinam as extending over the whole of that


territory

which

is

encircled on the west

by the

river

Kanre

or Cange, about forty miles from the Corantine, and on


tlie

east

by the

river

Sinamaree.

But these

limits are dis-

puted by the French, who confine the boundary of Surinam


to the

banks of the INIarawina, upon which they station a

military force.

The

principal rivers that belong to this settlement are

the river Surinam, from which the colony takes

its

name,

the Corantine, the Copename, the Seramica, and the

Of

rawina.
rest,

those rivers the

first

oidy

navigable, the

not excepting the IVIarawina, being, though very long

and broad, so shallow, and

so

extremely crowded with

rocks and small islands, that they are of


to

is

Ma-

Europeans; nor are

some of (he Indians

I.

consequence

banks inhabited except by

or natives of the countrj'.

Surinam, Avhose mouth

Vol.

their

little

is

situated

in

about

The

river

six degi'ees

north

NARRATIVE OF AN

42

north latitude,

is,

at

four English miles,


feet at Ioav- water

twelve feet

this

mouth upwards
it

its

and

entrance, nearly the breadth of


in

depth from sixteen to eighteen

mark, the tide rising and


breadth and depth

is

for the length of

upwards of 120

windmg

miles.

navigable for small craft, but beyond

proceeds directly south

above

continued from

to the distance of eight or ten miles,

divides itself into two branches,

river

falling

its

when

to the S. S.

All this extent

is

distance the

this

sometimes in

E.

its

course sur-

rounding small islands, and sometimes forming small cata-

The source

racts.

of this beautiful river has never yet

been discovered by Europeans.

All large vessels, after

entering the Surinam, ought to keep rather near the east

shore
the

the opposite side being very full of shoals, as far as

town of Paramaribo, which

from

mouth.

its

The

river is divided, is

for

named Comewina, and keeps due

about sixteen miles,

Avith

ference of twelve feet,

it

puted at about two miles.

Comewina

is

but, as the tide


is

for

fifty

miles,

more than forty

makes a

dif-

not considered as navigable


its

At the

breadth

may be com-

distance of sixteen miles

again divided into two branches,

one of which bears the same name to the


of above

east

a depth of about three or four

any ships of burthen, though

the river

about eighteen miles

other branch into which this large

fathom at high- water mark

for

is

S.

and that of Cottica

miles,

when

E. for a length
to the E. S. E.

this last takes

a meandring

course to the S. S.W. for the distance of twenty-four or


4

thirty

EXPEBITTON TO SURINAM.
Into

thirty miles.
are

these rivers, the courses of which

all

not straight but serpentine, are discharged a

of verj

43

number

creels or rivulets, the banks of which are in-

i'argie

habited by Europeans, and cultivated with sugar, cocoa,


cotton j and indigo plantations, Avhich form the most delightful >ptbip6tts that

by

water, the universal

as the

roads

soil i^ iri

can be imagined to those Avho travel

mode

general

til

of journeying in

'^apted

anil iftsbnie' place's the

impenetrable,

this

country,

for the construction of

woods, &c. are absolutely

a small path of communication between

Paramaribo and the river Seramica being the only passable

know

road that I

of in the settlement.

The

rivers

whose

banks are uncultivated, such as the Corantine, Copename,


Seramica, and Marawina, afford but
scription

it is

matter for de-

little

therefore only necessary to remark, that

they are generally from two to four miles in breadth, exceedingly shallow, and crowded -with quicksands, small
islands,

cades.

and
In

rocks, avhich form a

the

IVIarawina

river

curious stone or pebble, which


the

number of

is

is

frequently

known by

Marawina diamond, and which being

a very near resemblance

to that

the

found a

name

Sec.

In

without exception, the water rises and

all

falls for

occasioned

stoppage of the freshes by the tide

yet fresh water

generally be

met

Avith

about twenty-four or
G 2

is

the above

than sixty miles from the mouth,


;

of

polished, bears

most valuable gem, and

consequently often set in rings, &c.


rivers,

beautiful cas-

more

by the

may

thirty miles
fioni

NARRATIVE OF AN

44

from the mouths of these

The water of
cellent,

and

rivers

the river Surinam


is

brought by the

Jew Savannah, which

is

watering the ships.

accounted

is,

tlie

most ex-

from as far as the

sailors

above forty miles from the town

The circumstance most

of Paramaribo.
in these rivers

is

for

injurious to ships

that their bottoms are often affected by

a kind of water-worm, the ravages of which are the most

by frequently careening the

effectually prevented

in order that they

may

caulked, and payed.

be

properly

cleaned,

For that purpose the

vented by the Earl of Dundonald,


twelve years was granted to him)

is

j^atent of

greatly preferable to

any other material which can be applied


It is

scraped,

coal-tar, in-

which a

(for

vessels,

for this use.

high or low water nearly every six hours and half;

the spring tides rise regularly twice a month, Avhen the river

from various

swells to a considerable degree, which,

cumstances,

may be

It

add a few

more

often of infinite benefit to the planters.

perhaps expected in

this place that I

should

Avords concerning the defence of the

above

though that

rivers,

the

is

is

a subject which

mouth of

the river Surinam

On

at large on another occasion.


is

purpose to treat
the east side of

a small promontorj^,

called Braam's Point, which I think originally

named

cir-

Pram's,

or

Parham's Point,

W'illoughby of Parham,. to

whom

had been

after Francis
this

Lord

settlement was

granted by King Charles the Second in l6G2, and which


spot

is

supposed to be the

first

on which Loid Willoughby


landed

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

45

landedin 1652, ten years before he obtained the charter


from

This point

his sovereign.

is

not

fortified

but about

eight miles upwards are two redoubts, one on each side of

the river, called

up

is

the

new

Leyden and Purmerent, and a


fortress

called

Amsterdam,

point of land which separates the two

Comewina, from each other

rivers,

and whose

fire,

little

built

hifher

on the

Surinam and
crossing with

that of the two redoubts, protects the entry of both these


rivers.

Near the town of Paramaribo, and about


miles from the fortress Amsterdam,
bears the
all

name of Fort

is

the citadel Avhich

and about sixteen miles

from Fort Amsterdam, on Rio Comewina,

is

a fortress

Somelsdyk, which commands the two opposite

shores, viz. those of

Rio Comewina and Rio Cottica.

sides these, there are military posts

Seramica, and JMarawina.


at the

seven

Zelandia, protecting the town and

the shipping in the roads

called

six or

mouth of

the

Next to

Be-

on the Corantinc, the


these

Mott Creek, about

is

strong- ffuard

thirty miles

below

the river Surinam, where a fire-beacon or liohthouse

is

erected on the coast, to warn the ships bound for the river
that they are past the

mouth of

This guard also

fires

a few guns, to apprize the colony

when

within view and steering for the coast.

ships are

Along the higher parts of the

the dangerous INIarawina.

rivers

and Cottica, advanced guards are

Surinam, Comewina,

also continually kept,

to protect the inhabitants from inland

invasions by the

Indians

NARRATIVE OF AN

AG

Indians or fugitive negroes.

In these

the principal defence of this settlement

sists

armed bark or guarda-costa, which

small

the river

Marawina and Berbice,

con-

fortifications

besides a

cruises

between

to give intelligence in

case of any threatening danger to the colony.


I

to mention, that a

had almost forgotten

path

fortified

with military posts had been projected, and was actually

begun, from the upper parts of the river Comewina to the


river

Seramica

which

is

but the plan did not succeed, and the

called the Orange-path,

is

line,

at present in the state

of a wilderness.

Having thus described the surface of the country


general, with

its

boundaries, rivers, &c. I shall proceed to

an account of the
able revolutions

earliest discoveries

and most remark-

of this once flourishing colony, which

escaped being visited by the gallant Admiral Rodney


the last war.

That

part of Terra Firma which

Guiana, or the Wild Coast, and in which


of Surinam,

by the

is

in

said

by some

to

have been

justly celebrated Christopher

year 1498, whence he was sent


others contend that

it

home

lies

is

called

the colony

first

found out

Columbus,
in chains

was not discovered

in

till

in the

though

the year

1504, by Vasco Nunes, a Spaniard, as was stated in the

beginning of

In 1595

Queen

this chapter.

it

was

Elizabeth,

visited

who

by

Sir

also sailed

Walter Raleigh, under

up the

river

Oronoque

above 600 miles, in search of the supposed El Dorado,

and

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
and

47

hopes of discovering the gold mines, of which he

in

had the most

lively expectations,

which the Spaniards

casite,

call

from samples of a mar-

Madre de Oro *.

In

1634 a Captain Mai'shall, with about sixty English, were


discovered

in

Surinam employed

planting tobacco,

in

according to the relation of David Piterse de Vries, a

Dutclmian, who conversed with them upon the spot.

In

1640 Surinam was inhabited by the French, who were


obliged to leave

soon

it

after,

on account of the frequent

invasions which they justly suffered from the Caribbean

Indians, for having, like their neighbours the Spaniards,

them with the most barbarous

treated

In the

cruelties.

year 1650, this colony being vacant, Francis Lord Wil-

loughby of Parham, by king Charles the Second's permission, sent thither one vessel, equipped

take possession of
little after

it

in

the

name

by

himself, to

of his royal master

which he dispatched three

vessels

more, one of

All these were well received

them carrying twenty guns.

by the Indians or inhabitants of the country, with

whom

they entered into friendly treaties, and a kind of negociation.

Two

himself,

years after this Lord Willoughby went over

and leaving

several

good and wholesome laws and

regulations for the government and defence of the colony,

returned to England, whence he continued to supply the


*

Of

this

extraordinary enterprise

the curious reader

may

see a full ac-

count, written by Sir Walter Raleigh


himself, as

it

Bircli,

in

1751,

among

the rest of

Raleigh's works, printed for Dodsiey^


in 2 vols. 8vo.

was published by Dr.

settlement

NARRATIVE OF AN

48
c

II

II.

r.

settlement at his

On

tion.

own expence with men and anmiuni-

the second

day of June, 1662, the

colonj^

of

Surinam was granted by charter of Charles the Second


to Francis

Lord Willoughby, and

at that lord's

desire to

be divided with Lawrence Hide, second son of Edward


Earl of Clarendon, for them and their descendants for
ever

the original record of this charter

the chapel of the Rolls.

New

the

is

to

be found in

Li 1664 the English captured

Netherlands, since called

New

York, from the

Dutch.

In the year 1665 Surinam was

They had

mostly by planting tobacco.


forty fine sugar plantations,

of

hewn stone

to remark, that

successfull}^ cultivated,

also raised

and erected a strong

for their defence.

some suppose

It

is

above

fortress

proper, however,

these improvements were

what period

effected

by the Portuguese, though

certain

while the French strenuously dispute the point,

and

insist that

at

is

un-

they were the work of IVIonsieur Ponscrt

de Bretigny, when France had possession of that country.

However

this

may

be, the fortress

or eio-hteen miles from the

and these industrious

is

situated about sixteen

mouth of

settlers

the river Surinam,

found themselves

perfcctl}"-

a small town which they had built under the walls.

happy

in

Their

felicity

was not of long duration

for in the wars

between Charles the Second and the United Provinces,


tJie

Dutch having been driven

in 1661

from the Brazils

by the Portuguese, took the colony of Surinam from the


English

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
English in 1 667, under the command of a Captain
Criuvon,

who was dispatched

for that

49

Abraham

purpose by the pro-

vince of Zealand, with three ships of war and 300 marines.

The English commander, William Biam,


ment of Surinam by

men

in the colony

lost the settle-

when above 600 of

surprise,

the best

were at work on the sugar plantations.


of the Dutch,

This neglect appears from the

trifling loss

who

had but one man

storming

in

They

the

citadel

killed.

immediatel}'^ planted the Prince of Orange's flag

on the ramparts, and gave now


of Zelandia, and that of

New

to this fortress the

Middleburg

to the

name

town of

Paramaribo, after making the inhabitants, amongst other


contributions,

pay one hundred thousand pounds weight

of sugar, and sending a number of them to the island of


This event took place in February, and in July

Tobago.

following the peace was concluded at Breda.

unluckily for the

new

possessors of Surinam,

But, most
it

was con-

cluded unknown to the English commodore. Sir John

Harman, who in October that same

year, having

Cayenne from the French, entered the


fleet

first

taken

river with a strong

of seven ships of war, two bomb-ketches, &c. and

retook the colony from the Dutch, killing on this occasion

above

fifty

cannon

now

in

of their men, and destroying nine pieces of

Fort Zelandia.

in their turn laid

The new

inhabitants

were

under contribution, and the Dutch

garrison were transported as prisoners to the island of

Barbadoes.

Vol.

I.

At

NARRATIVE OF AN

50

At

the discovery, in Surinam, that the peace

had been

conchided in Europe between the contending powers, before

Commodore liarman

retook the colony from the

Dutch, considerable tumult

among

the inhabitants,

and disorder took

who knew

not

whom
At

to acknowledge as their lawful sovereign.

they ought
length,

an order of King Charles, the settlement was ceded


Dutch,

English and negroes together,

tants,
settle

when twelve hundred of

in 1669,

on the island of Jamaica.

ceeding war,

it

left

At the

by

to the

the old inhabiit,

and went to

close of the suc-

was agreed by the treaty of Westminster

that Surinam should be the property of the

exchange

ever, in

place

for the province of

New

Dutch

for

York, which

accordingly took place in the year 1674; and after this


period

tiie

session of

colony of Surinam was never more in the pos-

Great Britain.

In 1678, a Mr. Heynsius was

governor of the colony, and a Captain Lightenburgh

commander of
The Dutch
tion in their

by the

the troops.
for the first

new

few years enjoyed

little satisfac-

possessions, as they were daily harassed

invasions of the Caribbean Indians, to

whom

they

were much more obnoxious than the English had been

indeed they carried their resentment so far as to murder


several of the

Dutch

settlers.

In addition to

this,

the pro-

vince of Zealand, to which the colony properly belonged,

being perpetually at variance with the other United Provinces concerning the sovereignty of this settlement,

and
not

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

51

not being of themselves able to support the great expence

which was

requisite for its preservation

last resolved

Company
of

which they did

munition,
the

Scc.

at

whole to the Dutch West India


in the

23,636 sterling, including

>r,

At

to sell the

and defence,

all

year 1682, for the

sum

the wavlike stores, am-

amongst which were

fifty

pieces of cannon.

same time they obtained a charter fiom

their

High

Mightinesses the States General, exempting them from

duty

for ten years.

few months after

West India Company, notwithstanding

however, the

this,

the above charter

of indemnification, finding the other necessary expences of


the settlement also too great for them, again transferred
two-thirds of the colony of Surinam, the one to the

town

of Amsterdam, the other to the house of Somelsdyk, at the

same

price for which they

had bought

whom

together formed a society, to


tion of their
intrusted,

and

and these three

(still

under the sanc-

High Mightinesses) was some time aftenvards

by a

resolution of the States General, the sole

entire direction of the affairs of this country.

Such was the


all

it,

situation of Surinam,

matters were finally settled,

Lord of Somelsdyk

(as

when

felons sentenced

in 1684,

he took the

the colony.

He

in this

manner

Van

Aarsen,

Cornelius

being one of the proprietors) Avent

over with three hundred men, with

some

and

whom

for transportation.

command

as

he also took

At

his arrival,

Governor General of

then created a court of policy, to

in the administration

assist

of justice; with the members of


11

which,

chap.
^^'

NARRATIVE OF AN

52
c

II

P.

which, as well as

v.ith the inhabitants,

The consequence

of continual dissension.

sent several complaints against

standing he had
bee,

he lived

made a

him

in

a state

was, that they

to Europe, notwith-

favourable peace with the Carib-

Warowa, and Arawakka Indians,

as well as Avith a

few run-away negroes, who had been settled at Rio Cope-

name

since the English left the colony.

This unfortunate gentleman's reign, however, lasted but

a short space,

viz.

till

the year 1688,

when on

the

same

day both the Governor and Deputy Governor, Mr. Ver-

boom, were murdered by

their

own

soldiers,

alleged, to their having not only forced the


like negroes in digging canals,

to subsist on very

them

is

men

to

work

&c. but also obliged them

bad and short allowance, which drove

to this act of desperation *.

treatment

owing, as was

am

sorry to say this

too frequently the case in the settlements, as

I shall afterwards

have occasion to prove.

was the confidence of these

Such indeed

assassins, that they offered to

give in their defence, and assign their reasons for committing this act of cruelty.

As the

particulars of the assassination are not uninterest-

ing, I shall

by a

beg leave to trespass upon the reader's patience

brief recital of the transaction.

* Somelsdyk had the character of


a tyrant

he was, under the cloak of

religion, despotic, passionate, brutal,

and

cruel

he even ordered an In-

some domestic misdemeanour,

for

which he could not produce, especially

in

those days,

the

smallest

shadow of authority,

dian Chief's head to be struck off for

The

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

53

The Governor was walking under a grove of orangetrees,

near his

own

house, with Mr. Verboom,

when unex-

pectedly ten or twelve armed soldiers (seemingly drunk)


accosted them, and immediately insisted on

less

The Governor drawing

his

better subsistence.

sword

to

them back, was instantaneously shot through the

force

body

work and

many

in

and died upon the spot

places,

his

com-

panion, on the other hand, received but one wound, and


did not expire

till

the ninth day after.

accompanied by

rioters,

This done, the

several accomplices,

marched

in

triumph to Fort Zelandia, which they took without


sistance,

and

re-

and made themselves masters of the gunpowder

victualling magazines.

After

this,

the garrison hav-

ing joined them, they formed a ring, and chose out from

among them a commander


officers,

to

whom

they

all

in chief,

and

swore to be

several other

faithful, as also

to each other, to the last drop of their blood.

very remarkable,

that their

is,

afternoon, ordered the

new

AVhat

chief, the very

is

same

body of the massacred Governor,

Somelsdyk, to be interred in Fort Zelandia with decency

and military honours


from the

walls,

and even the great guns were

fired

and three rounds with small arms by the

rebels.

The

magistrates

and other inhabitants of Surinam now

beheld themselves in a most unpleasant situation, and were


obliged even to enter into a capitulation with the insurgents in the

fort,

the principal articles of which were, that

the

NARRATIVE OF AN
the latter should evacuate Fort Zelandia, for which they

were to receive a few hundred pounds

that they were

then to be permitted to embark on board the transport


ship Salamander, to quit the colony without molestation,

and

to set sail for

what part of the world they should

amount of above one

prefer: they accordingly, to the

hundred, were sent on board

but no sooner did they pre-

pare to weigh anchor for their departure, than the ship was

boarded by several small

manned

for the purpose.

vessels,

The

privately

armed and

rebels were compelled to

surrender at discretion, and a few days after were tried for

murder and

rebellion

when eleven of the ringleaders were

executed, three of them were broke alive upon the rack,

and eight were hanged on the gallows


obtained their pardon

in irons.

The

rest

but being no longer to be depended

on, were gradually discharged from the colonial service,

when

others could be procured to replace them.

In the following year the widow of Somelsdyk offered


to transfer her portion in this settlement to

the Third, but to no purpose

King

\\ iiiiam

while a Mr. Scherpen-

huysen was sent over to Surinam from Holland, with a


fresh supply of

mand,

in the

men and ammunition,

room of the

vernor of the colony.

late

to take the

Lord of Somelsdyk,

Mr. Scherpenhuysen,

com-

as

Go-

at his arrival,

finding every thing in the utmost confusion, in order to

apply the speediest means of redress, established a court

of justice, which differed from that formed by

his predcr

cesser.

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
cesser,

GovernorSomelsdyk,

mer

invested with

is

criminal
cesses

affairs,

tiie

and the

55

in this particular, that the for-

management of all

military and

latter with that of all civil pro-

and pecuniary matters.

Both of these courts

remain, and of both the Governor

is

still

always president.

This gentleman was also very diligent in establishing

many good

laws and institutions

put the colony


this

time

it

in

and had

begun

to

a proper state of defence (of which at

stood greatly in need) against

foreign enemies,

just

domestic and

its

when war was declared between France

and the United Provinces

and the same year the

settle-

ment of Surinam was attacked by Admiral Ducasse with a


strong

which, however. Governor Scherpenhuysen

fleet,

very courageously beat

off,

after they

had begun

to can-

nonade Fort Zelandia.


In 1692 Jeronimus Clifford, an Englishman, was con-

demned

to

be hanged, (which sentence was changed

to

seven years imprisonment in the fortress Somelsdyk) on

pretence of having insulted a magistrate

him

for debt.

On application,

Great Britain, he was


the King,

who had

arrested

however, from the court of

set at liberty in

when he made a demand on

1695,

by

desire of

the colony of 20,000

guineas, for damages and false imprisonment


refused, his heirs have continued to claim

it

which being

since

so late as 1762, but hitherto without obtaining

700 to

any

satis-

faction.

During the succeeding war, which happened

in 1712,

the

NARRATIVE OF AN

CHAP,
II.

the French

Commodore, Jaques Cassard, met with

the

same reception from Governor de Gooyer which Ducasse


had experienced from Scherpenhuysen before Zelandia
but four months after he returned with better success, and
laid the colony

under a contribution

. 56,618 sterling.

It

for

sum of about

was on the lOth of October that he

entered the river of Surinam, with six or eight ships of war,

accompanied by a number of small

vessels, in

which

fleet

were embarked 3000 men. The largest ships were Le Neptune, of 74 guns (on board which he himself

Le

Temeraire, of 60 guns

Le Rubis

commanded),

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
obliged to return on board without any satisfactory answer.

The

river

Surinam, just before Fort Zelandia, being above

a mile in breadth, the Meduse and several flat-bottomed

French troops, being favoured by a very dark

vessels with

night, found

means

to sail

up beyond Paramaribo

Avithout

being observed by the Dutch, with an intention to plunder


the sugar and coffee plantations that are situated above
that toAvn

but on the 15th the besieged prepared two

large flat-bottomed barges, filled with combustible matters,

such as old junk, tar-barrels,

on the other side of the


which

to

fire

river, directly

up the

opposite to the town,

being applied, both were set in a blaze, and

discovered the smallest boats of the


get

and anchored them

Sec.

enemy

as they tried to

river through the darkness of the night.

discovered, few escaped without

damage from

Thus

the guns of

the fort, and those of the trading vessels that lay in the
roads,

who sunk some of

the flat-bottomed boats, a great

part of the crews of which Aveie drow^ned.

This stratagem,

however, did not prevent Cassard's people, who had hasted


forward, from pillaging and setting on

fire

the plantations

while he himself, having at last anchored before the town

of Paramaribo, threw^ above thirty shells into

up

a close cannonade, both

till

the 20th of October,

upon

that

it,

and kept

and Fort Zelandia,

when he sent a second message

with one of his captains to the Dutch, demanding of them


finally,

VoL.

whether they would capitulate and pay contribuI.

tion,

NARRATIVE OF AN

58

tion, ^yhich, if

they

now dared

to refuse,

he threatened

fire

and destruction to the whole settlement.

The Dutch finding


demanded

their ruia inevitable if they persisted,

three days cessation of hostilities to deliberate,

which being granted, they at

last

complied

Avith

Commo-

dore Cassard's demands; and accordingly on the 7th, a


treaty of twenty-four articles being settled between them,

they paid the demanded contribution of ^. 56,618 sterling


to the French, principally in sugar, negro slaves, &c. hav-

ing but

little

gold or silver in the colony.

sooner accomplished than the

Commodore weighed anchor,

on the 6th of December, 1712, and with


left

This was no

the settlement of Surinam.

his

whole

fleet

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
CHAP.
First Revolt

of the Negroes

State of the Colony

Rebels

Mutiny of

III.

Causes thereof

Forced

59

Distracted

Peace concluded with the

Sailors, Soldiers, ^-c.

sooner was this unfortunate colony delivered from

its

and avowed enemies, than

external

it

was

at-

tacked by interna] foes of a more fierce and desperate


nature.

The Caribbean and


mer

other Indians had indeed, in for-

times, often disturbed this settlement

but, as I have

already mentioned, a peace being established with them,


after the arrival of

Governor Somelsdyk

have inviolably adhered


greatest

The

harmony and

to

it

in this colony, they

ever since, living in the

friendship with the Europeans.

revolted negro slaves are the enemies of

now propose to

speak,

who

terror over this settlement,

for

whom

some time diffused a general

and threatened

its

total loss to

the states of Holland

From

the earliest

have taken refuge

remembrance some

in the

woods of Surinam

were of very small consideration


or 1728,

when

their hostile

till

but these

about the year

7^6,

numbers were much increased,

and they had acquired lances and

had pillaged from the

fugitive negroes

estates.

I S

firelocks,

By the

which they

accession of these
arms,

chap.
III.

NARRATIVE OF AN

(50

arms, in addition to their usual weapons,

bows and arrows,

they were enabled to commit continual outrages and depredations

upon the

of revenge for the inhuman treatment which they

spirit

coffee

and sugar plantations,

had formerly received from

as well

as with a

their masters,

from

view

of carrying away plunder, and principally gunpowder and


ball,

in order to provide for their future

hatchets, &c.

subsistence

and defence.

These negroes were


parts of the river

in general

settled

in

the upper

Copename and Seramica, from the

name of

of which they take the

latter

the Seramica rebels,

from the other gangs which have since

in distinction
revolted.

Several detachments of military and plantation people

were sent against them, but were of very small

effect in

reducing them to obedience by promises, or extirpating

them by

force of arms.

In l7iJ0 a most shocking and barbarous execution of


eleven of the

unhappy negro captives was resolved upon,

in the expectation that

and induce them


\ipon a gibbet,

to submit.

by an

iron

two others were chained

by a slow
rack,

fire.

and two

might

it

Six
girls

terrify their

One man was hanged

hook stuck through

to stakes,

and burnt

women were broken


were decapitated.

solution under these

tortures,

without even uttering a

companions,
alive

his ribs

to

death

aUve upon the

Such was

their re-

that they endured

them

sigh.

Some

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
" Some Afric chief

will rise,

who scorning

6\

chains,

" Racks, tortures, flames, excruciating pains,


" Will lead his injur'd friends to bloody
"

And

carnage take delight

in the flooded

" Then dear repay us


"

And

so

And
it

in

some vengeful war,

give us blood for blood, and scar for scar."

actually was in this instance, for this

massacre produced an

been expected.

Indeed

it

igences

who no

and

so

much enraged

the Seramica

became dreadful

to the

longer being able to support the ex-

fatigues of sallying out against

woods, in addition

inhuman

very contrary to what had

effect

rebels, that for several years they

colonists

fight,

to the great losses

them

in the

which they so

fre-

quently sustained by their invasions, of which they lived


in continual terror, at last resolved to treat for

peace with

their sable enemies.

Governor Mauricius, who was at

this

period at the

head of the colonv, now sent out a strong detachment to


the rebel settlement at the Seramica river, for the pur-

pose of effecting,

if possible,

a peace so ardently desired.

This detachment, after some skirmishing with the straggling rebel parties, at last arrived at their head-quarters,

where they demanded and obtained a parley.


of peace, consisting of ten or twelve articles,

m' as

actually

concluded between the different parties in the year


similar to that

treaty

749^

which had been made by the English in

the year 1739, with the rebels in the island of Jamaica.

The

NARRATIVE OF AN

62

The

was a Creole negro,

chief of the Seramica rebels

Captam Adoe, who upon

called

this

from the Governor, as a present, a


silver

occasion received

with a

fine large cane,

pummel, on which were engraven the arms of Su-

rinam, as a mark of their independence, and a preliminary


to the other presents that were to be sent out the year fol-

lowing as stipulated by treaty, particularly arms and ammunition, on the performance of which the peace was to

be

finally

concluded.

Adoe presented

in return a

hand-

some bow, with a complete case of arrows, which had been


manufactured by
that time

This
to

all

affair

his

own

hands, as a token that during

enmity should cease on

his side.

gave great salisfaction to

many and indeed

most of the inhabitants of Surinam, who now

flattered

themselves that their effects were perfectly secure

while

others regarded this treaty as a very hazardous resource,

and even
I

as a step to the inevitable ruin of the colony.

must confess indeed,

that,

notwithstanding the good

intentions of Governor Mauricius, nothing appeal's to be

more dangerous than making a forced


ple,

who by

the most abject slavery and

voked to break

their chains,

and shake

pursuit of revenge and liberty, and


is

placed

day

to

The
lonists

in

friendship with peo-

them have

it

in their

off their

who by

power

usage are pro-

ill

yoke in

the trust which

to

become from

day more formidable.


insurrection having risen to such a height, the co-

ought perhaps to have continued to oppose

it,

while

they


EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

63

they were possessed of the poAver of opposition, not indeed

from a motive of cruelty, but

for the pohtical

good of so

a settlement.

fine

If

it

appeared that cruelty and

ill

treatment had driven

these poor creatures to these extremities, policy, not less

than humanity, ought to have dictated to the colonists a


different
it is

conduct

possible to

in future

but

may be

it

keep the African negroes

asked,

Whether

in habits of obe-

dience and industry without the strictest and often the


severest discipline

No.

cessary to iuilict such

humour and
unprincipled

But

ask again,

inhuman

Why

Why

more

still

should their reasonable

complaints be never heard by a magistrate who has


his
is

power

to redress

them

a planter, and that he

vernment of
It would,

this

is

ne-

according to the

tortures,

caprice of an unfeeling master, or a


overseer

is it

Is it

because

this

it

in

magistrate

interested in the arbitrary go-

unhappy race

This

however, be great injustice

is

if I

too evident.

were not to bear

witness that I have not unfrequently seen the plantation


slaves treated with the

utmost humanity, where the hand

of the master was seldom

lifted,

but to caress them

and

where the eye of the slave sparkled with gratitude and


affection.

Let us now proceed, and see what were the

making peace with the Seramica

fruits

of

rebels.

In (750, which was the year after, the promised presents

were dispatched to Captain Adoe

but the detachment


that

NARRATIVE OF AN

(>4

them were attacked on

that carried

their

march, and the

whole of the corps murdered on the spot, by a desperate

Zam Zam, who

negro, called

not having been consulted

concerning the treaty of peace, had afterwards put him-

head of a strong party, and now carried

off the

whole stock of the detachment, consisting of amis,

ammu-

self at the

checked

nition,

other carpenter's tools

and kept them

and

linens, canvass cloth, hatchets, saws,

besides salt beef, pork, spirits, &c.

as his

own

private property.

Adoe, on

the other hand, not receiving the presents at the time he

expected, too hastily concluding he was only to be amused

with expectation

till

a reinforcement of troops should

arrive

from Europe to subdue him, renewed

sions

by

this

broken

diately

his incur-

accident therefore the peace was


;

cruelties

imme-

and ravages increased more

than before, and death and destruction once more raged


throughout the colony.
In

75

confusion

this settlement

when,

in

was

in the

utmost

Surinam, with

to

ed from the

on

six

hundred

different regiments in the

their arrival the

and

compliance with a request of the

habitants, presented to the States General,

was sent

distress

members of

in-

Baron Spoke

fresh stroops, draft-

Dutch

service,

and

the court were ordered to

send Governor Mauricius to Europe, to account for his


proceedings
1753. asked

who

never returned to the colony, having in

and obtained

honourably acquitted.
5

his dismission, after

having been

Baron Spoke, who during the absence

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

65

sence of Mauricius Avas appointed to officiate as Governor,

found every thing in the greatest disorder, disunion having even arisen between the inhabitants and their rulers,

which

to

it

means of

was highly necessary to apply the speediest


This application was indeed

redress.

made by

the Baron, but he died the year after, and a general distraction again took place.

In 1757,

the aspect of affairs daily

becoming worse,

(during the administration of a Mr. Cromelyn,


this colony)

a new revolt broke out in

Tempaty Creek amongst

the negroes, owing to the

was Governor of
the

who now

treatment which they received from their masters.


fresh insurrection indeed soon

consequence.

The new

became of the most

This
serious

rebels joined themselves to six-

teen hundred of the old fugitive negroes already settled

near

in eight difi'erent villages

Tempaty Creek, and

repeated battles and skirmishes, the


well armed,

and

peace with their

as they

had done

enemy being mostly

in their resistance generally successful,

the colonists saw themselves once


for

after

own

slaves,

in the year

more reduced
near

to sue

Tempaty Creek,

1749 with the rebels of

Seramica.

During

this last revolt,

a Captain Mayer, of the Society

Troops, being tried for cowardice by a court martial, and

found

guilty,

was ordered

to

be shot through the head

he was accordingly led to the place of execution, where,


after every preparation for

Vol.

I.

completmg the sentence, he

Avas

NARRATIVE OF AN

66

CHAP,

was pardoned by the Governor, who not only shewed him

^'^"

every civihty, but actually preferred him to the rank of

Major.

To

evince the absurdity of that prejudice which con-

human

siders
differ

creatures as brutes merely

from ourselves in colour,

because they

must beg leave

to

men-

tion a few of the principal ceremonies that attended the


ratification of this peace.

The

first

thing proposed by the colonists was a parley,

which was agreed to by the rebels

when

the last not only

desired, but absolutely insisted, that the

Dutch should

send them yearly, amongst a great variety of other

articles,

a quantity of good fire-arms and ammunition, as specified


in a long

list,

name was

expressed in broken English, by a negro whose

Boston, and

who

Avas

one of their Captains.

Governor Cromelyn next sent two commissioners, Mr.


Sober and Mr. Abercrombie, Avho marched through the
woods, escorted by a few military, &c. to carry some presents to the rebels, previous to the ratification of the peace,
for

which they now were commissioned

At

the

arrival of the

above gentlemen in the rebel

camp, at the Jocka Creek, about

fifteen miles east

Tempaty Creek, they were introduced


negro, called Arahij,
forests

amongst the

mentioned.

He

to a very

Avas their chief,

last sixteen

received

them by the hand,


5

who

finally to treat.

them very

desired they

would

politely,
sit

handsome

and born

hundred that

of the

in the

have just

and taking

down by

his side

upon

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
upon the green

at the

same time assuring them they need

not be under any apprehensions of

coming

in so

67

evil, since

from their

good a cause, not one intended, or even dared

to hurt them.

When

the above-mentioned Captain Boston, however,

perceived that they had brought a parcel of trinkets, such


as knives, scissars, combs,

and small

and

looking-glasses,

forgotten the principal articles in question, viz. gunpowder,


fire-arms,

and ammunition, he

resolutely

commissioners, and demanded,

approached the

a thundering voice,

in

whether the Europeans imagined that the negroes could

on combs and looking-glasses

live

each was quite

sufficient to let

while a single gallon of

have been accepted


fince that

as a

adding, that one of

them

all

see their faces,

sanmj, viz. gunpowder, would

proof of thdr confidence

but

had been omitted, he should never consent

their return to their


list

man

countrymen,

till

to

every article of the

should be dispatched to them, and consequently the

treaty fulfilled.

This expostulation occasioned

negro captain, called Quaco,

who

the

interference of

declared that these gen-

tlemen were only the messengers of their Governor and


court
ter's

and

as they could not be answerable for their

mas-

proceedings, they should certainly return to the set'

tlement without injury or

insult,

and no person, not even

he, Captain Boston, should dare to oppose them.

The Chief of

the rebels then ordered silence, and de-

K 2

sired

chap.

NARRATIVE OF AN

68
sired

Mr. Aberci'ombie

articles

man

as he,

make up

to

Araby, should specify

list
;

himself of such

which that gentle-

having done, and promised to deliver, the rebels not

only gave him and his companions leave peaceably to return with

it

Governor and court

to town, but allowed their

a whole jear to deliberate whether they were to chuse

peace or war, unanimously swearing that during that


terval all animosity should cease

on

their side

in-

after which,

havins entertained them in the best manner their situation

woods

in the

afforded, they wished

them a happy journey

to Paramaribo.

One

of the rebel

officers,

to the commissioners

how

on

this occasion,

deplorable

it

represented

Avas that the

Eu-

ropeans, Avho pretended to be a civilized nation, should

be so much the occasion of

man

cruelties

towards their

continued the negro, " to

own

their

slaves.

tell

by

ruin

"

We

their inhu-

desire you,"

your Governor and your

" court, that in case they want to raise no

new gangs of

" rebels, they ought to take care that the planters keep a
" more watchful e}^ over their

own

property, and not to

" trust them so frequently in the hands of drunken ma" nagers and overseers,

who by

wrongfully and severely

" chastising the negroes, debauching their

Avives

and

chil-

" dren, neglecting the sick, &c. are the ruin of the colony," and wilfully drive to the woods such numbers of stout

" active people, wlio by their sweat earn your subsistence,


" without Avhose hands your colony must drop to nothing;
" and

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
" and to

whom

at last, in this disgraceful

69

manner, you are

" glad to come and sue for friendship."

Mr. Abercrombie now begged

that he

panied by one or two of their principal

might be accomofficers to

Para-

maribo, where he promised they should be well treated

but the

Araby, answered him with a smile, that

chief,

was time enq,ugh a year


thoroughly concluded

after,

v/hen the peace should be

that then e^en his youngest son

should be at their service, to receive his education

them, while for

it

his subsistence,

and even

among

for that of his

dependants, he should take the sole care upon himself,

without ever giving the Christians the smallest trouble.


After

this,

the commissioners left the rebels, and the

whole detachment arrived safe at Paramaribo.

The year of deliberation being ended,

the Governor

and

court sent out two fresh commissioners to the negro camp,


to bring the so

clusion

on both

nmch

which, after
sides,

was

wished-for peace to a thorough con-

much

debate, and

many ceremonies

at last finally agreed upon.

Presents

were promised to be sent by the Christians, agreeably


the wishes

of'

the negroes

while these

last, as

to

a proof of

their affection to the Europeans, insisted that each of the

commissioners should, during their I'emaining stay in the


rebel

camp, take

for his constant

handsomest young women.


berally with

game,

companion one of

They

fish, fruit,

treated

them

their

also

li-

and the choicest productions.


of

NARRATIVE OF AN

70

of the forest, and entertained them, without intermission,

with music, dancing, and repeated volleys.

At

the return of the commissioners, the stipulated pre-

sents were sent to the negroes at the

what

is

remarkable, under the care of the identical Mr.

Mayer, who had formerly not dared

and escorted by

The

Jocka Creek, and,

hundred men,

six

to fight against them,


soldiers

and

slaves.

pusillanimity of this gentleman, however, appeared

again on this occasion, and he had nearly undone the

whole business by departing from

his orders, delivering all

the presents to the rebels without receiving the hostages

Fortunately Araby kept his word, and sent

in return.

down

By

four of his best officers as pledges to Paramaribo.

peace was perfectly accomplished, and a treaty

this the

of twelve or fourteen
missioners,

v;hich
river

articles

was signed by the white com-

and sixteen of Araby's black captains,

in

ceremony took place on the plantation Ouca,

Surinam, where

all

76 1

in the

the parties met, this being the

spot of rendezvous appointed for the purpose, after four


different embassies

had been sent from the Europeans

to

the negroes.

Signing

this treaty alone,

however, was

still

not consi-

dered as sufficient by the rebel chief Araby and


ple.

and

his

They immediately bound themselves by an


insisted

on the commissioners doing the same,

the manner which

is

practised

by themselves, not

peooath,
after

trusting
entirely,

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
entirely, they alleged, to that
tians,

It

made

71

use of by the Chris-

which they had seen them too frequently

violate.

must indeed be confessed, that the negroes themselves

are

uncommonly tenacious of

as I never heard of
in the colony, of

these solemn engagements,

an instance, during

one of them violating

The solemnity made use of on


party's letting a

all

this

the time I resided

his oath.

day consisted

in

each

few drops of blood with a lancet or pen-

knife from the arm, into a callibash or cup of clear spring

water, in which were also


earth,

and of

mixed a few

particles

of dry

present were obliged to drink, without

this all

exception, which tliey call drinking each other's blood,

having

first

libation

shed a few drops upon the ground by way of

when

their

gadoman

or priest, Avith up-cast eyes

and out-stretched arms, took heaven and earth


and with a most audible voice and

in a

to witness,

most awful manner,

invoked the curse of the Almighty on those who should


first

break through

this sacred treaty

from that moment forward to

all

eternity.

imprecation the multitude answered


in their language

""

Then

made between them,

To

Da so !

solemn

which signifies

Amen *.

loudly thus, before

th' attentive

bands,

"

He

"

O first and greatest Power, whom all obey,


Who high on Ida's, holy mountain sway

"

this

calls the gods,

* This fact

is

and spreads

noticed by the

his lifted

hands:

Abbe Raynal,
" Eternal

NARRATIVE OF AN
" Eternal Jove
"

From

and yon bright

east to west,

and view from pole to pole

" Thou mother Earth


" Infernal
"

Who

.F//r/e,y,

and

"

And add

all

who

" Shed

libations to the pow'rs divine.

" Hear, mighty Jove

And may

swear

falsely

same urn they drink the mingled wine,

" While thus their pray'rs united

"

" Hear and be witness."

the

ye living Floods

and horrid woes prepare

rule the dead,

From

all

and Tartarean gods,

" Forperjur'd kings, and

"

orb, that roll

their blood,

and

mount

the sky,

hear, ye gods

who

first

on high

the league confound,

ground

like this wine, distain the thirsty

!"

Homer's Iliad.

The solemnity being ended,


his captains (to

as the

the chief

Araby and each of

be distinguished from the

inferior negroes,

Seramican chief Adoe had been before

in 1749)

was

presented with a fine large cane and silver pummel, on


Avhich was also engraven the arms of the colony.

The above-mentioned negroes

are called Oucas, after the

name of the plantation where the peace articles were signed


and by that name they are since distinguished from those
of Seramica,

At

this

whom

have already described.

time the charter was renewed to the AVest India

Company, by

their

High Mightinesses,

thirty years longer (as

it

had been before

for the

term of

in IG70, 1700,

and

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
and 1730)

in consideration

of a loan of about

73

five million

of six per cent.

sterling, at the rate

This same year peace was also a second time concluded


with the Seramica rebels,

by a negro called

who

Wille, instead

But

Avas dead.

who were

this

at that time

commanded

of their former chief Adoe,

second peace was unfortunately

broken by a rebel captain, called Muzinga, who had

re-

ceived none of the presents, which had in fact been again


intercepted and captured on their
as they

had been formerly on

by the very same


Zara Zam,

their

way

to the chief Wilier

way

to the chief

Adoe,

enterprising and rapacious plunderer

Avith this difference only, that

none of the de-

tachment that were sent with them were now murdered,


as

on the preceding occasion, nor even one single person

injured.

Upon

this

supposed breach of

Captain INIuzinga

faith,

fought most desperately against the colonists


battle face to face,

one hundred and

and carrying
Soon

and beat back,

fifty

receive

on

ari

was a

at close quarters,

above

baggage and ammunition.

after tWs, however,

adopted to pacify

he gave

of their best troops, killing numbers,

off all their

discontent

zinga's

when the

real cause of

Mu-

was knoAvn, means were found and


this gallant

warrior,

by making

and share the presents sent out by the

hini

colonists,

equal tooting with his brother heroes, when peace


third

and

last

time concluded in

762, betAveen the

Seramica rebels and the colony, Avhich has providentially


Vol,

I,

been

NARRATIVE OF AN

74

CHAP,
III.

been kept sacred and inviolable, as well as that with the

Ouca

By

negroes, to this day.

their exertions in the field

they thus obtained their freedom.


"

Liberty

" Profuse of

thou goddess heavenly bright,

bliss,

and pregnant with delight

" Eternal pleasures in thy presence reign,

"

And

smiling Plenty leads thy wanton train.

" Eas'd of her load, Subjection grows more


''

And

light,

Poverty looks cheerful in thy sight;

" Thou mak'st the gloomy face of nature gay,

" Giv'st beauty to the sun, and pleasure to the day."

The hostages and

chief officers

mentioned negro cohorts, on

of both the above-

their arrival at

were entertained at the Governor's own

table,

viously paraded in state through the town,

by

his

By

Paramaribo,
having pre-

accompanied

Excellency in his own private carriage.


their capitulation with the

and Seramica

rebels

must yearly

tioned, a quantity of

Dutch, the above Ouca


receive, as I

have men-

arms and ammunition from the

colony, for which the Europeans have received in return

the negroes' promises of being their faithful


liver

up

all their deserters,

allies,

to de-

for Avhich they are to receive

proper premiums, never to appear armed at Paramaribo

above

ment

five or six at

a time, and also to keep their

at a proper distance

settle-

from the town and plantations

the Seramica negroes at the river Seramica, and those of

the

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
the

Ouca

7&

negroes at the Jocka Creek, near the river

Marawina, where one or two white men, called postholders, were

to reside

among them,

in the quality of

envoys.

Both
of, to

after,

these tribes were supposed, at the period I speak

amount

in all to three thousand,

by those that were sent

and but a few years

to visit their settlements

computed

(including wives and children) they were

not less than fifteen or twenty thousand.

become overbearing and even

They

to

are already

insolent, brandishing their

silver-headed canes in defiance of the inhabitants,

them

forcing from

reminding them
their parents

how

and

From these

liquors,

be

and

and very often money, and

cruelly their ancestors

had murdered

their husbands.

circumstances, and their numbers increasing

from day to day, I must conclude, that should the peace

be ever broken, these new

allies will

become

the most

dreadful foes that ever the colony of Surinam can have to

contend with.
In 1763 the town of Paramaribo would have been burnt

down

to the ground,

had

it

courage and intrepidity of the


of their

lives,

not been prevented by the


sailors,

who, at the hazard

without other assistance, prevented a general

conflagration.

About this time a mutiny broke out on board

the outward-

bound East Indiaman, Neimburgh, commanded by Caprain Ketell.

The

crcM', consisting chiefly

L 2

of French and

German

NARRATIVE OF AN

76

German
rose in

arms against

most of the
put

who had been kidnapped

deserters,

their superiors,

and warrant

officers

in

and having murdered

officers,

while others were

in chains, carried the vessel to the Brazils

disputation, soon discovered

what they were

there the

went on shore, and being engaged

ringleaders

Holland,

and

in riot

to the Portu-

guese Governor, in consequence of ^vhich they were

taken into custody

but their accomplices on board

all

sus-

pecting what had happened, immediately slipped their


cable,

and

of Cayenne, where

this

for the Fi^ench, seizing ship

and

set sail for the island

piracy was put to an end

crew, delivered both to the colony of Surinam, where, in


1

764, seven of the

same

vessel

most guilty were executed on board the

which they had captured, then at anchor in

the roads before

tlie

One

town of Paramaribo,

imhappy wretches was decapitated, and

six

of these

hanged to the

yard-arm, whose heads were also chopped off and planted

upon
pose.

iron spikes

The

Avere sent

they

Avere

on the beach,

others,

in

a cage

made

who had been taken by

for the pur-

the Portuguese,

from the Brazils to Amsterdam, after which


also

Westelingwerf

executed in Texel roads on board the

man

of war, Avhich ship was that sent out

with us from Holland

their bodies

were afterwards gib-

beted in iron harness, and placed for an example along


the coast.

This same year also three of the society or cofony


diers,

who had been

guilty of

sol-

mutiny and desertion, were


executed

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
executed in Surinam
of

its

give

but as their case

kind that ever happened,

some account of the

During the time of an


the year

76 1 ,

among

is

must

77

the most pecuUar

chap.

beg leave to

^^1!^

also

transaction.
insurrection,

which happened

in

the negro slaves in the colony of

Berbice, where they had not been treated so cruelly as in

other colonies, not only a regiment of marines,

by Colonel de Salse, which nov/ belongs

to

commanded

General Douglas,

was sent over from Holland to that settlement, but troops


also

from the neighbouring colonies

order to subdue the revolt.

In

Avere dispatched, in

this design

they soon suc-

ceeded, since the woods in that part, being of small extent,


are easily penetrated, which prevents the rebels from form-

ing settlements, and since from the same cause they will

not serve to conceal them from their pursuers.

The con-

sequence was, that after numbers had been shot dead, and
others taken prisoners, the rest were forced to surrender at
discretion,

and implore

for

mercy, or they must have been

starved to death for want of subsistence.

During these

troubles,

it

happened

that one officer

and

about seventy men, sent from the colony of Surinam, had

been posted on the banks of the


detachment, together with a

river Corrantine.

part}^

of Indians,

who

This
are

natural enemies to the negroes, but friends to the Euro-

peans, had one day beaten the rebels in a skirmish, having


killed several of

them, and retaken about the value of

twenty or thirty pounds sterling in

eifects,

which the
negroes

NARRATIVE OF AN

78

negroes had pillaged from the neighbouring estates.


officer

who commanded

this

unwarrantably distributed
alone,

them

The

detachment having, however,

this

booty among the Indians

without givdng a share to his soldiers, disgusted

much

so

that they revolted

commander, took

their

march

and deserting

for the

their

Oronoque

river

through the woods, in hopes of soon falling in with Spanish


settlements and being relieved
these deluded

men

but

how

miserably were

mistaken, and disappointed in their

desperate undertaking, by meeting the rebels or bush negroes on the second or third day of their

march

These,

notwithstanding the solemn protestations of the soldiers,


that they Avere

come without any

them, and their intreaties to

let

evil intention

towards

them pass by unmolested,

were suspected of being sent out to spy and betray them


the negroes therefore insisted that they should lay
their

down

arms at mercj^ which the deserters having complied

with, the rebels immediately dressed

them

then having picked out ten or twelve to

in

one rank

assist

them

in

attending the sick and wounded, repairing their arms, and


trying to

make gunpowder,

carried) they

condemned

all

instantly put in execution,

tunate
It
alive

(in

the others to death, which was

and above

men were one by one

may

which however they mis-

fifty

shot dead

of those unfor-

upon the

well be supposed, that those

spot.

who were saved

by the negroes must have spun out a very melancholy

existence
2

among them, and indeed most of them

died

within

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
by

within very few months after

and want

and when the

ill

79

treatment, hardships,

rebels surrendered themselves to

the Europeans at discreticn, the few remaining miserable

wretches that were

still

found alive were directly loaded

with irons, and sent back from the colony of Berbice to

Surinam, where three of them were executed in the town


of Paramaribo, one being hanged, and two broken alive

upon the

One

rack.

Frenchman, called

of these miserable wretches was a

Reiiauld,

who seemed

have imbibed

to

the sentiments of the negroes by his residence

With a

truly heroic spirit

who was

he comforted

a German, and, tied

down by

his side, just

adding, that the voyage of

over, while his

accomplice,

his

to receive the dreadful blows, he exhorted


his courage

among them.

him

life

ready

to preserve

would soon be

own bones were breaking by the executioner

with an iron bar.

The

ring-leading

negroes Avere roasted alive by half

dozens in a shocking manner, being chained to stakes in


the midst of surrounding flames, and expired without utter-

ing a groan or a sigh.

The miserable

fate of so

poor wretches excited great commiseration

and

many

it is

im-

possible to reflect without the strongest feelings of indig-

nation on a punishment so shocking to humanity, inflicted

upon men, the most of whom were drove


by tyranny and oppression.
ever think

it

my

But

at the

to

misconduct

same time

duty to support that the

phne and subordination (when tempered

I shall

strictest discihi/

justice)

is

absolutely

NARRATIVE OF AN

80

absolutely necessary amongst

all

large bodies of people, of

whatever class or description, not only for the good of the


public in general, but as the surest
severity

much

on the individual

lenity)

good order at

(the usual

consequence of too

and of being painfully obliged to establish


last

by a perpetual round of reluctant rigour

and chastisement.

WcAvill

now leave

and point out what happened


i^
during

means of avoiding

and

these sable scenes,

in the colony of

XlV^VlliOXi.1.5 state.
its CllK^lK.
IL^
short CWIVA flourishing

Surinam,

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
CHAP.

IV.

Short Interval of Peace and Plenty

new Distress by afresh

the Rebels

Gallant

The Colony plunged

in

and nearly ruined

Insurrection,

Review of the Troops for

its

81

j4n Action with


a black Corps The

Defence

Behaviour of

Arrival of Colonel Fourgeoud's Marines.

TN

764, gold

and

silver specie

-' stamped, to the amount of

being scarce, cards were


jT.

40,000 value, which

passed as cash, at a discount of ten per cent.


In 1765 a considerable degree of commotion was excited
in the colony,

on account of a

Elizabeth Sampson, marrying an

above

jT.

negro woman, called

European

she was worth

100,000 sterling, inherited from her master, whose

slave she
their

free

had formerly been

High

having addressed herself to

]\Iightinesses, her request

was granted

and

accordingly, being christened, she entered into the lawful

bond of matrimony with a Mr.

Zubli.

In the succeeding year the colorpy was visited


earthquake, which however did very

In 1769 the whole coast was on

Dcmerary
forest

is

this

happened

fire,

an

damage.
from Cayenne to

in the dry season,

when

all

the

parched by the heat, and the underwood choked

with dried leaves.


to

little

b}'

The

flames, which were

supposed

have been kindled by the neglect of the Indians or

Vol.

I.

rebels,

chap.

;:

NARRATIVE OF AN
rebels,

were so violent, that they threatened destruction

to several estates,

and during the night appeared must

tremendous from the sea

smoke

while the east wind

the

so thick throughout the day, that one person could

not see another at the distance of


time

made

it is

During

six yards.

this

not surprising that the smell was almost insup-

portable.

This same year, a quantity of rock crystal was discovered


in the inland parts of

In

Dutch Guiana.

770 the house of Somelsdyk sold

tion of the colony to the

its

share or por-

town of Amsterdam,

sum

for the

of .63,636 sterling; so that from that period that city


possesses two-thirds,

the

and the other

West India Company, which,

third

as I

still

belongs to

have already stated,

form together the society of Surinam.

The colony now seemed


state, since the

in

a prosperous and flourishing

concluding of the treaty with the Seramica

and Ouca negroes, and every thing exhibited an aspect of


peace and good order.

The

inhabitants believed their

persons and effects in perfect security, so that nothing Avas

thought of but mirth and dissipation, which was soon ex-

tended to lavishness and profusion.

Surinam resembled,

indeed, a large and beaixtiful garden, stocked with every

thing that nature and art could produce to

of man both comfortable


all

to himself

and

make

the

life

useful to society

the luxuries, as well as the necessaries of

life,

abounded

every sense was apparently intoxicated Avith enjoyment;

and.

;;

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

85

and, to use the figurative language of a sacred book,

Surinam was a land that flowed with milk and honey.

But

this delusive felicity lasted

too earnest to

not long.

planter,

become immediately opulent, never once

considered the w^retchedness of the slave


ness, luxury,

The

and

while drunken-

became predominant

riot

in the

one

party, the misery of the other proportionably increased

nor did the destruction that so lately threatened them seem


to

have the smallest influence on their minds; at the same

time the successful example of the Seramica and

Ouca

negroes sen-ed to stimulate the other slaves to revolt, and

from these complicated causes the colony was again plunged


into

its

former abyss of

difficulties.

The most

estates in the settlement, called Plantations,

more

seen,

some blazing in

flames,

and others

beautiful

were once

laid in ashes

while the reeking and mangled bodies of their inhabitants

were scattered along the banks of the

and

their throats cut,

negroes, Avho

their eftects pillaged

by

their

own

woods, men, women, and

to the

fled

all

river Cottica, with

children, w ithout exception.

These new revolters were now distinguished by the name


of the Cottica Rebels, from the spot on which their hostilities

day

commenced

and

to day, they soon

ment

as the Seramica

been, and in
to Surinam.

their

numbers aug-mentina: from

became

as formidable to the settle-

and Ouca negroes had formerly

772 they had nearly given the finishing blow

At

that period

all

was horror and consternation


NARRATIVE OF AN

84
nation
tiie

nothing

majority of the inhabitants,

and crowded
In

but a general massacre was expected bj

to the

this situation

have recourse

of

from their

estates,

for protection.

the inhabitants were

obhged

to

dangerous resolution of forming a

regiment of manumitted

countrymen.

tied

town of Paramaiibo

atfairs,

to the

who

When we

slaves, to fight against their

own

consider the treatment which was

so generally exercised against the slaves of this settlement,


it

must

surprise the reader to be told, that this hazardous

These

resolution had providentially the desired effect.

brave

men performed wonders above

expectation, in con-

junction with the Colonial or Society troops, whose strength

and numbers alone were no longer thought


defend

this settlement.

But not

sufficient to

absolutely on

to rely

made

such precarious assistance, the society of Surinam

Orange

application to his Serene Highness the Prince of


for a regular regiment,

and our corps was

in

consequence

dispatched in the manner which has been already related.


As, however, the events which preceded our arrival were

of the utmost importance,

my

I shall

endeavour to lay before

readers the most authentic information I Avas able to

obtain.

The

regular troops from

Europe that belong

society of Surinam, were intended to be twelve

men when

complete,

partly by the society,

to

the

hundred

divided into two battalions, paid

and partly by the inhabitants

they can never produce that number in the

field, for

but

many

reasons

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
reasons

such

as their either

85

dying on their passage, while

they are seasoning to the climate, or during their dangerous

and fatiguing duty


this

and swamps.

ni the Avoods

Besides

number, a reinforcement of three hundred more was

now

sent

them from the town of Amsterdam

poor wretches scarcely

landed

Avere

fifty

fit

but of these
for

senice

the remainder, owing to the inhumanity of their leader,

Mr. H., having participated

a fate

in

little

better than

that of the poor African negroes in the vessel of the in-

human Captain C

gw

d,

who, in 17^7, threw 132 living

The unhy[)py

slaves into the sea to pei'ish.

der the

command of Mr. H.

creatures, un-

were starved and tormented by

unnecessary severity and his lieutenant, unable to continue


;

a witness of the tyrannical punishments he

from the cabin window, and terminated

The

military in

officers,

but for their private

are, in fact, little better

they are of

all

from

all

NotAvithstanding

this,

that they behave

Avell

ferent occasions,

by

and

men

his existence.

well inured to the ser-

cannot say

than the outcasts of

ages, shapes,

Avafted together

leaped

Surinam are composed of several very

good and experienced


vice,

inflicted,

and

sizes,

much
all

they

nations

and seem by chance

the dift'erent corners of the globe.

hoAvever,
in action,

it

has often been found

and have on many

their bravery,

been of

dif-

infinite service

to this settlement*.
*

corps of European chasseurs, or rifle-men, was since added to these

troops, after the

manner of

the light infantry in England.

Here

chap.

NARRATIVE OF AN

86

Here

is

also

a small corps of

artillery,

being part of the

twelve hundred, which I must acknowledge to be a very


fine

company

call their militia,

command

As

in all respects.

for Avhat they please to

they are, a few gentlemen excepted, who

them, so strange a collection of ill-disciplined

rabble, that they can scarcely be mentioned as fighting

men.

With
slaves,

though

in

number they amounted but

hundred, they indeed proved ultimatel}' of as


to the colony as

were

manumitted

respect to the new-raised corps of

all

all

much

the others put together *.

volunteers,

and

to three

in general stout able

service

These

men

young

fel-

lows, selected from the different plantations, the owners of

whom

received for them their

full

None

value in money.

were accepted but those who were reputed to be of unexIt must,

ceptionable character.
that

what we Europeans

the Africans,

call

however, be observed,

a good character, was, by

looked on as detestable, particularly by

those born in the woods, whose only crime consisted in


revengino- the Avrongs

done to

been an ocular witness

to astonishing proofs of the fidelity

their forefathers.

have

of these enfranchised slaves to the Europeans, and their


valour against the rebel negroes.

Their chief leaders are three or four white men, called


Conductors, to

whom

they pay the strictest obedience:

* Blood-hounds were also proposed, to discover and attack the

adopted, from the difficulty of their

proper training,

8cc.

rebel negroes in the woods, but never

one

B/u/c^c

-^

r..
f'/r'////^///,/// //

^/'ry- (^

re////', <v_/'-V^/////^v; /r////2.^

,/

I.,n,lrn,ri,l'l,.,lml n,crij-,i:i,hv J.J,-!,,,..;;,

>

.f.

Piuii:^ rit,in-l,

V,ii;l

Seulr'

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
one or two of these attend them Avhen they

on any

Every ten privates have one

enterprise of consequence.

who commands them

captain,

set out

87

by the

in the forest

different

sounding of his horn, as the boatswain commands the

seaman by

his call, or as the cavalry

of Europe are di-

rected by the sound of the trumpets in the

they advance, attack, retreat, spread, &c.


only with a firelock and sabre.

management

they understand the

manner

Of

field

by which

they are armed

both these weapons

most masterly

in the

they generally go naked, in preference, in the

woods, excepting trowsers, and a scarlet cap, the emblem


of liberty, on which

is

their

number, and which, together

with their parole or watch-word, which


guishes

them from

the rebels in

any

is

orange, distin-

action, to

They have, indeed, of

disagreeable mistakes.

been farther distinguished by green uniforms.

prevent

late years,

Thus

far

as to the force of the colony.

I have already stated, that the newly* revolted rebels,


called Cotticas, were just preparing to give the finishing

blow to Surinam
this catastrophe
.

and

shall

now proceed

to relate

how

was prevented.

These negroes, being commanded by a desperate fellow

named Baron, had

erected a strong settlement between

the river Cottica and the sea-coast, whence they sallied


forth to

commit

their depredations

on the plantations

in

the Cottica river, &c.


I

have called

this settlement strong,

becauBe, like

an

islajidy

chap.

NARRATIVE OF AN

88
island,

it

was entirely surrounded by a broad unfordable

marsh or swamp, which prevented

all

except by private paths vnider water,


rebels,

conununication,

known

only to the

and before which Baron had placed loaded

swivels,

which he had plundered from the neighbouring estates:


it

moreover fenced and inclosed on every side by

Avas

several thousand strong pallisadoes,

no contemptible
the

fortification.

name of Boucou

rendered to the Europeans.


it

it

Avhole

Baron gave

this spot

or Mouldered, intimating that

perish in dust rather than

that

To

and was on the

it

should

should be taken by or sur-

He even presumed

to

suppose

would never be discovered.

After

many marches and

counter-marches, however,

nest of desperadoes was at last discovered,

and perseverance of the Society


soldiers or rangers,

troops,

by which name

this

by the vigilance
and the black

I shall for

the future

distinguish them, their service being chiefly like that of

the rangers in Virginia,

Cherokee Indians.
indeed,

Avell

known by

known

the

who were

sent out against the

Another settlement of the rebels was,


to exist in that corner of the colony,

name of

the Lee-shore, and situated between

the rivers Surinam and Seramica

but here the situation,

by marshes, quagmires, mud, and water,


fortifies

is

such, that

them from any attempts of the Europeans

it

nay,

they are even indiscoverable by negroes, so thick and impenetrable

is

thorns, briars,

the forest on that spot, and so choked with

and every species of underwood.


I'rom

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
From

85.

these coverts they sally forth in small parties,

during the night, to rob the gardens and

fields surroiuiding

Paramaribo, and carry otf the young women,


Avilderness

a young

officer,

Scc.

In this

Lieutenant Freidrecy, was

lost

two or three days and nights, as he went out on a shootingparty,

and would jDrobably never have been heard

of,

had

not the Governor, by ordering a gun to be fired at intervals,

given a signal for him to find his

restored

him once more

As soon

as

by Baron,

at

it

way back, and

thus

to his friends.

was determined that the rebels commanded

Boucon, should be besieged and rooted out,

a strong detachment of white and black troops were sent


against them, under the

Meyland, who was


recy, a spirited

to

head the

young

to lead the latter.

command
first

officer,

of the brave Captain


;

and Lieutenant Freid-

with the Conductors, was

The detachment, on

the marsh, however, Avere obliged to


ders, not

being able to pass through

encamp on
it

at

their arrival
its

bor-

on account of

its

unfordable depth.

On

the discovery of the troops, the bold negro Baron

immediately planted a white Hag within their view, which

he meant not as a token of peace, but of defiance


an incessant
with very
It

firing instantly

to

marsh, by the troops; but

had been spent


I.

sides,

and
but

little cfCect.

was then projected

Vol.

took place on both

throw a fascine bridge over the


this

plan, after several Aveeks

in the attempt,

and a number of men shot

dead

NARRATIVE OF AN

90

CHAP,
IV.

dead while employed upon

it,

was of necessity

laid aside.

Thus every hope of passing through the marsh


fortress being frustrated,

into the

and the food and ammunition

many

being considerably lessened, added to the

loss

men,

affairs

crisis,

siege

must have been broken up, and the remaining troops

were at length arrived at such a

must have marched back


rajigers,

by

to

and discovered

to the

communication

to

and (however strange

enmity against the

rebels,

Boucon,

several being shot

swamp on one

a feint attack on the

and drowned

important service.

Captain Meyland with the regulars, on


forded the

found out

Europeans the under-water paths of

in the execution of this

now

that the

Paramaribo, had not the

their indefatigable ellbrts,

to think) implacable

of

side,

this intelligence,

and instantly making

drew Baron with

fortress,

rebels, as Avas expected, to its defence

all

the

while Lieutenant

Freidrecy, with the rangers, having crossed the

swamp on

the other side, embraced the opportunity of leaping, with


his black party, over the palisadoes,

sword in hand, with-

out opposition.

A most terrible carnage at this time ensued, while several


prisoners were

made on both

Boucon was taken

sides,

and the

fortress

of

but Baron, with the greatest number

of the rebels, escaped into the woods, having

first

found

means, however, to cut the throats of ten or twelve of the


rangers,

who had

lost their

he seized as they stuck


5

way

in the

fast in the

marsh, and

s^yamp

whom

and cutting

off

the

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
the ears, nose, and lips of one of them, he

left

man

him

alive

whom how-

in this condition to return to his friends, with

ever the miserable

91

soon expired.

This Baron had formerly been the negro slave of a Mr.

Dahlbergh, a Swede, who on account of

his abilities

advanced him

had taught him

to read

and

to the rank of a favourite,

write,

and bred him a mason

he had also been

with his master in Holland, and was promised his

breaking his word with regard to his liberty, and


to

manu-

But Mr, Dahlbergh

mission on his return to the colony.

him

sellino-

a Jew, Baron obstinately refused to work, in con-

sequence of which he was publicly flogged under the


lows.

without exception
self at the

fled to the

head of the

and particularly so to

Europeans

woods, where putting him-

rebels, his
his

all

name became

dreadful,

former master Dahlbergh, as he

solemnly swore that he should never die in peace

had washed

by

those

his

hands

till

he

in the tyrajit's blood.

who know how

self-interest, it will

may

o-al-

This usage the negro so violently resented, that

from that moment he vowed revenge against

To

had

greatly

mankind

are affected

not appear so extraordinary, as

to a superficial observer,

it

that these black rangers

should so inveterately engage against their friends and

countrymen.

What

will

not

men do

to be

from so deplorable a

state of subjection

cipation was obtained

upon more

certain

emancipated

and

eman-

and advantageous

grounds by the consent of the Europeans, than

N 2

this

if

they had

absconded

NARRATIVE OF AN

92

absconded into the -woods.


this service, it

is

Havins; thus once ensaffcd

iit

evident tliey must be considered by the

other party as apostates and

ti'aitors

of the blackest dye

they must be convinced, that defeat must not only expose

them

to death,

but to the severest tortures

therefore fighting for something


life:

success was to bring

more than

them the most

they were

liberty

and

solid advantages,

miscarriage was to plunge them in the severest misery.

The taking of Boucon was now


deemed a very
lars

and the

intrepidity

greatly spoken of, and.

severe blow to the rebels

rangers, indeed,

and courage.

both the regu-

behaved with unprecedented

Captain Meyland's gallant con-

duct was most highly acknowledged

while Lieutenant

Freidrecy was presented by the Surinam Society with a


beautiful sabre, a fusee,
in silver,

and a brace of

pistols,

mounted

and ornamented with emblems expressive of

his

merit; besides which, he obtained the rank of Captain.


It

must be confessed, that on

this

occasion the Avhole de-

tachment, white and black, without exception, justly met


with the fullest marks of approbation for their spirited behaviour.

In

when, in

this state v/ere the

public

affairs

of Surinam

iTi, our fleet dropped anchor before the town

of Paramaribo

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

CHAP.
The Scene changes
Slave

The

Some

V.

Account of a beautiful Female

RJanner of travelling

lonel explores the Situation

Planter

Surinam

in

of the Rivets

IVretched Treatment of some

AVING

in the first

93

The

Co-

Barbarity of a

Sailors.

chapters given some account of c

our incorporation, our voyage, our landing, and our

reception in the colony, in February 1773; and havinodescribed the colony of Surinam,

from

lutions,

my

its earliest

narrative,

its

discovery

boundaries, and revoI shall

by connecting the proceedings of our

corps with the general chain of events

what

now proceed

little

and write precisely

have learned by local and ocular observation.

Having already

stated that from our arrival

till

S7th we seemed to be landed in Guiana for


than idle dissipation
date,

in

I shall

February

little

now proceed from

the

more
same

which was about the commencement of the rainy

season, wlien our mirth and conviviahty

still

continued, to

present to the reader, as a contrast to the preceding scenes

of horror, a description of the beautiful mulatto maid

Joanna.

This charming young

woman

I first

saw at the

house of a Mr. Demelly, secretary to the Court of Policy,

where

I daily breakfasted

and

\yith

whose lady Joanna,


but

ii

a p.

NARRATIVE OF AN

94

but

fifteen years

Rather

taller

of age, Avas a very remarkable favourite.

than the middle

she was possessed of

iii'/.c,

the most elegant shape that nature can exhibit, moving her

well-formed limbs with more than

Her

common

gracefulness.

face was full of native modesty, and the most distin-

guished sweetness

and

full

heart

her eyes, as black as ebony, Avere large

of expression, bespeaking the goodness of her

with cheeks through Avhich glowed, in spite of the

darkness of her complexion, a beautiful tinge of Vermillion,

Her nose was

when gazed upon.

formed, rather small; her

when

lips

little

perfectly well

prominent, which,

she spoke, discovered two regular rows of teeth, as

white as mountain snow

her hair was a dark brown in-

clining to black, forming a beautiful globe of small ringlets,

Round

ornamented with flowers and gold spangles.

her

neck, her arms, and her ancles, she wore gold chains,
rings,

and medals

while a shawl of India muslin, the end

of which was negligently thrown over her polished shoulders,

gracefully

petticoat

covered part of her lovely bosom

of rich chintz alone completed

Bare-headed and bare-footed,


lustre, as she carried in

tract
all

my

this

her apparel.

shone with

double

her delicate hand a beaver hat,

the crown trimmed round with

appearance of

she

silver.

The

figure

and

charming creature could not but

at-

particular attention, as they did indeed that of

who beheld

her; and induced

me

to enquire

from Mrs.

Demelly, with much surprise, who she was, that appeared


to

^?2/?t^^:i/^.

Zondon. Puhlijfhed Dfc^z'^f^c^, by J.Jbhnron S^PauU Outrdi lard


.

EXPEDTTION TO SURINAM.
to

be

so

much

distinguished above

95

others of her species

all

in the colony.

" She

Sir," replied

is,

*'

this lady,

the daughter of a

" respectable gentleman, named Kruythoff


" sides this

four children

girl,

who had,

by a black -woman,

be-

called

" Cery, the property of a Mr. D. B., on his estate called

" Fauconberg,
"

in the

Some few

upper part of the

river

Comewina.

made

years since Mr. Kruythoff

the offer

" of above one thousand pounds sterling to Mr. D. B. to

" obtain manumission for his


"

humanly

refused,

" he became
" soon after
<'

tyrant,

"

now

it

frantic,

ofl^spring

had such an
and died

effect

which being

on

in that

in-

his spirits, that

melancholy state

leaving in slavery, at the discretion of a

two boys and three

before us

is

fine girls,

of which the one

the eldest *.

" The gold medals, &c. which seem to surprise 3'ou, are
" the

gifts

" serving

which her

woman

faithful mother,

who

is

a most de-

towards her children, and of some conse-

" qvience amongst her

cast, received

from her father (whom

" she ever attended with exemplary affection) just before


" he expired.
" Mr. D. B., however, met with his just rcAvard
" having since driven

all his

for

best carpenter negroes to the

" woods by his injustice and severity, he was ruined, and


* In Surinam

all

with their mothers

such children go
that

is, if

she

in slavery, her offspring are her

is

mas-

tei's

property, should their father be

a prince, unless he obtains

them by

purchase.

" obliged

chap.

NARRATIVE Or AN

96
" o])liged to

fly the

colony, and leave his estate and stock

" to the disposal of his creditors


" unhappy deserters, a samhoe

*,

while one of the above

has by his industry been

" the protector of Cery and her children.


" Jolycffiur, and he
"

whom you may

now

is

the

first

name

His

is

of Baron's captains,

have a chance of meeting

in the rebel

" camp, breathing revenge against the Christians.

" Mrs. D. B.

in

is still

" husband's debts,

till

" tion to pay them.

Surinam, being arrested for her

Fauconberg
This lady

shall

now

be sold by execu-

my house,
whom she

lodges at

" where the unfortunate Joanna attends her,

" treats with peculiar tenderness and distinction."

Having thanked Mrs. Demelly for her account of Joanna,


in

whose eye

my

took

leave,

and went

ness and stupefaction.

of romance,
theless a

may

sympathy, I

glittered the precious pearl of


to

my

However

this relation

lodging in a state of sadtrifling,

may appear

and

like the style

to some,

genuine account, and on that score

it is

never-

I flatter

myself

not entirely be uninteresting to others.

When reflecting on the state


my ears were stunned with the
dismal
cised,

3'ells

of slavery altogether, while


clang of the whip, and the

of the wretched negroes on

from morning

might one day be

till

tlie

whom

samboe

is

was exer-

night; and considering that this

fate of the unfortunate mulatto I

have been describing, should she chance to


*

it

fall

into the

between a mulatto and a negro.

hands

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

97

liands of a tyrannical master or mistress, I could not help

execrating the barbaiity of

]\Ir.

D. B.

for

having with-

who by bestowing on her a

held her from a fond parent,

decent education and some accomplishments, would pro-

bably have pi'oduced, in

this forsaken plant,

to every rude blast without protection,

now exposed

an ornament

to

and

in

civilized society.

became melancholy with

these reflections

order to counterbalance, though in a very small degree,

the

general calamity of the miserable slaves

rounded me,
of

my

began

more delight

to take

poor negro boy, Quaco, than in

all

who

in the prattling

the fashionable

convex'sation of the polite inhabitants of this colony

my spirits were depressed,


hours I was very

ill

and

indeed

but

in the space of twenty-four

when a

sur-

cordial, a

few pre-

served tamarinds, and a basket of fine oranges, were sent

by an unknown
relief,

and

This

person.

first

contributed to

my

losing about twelve ounces of blood, I recovered

on the

so far, that

fifth I

was

able, for

change of

accompany a Captain Macneyl, who gave me a

to

air,

pressing

invitation to his beautiful coffee plantation, called Sporkesgift, in

the

Matapaca Creek.

Having mentioned tamarinds,

I will, before

we proceed

on our journey, embrace the opportunity of introducing


a short description of them.
is

produced

is

about the

size

The

tree

on Avhich

this fruit

of a large apple-tree, and

is

very straight, and covered with a brownish-coloured bark;

Vol.

I.

the

NARRATIVE OF AN

98

the twigs are slender, arched, and knotty, producing leaves

and a pod, which

will

presentation, where

be best known by the annexed

re-

the

is

the leaf of the natural size

extremity of the branch

D the pulp,

the fruit green and unripe

and

the purple kernels or stones that are inclosed within

it.

which

is

brown when

in perfection

The upper

part of the leaves are a darker green than un-

derneath

upon the whole, they form a very agreeable

shade, on which account the tamarind-trees are frequently

planted in groves.

The male and female


tion in their colour

species bear a remarkable distinc-

that of the

first

having the deepest

hue.

presume

1 shall not

medicinal

qualities

to

be minute with respect to the

of these or any other vegetable in

Guiana, which are as amply as

by Dr. Bancroft,

I believe justly described

in his letters to Dr. Pitcairn, Fellow of

the Royal College of Physicians in London, except in

mentioning such efficacy as

by

my own

water,
is

have found them to possess

experience, and which consists in the pulp

which when presei'ved


hot climates

it

is

is

a most delicious refreshment in

a laxative, and when dissolved with

makes a very cooling and agreeable beverage, and

much recommended

in

all

diseases,

particularly

in

fevers.

We

now

set

out from Paramaribo for Sporkesgift, in a

tent-boat or barge, rowed by eight of the best negroes

belonging

;y//'/<^

fY^^^'

^'^/^/^''^v'//'/xv tV^^v^^.

Lonil,^n,Pi,hli\)1irJ DrcriflTgl. hr

J.JohnJ.m St PaiiU

iTiriri-A

I'.inl.

7/^^^c^^/i

G^/a/iey'^S^/^y^i///'/y/^ o7iy/A^'Z^^i^i^e^'Ccr7n//?teM/t''n^.

yuyi^re^^^^i/a/i^^i

o/ a^ ^e^t^

London, Puhh'siud

rift-ri-^jifij'j-

l^iatf-^,

a/

//7//'//A///4>9^/^

J.J,*l,nson.S.^Patd> Chun-h Tard.

^yOaraey.

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
belonging to

]\lr.

Macneyl's estate

99

every body, as I have

already mentioned, travelling by water in this colony.

These barges I cannot better describe than by comparing them \yith those that accompany what
styled the
are,

Lord Mayor's Show on the

however, somewhat

inferior in magnificence,

ing and

by twelve

They

oars,

and are often decorated with

are sometimes rowed

and being

lightly built,

moment

till

they set out

place of destination

company

the

gild-

by ten and even

stop,
is

landed at the

for twenty-four hours to-

gether, singing a chorus all the time to keep


is

fi-om the

but continue, the tide serving or not,

and day, sometimes

their labour

little

sweep along with

The rowers never

When

Thames. They

though some are very

astonishing celerity.

to tug night

usually

with musicians, and abound in every

flags, filled

convenience.

less,

river

is

over, their

up their spirits.

naked bodies

still

drip-

ping with sweat, like post-horses, they headlong, one and


all,

plunge into the river to refresh themselves

"

The wanton

courser thus, with reins unbound,

" Breaks from his

We

stall,

and beats the trembling ground

"

Pamper'd and proud, he seeks the wonted

"

And

tides,

laves in height of blood his shining sides."

now passed a number

of fine plantations, but I

could not help taking particular notice of the Cacao estate, called

Alkmaar, situated on the right side


2

in

rowing

up

chap.

NARRATIVE OF

TOD

up the
its

Comewina, which

river

beauty than

for the

vahiable lady the


friendship

is

no

goodness of

AJST

less

conspicuous for

proprietor, the in-

its

widow Godefroy, whose humanity and

must always be remembered by me with

grati-

tude.

At our arrival on

the estate Sporkesgift, I had the plea-

sure to be the spectator of an instance of justice Avhich

afforded

me

the greatest satisfaction.

The scene

consisted in

seer out of his service,

Mr. Macneyl's turning the over-

and ordering him

to depart

plantation in an inferior boat, called a ponkee

maribo, or wherever he thought proper

Avas having,

by bad usage and

three or four negroes.


the slaves

*,

to Para-

Avhich was instan-

The cause of

taneously put in execution.

from the

his disgrace

cruelty, caused the death of

His departure was made completely

by an

holiday, w^hich

was spent

in

joyful to

all

festivity,

by dancing and clapping hands on a green before

the dwelling-house Avindows.

The

overseer's sentence Avas the

galling,
Avlao Avas

as at the time of receiving

it

this planter, the

a negro foot-boy,,

air,

them himself

The

spirited

and the hospitable manner

A ponkee

is

square-toed shoe

conduct of

joy of his negroes, the salubrity of the


in

which

entertained at his estate, had such an effect on


*

and!

buckling his shoes, was ordered back, and he was

desired to buckle

country

more ignominious

Ave were-

my consti-

a flat-bottomed boat of four or six oars, something like


:

sometimes

it

has a

tilt,

a.

and sometimes not,


tution,

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
^

and

tution

my

spirits,

that on

the.

loi

ninth I returned,

But

recovered, at least greatly benefited, to Paramaribo.


I should

stance,

my

partiality, did I not relate

be guilty of

not

if

one

in-

which throws a shade over the humanity even of

frrend

Macneyl.

Having observed a handsome young negro walk very


lamely, while the others were capering and dancing, I in-

quired into the cause of his crippled appearance


I

was informed by

to hamstring him,

his

work, he had been obliged

which operation

is

performed by cutting

through the large tendon above one of the heels.


severe this instance of despotism

when compared

some

Avith

have undertaken

will

when

gentleman, that the negro having

this

away from

repeatedly run

may

appear,

barbarities

However

it is

nothing

which the task I

oblige me, at the expence of

my

feelings, to relate.

On

our return to the town of Paramaribo, the only ncwsr

that occurred consisted in a few shockins; executions

that the Boreas


sailed for

man

Holland

of

Avar,

also

Captain Van-de-Velde, had

and that Colonel Fourgeoud had on

the eighth, the Prince of Orange's anniversary, entertained

a large company

guard-room.
fiddlers only,

v/ith

a ball en militaire, in the

The music on

who had

this

officers'

occasion consisted of two

the conscience to

pay one hundred and twenty Dutch

make

the colonel

florins for rosin

and

catgut.

About

this

time 1 was attacked by a distemper called


thfe

NARRATIVE OF AN

103
imckly

tlie

heat,

by the

It begins

colonists rootvont.

the skin taking a colour like scarlet, (occasioned

by a num-

ber of small pmiples) and itching inconceivably


the garters, or any place where the circulation
the itching

With

The cure

prickly heat

is

to

is

true, since

impeded,

bathe the parts with the juice of


of gnats or musquitoes.

l)ites

supposed to be a prognostic of good

by the inhabitants

health

under

new-comers from Europe are soon

limes and water, as for the

The

is

almost insupportable.

is

this pest all

infested.

by

which

from that period

perfectly re-established,

and

my
I

have reason to think

health and spirits were

was once more as happy as

Paramaribo could make me.

At

this

time Colonel Fourgeoud set out with a barge, to

inspect the situation of the rivers

Comewina and

Cottica,

in case the actual service of our troops should soon

wanted

be

being at his departure saluted by the guns from

Fort Zelandia, and by those of the ships in the roads.

compliment

acknowledge astonished me,

ness which took place,

This

after the cool-

and was now rooted, between

this

gentleman and the governor of the colony.

As we were

still

excursion, with a
his

barge to

plantation,

Creeks

occasion

in a state of inaction, I

Mr. Charles Ryndorp, who rowed

five beautiful coffee estates,

in

made another

me

in

and one sugar

the Matapaca, Paramarica, and

Werapa

the description of which I must defer to another


;

10

but on one of which, called Schoonoort,

was
the

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

103

the witness to a scene of barbarity which I cannot help


relating.

victim of this cruelty was a fine old negro slave,

The

who having been

as

he thought undeservedly sentenced

to receive some hundred lashes by the lacerating whips of

two negro-drivers,

in the

midst of the execution pulled out

a knife, which, after having

made a

up

persecutor the overseer, he plunged

own

bowels, repeating the blow

the tyrant's

For

condemned

covered,
distils

feet.

till

to the haft in his

he dropped down at

crime he was, being

this

to

fruitless thrust at his

be chained to the furnace which

the kill-devil *, there to keep in the intense heat of

a perpetual

fire

night and day, being blistered

all

he should expire by infirmity or old age, of the

which however he had but


his

re-

first

little

over,

till

latter

of

He shewed me

chance.

wounds with a smile of contempt,

Avhich I returned

nor

shall I ever forget

with a sigh and a small donation

the miserable man, who, like Cerberus, was loaded Avith


irons,

and chained to everlasting torment.

thing else I observed in this


it

to

my

* Kill-devil
is

expectation

is

dislilled

a species of

spirits

in this colony,

rum

allowed

the

This

my

is

and the

reception hospitable

many Europeans
of economy,
it

for every

must acknowledge

but these Elysian

from the scum and

dregs of sugar caukh'ons.

much drunk
only

tour, I

be elegant and splendid, and

beyond

which

little

As

make

fields

also,

could

from a point

use of

it,

to

whom

proves no better than a slow but

fatal poison,

negroes

not

chap.

NARRATIVE OF AN

104

not dissipate the gloom which the infernal furnace had

upon

my

Of

left

mind.

the coffee estates, that of Mr. Sims, called Limes-

may

hope, Avas the most magnificent, and


justice

one of the richest

be deemed with

in the colony.

We

now once

more, on the sixth of April, returned safe to Paramaribo,

where we found the Westerlingwerf man of war. Captain

had arrived from Plymouth

Crass, which

in thirty-seven

days, into Avhich port he had put to stop a leak, having

parted company with us, as already mentioned, off Port-

end of December 1772.

land, in the

my friend,

the house of

as I have said,

ness

This day, dining at

Mr. Lolkens,

recommended by

to

whom I had

letters, I

was an eyewit-

of the unpardonable contempt with which negro

His son, a boy not more

slaves are treated in this colony.

than ten years old, when

sitting at table,

face to a grey-headed black

touched
kerry.

his

powdered

who

blaming

was serving

in

a dish of

his father for overlooking

me, with a

told

gave a slap in the

woman, who by accident

hair, as she

I could not help

the action;

smile,

that the child

should no longer offend me, as he was next day to

Holland
jt

been,

for

education

almost too

late.

At

to

which

the same

answered, that

moment a

sail for

thought

sailor jiassing

by, broke the head of a negro Avith a bludgeon, for not

having saluted him

Avith his hat.

slavery, at least in this

Such

is

the state of

Dutch settlement
About

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
About

this time,

excursion, and

made a second

Colonel Fourgeoud

now departed

banks and situation of the

105

with a barge, to explore the

river

Surinam, as he had before

done those of Rio Comewina and Rio Cottica.

At

this

time died Captain Barends, one of the masters

of the transports, which were

kept in commission, in

still

case they should be wanted for our return to Europe.

Five or six

sailors

merchant

to the

now

Avere buried every day, belonging

ships,

whose lamentable

fate

cannot

by unnoticed, being actually used worse than the

pass

negroes in this scorching climate, where, besides rowinglarge flat-bottomed barges

and

up and down the

night, for coffee, sugar. Sec.

burning sun and heavy

above commodities

in a

rains,

rivers,

and being exposed

to the

and besides stowing the

hold as hot as an oven, they are

obliged to row every upstart planter to his estate at a

which saves the gentleman so many negroes, and


they receive in return nothing
as a mouthful of
thirst

many times

meat and drink

by begging from the

tains, eating

day

palliating

call,

for

which

not so

much

hunger and

slaves a few bananas or plan-

oranges and drinking water,

Avhicli in

little

time relieves them from every complaint, by shipping them


off to eternity.

In every part of the colony they are no

better treated, but, like horses, they

ed the

vessels)

must (having unload-

drag the commodities to the distant store-

houses, being bathed in sweat, and bullied with bad language,

sometimes with blows

Vol.

I.

while a fcAV negroes are ordered

to

NARRATIVE OF AN

106
to attend,

but not to work, by the direction of their mas-

which many would willingly do

ters,

ing sailors,

whom

to

this

disheartening and galling.

men

droop-

to relieve the

usage must be exceedingly

The

planters even

employ those

to paint their houses, clean their sash-windows,

do numberless other menial

was never intended.


their negroes

which a seaman

services, for

All this

is

done

and

to save the

work of

while by this usage thousands are swept to

the grave,

who

have lived

for

in the line of their profession alone

many

tains to refuse their

years

might

nor dare the West India Cap-

men, without incuiTing the displeasure

of the planters, and seeing their ships rot in the harbour

without a loading
Avish

nay,

have heard a

sailor fervently

he had been born a negro, and beg to be employed

amongst them
I

in cultivating

now took an

a coffee plantation.

early opportunity to enquire of Mrs.

melly what was become of the amiable Joanna

De-

and was

informed that her lady, Mrs. D. B., had escaped to Holland on board the Boreas man-of-war, under the protection of Captain Van-de-Velde,

was now

and that her young mulatto

at the house of her aunt, a free

she expected hourly to be sent


berg, friendless,

and

overseer appointed

at the

by the

up

to the estate

to

creditors, Avho

pay the several sums due

Good God

Faucon-

mercy of some unprincipled

possession of the plantation and stock,

be sold

woman, whence

to

till

had now taken


the whole should

them by Mr. D. B.

flew to the spot in search of poor Joanna


I

found


EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
I

found her bathed

ah

such a look

in tears.

From that moment

her protector against every

be seen

She gave nie

in the sequel,

insult,

my feelings
ed

will

be forgiven

who delight

me

such a look

determined to be

and persevered,

Here, reader,
my

with extreme sensibility, plead

let

107

as shall

my youth, blended

excuse

yet assuredly

by those few only exceptconduct of Mr. Incle

in the prudent

to

the hapless and much-injured Yarico at Barbadoes.


I next ran to the

pened

to

house of

my

friend Lolkens,

who hap-

be the administrator of Fauconberg estate

asking his assistance, I intimated to him

and

my strange deter-

mination of purchasing and educating Joanna.

Having recovered from

some time, an interview

silently for

and the beauteous

slave,

pleasure,

if

at once was proposed

in

my

you have perused the

tale of Lavinia with

though the scene admits of no comparison,

be she who had privately sent

oranges in March,
she

"

when

me

" tion

It

reject

now proved

the cordial and the

was nearly expiring, and which

now modestly acknowledged " was

my

in gratitude for

expressions of compassion respecting her sad situa;"

with singular delicacy, however,

she

rejected

She

every proposal of becoming mine upon any terms.

was conscious,
*'

presence.

not the history of Joanna with contempt.


to

me

accompanied by a female relation,

was produced trembling


Reader,

his surprise, after gazing at

slie said,

" that in such a state, should I

soon return to Europe, she must either be parted from


p 2

"

me

NARRATIVE OF AN

108

me

"

accompany me

for ever, or

to a part of the Avorld

" where the inferiority of her condition must proA^e greatly

" to the disadvantage of both herseU' and her benefactor,


" and thus in either case be miserable."

ments Joanna firmly

In which senti-

she was immediately per-

persisting,

mitted to withdraw, and return to the house of her aunt


while I could only entreat of Mr. Lolkens his generous
protection for her, and that she might at least for some time

be separated from the other

maribo

and

slaves,

in this request his

and continue at Para-

humanity was induced

to

indulge me.

On

the 30th the news arrived that the rangers, having

discovered a rebel village, had attacked

it,

three prisoners, leaving four others dead

whose

right hands,

chopped

had sent

dried, they

to the

proof of their valour and

On

off

and carried

upon the

off

spot,

and barbecued or smoke-

Governor of Paramaribo, as a

fidelity.

receiving this intelligence. Colonel Fourgeoud im-

mediately

left

on the

of

first

the river Surinam, where he

May

was, and

still

returned to town, in expectation of his

regiment being employed on actual service, but there the


business ended

and we

still,

to our utter astonishment,

were allowed to linger away our time, each agreeably to


his

own

peculiar fancy.

however were reviewed

ceremony

On

the 4th of

May

the rangers

in the Fort Zelandia,

was present, and must confess that

of black soldiers had a truly manly appearance

at
this
:

which
corps

warriors

whose

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
M'hose determined and

109

open aspect could not but give

the satisfaction of a soldier in beholding them.

me chap.

They here

once more received the thanks of the Governor for their

manly behaviour and


taking of Boucon

with a rural
to

besides which, they were entertained

at the public expence, at Paramaribo,

feast,

which were

faithful conduct, particularly at the

and

also invited their families;

at

which

both sexes made their

feast several resjiectable people of

appearance with pleasuie, to witness the happiness of their


sable friends, the

day being spent

without

disturbance, nay even witli decorum and

tlie least

in

mirth and convivialit\%

propriety, to the great satisfaction of the inhabitants.

The Westerlingwerf, Captain


bound

also,

merar3\
us, there

for

Holland, but

Thus both

employed on actual

first

now

for tlie

war having

ships of

was some reason

Crass,

to suppose

left

the river

colony of Desailed

without

we were soon

to be

There were many motixes,

service.

indeed, for wishing either that this might be the case, or


that

we might speedily be permitted

Not

only our

officers,

debilitatino; effects

killed

and

as

but our privates, began to

Europe.
tee! the

of the climate, and manv, of that con-

tinned debauchery so

ment

to return to

common

in all ranks in this settle-

hard labour and bad treatment constantly

the poor sailors, so

now our common

soldiers fell

the victims of idleness and licentiousness, and died

quently six or seven in a day

whence

it

is

fre-

evident to

demon-

NARRATIVE OF AN

no
C

II

A
V,

P.

demonstration, that

excesses, of whatever khid,

all

are

mortal to Europeans in the climate of Guiana.

But men

^yill

give lessons which they do not themselves

Thus, notwithstanding

observe.

my

former resolution of

living retired, I again relapsed into the vortex of dissipa-

became a member of a drinking

tion.

of

polite

all

and impolite amusements, and plunged

every extravagance without exception.

punishment

ever, escape without the

seized suddenly with a dreadful fever;


lence, that in a few days I

In

this situation I lay in

only a soldier and

any other friend


comers to
so

much

this

to

I deserved.

was

and such was

its

vio-

my hammock until

my black boy

into

how-

I did not,

was no more expected

to attend

sickness being universal

to recover.

the 17 th, with

me, and without

among

the new-

country, and every one of our corps having

do

to take care of themselves, neglect

inevitable consequence, even


tance.

club, I partook

This, however,

is

among

the nearest acquain-

a censure which does not apply

who perhaps

to the inhabitants,

was an

are the

people on the globe to Europeans.

most hospitable

These philanthropists

not only supply the sick with a variety of cordials at the

same time, but crowd


condolers,

apartments with innumerable

who from morning till night continue prescribing,

insisting, bewailing,

without exception
delirious,

their

and

and lamenting, friend and stranger


and

expires.

this lasts until the patient

becomes

Such must inevitably have been

my

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
my

between the two extremes of neglect and impor- c

case,

had

tunity,

iii

it

not been for the happy intervention of poor

Joanna, who one morning entered

my

apartment, to

my

unspeakable joy and surprise, accompanied by one of her

She informed ine that she was acquainted with

sisters.

forlorn situation

same good

that if I

entertained for her the

still

o})inion, her only request was, that she

mc

wait upon

till I

my

should be recovered.

might

indeed grate-

accepted her oiter; and by her unremitting care and

fully

attention had the

good fortune

and

be able, in a few days

spirits, as to

airino;
in
CD

Mr. Kennedy's
-

time

Till this

now

began

had

to feel I

so far to regain

my health

after, to

take an

carriage.
O

chiefly

been Joanna's friend

was her captive.

renewed

but

my wild

proposals of purchasing, educating, and transporting her


to

Europe

sincerity,

Avluch,

were,

though offered with the most perfect

by her, rejected once

with

mor-e,

this

humble declaration

am born a low contemptible slave. Were you to


treat me with too much attention, you must degrade

" I
"

" yourself with


" purchase of
"

cult,

"

my

your friends and relations

freedom you

and apparently

have a

" pean

all

soul, I

ifnpossible.

of

and blush not

my unhappy

expensive,

Yet though a

diffi-

slave,

hope, not inferior to that of an Euroto

avow the regard

" you, who have distinguished


*'

will find

while the

birih.

You

me

so

retain

much above

have, Sir, pitied

all

for

others

me; and
" now

ii

p.


NARRATIVE OF AN

112

" iiow, independent of every other thought, I shall have


" pride in throwing myself at your

"
"

my conduct become such


banish me from your presence."
us, or

feet,

till

fate shall part

as to give

you cause

to

This she uttered with a down-cast look, and tears drop-

ping on her heaving bosom, while she held her companion

by the hand.

From

that instant this excellent creature was mine

nor had

ever after cause to repent of the step I had

taken, as will more particularly appear in the course of


this narrative.

I cannot omit to record, that having purchased for her

presents to the value of twenty guineas, I was the next day


greatly astonished to see
table

the charming

back

all

my

gold returned upon

Joanna having

to the merchants,

who

my

carried every article

cheerfully returned her the

money.
" Your generous intentions alone.
" sufficient

but allow

me

to tell you, that I

" diminution of that good opinion which


will ever entertain,

of

my

Such was the language of a

were

cannot help

my account as

" considering any superfluous expence on

" and

(she said)

Sir,

hope

yovi have,

disinterested disposition."

slave,

who had simple nature

only for her instructor, the purity of v.'hose sentiments

stood in need of no comment, and these

mined

to

I shall

improve by every

now

was now deter-

care.

only add, that a regard for her superior


virtues.

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
amongst her

virtues, so singular

113

cast, gratitude for her par-

me, and the pleasure of producing to

ticular attention to

the world such an accomplished character under the ap-

pearance of a

slave,

could alone embolden

me

to risk the

my readers, by intruding on them this subject


be my apology, and if it be accepted but by few,

censure of
let this

I shall not be inclined to complain.

In the evening

I visited

lady, congratulated

same

at the

Mr. Demelly, who, with

me on my recovery from

time, however strange

it

readers, they, with a smile, wished


their usual

sickness

may appear

me joy

to

his

and

many

of what, with

good humour, they were pleased

to call

my

conquest; which, one of the ladies in company assured

me, while

it

was perhaps censured by some, was applauded

by many, but she believed

in her heart envied

many

decent wedding, at which

made

friends

happy

mony

as

I shall

methinks

hear

I.

of our respectable
at

which

was

as

beg leave to conclude a chapter,

many

readers whisper, had better

never had a beginning.

Vol.

and

ail.

any bridegroom ever was, concluded the cere-

with which

wliich,

their appearance,

by

NARRATIVE OF AN

lU

CHAP.

VI.

Fluctuating
Affairs Short Glimpse of Peace A71

Account of a dreadful Execution


political

dead

Alarm

ON

Officer shot

his

whole Tarty cut

Pieces,

to

and

the

general

revived throughout the Colony.

the 21stof May our Lieutenant Colonel,

died,

State of

and a number of our

Lantmau,

officers lay sick.

Instead of gaiety and dissipation, disease and mortality

now began

to rage

amongst us

among

creased from day to day

most alarming proportion.


officer

and the devastation

in-

the private men, in a

The remains of

the deceased

were interred with military honours, in the centre

of the fortress Zelandia, where


soned, and

not a

little

all

field

criminals are impri-

At

officers buried.

this

place I was

shocked to see the captive rebel negroes and

and roasting plantains and

others clanking their chains,

yams upon

all

the sepulchres of the dead

my imagination

the image of a

they presented to

number of

diabolical fiends

in the shape of African slaves, tormenting the souls of


their

European

sions of despair,
selected,

persecutors.

on

this day,

who being

execution, which

is

led

in the

From

these

gloomy man-

seven captive negroes were

by a few

soldiers to the place

Savannah, where the

sailors

of

and

soldiers

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
soldiers are interred,

alive

white

upon the

man was

six

by

is

besides which a

me

led

was the shameful

country always a black.

in this

to take particular notice of

injustice of

European, who ought

letting

bar

scourged before the Court House, by the

The circumstance which

to the

were hanged, and one broken

rack, Avith an iron

public executioner, Avho

this affair

to

shewing a partiality

have been better informed,

him escape with only a

slight corporal punish-

ment; while the poor uneducated Afiican


crime, viz. stealing
life

U5

money out of

Town

the

for the

same

Hall, lost his

under the most excruciating tomients, which he sup-

ported without heaving a sigh or making a complaint


while one of his companions, with the rope about his neck,

and just on the point of being turned

ought not

in

this

greatest

inflicted the

me

to decide

and

is

These transactions

between the Europeans and

Africans in this colony, that the


barians of the two

who

punishment with the

marks of commiseration.

almost induced

the execution.

place to omit, that the negro

man

flogged the white

uttered a laugh

who attended

of contempt at the magistrates


I

off,

first

name which

bestowed on them in too

tarnishes Christianity,

many

with what real degree of justice I

were the greater bar-

corners of the globe,

will

me

not take on

to

determine.

Having

testified

how much

was hurt at the cruelty of

the above execution, and surprised at the intrepidity Avith

which the negroes bore

their

Q 2

punishment, a decent looking


'

nian


NARRATIVE OF AN

116

man

"

stepped up to me.

" comer from Europe, and

" African

slaves, or

" surprise.

Not

know

you would

you are but a new-

very

testify

little

both

alive

about the

less feeling

long ago, (continued he)

man suspended

"

he)

Sir, (said

saw a black

from a gallows by the

" tween Avhich, with a knife, was

first

daj^s,

be-

ribs,

made an

" and then clinched an iron hook with a chain

" manner he kept alive three

and

hanging with

incision,

in this

his

head

" and feet downwards, and catching with his tongue

" drops of water


" flowing
"

this,

down

(it

tlie

being in the rainy season) that were

Notwithstanding

his bloated breast.

all

he never complained, and even upbraided a negro

" for crying while he was flogged below the gallows, by


" calling out to him
" a

man

You man ?Da hoy fasy

you behave

"

who

Are you

Shortly after which he

like a boy.

" Avas knocked on the head

by the commiserating

sentr}'^,

stood over him, with the butt end of his musket."

" Another negro (said he) I have seen quartered alive

" who, after four strong horses Avere fastened to his legs

" and arms, and after having had iron sprigs driven
" underneath every one of his nails on hands and
" without a motion, he

first

home
feet,

asked a dram, and then bid

" them pull aAvay, Avithout a groan

but Avhat afforded us

" the greatest entertainment (continued he) Avere the

"

loAv's

jokes,

by desiring the executioner

fel-

to drink before

" him, in case there should chance to be poison in the

" glass, and bidding him take care of his horses,


11

lest

any

"of

',..ir.s..,:r'

J^. iry/y /f/y/y

^//V/v

/'7y

Mr .^t/M^ -^ a

Lonih^n.ruNi.>luti y3///i:'V/AV<" f'fo/iMon.X'J'ujtlr Outixii Yard.

O^//^^/'.^

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
" of

"

them should happen

men

to strike backwards.

117
for old

chap.

women

^^'

As

being broken upon the rack, and young

" roasted alive chained to stakes, there can be nothing

common

" more

inhuman

detail

this diabolical

way home

On

to

in

this colon3^"

was

petrified at the

and breaking away with execrations from

scene of laceration,

my own

made

the best of

lodgings.

the 24th, having received a supply of provisions

from Holland, and absolutely doing no service


lony,

it

home

our regiment, notwithstanding

to the society
all

in the co-

was universally resolved that we should proceed

by the United Provinces,

paid

my

still

its

being exceedingly chargeable

and the inhabitants, who,

other expenccs

being partly paid

in conjunction,

thus, in the hopes of sailing in

the middle of June, the transports were ordered a second

time to wood, water, and

make

all

other necessary prepa-

rations.
I

must say nothing of

M'hat I felt

on

this occasion

continued, however, not long in this state of suspense


for the following

day

intelligence

being brought that a

plantation was demolished, and the overseers murdered


l)y

the rebels, our stay was prolonged a second time, at

the request of the Governor himself and inhabitants


in

and,

consequence, the three transports, Avhich had since Fe-

bruary the 9th been kept waiting at a great expence, were


finally

put out of commission, and the provisions stov/ed


at

NARRATIVE OF AN

118

CHAP,
^^'

at the head-quarters in a

temporary storehouse erected

for that purpose.

The minds of

the people began

now

to

be quieted,

find-

ing at last that the troops were in earnest preparing for


actual service, a circumstance greatly indeed to be lament-

ed as to the occasion, but certainly much better

away an

colony, than to let the regiment linger

for the

idle life at

Paramaribo,

Thus our warlike preparations

for

some days proceeded,

and our marines appeared in excellent

on the 7th of June,

spirits

when

to our unutterable surprise,

again,

we were

for the third time officially acquainted, that things

seem-

ing quiet, and presuming that tranquillity was at last reestablished, the colony of

These fluctuating councils did not

for our services.

to

Surinam had no farther occasion


fail

produce much discontent among the military, as well

as the inhabitants

and cabals were formed, which

ened to break out into a

Some charged

threat-

civil contest.

the Governor ^vith being jealous of the

unlimited power which was vested in Colonel Fourgeoud,


Avho was also by

many

others

blamed

as abusing that

power, and as not treating the Governor with that

which he might have evinced without lessening


consequence.
to

civility,

his

own

Thus, while one party acknowledged

us

be the bulwark of the settlement, by keeping the rebels

in awe, the Opposition hesitated not to call us the locusts

of

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
who were come

of Egypt,

devour the

to

fruits

119
of the

colony.

Without entering into the merits of the question,

fortable,

and a great number of us could not help thinking,

we were but

that between the two parties

same day, while


roads, the

ill

company were alarmed

vessel in the

the most tremendous

b}'

my

life.

and

the continent, sevei'al negroes

This

treated.

on board a Dutch

at dinner

clap of thunder I ever heard in

cattle

On

ovn- side

were

killed

lightning; while, on the other side, nearly at the


time, the city of Guatimala, in

On
sion,

for

by

same

eight thousand families are

have instantly perished.

the

1th, the ships,

were ordered with

our

of

Old Mexico, was swallowed

up by an earthquake, by which
said to

is

was rendered very uncom-

to say, that our hfe

sufficient

it

final

being taken again into commis-

all

possible expedition to prepare

departure, and every one was making himself

ready for the voyage.

Being thus apparently disengaged from military


I received

a polite invitation from a Mr. Campbel,

was lodged with a Mr. Kerry at

accompany him on a
I

might

His,

recruit

my

have accepted

it,

friend Kennedy's, to

debilitated health

It was, indeed, to

things considered,

my

and

had not

who

the island of Tobago, where

visit to

plan was to return with

Europe.

service,

me by

me

and dejected

the

spirits.

Leeward Islands

a most agreeable

to

offer, all

should certainly Avith pleasure

my

application to Colonel Fourr

geoud:

11

p.

NARRATIVE OF AN

120

geoud been prevented by a

The substance of

on the 15th.
an

officer

rebels,

this

which was received

was no

less,

than that

of the Society troops had been shot dead by the

and

his

whole party, consisting of about thirty men,

So alarming a piece of intelligence

entirely cut to pieces.

could not

fresh alarm,

throw the whole colony once more into

fail to

the utmost confusion and consternation.

The above gen-

tleman, Avhose

name was Lepper, and only a

was

measure the cause of

in a great

lieutenant,

this misfortune,

by

his

impetuosity and intrepidity, totally unregulated by temper


or conduct *

but as

appear severe,

me

it

censure in general terms

this

becomes

in

may

some degree incumbent on

to relate the particulars.

The period when

this

unhappy event took place was

that which, in the language of the colony,


sliort

During

dry season.

this,

informed that between the

Cormootibo a
the rangers

rivers

village of negroes

some time

party, which

]\Ir.

is

termed the

Lepper having been

Patamaca and Upper


had been discovered by

before, he determined with his small

was only a detachment from the Patamaca

post, to sally through the

woods and attack them.

But

the rebels being apprized of his intentions by their spies,

which they constantly employ, immediately marched out


to receive

him

in his

way they

* This gentleman formerly belonged to the life-guards

from which he

fled,

in

Holland,

laid themselves in

his

antagonist

ambush,

through the heart

with his sword in a duel,

after thrusting

near

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

121

near the borders of a deep marsh, through which the soldiers

were to pass to the rebel settlement.


unfortunate
pits,

men

No

sooner had the

swamp and up

got into the

to their

arm-

than their black enemies rushed out from under cover,

and shot them dead

at their leisure in the water, while

they were unable to return the

fire

more than once,

them from reloading

situation preventing

their

their musquets.

Their gallant commander, being imprudently distinguished

by a gold-laced

hat,

The few

onset.

banks

Avere

was shot through the head

that scrambled out of the marsh

five or six,

who were taken

prisoners

alive to the settlement of the rebels.

melancholy fate of these unfortunate


proper place, describe, as

were eye-witnesses of

The

upon the

immediately put to death in the most bar-

barous manner, except

and carried

in the first

intelligence

had

it

men

The

I shall, in

since from those that

it.

had scarcely reached Paramaribo, than

the whole town was in a tumult

vehement that they were ready

some

parties were so

to tear the

Governor and

council to pieces, for having dismissed Colonel Fourgeoud

with
that

his
if

regiment

Avhile others

we were intended

hitherto been, our

pensed with.
to our officers,

for

ingenuously declared,

no further use than

company might without

All this could not l)ut be exceedingly galling


avIio

the other side,

Vol.

I.

had

regret be dis-

wished nothing more than to be em-

ployed on actual service for the advantage of the

On

v/e

most

bitter

colon}'.

lampoons were spread


through

NARRATIVE OF AN

122

through the town against the Governor and his council;


libels

of such a black and inflammatory nature, that no

less

than a thousand gold ducats were offered as a reward for


the discovery of their author, with a promise of concealing

the

was

name
to

their

of the informer

if

he required

it

but the Avhole

no purpose, and neither author nor informer made

appearance

tinuing, the

the general clamour however

con-

Governor and council were forced a third time

to petition us to remain in Surinam,

distracted colony.

scended to

still

listen,

To

this petition -we

and the

and

to protect the

once more conde-

ships were actually a third time

put out of commission.

We, however,

still

continued doing nothing, to the un-

speakable surprise of every person concerned

the only

part on duty, hitherto, having consisted of a subaltern's

guard at the head-quarters, to protect the Chief,


loxn's,

his store-houses, pigs,

regularly

mounted every day

his co-

and poultry, which guard


at half past four o'clock,

and

another on board the transports, until the provisions had

been stowed on shore

in the magazines.

This, a few field-

days excepted, when the soldiers were drilled for porop


alone in a burning sun

till

they fainted, comprehended

the whole of our military manoeuvres.

reader

is

But

I perceive the

already impatient for some information respect-

ing these two extraordinary men, who, from their inveteracy

and opposition

to each other, as well as

from other causes,

were the authors of these unaccountable and fluctuating


proceed-

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

123

proceedings; and the outlines of these two characters

perhaps

As

mystery.

assist in unravelling the

the ingredients of flattery or fear

part of that

reader

make but a

man s composition who presumes

and who pretends perfectly

may depend on

original colours,

may

small

to give them,

have known both, the

to

having them painted in their true

however strong the shades.

Governor Nepveu was said


than of learning, and

w^as

be rather a

to

man

of sense

wholly indebted to his art and

address for having risen to his present dignity from sweep-

By

ing the hall of the Court House.

was enabled, from nothing,

some computed

at

sterling annually,

no

and

less

to

to

the

same means he

accumulate a fortune, by

than eight thousand pounds

command

respect from

all

ranks

of people, no person ever daring to attack him but at a

His deportment was

distance.

affable,

but

ironical, with-

out ever losing the

of his temper, Avhich gave

him the

of fashion, and rendered his

command
appearance of a man

influence almost unbounded.

by

He

Avas generally

known

the appellation of Reynard, and Avas most certainly a

fox of too

much

artifice to

be run down by

all

the hounds

in the colony.

Colonel Fourgeoud was almost exactly the reverse of


this portrait.

He was impetuous,

passionate, self-suflicient,

he was not cruel to individuals, but was


a tyrant to the generality, and caused the death of hun-

and revengeful

dreds by his sordid avarice and oppression.

R 2

With

all this

he

NARRATIVE OF AN

124
c

HA

P.

he was

and confused

partial, ungrateful,

defatigable

man

Columbus

most heroic courage,

Though unconquerably harsh

and perseverance.
to his officers,

he was however not wanting in

affability to the private soldiers.

no education
short,

few

him

to assist

men

in-

himself, which, like a

true bucaneer, he sustained with the

and severe

but a most

bearing hardships and in braving

in

dangers, not exceeded by

patience,

He had

in digesting

had

read, but

what he

In

read.

could talk better, but on most occasions

few could act worse.

Such were the characters of our commanders

men

opposition of two such

while the

to each other could not fail to

produce unhappiness to the troops, and operated as a


ficient

cause for the fluctuating state of political

suf-

affairs in

this dejected colony.

As we

still

continued totally inactive, I

am

necessarily

deprived of the pleasure of relating any of our hero's


warlike achievements.

To

relieve the

sameness of the

narrative, I therefore take the liberty of describing


his favourites.

and

toucan,
its bill

This

in

one of

was no other than a bird called the

Surinam banarabeck or

cojacai, either

having some resemblance to that

being accustomed to feed on

it,

fruit,

from

or from

its

and perhaps from both.

This animal the Colonel kept hopping tame amongst his


poultry.

The toucan
its

beak

is

11

no

is

not larger than a tame pigeon, and yet

less

than

six inches in length, if

not more.
It

<.>vx^'

l.,"i,/,T7i

tV/ '//<'////

7'iihitJi-h^if

(<)

Me

Drr''i*f 7-t}.i h\

^^"/t^-ca/<Y/f/:

.T..r,'h/i.i^n

.SH'tntl'f Chur>tyh liufi.

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
It

is

shaped

jackdaw, carrying

like a

pendicular, except

cept a

little

when

it flies

its

its

almost per-

tail

colour

125

is

black, ex-

white under the throat and breast, which

is

bordered with red in the form of a crescent reversed, and

a few feathers above and under

The head

some crimson.

much

yellow,

and

of a parrot.

Its

iris is

like those

some white and

with a bluish ring

large,

is

round the eyes, of which the


coloured toes are

its tail,

its

ash-

remark-

able beak desei'ves the most particular attention, which

and of a

serrated,

This beak, however, which

arched,

is

ment, and consequently very

and on the

disproportioned to

size utterly

light

sides of a beautiful

is

it is

its

is

body.

as thin as parch-

yellow on the top,

deep orange, inclosing a

tongue which bears a strong resemblance to a feather.

The toucan

and

feeds on fruit, especially pepper,

is

very

domestic.
I shall here also take the opportunity to describe another

tame

which

bird,

saw with pleasure at the house of Mr.

Lolkens, and which I take to be what we call the fly-

they denominate

catcher;

because when

it

extends

in this

it

its

country sun-fowlo,

which

Avings,

it

frequently

does, there appears, on the interior part of each wing, the

most beautiful representation of a

sun.

This bird

is

about

the size of a woodcock, and of a golden colour, but

speckled

which

perfectly straight,

is

its

darts at the

legs are very long,

flies,

and

also

its

and very pointed.

slender

With

bill,

this it

while they creep, with such wonderful


dexterity

NARRATIVE OF AN

126
dexterity

and quickness, that

which seems

to constitute

perty renders

it

its

it

never misses the object,

principal food

and

both useful and entertaining.

this pro-

This bird

might, with some degree of propriety, be styled the perpetual motion,

and

its tail

body making a continual movement,

its

keeping time like the pendulum of a clock.

Having described these two contrasts

appearance,' I

in

must add, that neither they, nor any of those birds

Guiana which are remarkable

for their beautiful

in

plumage,

ever sing Avith any degree of melody, three or four perhaps

excepted, whose notes are sweet, but not varied.

Of

these

speak at a proper opportunity.

I shall

^'

For Nature's hand,

" That with a sportive vanity has deck'd


"

The plumy

nations, there her gayest hues

" Profusely pours.


" Array'd in
^'

One

Yet, frugal

bird

may be

more

if

she bids

the beauteous

still,

them

beams of

shine,

day,

she humbles them in song."

I shall

only mention in this place, which

considered as the rival of the mock-bird,

Caribbean wren.
colonists

all

But

This bird, Avhich

is

called

the

by the Surinam

Gadofowlo, or the bird of God, probably from

familiarity,

inoffensiveness,

and

its

delightful

rather larger than the English wren, which in


it

viz.

much resembles

it

frequently perches

its

music,

its
is

plumage

upon the window-

shutters with the familiarity of the robin.

From

its

en-

chanting

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
chanting warbling,

it

has been honoured by

name of the South American

my narrative.
On the 21st died Mr.

nightingale.

many

But

to

127

with the

proceed

with

who was buried

Renard, one of our best surgeons,

same afternoon, a process quite neces-

the

sary in this hot country, Avhere putrefaction so instanta-

neously takes place, and more especially


dies of

a putrid

which

fever,

is

vomiting, lowness of

spirits,

countenance and eyes

and

the patient

country extremely

in this

This dreadfid disease

frequent.

when

appears by bilious

first

and a yellowish cast of the


unless proper

remedies be

immediately applied, the distemper becomes

fatal,

certain death in a few days

The

hatty, or dry-gripes,
cholic,

is

also a

is

the consequence.

by some compared

common

complaint in

to the

dangerous.

This also had

As

of our people.
give no account.

of castor

oil

Devonshire

now attacked a

is

The

prevailing

symptom

great

is

and

exceedingly

number

to the causes of this disorder I

costiveness, which they


tity

belly-

this country,

not only causes excruciating pains, but

and

can

an obstinate

endeavour to remove by a quan-

taken internally, and also injected by

the rectum.
It was, indeed, lamentable to observe the state to

we were already reduced, from a


healthiest

young men that ever

corps of the

sailed

which
finest,

from Europe, with

blooming fresh complexions, now changed to the sallow


colour

NARRATIVE OF AN

128

CHAP,
VI,

colour of a drum-head.

calamity to

had been

It

was no alleviation of the


waste of

reflect, that all this

hitherto to

and health

life

no purpose; though some persons

chose to report, that the whole was no more than a political

scheme

to

have another regiment added to the war-

establishment in Holland, as Colonel

had been before

but to

this others

De

Salve's marines

gave but very

little

credit.

Of

the hospitality of the country at least

complain, since

this

was actually one of the principal

sources of our misfortunes, and

months

to

we could not

we were

be caressed to death by the

and the kindness of the

ladies

likely in

civilities

a few

of the men,

a circumstance which

rendered Surinam a real Capua to these brave fellows.

On

the 27th of June, the gentleman-like Lieutenant-

Colonel Baron de Gersdorph died,

by every person

Avhile the

much

regretted indeed

grim King of Terrors, consci-

entiously beginning at the head of the corps with the field


officers,

could not

ferior gentry

fail

to afford

who succeeded

some consolation

to their places,

ment of Colonel Fourgeoud,

the

"who himself exhibited as yet no

to the in-

by the appoint-

Commander

symptoms of

in Chief,

mortality.

Major Becquer was now made Lieutenant-Colonel, and a


Captain Rockaph advanced to the rank of

The European animals


less debilitated

]\Iajor.

that live in this country are

and diminutive than the human

no

species.

The

EXPEDITION TO SURINAAf.
The oxen,

for instance, are very small *,

not near so delicate as

their

beef c u a

Europe, owing probably

in

it is

and

icf)

to

their perpetual perspiration,

and the coarseness of the grass

on which they feed, Avhich

is

marshes

salt

often sent from

is

the banks of the Oro-

and are sold by the Spaniards

wild,

two dollars per head.

beef

On

in Somersetshire.

noque the oxen run


for

not so good as that of the

single pieca of read3'-roasted

Europe

Guiana

to

able and delicate present.

The manner of

meat

when

for this long voyage,

box or canister; then

in a block-tin

space

w^ith

roasted,

gravy or dripping

till

over ; after which the box must be

round about, so that neither


l)y this

means,

was

made

told, it

most valu-

preserving the
is

by putting

it

up the empty

filling

it is

air noi-

as a

perfectly covered
fast

and soldered

water can penetrate

may be

with safety carried

round the globe.

The sheep

in

this

country are so small, that, when

skinned, they seem not larger than 3'oung lambs in White-

chapel market
hair,

and are

to

they have no horns nor avooI, but straight

an European but very indifferent eating

the

more

the

same day that

wliile

so, since all beef,

keeping

it

it is

mutton, &c. must be consumed

killed,

which causes

longer exposes

it

it

to eat tough,

to putrefaction.

Neither

of these animals are natural to Guiana: the breed has


* This I
tradicted

am

one bullock of Smillifield market

astoni&hed to see con-

by Dr. Bancroft, who

assuredly weighs

sa^'s

they improve in South America^ while

Vol.

I.

down two

of the

largest in Guiana.

been

^^*

p.

NARRATIVE OF AN

130

been imported from the Old Continent.

So

also

breed of the hog, but with far better success


animals, in

my

that

is

as in

eatable,

The hogs here

are large,

fat,

good, and

England, they feed on almost every thing

and on the

green pine-apples, a
this climate,

for these

opinion, thrive better in South America

than in Europe.
plentiful

was the

fruit

estates are often fattened with

which grows spontaneously in

and of which they are exceedingly fond.

for the poultry, nothing

fowls are here as

but smaller, and

sharp pointed.

can thrive better

good and

the

As

common

any country,

as plenty as in

their eggs differ in shape,

being more

smaller species of the dunghill kind,

with rumpled inverted feathers, seems natural to Guiana,

being reared in

inland parts of the country by the

the;

Indians or natives.

The turkeys

are very fine,

and

so are

the geese, but the ducks are excellent, being of the large

Muscovy

species, with crimson pearls betwixt the

and the head

these are here juicy,

fat,

and

beak

in great

plenty.

After the various delays


Avill

we had

experienced, the reader

be surprised to learn that the hour of action at

arrived,

and

all

the officers and

men were

last

ordered to be

ready at a minute's Avarning to set out on actual service,

though our

little

hundred and

corps was already melted doAvn from five

thirty able

number, by death and

by

men

to

about three-fourths of that

sickness, the hospital being

invalids of every kind.

The

loss

crowded

of so large a proportion

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
men was

tion of

supplied in a manner

tliat

I3i

appear

will

extraordinary to an European.

There

wei-e

two negroes, one called Okera, the other

Gowfavy, two desperadoes, who had both been rebel captains in the colony of Berbice,

and delivering him

their chief,

settlement,

the most

had received

in the year

Atta

to the governor of that

By

pardon.

men

these tv/o

1762,

when the

revolt M^as in the

These were now admitted as private

above colony.
in

their

for taking

inhuman murders had been committed on the

Europeans

diers

and who,

sol-

our regiment, and were Colonel Fourgeoud's

greatest favourites.

Before we

left

Paramaribo,

had an opportunity of

seeing two very extraordinary animals of the aquatic kind


the one Avas in

]\lr.

Roux's cabinet of

curiosities,

and

called in the co\o\^y jackee, in Latin, rana piscatrix.

about eight or ten inches long, without

fish is

ceeding fat and delicate, as

and

is

what

found

is

in all

it

testify

may

is,

name

scales, ex-

by experience,

that this creature,

But

historians

AVestley) have

how-

appear, absolutely changes to a

perfect frog, but not from a frog to a

and some random

is

This

narrow creeks and marshy places.

extremely remarkable

ever incredible

can

fish, as

Merian, Zeba,

(among whom

been pleased to

truth I was at this time fully satisfied,

animal dissected, and suspended

in

assert

I
;

sorry to

and of

this

by seeing the above


a bottle with

when the two hinder legs of a very small frog


s

am

spirits

made

their

appear-

NARRATIVE OF AN

132

at)pearance, growing inside from that part of the back to

vhich usually the intestines are

humbly presume
is

neither

nevertheless

to suppose, in this case, that

more nor

grows to a large

fixed.

thejackee

than a kind of tadpole, which

less

size before it

undergoes the usual trans-

formation.

The other animal


nedy

saw at the house of

what Dr. Bancroft

this is

others. the electrical eel,


to possess the

derful animal

measure

like

from head

same
is

an

five

friend

calls the toi'porific,

and

and Avhich Dr. Firmyu supposes


This won-

qualities with the torpedo.

with one large

eel,

fin

that runs below

to tail, not vmlike the keel of a ship.

and by others
times as

Ken-

of a lead-blue colour, formed in a great

only in fresh water


feet,

my

its

length

is

called

b}^

When

this

animal

is

the hand, or any rod of metal or hard wood,


cates a shock, the impulse of
;

some three

asserted to be not less than four or

is

much *.

effect as electricity

It lives

touched by
it

communi-

which produces the same

and Dr. Firmyn has even assured me,

that the shock of this electrical eel has been

communi-

cated to him through the bodies of eight or ten people,,

who

stood hand in hand for the purpose of trying the

experiment.

For
animal

my own
is,

part,

that I saw

all
it

that I can say concerning this


in a tub full of water,

* Mr. Greenwood, of Leicester Fields, has told

where

me himself that

it

he killed

one of eleven feet long.

appeared

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
appeared

to

be about two feet long; that I thre^V off

my

and having turned up

coat,

twenty different times to grasp


without

which

even to the top of

many

my

The

or

backward

safet}',

and

It has

at pleasure

is

been

even by

it

it

be

all

electrical shocks,

whom

1 lost

a small

swims forward

electrical eel

may

eateii with the greatest

many people thought

said, that this

both hands before

hand, but

shoulder, to the great

entertainment of Mr. Kennedy, to


Avager on the occasion.

my

with

it

my

about

shirt-sleeves, tried

receiving just as

effect,

I felt

133

delicious.

animal must be touched with

gives the shock *, but this I

mast

take the liberty of contradicting, having experienced the


contrary effect

it

is

also alleged, that they

have been

found in Surinam above twenty feet long, but one of that


length never

nor have

3'et

came within

the scope of

ever heard of any person being killed by them,

according to the account which


thor,

my observation

Alexander Gardon, m.d.

is

given by the same au-

f. ii.s.

in

letter to

Elhs, Esq. dated Charlestown, South Carolina,

John

August

14th, 1774.
It

is

travels

my

a painful circumstance, that the narrative of

must

barbarity

so frequently prove the record of cruelty

but once for

all

must declare, that

these facts merely in the hope that


or other, operate for

tlieir

all

may,

in

future prevention.

* Mr. Walsh purchased an electrical

Royal Society and others, who,

it

eel,

which he shewed

and

I state

some mode
Before
to

many

joining hands, felt the stroke.

my

of the

E.

depar-

ii

^^*

p.

NARRATIVE OF AN

134

departure, 1 was informed of a most shocking instance of

depravity, which had just occurred.

by a groundless

girl,

husband made

jealousy, (for such her

appear) put an end to the

Quadroon

Jewess, impelled

by the

life

infernal

of a young and beautiful

means of plunging

But what

body a red-hot poker.

it

is

what indeed will scarcely be believed

into her

most incredible, and


in

a civilized country,

that for this most diabolical crime the murderess was

is,

only banished to the Jew-Savannah, a village which I shall


afterwards describe, and
fiscal

condemned

in a trifling fine to the

or town-clerk of the colony.

Another young negro Avoman, having her ancles chained


so close together that she could scarcely

move her

feet,

was knocked down with a cane by a Jew, and beaten

till

the blood streamed out of her head, her arms, and her

naked

sides.

So accustomed, indeed, are the people of this

country to tyranny and insolence, that a third Israelite had


the impudence to strike one of

made water
I

my

against his garden-fence.

soldiers,

On

for

this

having

miscreant

took revenge for the Avhole frateinity, by wresting the

offending

weapon out of

into a thousand pieces


I nevertheless

his

on

hand, which

his guilty

was just enough

I instantly

naked pate.

to flog another

of the regiment, for picking a Jew's pocket


credit be

man

call

out

and, to their

mentioned, that so jealous are the Dutch

what they

diers of

to

it

broke

sol-

a point of honour, that were a thief

be knoAvn, and kept in the ranks, the whole regiment


1

would

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
would lay clown

and Avould be no bad practice

utility,

into
as

This etiquette

their arms.

some other armies, where a

good

as another,

if

he

of great

is

be introduced
accounted

thief is too often

be

six feet

hi oh.

About

this

time Colonel Fourgeoud issued the following

orders, viz. that in case

it

ever happened that two officers,

or under-officers, of equal rank, the one of the

European

the other of the Society corps, should meet on any mili-

should always take the command,

tary duty, the

first

independent of

seniority, imless the latter

bore a higher

seriously prepared for victory

or death, on

commission.

We

now

board the wooden w alls of the Colony, which consisted


of half a dozen crazy old sugar barges, such as are used

by the

colliers in the

Thames, being only roofed over

with boards, which gave them the appearance of so


coffins

and how well they deserved

afraid will too soon appear by the

this

many

name,

am

number of men they

buried.

On

the

first

of July were dispatched, for the river Co-

mewina, one captain, two subalterns, one


corporals,

Of

and eighteen men.

serjeant,

this captain,

two

cannot

help mentioning a very singular circumstance: the

day we landed

first

in this colony, having entered the lodging

on which he was

billetted, his

landlady declared she should

ever pride herself in shewing

all

chap.
VI.

to

so fortunate as to

is

135

the civility in her

power
to

NARRATIVE OF AN

136

to eitiier marines or naval officers, as she

one of
in

M'ho had

tlieni,

an open boat

some

owed her

years before picked her

Avith several others, after

sea-biscuit

little

To

Atlantic ocean.

tleman,

sail,

or

and water excepted, on the

avoid circumlocution, this very gen-

name was

Vi'liose

up

they had been

tossed about sixteen days without either compass,


provisions, a

hfe to

Tulling

proved to be the individual

Van Older

Barnevelt,

who had saved

officer

her

from the jaws of death, as he at that time belonged to


the navy, being a lieutenant of a

we

This same day

two subalterns, one

Dutch man of

war.

also dispatched another barge with

serjeant,

one corporal, and fourteen

men, commanded by Lieutenant Count Randwyck,


the river Pirica

some

and

in the evening,

select friends in mj' house, I

Joanna, to whose care

I left

my

all

having entertained

bade farewell to
;

and

protection of her mother and aunt, with


for putting her to school until
I at last

jeants,

my

marched on board, with four

three corporals,

command,

to

to

return

my

herself to the

my
:

directions

after Avhich,

subalterns, two Ser-

and thirty-two men under

my

be divided into two barges, and bound for

the upper part of the river Cottica.

Now my

Mulatto cast a mournful look,

Hung

my

on

Her bosom

And

hand, and then dejected spoke

labour'd with a boding sigh,

the big tear stood trembling in her eye.

The

;:

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
The above barges were

armed with

all

swivels, blunder-

busses, &c.

and provided with allowance

their orders

were (that

wliicli

down

excepted) to cruise up and

each barge having a

rivers,

slaves, ten of

for

Quaco, exactly

my

upper parts of the

tlie

pilot,

and rowed by negro


for tiie [)iu-posc,

com])1ement, includmg

sixty-five,

thirty-five of

^Vith this ship's

one month

to the Jew's Savanaali

which were on board of each

and which made

with myself.

went

137

my

bhick l)oy

which enibarked

company was

now stowed

my

lieutenant's barge

the crew consisted of twenty-nine only,

and consequently

my

in

hen-coop

Avere less
I
till

while on board of

crowded.

must take notice that from our


this

men

time our private

first

landing in Surinam

Avere paid in

which the captains had proposed to exchange

money,

at the rate of ten per cent, gain for

coin,

silver

for card

them

by

which the poor fellows would have benefited between two

and three hundred pounds


freshment

sterling per

annum,

buy

re-

but Colonel Fourgeoud insisted they should

continue to receive their

little

pittance in coin, which in

sums was of no more value than paper, and

small

thought unaccountably hard, since

this

must remark, Avhich

is,

that

all

was hurting the

whole, without profit to one single individual.

more

to

One

the officers

thing-

who

were now proceeding upon duty continued to pay at the


mess, which cost each captain at

tl^e

rate of forty

pounds

but for Avhich, in his barge, he wns to receive in provi-

VoL.

I.

sions

NARRATIVE OF AN

138

sions after the rate of ten

pounds (thus he

pounds; and these provisions were

salt beef,

lost thirty

pork, and

pease) on an equal footing with the private soldiers, a few


bottles of

But

wine excepted.

dulgence was due, and

who were going

certainly

some greater

must say necessary,

in-

to officers,

to be stationed where absolutely

no kind

of refreshment was to be had, being sinrounded by the

most horrid and impenetrable woods, beyond the hearing


of a cannon-shot from any port or plantation whatever.

This was not the case

Avith the other barges,

Avho were

stationed in the midst of peace and plenty, being Avithin

view of the most beautiful

by

all

ranks without exception

had

upon

my

accepting.

upon

list,

foreseeing our ap-

to present,

which they insisted

But the reader

my

will

have a better

benefactors from the

than from any encomiums which

fol-

could pass

it

24 Bottles of best

claret,

12 Ditto of Madeira,
]'2

who

barge with the best

idea of the liberality of

lowing

my

proaching calamities, crowded


cornmodities they

We were indeed pitied

estates.

Ditto of English porter,

6 Bottles of muscadel,
2 Gallons of lemon-juice,
2 Gallons of ground coffee,

12 Ditto of English cyder,

2 Large Westphalia hams,

Jamaica rum,

2 Salted bullocks tongues,

12 Ditto of

2 Large loaves of white sugar,


2 Gallons of Brandy,

Bottle of

Durham

mustard,

Dozen of spermaceti

candles.

From

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
Erom
if

this

specimen the reader

139

will easily perceive, that

some of the inhabitants of the colony of Surinam shew

themselves the disgrace of the creation, by their cruelties

and
ings,

brutality, others,

approve

species,

With

by

their hospitality

themselves an
this

ornament

and
to

the

human

instance of virtue and generosity, I

therefore conclude this chapter

and

trust I shall ever

found more ready to record the good actions of


creatures, than to

social feel-

remark

their defects.

T a

my

be

fcUow-

chap.
VI.

NARRATIVE OF AN

140

C
Armed Barges

II

afe'sent tip to defend the Rivers

of the Fortress

Description

A Cruise
Pafamaca Great

New Amsterdam

Parts of Rio Cottica and

among

VII.

P.

the Troops

in the

tipper

Mortality

of the Military Post at Devil

J^iew

IJarwar.

the third of July,

morning, the

1773, at four o'clock in the

fleet cast off

with the ebb tide rowed

down

from their moorings, and

as far as the fortress

New

Amstei'dam, where, being wind and tide bound, we dropped

anchor
It

off the batter}^

may

not be improper, in this place, to describe the

which was blue turned up with

dress of our marines,

short jackets,
sabre,

and

and leather caps.

pistols

shoulder, and their


in

The}^ carried a musquet,

a large wallet or knapsack across one

hammocks

slung over the other.

the woods, they wore trowsers

short linen frocks, as

Having

first

scarlet,

most adapted

reviewed both

my

and check

While

shirts,

with

to the climate.
ships'

companies,

viz..

four subalterns, two Serjeants, three corporals, thirty-two


privates,

Quaco

two

pilots,

twenty negroes, and

my

black boy

and having placed the arms, consisting of blun-

derbusses, swivels, &c. stowed the luggage,

and slung the

hammocks,

S-:,"*''

'/ /?rM'u/e\

/u/,/y//^-

'-'

of

LiTi.

>"-'-'

''^,?^,-- '"i-'-'i'v

t^f'fTt/ rc/zxyr/y//

''

^'-'

( Y^r//.j

..,'

2 Gtn'a'Tioiws House
1 Artdlery OtHc^^
3 Victuallmq Office
4 Mam Guard
5 Infantry OMcers
6 Carpenirrj- L odpe

13 Gunpot*-der Alatf azote


i4-.FrGh Wa/FT Cistern
IJ. The Great Floodijate

7 The Church
.

THE

Corn IfuiflmiU

^ccTvlajy's Office

Landmq

10. Barracks

16. The

11 Smiths For^e
12. 6-rove of Orange Trees

J 7. The Great Mud bank


Id Ground tor Ftaniums

RUIEU

SUJIINA^I

7^/eM^S^y^/a^^c^/A^c/(?r/^re/j e^/Z/'y/

Phice

-e-

"^n^^i^niY/'n^
T.tm,i,-7-.fm/pf

L.mjML.Pu/ilMied Dcc-rj'"i-;yiJ,v J.Joluuon ,S.'l:,u/j thnnii

t'.ir.l.

EXPETDITION TO SURINAM.
hammocks,

my

pemsed

which

orders,

i4i

up

Avere to cruise

and down Rio Cottica, between the Society

posts,

La

Rochelle at Patamaca, and Slans Wclveren above the

last

plantation, to prevent the rcliels from crossing the river,


to seize or

kill

them

from their invasions

in all

posts, with

which operations

whom

proper signals to be given

^vas to

be

was also to deliberate on the

in case

of an alarm.

Having now time and opportunity,


called

estates

by the troops of the Society on the

assisted, if necessary,

above

and protect the

if possible,

I visited

the fortress

New Amsterdam.

This fortification was begun in the year


finished in 1747.

It

is

built in the

1754, and

form of a regular pen-

tagon, with five bastions, being about three English miles


in

circumference, surrounded by a broad fosse, which

is

supplied from the river, and defended by a covert way,


well palisadoed.

ground
of

mud

and

its

off the

Its

foundations are a kind of rocky

principal strength

by water a

point, supported

by a strong battery of

large bank-

cannon, which prevents even flat-bottomed vessels from

making any approach


fire

in that quarter

and by crossing the

of the guns with the opposite redoubts, Leyden and

Purmerent,

it

protects the entry of both the rivers, Su-

rinam and Comewina, as


sides,

have said before

powder-magazines and

well provided Avith


tlie

all

it

victualling-offices,

has, be-

and

is

the other necessary buildings for

use of a strong garrison.

There are even a corn windmill.

NARRATIVE OF AN

142

and a

null,

cistern

hoo'sheads of water.
sary

since,

which

This in fact

according to

army of Surinam

Avhole

any length of time.

hold above a thousand

will

to

my

is

no more than neces-

opinion,

Mill

it

take the

defend so large an extent for

Adjoining to the fortress

is

also

large spot of ground, well stocked with plantains, yams,

&c. in order to feed the Society slaves,


liere,

at the colony's expence, to

work

M'liich

are kept

at the fortifications,

under the inspection of a proper overseer.


In

this fort is generally stationed

manded by an
vessels

a small garrison, com-

officer of the artillery,

which obliges

all

whatever to bring-to, shew their colours, and salute

them with seven guns each, the compliment being answered with three guns from the battery, and the hoisting
of a flag on the ramparts.
tress

on the north-east

is,

I shall only add, that this forside,

surrounded with bogs and

impenetrable bushes, and that the spot was, from these


circumstances, formerly called the Tyger's Hole.

Having described
it

fort

New

Amsterdam,

cannot leave

without taking notice of some very remarkable

fish,

Avhich are always seen in great quantities near this fortress,

and which have

swimming constantly

actually four eyes,

with two above and two under the Avater.

about the

size

dible velocity

of a smelt, and swim

These

in shoals

fishes are

with incre-

they seem principally to delight in brackish

water, are accounted no

bad

eating,

and are

called coot -eye

by the inhabitants of the colony.


1

This

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
Tliis

evening

my

sentinel being insulted

143

by a row-boat,

which damned him, and spoke of the whole crew

most opprobrious terms,

and gave chase

in the

immediately manned the canoe,

but by the help of hoisting a small

and the intervention of a dark

night, the rogue,

sail,

who kept

course towards Biaam's Point, had the good fortune to

escape

On
chor
till

my

resentment.

the fourth of July, in the morning, Ave weighed an-

we

and having doubled the Cape, rowed with the flood


arrived before Elizabeth's

plantation, where the proprietor,

Hope, a beautiful

coffee

Mr. Klynharas, inviting

us on shore, shewed us every civility in his power,

loaded

He

my

barge with refreshing

fruits,

vegetables, &c.

told us that he pitied our situation from his heart,

foretold the miseries

we were going

and

and

to encounter, the rainy

season being just at hand, or indeed having already com-

menced, by frequent showers, accompanied with loud


claps of thunder.

"
"

" As for the enemy," said he, " you

may depend on not seeing one single soul of them they


know better than to make their appearance openl}-,
;

" while they

" cover

may have

a chance of seeing you from under

thus. Sir, take care to

be upon your guard

" the climate, the climate will murder

you

all.

" ever," continued he, " this shews the zeal of your
" mander,

who

Avill

rather see

you

killed,

" the bread of idleness at Paramaribo."

but
HowCom-

than see you eat

This

pleasant

harangue he accompanied with a squeeze by the hand.

We

NitRRATIVE or AN

144

We
his

tlien

took our leave, while the beautiful

daughter, shed tears at our departure.

we anchored

before the

I here created

my

rest

the Sadden Death and Uilful


"will

Tiiis

evening

two barges men of war, and named

them during the

applicable, as

Matapaca Creek.

them the Charon and the Cerberus,


distinguish

DutiT,

i\Irs.

be seen.

u]) the river Cottica,

b}'

which names

of the voyage

Murder

We

Avere

I shall

though

much more

now continued rowing

having passed, since we entered Rio

Coniewina, some most enchantingly beautiful estates of

and sugar,

coffex3

v/iiich line

the banks of both these rivers,

at the distance of one or two miles

My

from each other.

crew having walked and drcst their dinner ashore

on the plantation I'Avanture, we anchored, on the evening


of the

before Rio Pirica.

5 th,

On

the following day

we rowed

'stili

further

Cottica, and went on shore on the estate Alia.

above plantations we

we

iiiet

On

v.ere

up the

At

river

the

all

most hospitably received, but

with fewer plantations as the

ri\'er

grew narrower.

the 7th Ave continued our course, and having walked

ashore on the estate Bockkestyne, being the last plantation

up the

river Cottica

estates in

on the

but happily
the

except one or two small

Patamaca, at night we cast anchor at the mouth

of Coopman's Creek.

On

right,

it

This day the Charon was on

fire,

was soon extinguished.

8tl),

we again kept rowing upwards, and

at

eleven o'clock, a.m. cast anchor off the post Slans Welvaren.

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
varen, which was guarded

Here

my officers,

stepped on shore, with

men

into his hospital

tacle of miser}^
this place

where

and Avretchedness

Society.

to wait

commander, and delivered

tain Oriiinga, the

sick

by the troops of the

145

on Cap-

three of

my

beheld such a spec-

as baffles

all

imagination

having been formerly called Devil's Harzcrir, on

account of

its

intolerable unhealthiness

alone I shall again distinguish

much more

as

it,

than that of Slans Welvaren, which

a name by which

signifies

suitable

the welfare

of the nation.

Here

saw a few of the wounded

wretclies,

who had

escaped from the engagement in Avhich Lieutenant Lepper, with so


told

me

many men, had been

the particulars of his

" I was shot,


" breast

and

" only means


"

among

Sir," said he,

killed

own

and one of them

miraculous escape

" with a musquet-bullet

in

my

to resist or escape being impossible, as the


left

me

the mortally

my

life I

threw myself down

wounded and

the dead, without

to save

" moving hand or foot.

Here

in the

evening the rebel

" chief, surveying his conquest, ordered one of his cap-

" tains to begin instantly to cut off the heads of the


" in order to carry

them home

" of their victory

this captain,

slain,

to their village, as trophies

having already chopped

" off that of Lieutenant Lepper, and one or two more,


" said to his friend. Sonde go
" tara dogo tmj tamara

The sun

" must leave those other dogs

Vol.

I.

slethij,

till

is

caba mclcewe Uby den

just going to sleep,

to-morrow.

we

Upon saying
" which,


NARRATIVE OF AN

us

which, (continued the soldier) as


breast, with

ping

you
I

his

my

see,

my

face resting on

hatchet into

I la}^

arm, he, drop-

left

of which I shall perhaps no more recover.

They went

still.

aAvay, carrying

along with them the mangled heads of

whom

hind their backs, of

was quiet, and

all

means, on

my hands

the carnage,

ment and
way

Avas

feet, to

w ho

soldiers,

whom,

after ten

very dark, I found

creep out from

and get under cover

met another of our


myself; with

and

in the forest,

and only one

for our subsistence,

we

among

where

wounded than

Avas less

days wandering,

despair, without bandages, not

to proceed,

comrades,

never since have heard.

it

my

with their hands tied be-

five or six prisoners alive,

AVhen

bleeding

my shoulder, made the fatal wound

however lay quite

and

my

on

in tor-

knowing which

single loaf of black bread

at last arrived at the military post

of Patamaca, emaciated, and our putrefied vvounds

full

of live worms."
I

gave the miserable creature half-a-crown

and having

agreed with Captain Orzinga upon the signals, Ave


pest-house, and stepping on board

up

till

Ave

once more came to an anchor.

On

Ave arrived before

Ave

till

we came

moored the

Avar,

roAved

we continued

to

row farther up

before the Cormoetibo Creek, Avhere

fleet, as

Fourgeoud's command.
11

of

a creek, called Barbacoeba, where

the foUoAving day

the river,

my man

left this

being

my head

Here

Ave saAV

station,

by Colonel

nothing but

Avater,

Avood,

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
wood, and clouds

147

no trace of humanity, and consequently

the place had a most dismal, solitary appearance.

On

the 10th I detached the Cerberus to her station, viz.

which place she rowed immediately,

Upper Patamaca

with a long

of paroles, according to

list

for

which were never of any

We

now

my

orders, but

service.

cook the victuals on board

tried to

nace was a large tub

filled

with earth, and

and

on

As we had no surgeon along with

fell

my

to

cines,

lot

us,

more

this office

and, by the help of a small chest of medi-

performed so

my men

at the hazard of setting the barge once

to death,

fur-

we succeeded,

at the expence of having almost scalded one of

fire.

our

well, that in

a few days the scalded

marine recovered.

To

prevent, however, a similar accident again, I sought

an opening

in the

creek above-named, which having found

not very far from the mouth,

a shed, and

my men

ordered

to dress their victuals

around them to prevent a

sentinels

my

evening we returned to our station.

negroes to build

below

surprise,

it,

placing

and

in the

This cooking we con-

when

tinued to perform every day, until the fourteenth,

we rowed down
Here we
purpose
decks,
I

to

Barbacoeba.

built another shed

on the 15th,

for the

same

and then, the rain already beating through

we rowed down

put one of

my

to Devil's

Harwar

for repair,

my

where

negroes sick in the hospital.

u 2

On

NARRATIVE OF AN

148

On

the l6th, I got

my

deck caulked and payed, and

sent an account of our arrival to Colonel Fourgeoud.

On
lost

we

the 17th,

Cormoetibo Creek, having

ret\irned to

an anchor among the roots of the mangrove-trees that

on both
These

banks of

sides line the

number of

is

the rivers in the colony.

of two species, the red and the white, but

trees are

the former

all

that of which I

roots that

now speak

it rises

shew themselves above ground

several feet before they are joined together,

trunk, which

both large and

is

the outside, but the inside


ther.

The wood

is

and other purposes


this tree

is,

is

tall

red,

for

and form the

the bark

and used

for

and good

reddish, hard,
;

from a

is

grey on

tanning leafor building

but the most remarkable property of

that from

its

extended branches, and even

its

trunk, descend thousands of ligneous shoots, like the ropes

of a ship, which dropping to the earth, take root and again


re-ascend, forming for a great circumference an impenetrable thicket, while, like so
tree steady in all weathers.

many

props, they keep the

The white mangrove

is

found

mostly in places moie distant from the water.

my

This evening
out

tl>at

sentinel,

when

was very dark, called

he saw a negro, with a lighted tobacco-pipe, cross

We lost no time in leap-

the Cormoetibo Creek in a canoe.


ing out of our

hammocks

when one of my
fly

it

on the wing

but were not a

slaves declared

which actually

it

little

mortified,

was no more than a

fire-

w^as the case.

These

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
These

insects arc

under the

belly,

above an inch long, with a round patch c n a

of a transparent greenish colour,

the dark gives a light like a candle

in

Uj?

eyes are also

its

-^diich

very luminous, and by the light of a couple of these

one

may

see very

ther species, which

when they

is

and only

smaller,

fly elevated, at

intermitting sparks of

There

read small print.

^vell to

ano-

is

to be observed

which time they appear

fire

flies

like the

emitted from the forge of a

blacksmith.

On

the 18th, having nothing else to do, I shot a bird,

which

is

I take to

here called a tigri-fordo, or tiger-bird, but which

be of the heron species

about the

it is

size

of a

heron, but of a reddish colour, covered over Avith regular

black spots, from which

which

is

long and

it

has derived

strait, as also

name

its

the legs

and

pale green colour, and seem to indicate that


fish:

the neck

is

also long, from

of hoary feathers.

On

By

its

ligence this evening, that the


I

where we had dressed our


Creek, and which

is

it

lives

upon

it

has a

received intel-

men began

to

be sickly

was informed, that on the spot


victuals,

in

the Cormoetibo

on the rebel side of the

I therefore ordered the shed to


to

of a

small,

is

strong detachment had lately been murdered

and the meat

toes, are

eyes are a beautiful yellow..

a Avater-patrol from the Cerberus

and on the following day

bill,

which hangs down a kind

the head, which

roundish black spot, and

its

b^'

river,

the enemy.

be burnt to the ground,

be dressed on board the barges.

Hers
all

p.

NARRATIVE OF AN

150

CHAP,
^^^*

all

the elements

water pouring

now seemed

down hke

to unite in opposing us

the

a deluge, the heavy rains forced

themselves fore and aft into the vessel, where they set
every thing afloat; the air was infested with myriads of

musquitoes, which, from sun-set to sun-rising, constantly

kept us company, and prevented us from getting any

and

left

us in the morning besmeared

and

full

of blotches.

which we burnt

to

The smoke of

fire

annoy them, was enough

and not a foot-step of land could we


cook our

over with blood,

all

the

and tobacco,
to

choke us

where we might

find,

To

salt provisions in safety.

sleep,

all this

misery

may

be added, that discord broke out between the marines

and the negroes, with whom,

as promises or threats

had

as

yet no weight, I Avas obliged to have recourse to other

means.

I tied

up the ringleaders of both

after ordering the

first

be horse-whipped

to

had equally the

an hour,

them

ease was totally out of

all

after

and

latter to

due suspense and

without one lash.

This

punishment, and peace

Avas

but to prevent approaching

dis-

effect of the

perfectly re-established

in

be well flogged, and the

for half

expectation, I pardoned

parties

my power.

Not

all

the golden rules

Doctor Armstrong's beautiful poem upon health could

avail in this situation.

We rowed

down on

Casepoere Creek,
Avere

in

the 20th,

we

arrived before the

hopes of meeting some

equally uncomfortable.

musquitoes now,

till

that

relief,

but

So very thick were the

by clapping

my

tAVO

hands

to-

gether.


EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
number of

gelher, I have actually killed to the

15I
thirty-

eight at one stroke.

In rowing down to Barbacoeba, we saw one or two


beautiful snakes

swim

In the course of

across the river.

our progress Ave occasionally met


stepping ashore under the shade.
advice of an old negro.

"

to

the

'

Avhat

'

SAvim every day twice or thrice,

'

river.

'

methods do you take

Avith

now had

Caramaca," said

to preserve

my

this,

by imperceptible

" in the

and cool

skin clean

filth,

juices stagnate, and disease

'

?"

your health

Sir," said he,

I,

This, Masara, not only serves for exercise Avhcrc

cannot walk, but keeps

out

'

instantly stripped

and

With-

the pores arc shut, the

must inevitably

Having recompensed the old gentleman

recourse

the pores being open, I enjo}' a free perspiration.

'

by

relief,

little

Avith

folloAv."

a dram,

and plunged headlong into the

river.

had, however, no sooner taken this leap, than he called

to

me

done

for

Avith

God's sake to come on board

much

Avhicli

astonishment, he reminded

gators, as Avell as of a fish Avhich

is

having

me of the

alli-

here called pery.

" Both these, Sir," said he, " are exceedingly dangerous,
" but
*'

by following

You may

my

directions

SAvini entirely

you

Avill

run no hazard.

naked, only take care that you

" constantly keep in motion

for the

moment you

are

" quiet, you run the risk of their snapping off a limb, or
" being dragged to the bottom."

Having

NARRATIVE OF AN

152

Having mentioned the


to offer to the reader

alligator, I shall take the libertr

(though he cannot but have met with

some account of

this creature in

some

which

particulars

I have been informed


It

in

reading different voyages)

have myself observed, or of Avhich

on the best authority.

an amphibious animal, and found

is

Guiana

size

its

feet in length

the

from four

is

to

in

most

which

as long as the body, both of

tail

like a lizard

its

shape being

the colour on the back

rivers

eighteen or twenty

are on the upper part indented like a saw,

something

a yel-

is

lowish brown, approaching to black, variegated on the sides

with greenish shades, the belly being a dirty white

head

is

large^ with a snout

those of a sow

by a

the last immoveable, and guarded each

four feet,

snap almost through any bone

is

invulnerable, even by a musquet-

it is

except in the head or the belly, where

liable to

of a

be wounded

musky

taste

nails.

covered over with large scales, and a

is

skin so thick that

has

it

armed with claws and hard sharp-pointed

The whole animal

ball,

The mouth and

are beset with double rows of

extremel}^ Avide,

teeth, that can

the

and eyes somewhat resembling

large protuberance or hSrd knob.

throat,

its

and

flesh is eaten

flavour,

owing

by the
it is

it

is

most

natives,

but

said to a kind

of bags or bladders which are on the inside of each limb.

The

alligator lays

its

eggs on the shore to a great

num-

ber in the sand, where they are hatched by the sun, the

males

'

'^/w^j/y//^/////

,:'///

'

/'/

7y/////^// .J/^///r/fY y/^////////

v77y^^//'vvv

'

a^jf^mz^/ c/q/// // ///r///

L,m,loii,r'ihli.rli,d D,c''j^/iy,ii,t>r .fJolMJoit,, S.'J'auly

Oairdil

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
On

males eating the greater portion of them.


animal

is

often seen lurking for his prey, with his

is

muzzle alone above water, something


old tree, he

is

truly

tremendous

yet of man, as I have seen, he

keeps

land this

not dangerous, for want of activity, but in the

where he

rivers,

153

is

like the

to all that

stump of an

approach him

during the time he

afraid,

Some

hands and feet in motion, but no longer.

his

negroes even have the courage to attack and vanquish the

own

alligator in his

strength

and unequalled

human

of

The
dile

element, notwithstanding his violent


ferocity, being particularly

fond

flesh.

difference

(which

is

between the above animal and the croco-

also

found

in

Surinam) consists not merely

shape and in the nature

in the

name, but

latter

being longer and more slender in proportion, and

not so ferocious

in the

the alligator or

the natives and negroes)

is

cayman

besides

with than the crocodile, which partly


its

is

(as called

by

more frequently met

may be

being supposed to be more destructive.

add, that in Asia there

also, the

the cause of
I shall only

a considerable difference to be

found, upon a nice examination, between the above two


reptiles, Avhere

they are also larger than they are in any

parts of America.

Had

it

not been for an accident, these creatures would

never have been known by any other


crocodile

for

had the

more resembling
Vol.

I.

their

first

name than

navigators

form than a

that of

seen any thing,

lizard,

they would

have

NARRATIVE OF AN

154

have adopted that which the Indians called them by,


the

cayman

but the Spanish

resemblance to that

them which they saw


trymen

arrived,

remarking their great

sailors

they called the

reptile,

little

When

lagarto, or lizard.

and heard that name, they

creature a-lagarto, whence

is

viz.

first

of

our councalled the

derived the word alligato, or

alligator.

The

great advantage of such repositories of Natural

History as the British


lover of nature

Museum

and truth

to

be

is,

that they enable the

satisfied

by

own eyes

his

of the extraordinary and almost incredible productions of

In the above-named collection

nature.

crocodile, differing in

some

particulars,

may be

but chiefly in

dimensions, from the creatures of the same


parts of India.

Though

so

numerous

much

which measures above twenty-one

feet.

of

its

body

till it

name

its

in other

in Bengal, I never

heard upon good authority of one

the river Indus, but not

seen a

larger than this,

was taken

It

in

had received on many parts

several three-pound

balls,

many

of which

could not penetrate, or produce the least effect against


his scales.

As I cannot so

my

easily

produce

my voucher,

must pledge

veracity for another specimen, which I have myself

seen; which proves to


this species

that there have been

some of

of more than twice the size of that which

be measured

At

me

in the

may

Museum.

Maestricht, in 1781, I saw the

head of a crocodile
petrified.

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
which had been dug out of Mount Saint Pierre

petrified,

the

body of which, by

above sixty
this

it,

calculation,

feet in length.

animal come

beheld

155

the7'e ?

Query,

must have measured

When,

or how, did

Yet

there with astonishment I

priest, Avho since sent it to

in the possession of

Paris as a very great curiosity.

In Guiana there are said to be lizards of the


or six feet

but that species which

is

and by the Indians the wai/amaca,


feet long.
is

Prom

size

of

five

here called the iguana,

seldom above three

is

the head to the extremity of the

tail,

it

covered over with small scales, reflecting very brilliant

colours in the sun

the back and legs are of a dark blue,

the sides and belly of a yellowish kind of green, as also the


bao- or loose

spotted in

skin which hang-s under

many

parts with

its

throat.

brown and black, and

It

its

is

eyes

are a beautiful pale red, while the claws are of a deep

chesnut colour.
This lizard, like the alligator, has

back and

its

dented, both which are formed into a sharp edge.


its

eggs in the sand, and

and

is

often seen

plants, Avhere the Indians shoot

arrows.

These people esteem

as a great delicacy

bought

as a dainty

creature's bite

is

it is

it

its flesh,

among

tail in-

It lays

the shrubs

with their bows and

which

is

very white,

sold dear at Paramaribo,

by many of the white

and

inhabitants. This

extremely painful, but seldom attended

with bad consequences.

X 2

But

NARRATIVE OF AN

156

But
his

my

to return to

account at

Caramaca

discouraged

first

bathing for health

negro,

me

acknowledge

from the plan of daily

but finding by following

his direction

that the dangers he represented were to be avoided, I


resolved to follow

it,

practice as long as

also advised

"

Now

is

me

and derived great

remained

benefit from the

in the colony.

Tliis

negro

walk bare-footed and thinly dressed.

to

the season, Massera," said he, " to use your

" feet to become hard, by Avalking on the smooth boards


" of the vessel

the time

may come when you

be

will

" obliged to do so for Avant of shoes, in the midst of thorns

" and

briars,

have seen some others.

as I

said he, " Massera,

"

made

is

Do

second nature

our feet were

so as I advise

you

" you will thank old Caramaca.

As

alike.

Custom,"

and

in the

all

end

being thinly

for

" dressed," continued the negro, " a shirt and trowsers


" fully suflScient

is

which not only saves trouble and ex-

" pence, but the body Avants

air, as well

as

it

does water

" so bathe in both Avhen you have the opportunity."

From

that

moment

followed his counsels, to which, be-

sides being cleanly

and

the preservation of

my

cool, I in a great
life.

Paramaribo, where I enjoyed

now
all

measure ascribe

frequently thought on

the delicacies of

while here I was forced to have recourse to


dients

much

worse than any savage

many

life

expe-

yet should I not have

repined had any person profited by our sufferings.

But I
am

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
am

forgetting the articles of war,

157

implicitly to obey,

viz.

VII.

and ask no questions.


Having, on the 22d, sent

my

serjeant

to the hospital at Devil's Harwar,

and one man

sick

we now rowed again

to

the head station before Cormoetibo Creek.

Here one of
which was the

my

negroes caught some

fish,

torporific eel already described,

dressed and eat with his companions


peri/

and que-quee

amongst
which he

the others were the

the pery was that mentioned

This

old slave as dangerously rapacious.

fish

by the
some-

is

times near two feet long, of a flattish make, scaly, and


of a bluish colour; the

mouth

large,

and thick

set

with

sharp teeth, Avhich are so strong, and the pert/ so voracious, that

it

frequently snaps off the feet of ducks

swimming, nay even the

toes, the fingers,

The que-quee may be

of wonien.

being covered over from head to

moveable
like

rings, sliding the

those of a

lobster,

place of scales.

This

and the

tail

my

journal.

one over the other, and joined

which serve

last is

from

for its defence in

six to ten inches long,

lay aside the description,

The 23d being


and myself

breasts

with broAvn coloured

pery and the que-quee are very good eating.

some time

when

called a fish in armour,

with a large head and of a roundish shape.

for

the day appointed

Both the

But

must

and return

to

by Captain Orzinga

for the trial of the signals, at twelve o'clock

precisely the whole

chap.

number of blunderbusses and

swivels

were

NARRATIVE OF AN

158

were

fired

Harwar on board

at Devil's

on board the Cerberus,

still

stationed at

the Charon,

Patamaca

and

which

proved to be to no purpose, no person on board either of


the vessels having been able to hear the report of the guns
fired

by the

other.

During

this,

however,

met

Avith

small accident, by firing myself one of the blunderbusses,

which

I placed like a

musquet against

I received such a stroke

backward over a

to

its

shoulder

my right arm.
my ignorance of
to

heavy charged

be
;

fired

seems was

it

manner of using the blun-

derbuss, as I have since been informed that

pons ought

all

and then by swinging round the body

effect scarcely sensible.

I insert this

broken, and the

is

only to shew in Avhat

manner hea;vy-loaded muscatoons ought always


especially since, without

On
maca,

is

to

be

fired

any aim, the execution from

almost equally

the 26th,

such wea-

under the hand, especially Avhen

suddenl)^ the force of the rebound

wide mouth

me

and had nearly

This however
the

when

rebounding as threw

large hogshead of beef,

dislocated

owing

by

my

their

fatal.

by a canoe that came down from PataCerberus was

I received intelligence that the

in

danger of being surprised by the enemy, who had been


discovered hovering round about her
the river where she was

and the part of

moored being very narrow,

sidered her situation as critical.

I therefore

con-

immediately

rowed the Charon up before the Pinneburgh Creek

and

having manned the yawl, as being the most expeditious,


1

Avent

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
went myself,

men,

M'ith six

to their assistance

159

but was c n a

agreeably surprised at finding the whole to be a false

we returned back

In the evening

alarm.

In rowing

down

human

voice,

shore.

This

was astonished at being hailed by a

which begged

her some assistance.

her,

whom

me

with two of

I did,

costed by a poor old negro

Jew, to

to our station.

for

God's sake to step on

my men

when

woman, imploring me

was ac-

to afford

seems she was the property of a

It

belonged the spot of ground where

and where the poor creature

found

lived quite alone, in

hut not larger than a dog-kennel, surrounded by a wilderness, with only

a few plantain-trees, yams, and cassava,

She was no longer of use

for her support.

work on the

to

great estate, and Avas banished here only to support her.


master's right to the possession, since this spot

Having

ruined by the rebels.


beef,

some

when she

barley,

offered

could not accept

left

in return

for

by

information of the cats,

this token,

my

not confined to Europe.

In

this creek, the

my

leave,

but

this I

mean upon

the

this

super-

banks of which on both sides are

covered with mangrove


floating

which evinces that

stition

took

salt

negro rowers firmly insisted

must be a

Avitch

one of her cats

that she
is

with her a piece of

and a bottle of rum,

me

had been

trees, thorns,

and

briars,

we found

on the surface of the water a kind of large white

nut, which

seemed

to

ness from the shell.

have dropped of themselves by ripe-

They

are sweet, crisp,

and exceedingly

v.

NARRATIVE OF AN

160
ingly

good eating

tree they

had

mocco-mocco,

is

grows about

It

neglected to inquire from what

kind of water shrub, called the

but

fallen.

here also to be found in great quantities.


six or eight feet high,

jointed and prickly

all

the

way

thick at bottom,

to the top,

where

it is

very

small,

and divided into three or four large smooth oval

leaves,

which possess almost the quality of

blistering

by

their violent adhesion to the skin.

As we approached

my

the Charon in the evening, I found

sentinel fast asleep, Avhich enraged

me

so

much, that

having quietly entered on board the barge, I

him

pistol close to his ear, just over his head, assuring

that I would the next time blow

it

through

the whole crew flew to their arms, and the

had nearly leaped

be necessary to threaten in
a surprise might be

this

it

it

sleep

ar,

at one tmie

stated times

in

made

poor fellow
it

might

manner, at a post Avhere

such a situation, Avhere the

bite of the musquitoes rendered

upon

would have been excessive

fatal, it

cruelty to have executed

his brains

But however

into the water.

my

fired

it

impossible to reckon

and thus the interruption of

the approach of

it

unavoidable at

another.

We

now

where

my

returned, on the 27th, to Cormoetibo Creek,


negroes, having been ashore to cut

wood

for

the furnace, brought on board a poor animal alive, with


all its

lay

four feet chopped off with the bill-hook, and which

still

in the

bottom of the canoe.

Having freed

it

from

>yA<'.'(J

^"/rl^/A^/y/zu^y^,

/v/^^-.-^^^A-V_^^c^^'

:.,;i,1i'H ./'iil'/i.'-/icil lhr':s'^'nt):^,lyj..h'lili.m,i.-'::raii>'-l'l>i"^'li

R/rf

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
from

torment by a blow on the head,

its

that this was the sloth, called loyaree or

on account of

tives,

its

was acquainted c h a
by the na-

heo.ij

plaintive voice.

I6i

It

about the

is

size of a small water-spaniel, with

a round head some-

thing like that of a monkey, but

mouth

large

to help

large

hinder legs are

its

it

much

its

is

remarkably

shorter than those before,

being each armed with three very

in climbing,

and sharp claws, by which

it

holds

its

body on the

my

boughs, but which, as being offensive Aveapons,


groes had so cruelly chopped off:

voice

its

is

its

eyes are languid, and

squeaking, like that of a young cat.

greatest particularity of this creature however

motion

up

is

so very slow, that

to the top of a

tree,

scends while a leaf or a bud


devastation

coming

first

from

when

this it

remaining

is

at the top, to prevent

to the bottom,

is,

The

that

its

often takes two days to get

it

moderate

ne-

its

never de-

beginning

its

being starved in

goes in quest of another,

it

proceeding incredibly slow indeed while on the ground.

Some

say, that to avoid the pain of exercising

forms

itself into

ball,

may be true or not, but this


cannot mend its pace.

Of
the

know

to

be a

Ai and the Unan

the

Vol.

Dog
I.

Sloth,

it

fact, that

these animals there are two species in Guiana,

viz.

Surinam distinguished by

i^ut in

the names of the Sicapo and

and

limbs,

and drops down from the branches

that
it

its

Dago

on account of

luyaree, or the

Sheep

their hair; that of the


first

v.

NARRATIVE OF AN

162
first

being bush}^ and of a dirty gre^^ while the

lank and reddish-coloured.

This last has also but two

elaws on each foot, and the head

Both

former.

otlier is

theser creatures,

less

is

round than the

by forming themselves

in

a clew, have often more the appearance of excrescences


in the bark, than that of animals feeding

upon the

foliage,

which frequently prevents them from being discovered

by the natives and negroes, who devour

their flesh with

avidity.

Now came down


tenant Siromer,

from Patamaca, on the 2Sth, Lieu-

the conmiander of the Cerberus, in a

burning fever, and scorched by the sun in an open canoe,


drinking cold water from the river as his only
this situation,

chelle,

Jew

soldier,

relief.

of the Society post

In

La Ro-

accompanied him, with the account that the

rebels

had actually passed the creek two days before, one mile
above the

Zos^ estate, as

ing from east to west.

me

had been

first

reported,

He at the same time

wi^.

march-

delivered to

a negro woman, with a sucking infant, who had

for-

merly been stolen by the rebels, and had uoav found means
to

make

her escape.

From below

leceived

also

the

news, that Major Medlar had sent to town from the Jew

Savannah two dried hands of the enemy,


rangers; that an officer with ten

men and some

were landed at Devil's Harwar, there


saand

killed

to

by the

provisions

be under

my com-

and that one of my marines at that place was dead.

The

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
me

'Rie saiViC dispatches brought an order for


for a dry spot, and, if possible, to build a

\65

to look out

temporary

store-

house.
I

my

immediately detached

command

take the

anchor, i-owed

The

scribe:

till

I arrived

Ilamcr, to

before the Casepory

passed such a night as no pen can de-

Jew prayed

sick groaned, the

soldiers swore, the negroes intreated, the

child squeaked, the

and the whole

]\Ir.

of the Cerberus, and having weighed

down

we

Creek, where

lieutenant,

fire

aloud, the

women

sung, the

smoked, the rains poured down,

vessel stunk to such a deo-ree, that I

be^an

to think myself but little better off than the unfortunate

persons

At

who were

six o'clock the

confined in the black hole at Calcutta.

next morning, however, the joyful sun

broke through the clouds, and

dropped down with the

Charon before Devil's Harwar.

On

men, besides
all

my

the 29th, I delivered

that was

sick officer

and

five sick

my other passengers, for whom I had done


in my power, but that was very little
and
;

having stowed the newly-arrived provisions in a proper


place, I once
1

came

The

to

anchor on the

first

to an

dreadful station, where

of August.

following day, between the shoivers,

numbers of monkies, of which


no

my

more returned

fresh

and eat

meat
it

I shot one,

for a long time, I ordered

with a good appetite.

We

we saw

great

and having had


it

to

were at

be dressed,
this

time in

a shocking situation, not only wanting refreshment, but

y 2

the

H a
^^^'

p.

NARRATIVE OF AN
hammocks were

the men's clothes and

rotting from

day

to

day, not only from their being almost constantly wet, but

being also composed of the very worst materials sent from.


Holland.

On

the third, I received the account that Lieutenant

Stromer was dead at Devil's Harwar.

On

the fourth, v/e dropped

bury him
but
a

Ave

directly, in the

down

hope of doing

were disappointed

for

it

tacle

it

with decency,

having contrived to

coffin of old boards, the corpse

fore

before the place, to

dropped through

make
it

be-

reached the grave, and exhibited a shocking spec-

we

nevertheless found

means

go through the

to

rest

of the interment with some decorum, having covered


over Avith a

hammock by

three vollies with

a pall; then

regaled the officers Avith a

and once more took a

glass of Avine,

fired

the troops that had strength to carry

all

This being over,

arms.

Avay of

it

farcAvell

of Devil's

HarAvar.

On the sixth,
to acquaint

having

first Avritten

him that the

Rochelle, and that

rebels

to Colonel

Fourgeoud,

had passed above La

had found a spot

for a

magazine at

Barbacoeba, I informed him also of the death of


lieutenant,

Mr. Stromer

who had been an

To

Tliis

I Avill

and recommended

officer of hussars, for

give the reader

HarAvar,

some idea of

my

my

serjeant,

advancement.

this spot called Devil's

here take the opportunity to describe

place was formerly a plantation, but

is

it.

noAv entirely

occupied

oa//^//t//; o/f n ^J4^/o Oa/^/^/x


f^i^ of//i^..^^j^;f^J:z^^z^tZj J^a^

////"

'

^'fT^/z/r// ' y^M/rarj, r<>//, ///^f /////,/

f.m.tU'it.

/^ttJ>tLi-Jit,i

D.-cSj-^tyitt,

hy .A.folmyon. S/Pitui:^

/y

(,////" //r////M /?

itiiirch i',ir<l

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
occupied by the military,

m^Iio

keep here a

and

which makes

dry,

it

post, to defend

The

the upper parts of the river Cottica,

elevated

soil is

the more remarkable that

be so extremely unwholesome, yet such

it

165

it

certainly

here hundreds of soldiers have been buried.

should

is

It lies

and

on the

you go upwards, and had formerly

right side of the river as

a path of communication with the river Pirica, on which

were a few military guards

but

this

is

now little frequented,

and quite overgrown.

The

buildings on Devil's

Harwar are

pina or manicole-tree ; which


using

it

made

of the

and the manner of

for houses, &c. I shall afterwards

attempt to de-

but now must content myself with only saying, that

this

post the buildings consist of a dwelling-house for

scribe

on

tree,

all

the commanding-officer, with four very good rooms


other for the subalterns
soldiers

roomy
is

and an hospital
but

this is

tualling magazine,

which

for the sick,

There

proper

is

is

also a

which had been

The

it

and

never

powder and

vic&:c.

Society, troops feed


this place, for the

here was also at this time a cow,

allotted for the rangers after BoeccoAv

was taken, but the


She had now a

large

a bakehouse,

a flock of sheep, pigs, and poultr}^ at


:

is

necessary, as

kitchens,

besides a well with fresh water.

use only of the hospital

an-

a good lodge for the private

no more than

without inhabitants.

calf,

feast

had not been kept at

and afforded milk

their tea, &c. but for us

this place.

for the officers to

poor fellows in the barges there


was-

NARRATIA'E OF AN

IGG

Mas notliing at

of the kind.

all

may

add, that some of

the officers had also httle gardens here, which afforded

them

sakid, &c.

The circumstance which


healthy, in

my

opinion,

On

the seventh,

where

barley

concluding

it

It Avas,

landing on the south shore

soldiers to

cook

their

beef and

be shot by the enemy

as well to

at once, as to be gradually

the Charon.

chigoes

in that station.

make a

my own

at all hazards, for

so un-

arrived again at Cormoetibo Creek,

I resolved to

and the multitudes of

rest,

abound

or sand-fleas which

Harwar

the myriads of musquitoes that

is

prevent the people from

renders Devil's

consumed

however, a

to death

on board

difficult task to find

the

smallest spot for the purpose, the whole of that shore

being so very marshy, and over-grown with every kind of

miderwood, that we could scarcely put our new project


in execution

at last,

till

my

negroes having

made a tem-

porary kind of bridge, to step from the yawl upon a small

speck of dry ground, and having formed a


manicole leaves to keep off the

keep

in a

fire,

and were

we were on board
tion,

the Charon.

since

we found means

to

more comfortable than

Our danger

in this situa-

an old rebel settlement was not very

this place,

this

name from

far

which was called Pinneburgh, from a

neighbouring creek

ed

infinitely

shed of

however, was certainly greater than in our former

station

from

rain,

slight

though others allege that

it

obtain-

the sharp pins stuck in the ground, like


croAV-

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

167

crow-feet, or chevaux de frize, with which the rebels

had

formerly fortified and defended

this

had been demolished,

village

rebels

the

still

frequently visited

yams and casadas

it.

Notwithstanding

was

it

Avell

kno^vn that the

spot, to pick

tlie

(whicli the

up some of

ground continued,

in

its

uncultivated state, to produce) for a temporary subsistence.


I

was indeed almost absolutely convinced that the

who had
were at

lately passed

above

La

moment encamped

this

rebels,

Rochelle in Patamaca,

at the

above spot Piune^

burgh, and ready to comuiit some depredations on the

on the

estates

on

selves;

river Cottica or Pirica, if not to attack our-

account

this

always kept double sentinels

round the landing-place, and gave orders that no men


should be allowed to speak or

on that

spot, in order that

and

ling of a leaf,

make

an}'

kind of noise while

we might hear

so obviate our

the smallest rust-

danger by vigilance and

alacrity.

On

the 8th

my

other officer, Macdonald,

fell sick,

but

refused to be sent to Devil's Harwar, as he would not suffer

me
I

to

be

left

quite by myself.

have said that we had no surgeon, but carried with

us a parcel of medicines, which consisted of emetics, cathartics,

use.

to the

At

and powders, of which

knew not

the proper

their desire, however, I daily distributed

men, who, loading

provisions,

and using no

for art to assist nature.

their

them

stomachs with heavy

exercise,

salt

had sometimes occasion

But these briny meals of pork


and

NARRATIVE OF AN

168

CHAP,
^^^'

and

sions

for,

were much more

insisted

in a tropical country than fresh provi-

wholesome food

by a most curious theory, he asserted that the

corrupted in the stomach by the heat, whereas the

latter

Unfortunately for

underwent a proper digestion.

otliers

us,

Fourgeoud

beef, Colonel

there were but few on board either the Cerberus or

the Charon Avhose stomachs were

such food.

had

some

also

a state to digest

in

on board the barge,

plasters

but these were soon expended by the running

which the whole crew was covered


accounted

The

scratch

where the

air

is

immediately becomes a running

sore.

best antidote and cure for such complaints in this

country

is

next best

lemon or lime

mode

acid,

of treatment

but
is

this

we had

not.

instant they are received, to cover

wetted with

or

spirits,

The

never to expose an open

M'ound, or even the smallest scratch, to the air

may

easily

invisible animalculee, the

impregnated with myriads of


smallest

was

aaid this

climate,

since in this

for,

ulcers, with

but the

them with grey paper

any kind of moisture, so that

stick to the skin.

For

my own

part,

no

man

it

could

enjoy a better state of health than I continued to enjo}^

wearing nothing but


loose at the collar

my

long trowsers, and checked shirt

and turned up

in the sleeves.

Nay,

even when the sun was not too hot,

and twice every day continued

plunge into the water

by

these

means

I ^v^as

to

stripped

always cool and clean

used a cheering glass of wine, having


1

first

all

together,
:

I also daily

hung

it

a few

fathoms

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
fathoms under water, which rendered

it

169

much more

cool

and pleasant.

During

all

must not

forget the high

which was afforded us one day by a few mar-

gratification

cusas that

these hardships, I

we found

which had been

in this place,

standing ever since the estate,

many

left

years ago, had been

There was indeed but one single old

destroyed.

there

tree,

should rather say a shrub, for the plant which bears them

more properly under

falls

fruit

lour

is

This delicious

that description.

of an oval form, and of an orange or golden co-

the blossom resembling the passion flower.

commonly

but some

larger,

less

than a hen's egg, and are

broken open as one would break an egg

they are then

found to inclose an ash-coloured succulent


This

small seeds.

mixed with
it

is

acid, of

They are

sipped out of the

shell,

jelly, full

of

being sweet

an exquisite flavour, and so cool that

reminds one of ice marmalade.

Here we remarked a
particularly

variety of beautiful butterflies,

some of an azure

blue,

which are exceedingly

and between the showers skimmed and hovered

large,

amongst the green boughs,

to

which

their ultramarine

hue, brightened by the sun, bore the most enchanting


contrast

but as

staid here, I

could not catch one of them while I

must defer the

farther description to another

part of the work.

This evening we heard the sound of a drum, Avhich we

Vol.

I.

could


NARRATIVE OF AN

170

CHAP,
^'"

could suppose to be no other than that of the rebels


nevertheless

we determined

tuals ashore,

still

to

conthme dressing our

vie-

keeping on our guard, according to the

advice of Mr. Klynhams.

On

the 9th Mr.

on seeing

me

he seemed to

Macdonald was much worse

we

at reading that

this forlorn station

now

expecting

all did,

relieved from our horrid situation.

on

however,

receive a letter from Colonel Fourgeoud,

revive, as

mortification,

to

be

But what was our

we were

to continue

still

This letter was accompanied by

a present of fish-hooks and tackle, to make up for the


deficiency of other refreshments
visions,

which began daily to get both worse and


Timeo Danaeos

The

and, indeed, of salt pro-

receipt of such

et

dona

unwelcome

less

ferentes.

intelligence

made

the

whole crew declare they were sacrificed for no manner


of purpose
words.

Ah

while the negroes sighed, pronouncing the

! poty^

backera

Oh

poor Europeans

By

the distribution however of a few tamarinds, oranges, le-

mons, and Madeira wine, which were by


sent

me by my

could not

much

some

last

long

my

relief.
:

oflScers,

But

but also to

this

my

means
droop-

cheering sun-shine

and the day following we were as

distressed as ever,
1

opportunity

best friend at Paramaribo, I found

to impart, not only to

ing soldiers,

this

when

had once more recourse


to

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

to the nimble inhabitants of the forest,

my gun

two nionkies with

171

and brought down

from the top of the mangroves,

where they were sporting in flocks consisting of some


hundreds.

On

the 11th, I sent two

men

On

same evening we again heard the drums.

the

lowing day, at noon,

and

sick to the hospital,

the

fol-

were disturbed by a hurricane

Ave

the Charon broke loose from her anchors, and was driven
ashore, her upper works being terribly

stumps of

damaged by

&c. that hung over the

trees,

river,

the

while the

water from the clouds broke in upon us like a torrent, and


I

expected no

On

less

than a shipwreck.

the 15th the other officer. Lieutenant

came doAvn

sick

Baron Owen,

from the Cerberus, and at

his request I

ventured to send him down to Paramaribo.

now

ceived another letter from Colonel Fourgeoud, with a

money
was

for the

little

men to purchase refreshments, where nothing

be met with

to

re-

but not a word intimatinsr that we

were to be relieved.

On

the 20th I received a feport, that the Cerberus,

having only four private


at

La

men

left,

had

retired to the post

Rochelle; and, on the 21st, I sent two of

to her assistance,

my men

and ordered her back to her former

station.

now was myself at

the whole

felt

last

attacked with a fever, and upon

myself in a truly distressed condition


z 2

de-

prived

NARRATIVE OF AN

172

prived by sickness of my two only officers, and

My men

upon the

Harwar

Devil's

number of

three stations

together) melted

{viz.

down

my serjeant.

the two barges and

from the

to fifteen,

forty-two, without a surgeon, or refreshment,

surrounded with a black


of relentless enemies

forest,

and exposed

to the

who must be formidable

mercy

indeed,

should they be informed by any means of our defenceless

The remaining few

situation.
tliey

were, w^ith truth, declaring

were doomed to destruction; insomuch, that they

could with difficulty be prevented from mutiny, and from

proceeding

my

down

the river Cottica with the

Charon against

orders.

my own

For

In

easiness.

to have

part, I

fact,

was not altogether

a few troops from

free

from un-

quarters ought

all

marched against the enemy, when they crossed

the Patamaca Creek

Harwar, and the

that

is,

river Pirica

from

La

Rochelle, Devil's

when, being assailed

from three quarters, the rebels might have been,


entirely routed, at least severely

sumption

at

once

if

not

punished for their pre-

not to speak ofthe happy effect Avhich such a

check must have had in saving the

lives

and property of

those victims, who, after such incursions, are generally

devoted to their rage.

On
the
to

the 23d I felt myself rather better

fits

and between

of the fever shot a couple of large black monkies

make some

broth, to supply the

want of

fresh provi-

sions

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
sions

but as the destruction of one of these animals was

attended with such circumstances, as for ever after had


ahiiost deterred

beg leave
on the

me from
them

to relate

going a monkey-hunting,

happened

as they

Seeing

and being

companions,

his

me

made

side of the river in the canoe, the creature

a halt from skipping after

must

perched on a branch that hung over the water, examined

me

with attention, and the strongest marks of curiosity

mc

no doubt, taking

for

own

a giant of his

species

he chattered prodigiously, and kept dancing and

Avhile

shaking the bough on which he rested with incredible

and

strength

scene

but

may

I seized

hands to end

hit his

I laid

my

from the

doAv n

piece to

still

affecting

tree into the

him by the

his

torment,

tail,

and taking

continued

manner

alive,

his

till

account: for

follow

me

his

dying

in

both

but the poor

and looked at

me

that can be conceived, I

he was drowned,

it

swung him round, and

other means to end this murder, than to hold

water

my

never again be a witness to such a

head against the side of the canoe

creature

most

time

The miserable animal was not dead, but mortally

wounded.

my

this

and brought him

shoulder,

stream

At

agility.

Avhile
little

my
eyes

with seeming reproach,

heart
still

till

in the

knew no

him under

felt sick

on

continued to

their

light

gra-

dually forsook them, and the wretched animal expired.


I

felt

so

taste of

much on

him nor

his

this occasion,

that I could neither

companion, when they were dressed,


though

NARRATIVE OF AN

174

CHAP,

though

VII.

saw that thej afforded

some others a dehcious

to

rejDast.

That monkies,

may
but

be accounted

easily
fruits,

nuts, eggs,

my opinion,

all

when young,

especially

for,

young

no bad food,

since they feed

&c.

birds,

young quadrupeds

in the

on nothing

and indeed, in

are eatable

one compares those which are killed

but when

woods

to those

and disgusting creatures that disgrace the

filthy

no wonder that they should disgust the

As

mach.
roasted,

and good
little

are

for the wild ones, I

least delicate sto-

have eaten them boiled,

and stewed, and found


:

streets,

their flesh white, juicy,

the only thing that disgusted

me

was, their

hands and their heads, which when dressed,

being-

deprived of the skin, appeared like the hands and the


of a young infant.

skull

there are in

Guiana many

have already observed that

different species,

from the large

ourang-outang to the very small sarcawinkee.


mer, however,

as for the latter, I shall de-

him on another occasion, and

is

called in

That which

I shot the

Surinam micoo

it is

shall only, for the

which

present, give an account of those


this cruise.

for-

never have seen, nor heard described,

while I Avas in this countr}'


scribe

The

met with on

second instant

is

what

nearly the size of a

fo;c,

and of a reddish grey colour, with a black head and very


long

tail.

Those

I killed

ceedingly beautiful, and

than the former

on the tenth were indeed ex-

much more

delicate

when

dressed

they are called the keesee-keesee by the


inha-

L<'n<irii J'uHi.^t'.t lh:'':-2"^'i-;!i:\.l'yj.jrlin.,'f^n

.Si fiiiii^

iytt,i-tit

Y,m1

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
are about the

inhabitants,

The

astonishingly nimble.
dish,

and the

tail,

which

of a rabbit, and most

size

colour of their

long,

is

to

body

is

red-

black at the extremity

is

The head

but the fore-feet are orange colour.

very

is

round, the face milk white, with a round black patch in


the middle, in which are the
this

mouth and

disposition of the features give

of a mask

the nostrils

the eyes are black, and remarkably lively.

skipping from tree to

like a little

regularly following

army, with their young ones on

their backs, not unlike little knapsacks.

of travelling

is

thus

belonging to the next

that

it

it

bounds

tree,

to the extremity of

most astonishing

often at a

never once misses

its

aim

the others one

their little ones

on

by one,

their backs,

stick fast to the mother, follow their leader,

perform the same leap with the greatest seeming

and

safety

and

facility

they also are remarkable for climbing up the

Bebees or natural ropes, with which


are interwoven.
afford the

one

and with such wonderful activity and precision,

and even the females, with


which

Their manner

the foremost walks to the extremity

of a bough, from which

distance,

sides of the

but mostly about mid-

tree,

day, and in very numerous bodies,

each other

and

the appearance

it

These monkies we saw daily pass along the


rivers,

of the forest

These nebees groAv in such a manner as to

appearance at

The monkies,

many parts

am

ones sucking, like the

first

told,

human

sight of

fleet at

anchor.

have sometimes two young


species.

have been a witness

NARRATIVE OF AN

176
ness

how

these animals towards sun-set ascend to the tops

of the palm-trees, some of Avhich are above one hundred


feet in height,

where they sleep

The

branches.

keesee-keesee

cate fond creature, that


favourite,

when

drolleries,

it is

it

wears a

it

is

is

safe in the large diverging

such a beautiful and

by many people kept


Besides

silver chain.

remarkable

for its

its

deli-

as

mimic

good-nature and chir-

rupping voice, which pronounces peefeeco peeteeco without

They

intermission.

are easily tamed, and are taken

means of a strong glue made by the Indians, which


something

The
given

like

by
is

our European bird-lime.

other species, of the shooting of which I have just


the

The only

monkee-monkee.

of them

is,

account,

horrid

my

were called by

facts

which

negroes

can relate farther

that they are in size between the two former

described, and

all

over black.

not to omit, Avhich


ing I saw from

my

is

One circumstance

very remarkable,

barge a

viz.

ought

that one morn-

monkey of this kind come down

to the water's edge, rinsing his mouth, and appearing to

clean his teeth with one of his fingers

vered by one of the slaves,

he was

who pointed him out

first

to

disco-

my great

amusement.

Here

I shall

end the subject

for the present, after

that the above animals are sociable,

very tenacious of

life,

adding

and that they are

as I have shewn.

It

is

almost su-

perfluous to rnention, that the usual distinction between

what are

called

monkies and apes,

consists in this, that

the

'

;;

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
the

first

have

of which the latter are divested

tails,

all

but never having met with


I believe

description,

177

Guiana any of the

in

them more

to

latter

be the inhabitants of

Asia and Africa, than of the part of the new world distinguished by the

The monkies

name of South America.

are often mischievous near the plantations, Avhere they

commit depredations on the


I but one time have

As

am

sugar-canes, &c. yet of this

been a witness.

speaking of the animals found in

this part

the country, I must not omit the otters here, called

which

by

their disagreeable noise

bious, they live mostly


i^i

on

length, grey-coloured,

fish

and

all

as they are

claws

the head

kers like a cat


ears

upon

the

over spotted with white

and armed with

round, the nose beset with whis-

the eyes are small, and placed above the

tail is

This animal moves aukwardly

very short.

land, but in the rivers proceeds with great velocit3\

In Guiana
are

is

amphi-

they are about three feet

their legs are short, they are web-footed,


five

tavoits,

Cormoetibo Creek frequently attracted our

in the

attention

of

much

it is

said there

larger,

is

but these

another species of otters, which


I

never saw-

Notwithstanding the favourable appearances of the preceding day,

was, on the 24th, exceedingly

not being able to


the black

sit

up

in

boy Quaco now

my hammock,

luider

I.

which

lay, crying for his master,

on the following day the poor lad himself fell


Vol.

indeed,

ill

Aa

sick

and

at the

same

NARRATIVE OF AN

178

same time

to Devil's

Harwar.

was

also obliged to send three

As misfortunes

often

I received, at this fatal period, the

Mr. Ow^er, was

that the officer,

on

his

My ensign,

Paramaribo, died next

to

now

crowd together,

melancholy account

also dead, having expired

Mr. Cottenburgh, who had since

was now to be expected.


I

in a fever

passage downwards at the Alida estate, where he

was buried.
gone

men

lay, forsaken

friend to comfort

by

and

for

myself no better

In the height of a burning fever

all

my

officers

and men, without a

me, and without assistance of any kind,

except what the poor remaining negro slaves could afford

me,

boiling a

))y

situation the reader

make some

water to

little

may judge

In

tea.

this>

of the consolation which

was afforded me, the very evening when these accumulated misfortunes

seemed to threaten our extinction, by

the receipt of an order from the colonel, to

come down

with both the barges to Devil's Harwar, where I was again


to take post

on shore, and

who

Society service,

relieve

with his

Captain Orzinga, of the

men was

to proceed to

La

Rochelle in Patamaca, to strengthen the troops already


there.

Ill

my spirits,
to the

me

as I was, this

had such a powerful

effect

that I immediately ordered the Cerberus

mouth of

on

down

the Cormoetibo Creek, where she joined

that evening.

On the

26th,

we bade

farewel to this destructive place

and having weighed anchor, rowed down


9

as far as

;,

Barbacceba.

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

179

coeba, during which time a circumstance happened, which


will

probably prove more entertaining than the repeated

accounts of sickness and deaths.

As

was

ysms of

my

my hammock,

resting in
fever,

between the parox-

about half way between Cormoetibo

and Barbacoeba, while


the sentinel called to

Charon

the

me

that he

down,

Avas floating

had seen and challenged

something black and moving in the brushwood on the


beach, which gave no answer; but which, from

he concluded must be a man.


anchor

immediately dropped

and having manned the canoe,

stepped into

it,

and rowed up

Here we

the sentinel.

as I suspected

to

it

all

ill

to the place

as I was, I

mentioned by

stepped ashore to reconnoitre,

be no other than a rebel spy, or a

straggling party detached


slaves, of the

its size,

by

name of David,

tlie

enemy

declared

it

but one of

my

was no negro, but

a large amphibious snake, Avhich could not be

far

from

the beach, and I might have an opportunity of shooting


it if I

pleased.

To

chnation, fi'om the

my

however, I had not the least in-

uncommon

size

of the creature, from

weakness, and the difficulty of getting through the

thicket, which

and

this,

seemed impenetrable

therefore ordered all of

them

to the water's

to return

edge

on board. The

me liberty to step forward and shoot it


himself, assuring me it could not be at any great distance,
and warranting me against all danger. This declaration
inspired me with so much pride and emulation, that I
negro then asked

A a

deter-

NARRATIVE OF AN

ISO

determined to take his


vided he Avould point
the hazard,

he dared

if

self,

and blow out


this the

my gun

to

my

at

move,

side,

negro cheerfully agreed

m3-self ; prc-^

from which

swore

and having loaded

we proceeded

with a ball-cartridge,

more loaded

kill it

brains.

David

cuf>-

and a marine following, with

ting a path with a bill-hook,

three

and

should level the piece at him-

own

his

advice,

out to me, and be responsible for

it

by standing

that

To

first

keep

firelocks to

in readiness.

We

had

mud and water, the


uncommon degree of

hot gone above twenty yards through


negro looking every way
vivacity
out, "
rolled

and attention

when

Me see snakee !"


up under the

Avith

and

tinctly perceived the

me

not above sixteen

its

eyes,

from

emit sparks of

starting behind

their

it

this

moving

uncommon
I

fire.

and rubbish of the

was some time before

head of
feet,

me, he called

in effect there lay the animal,

fallen leaves

and so well covered, that

an

trees

I dis-

monster, distant from


its

forked tongue, while

brightness,

now, resting

my

appeared to

piece

upon a

branch, for the purpose of taking a surer aim, fired

but

missing the head, the ball went through the body, Avhen
the animal struck round,
as to cut
cility

away

all

of a scythe

caused the

mud

derable distance.

underwood around him with the

the

mowing
and

and with such astonishing force

grass

and by flouncing

dirt to fly over

Of

this

fa-

his tail,

our heads to a

consif-

proceeding however we were-

not torpid spectators, but took to our heels, and crowded


into

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
The negro now

into the canoe.

the charge, assuring

me

me

intreated

isi

renew

to

the snake would be quiet in a few

minutes, and at any rate persisting in the assertion that he

was neither able nor inclined

pursue us

to

he supported by walking before me,


to

And

fire.

should be ready

till

make

thus I again undertook to

especially as he said that his

first

only proceeded from a desire to

found the snake a

little

but very quiet, with

his

starting

make room

removed from

his

head as before,

which opinion

the

trial,

backwards had
for

me.

now

former station,

Ij'ing

the fallen leaves, rotten bark, and old moss.

out

among

I fired at it

immediately, but with no better success than the other

time

and now, being but

such a cloud of dust and


whirlwind, and

canoe

made

slightly
dirt,

us once

as

wounded, he sent up
I

never saw but in a

more suddenly

where now, being heartily

tired of the exploit, I

gave orders to row towards the barge


intreating

me

good

eftect,

and

lost

him down

to the

o\u'

that he was

this successful conclusion,

no time

last

attempt,

pieces at once,

now by one

of us

ran leaping with

in bringing the boat-rope, in order to

canoe

by

David, who was made completely

shot through the head.

happy by

still

Thus, having once more disco-

vered the snake, we discharged both


this

but David

induced to make a third and

company with him.

and with

to permit him to kill the animal, I was,

his persuasions,

in

retreat to our

but

this

jo}--,

drag

again proved not a very

easy undertaking, since the creature, notwithstanding

its

being

chap.

NARRATIVE OF AN

'

182

being mortally wounded,


twist about, in such a

any person

for

to

still

continued to writhe and

manner

as rendered it dangerous

The

approach him.

negro, however,

having made a running noose on the rope, and after some


attempts to

fruitless

make an approach, threw

head with much dexterity


the rope,

we dragged him

and how,

all

to the beach,

he kept swimming

lish for

an

like

eel

and

my

astonishment

all

him

Being

to

still

having no

the negroes declared

be but a young one come to about

upon measuring
its

and

tied

re-

such a shipmate on boai-d, whose length (notwith-

standing to

and

over his

taking hold of

the stern of the canoe, to take him in tow.


alive,

it

it

its

my

might then be about twelve years

to

half growth) I found

to be twenty-two feet

thickness about that of

it

and some

inches,

black boy Quaco,


old,

who

and round whose

waist I since measured the creature's skin.

Being arrived alongside of the Charon, the next consideration was,

when

it

how

to dispose of this

was at length determined to bring him on shore

at Barbacoeba, to have
oil,

&c.

immense animal

In order to

him skinned, and take out the

effect this purpose, the

negro David

having climbed up a tree with the end of the rope,

down

let it

over a strong forked bough, and the other negroes

hoisted

up the

snake, and suspended

him from the

tree.

This done, David, with a sharp knife between his teeth,

now

left

was

still

the tree,
twisting,

and clung

fast

and began

upon the monster, which

his operations

by ripping

it

up,

M&rAx'

'//// ,t/-n,
///////-'

"/'y

u/p

.^//r^u., '-^ynaA-, ^^>/


/y /^^j^,!;/^^^
/^/la^i.

i""iiii.rhi,..ii,.i u,,':z''.,ii,x,iy.r..Mui^n,i;rni.ici

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
down

up, and stripjiing


I

183

Though

the skin as he descended.

perceived that the animal was no longer able to do him

emotion see a

injury, I confess I could not Avithout

any

man

stark naked, black

and

legs

and bloody, clinging with arms


This

round the slimy and yet living monster.

labour, however, was not without

its

use, since he not only

dexterously finished the operation, but provided me, besides the skin, with

or rather

more.

oil,

above four gallons of

fine clarified fat,

though there was wasted perhaps

much

as

This I delivered to the surgeons at Devil's Harwar,

for the use of the

wounded men

in the hospital, for

I received their hearty thanks, it

being considered, parti-

When

cularly for bruises, a very excellent remedy.


signified

my

surprise to see the snake

was deprived of

his intestines

and

which

still

living, after

him

till

after sun-set.

in slices, in order to dress

and

he

Caramaca, the old

skin,

negro, v/hether from experience or tradition, assured

he would not die

me

The negroes now cut

feast

upon him, they

all

declaring that he was exceedingly good and wholesome

but to their great mortification


currence, and

I refused to give

we rowed down with

my

con-

the skin to Devil's

Harwar.

Of
tish

this species several skins are preserved

and Mr. Parkinson's Museums.

Westley Lyhoija, and Boa


to

which publication

It

is

in the Bri-

called

by Mr.

in the British Encyclopaedia,

I refer the reader for

a perfect ac-

count, and an excellent engraving, of this wonderful creature,

NARRATIVE OF AN

184
t-tire,

v/hicli in

length,

when

the colony of

grown,

full

and more than four

is

Surinam

said to be

Ahoma.

Its

sometimes forty

feet,

is

called

feet in circumference

greenish black on the back

its

colour

a fine brownish yellow on

the sides, and a dirty white under the heWy

Its

head

broad and

is

and

the back

pure

sides being spotted with irregular black rings, with a

white in the middle.

is

flat,

small in

proportion to the body, with a large movith, and a double

row of teeth
ed

has

it

t\'/o

bright prominent eyes

is

cover-

over with scales, some about the size of a shilling

all

and under the body, near the


claws like cockspurs, to help

tail,
it

an amphibious animal, that

marshy

where

places,

it

lies

armed with two strong

in seizing its prey.


it

is,

coiled

is

low and

delights in

up

It

like a rope,

and

concealed under moss, rotten timber, and dried leaves, to


seize its prey
is

by

surprise,

which from

not active enough to pursue.

tiger

it is

immense bulk

AVhen hungry,

vour any animal that comes within


ferent whether

its

its

reach,

it Avill

and

is

itself

indif-

by the help of its

claws, so that the creature cannot escape,

it

breaks,

by

till

it

to

make

it

disappears

situation,

its

every bone in the animal's body, which

then covers over with a kind of slime or slaver from

mouth,

de-

a sloth, a wild boar, a stag, or even a

round which having twisted

irresistible force,

it

slide

and

after this,

at last gradually sucks

it

its

it

in,

the ahoma cannot shift

its

on account of the great knob or knot which the

swallowed prey occasions in that part of the body where


it

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
it

rests

till it is

dio-ested
a

for

then

till

would hinder the

it

During that time

snake from sliding along the ground.


the ahoma wants no other subsistence.

of negroes being devoured by

account

to credit the

within

its

for

as

flesh,

which

any other animal.


is

have been told

chance to come

thej^

would

am disposed

as certainly seize

do not apprehend that

very white, and looks like that offish,

any respect pernicious


no objection

it

animal, and

should

reach when hungry,

them

had

this

i85

to the stomach.

to the negroes eating

I not observed

its

is

in

should have had

it till it

was consumed,

a kind of dissatisfaction anions the

remaining marines, who would not have been pleased with

my giving the negroes


bite of this snake
lieve

it

is

bites at all

the use of the kettle to boil

said not to be

venemous

nor do

its

be-

skin on the bot-

and dried

it

in the sun, sprinkling

with wood-ashes to prevent

it

from corruption,

the canoe,

from any other impulse than hunger.

I shall only add, that having nailed

tom of

The

it.

a friend at Paramaribo, whence

it

it

over

I sent it to

was since sent

to

Holland

as a curiosity.

Plowever extraordinary this account


readers, let

them peruse the

a gentleman

may appear to many

narrative which

in the island of Ceylon,

related

is

who saw a

by

tiger killed

there by a snake he calls the oiiacunda, but in a (juite different manner,

however, that

VoL.

I.

and
this

their

wonder

will cease.

gentleman's relation

is

must add,

so very marvellous.

NARRATIVE OF AN

186

lous, that, notwithstanding Avliat I liave experienced, I

confess

it

very greatly staggered

Tliis business

cruise,

being ended, I also

in order the

power of fascination

am

made an end of

the

next day to assume the command.

* Doctor Bancroft mentions the

faith*.

by dropping down before the Society post Devil's

Harwar,

This

my

must

in

the aboma.

obliged to contradict.

Nov

can

I,

without great

tribute this quality

snake.

difficult}-,

even

at-

to the rattle-

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

CHAP.

IS7

VIIL

Three Estates burnt, and the Inhabitants murdered by the


Rebels

Real Picture

of a March through

of Misery and Distress

the

Woods of Surinam

Specimen

Colonel Four-

geoitd and the remaining Troops leave Paramaribo.

ON

the 27th of August I reUeved Captain Orzinga

with his men, and took the

command

of Devil's

Harwar, having been on board the Charon exactly


in the

six days,

described
plaint

but

fifty-

most Avretched condition that can be

hoped now

to get the better of

by the help of a few refreshments, such

which could not be obtained

my com-

as milk. Sec.

The

in our former situation.

Society troops (above one hundred in number) being to

my empty barges to La Rochclle, in


reviewed my marines, when I found I had

set off next

day

Patamaca,

left

out of

Avith

five officers

three others being dead


corporals,

and

but two, who were both


;

pital

had

me on

army was not more than

two

healthy

the 2d day of last July.

sick),

defend the hos-

the ammunition and

on a spot where
B b 2

serjeant,

fift^^-four

sufficient to

(which was crowded with

victualling magazine, &c.

one

also only

out of

fifteen privates,

men, %vho embarked with


This

sick, the

lately

had been
kept

11
^

p.

^i^-

NARRATIVE OF AN

]S8

kept three hundred soldiers, particularly while the enemy

were certainly lurking not

which, the Society Captain reinforced

The next evening he

men-

his

consideration of

far off: in

me

with twenty of

entertained

me and my

two subalterns with a supper oi fresh meat, both


and surprise

boiled, to our great comfort

my

roast

and

but which, to

unspeakable mortification, proved to be the individual

poor cow with her

calf,

for a little relief

as concerted
take.

It

on

whom we had built all

appeared that one of

between them, had shot

Thus did Captain Orzinga,

for

it

our hopes

his sentinels,

by a

wilful mis-

the sake of a

gratification, deprive us all of that lasting

mentary

mo-

comfort

on which we had so much depended, and of which we had


so

need, being altogether emaciated for want of

much

wholesome and

On
to

nutritive food.

the morning of the 2Sth the Society troops

Patamaca, when, examining the twenty

left

me, they proved

soldiers they

them next day were obliged

and most of

to enter the hospital.

29th, having bastinadoed

my late

pilot for steal-

ing from the soldiers, I dispatched the information to


lonel

Fourgeoud, that

him with
ment.

my weak

Heaven

had taken

now

post,

situation, requested

In the evening two of

All thin2;s

had

to be the refuse of the whole, part with

agues, wounds, ruptures, and rotten limbs,

On the

rowed

Co-

and acquainting

a proper reinforce-

my men died.

beinsr regulated

and

settled, I

in the expectation of getting

some

thanked

rest,

being
still

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
still

extremely weak

and with

tranquillity
closed

lowing

cheering hopes re-

tliese

hammock

tired at ten o'clock at night to nij

isg

but

this

was again of short duration, for having scarcely

my eyes

was awaked by

put into

letter

my

my serjeant,

and the

fol-

hand, sent by an express from

the captain of the militia, or bargcrs in Cottica,

" Sir,

" This

to

is

acquaint you, that the rebels have burnt

" three estates by your side, Suyinghej^d, Peru, and L'Es-

" perance, the ruins of which are


" they have cut the throats of

" that

fell in

their way.

As on

still

all

smoking

and that

the white inhabitants

their retreat they

must

" pass close by where you are posted, be on your guard.


"

am

in haste^

" Your's, &c.


"

(Signed)

Consciovis of
started

up

my

Stoeleman."

defenceless situation, I immediately

and the express who brought the

ing spread the news the

moment

letter

of his landing, there was

no necessity

for beating to arms, since not only the

soldiers Avho

were

and

on

\ve\\,

hands and

the spot.

May

few

but the whole hospital burst out;,

my

opposition, crawling

feet to their arms,

dropped dead upon

several of them, in spite of

their

hav-

never behold

such another scene of

misery and distress! Lame, blind, sick, and wounded, in


the


NARRATIVE OF AN

190

CHAP,

the hope of preserving a wretched existence, rushed

death

i^J^.^^.^^ certain

The\' could

the distressed

to

manded by

tlie

on!}', in

army and navy

upon

a word, be compared
at Carthagena,

com-

Admiral Vernon, Avhom Thomson

British

describes

"

You,

" The miserable scene


"

you, pitying, saw

infant weakness sunk the warrior's

"

The

lip

"

No

pale quivering, and the beamless eye

more with ardour

my own

was

part, I

bright."
'&'

in

a very weakly condition

however, we continued to

add one
our

lie all

lives as

dearly as possible.

we

But

In

ham-

this situation I lost all patience,

and had the

vrrite to

my

my

last

grave, from hardships

conmiander, that (besides what

men

and

for

stood upon the brink of the

want of being properly sup-

the very waiters of the hospital having deserted

on the moment of

my

arrival here,

Our whole number,

twelve men,
7

no enemy ap-

on the whole

had happened)

to

coffin

audacity to

ported

in order to

buried the dead in their

mocks, not having a board to make a


post.

staj^,

number, being determined

to our miserable

in-

night on our arms,

pressed the messenger to

pearing in the morning,

.to

the deep-racking pang, the ghastly form,

ribo.

arm

Saw

during which

sell

Vernon, saw

"

For
deed

To

gallant

who were

and gone

indeed, w'as

to

Parama-

now melted down

to protect twelve buildings,

and
that

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

191

that with no inoie than two very ^'^all cnosts of ammuni-tion,

and no

retreat for the sick, as the barges

were gone

to-Patainaca, and the last canoe dispatched with


ter to

Colonel Fourgcoud

longing to the express,

who

hvA

for I

my

let-

set adrift that be-

book-keeper of a neigh-

^vas a

bouring plantation, in order to prevent him or any other

from making their escape.

In

this situation,

obliged to convert the slaves into soldiers

was now

armed

these I

with a hatchet, not daring to trust them with a firelock.

For

this

whole night we again watched under arms, and in

the morning found two

more of our

little

party dead on

the ground.
I

now began

we were

all

devoted to

men, regardless of

all

order

real v to think
I

destruction, while the

preserv^ation excepted) threw out the

nor can I help remarking

of the rebel negroes,

bitter invec-

Fourgeoud, which

tives against their persecutor,

not prevent

most

who had kept

(self-

tiie

could

generalship

lying quiet

till

the

removal of the Society troops from Devil's Harwar, and


seized the
its

cry

day of

iirst

being guarded only by

in order to

commit

They

estates.

well

their

knew

tlieir

departure, convinced of

my sick

and emaciated

depredations
that

my

on

the

soldiers,

Cottica

force was not sufficient

my own defence:
to my expectation

to pursue them, nay, hardly to stand in


all

this,

while,

howx'scr, was but according

on the contrary,

hatl

my

strength been sutHcient,

they could never have escaped at least from being cut off
in

NARRATIVE OF AN

192
ill

Rio Pirica liad

their retreat, especially if the troops in

acted conjointly with those in Cottica, by patroling the

path between the two

rivers, across

which the rebels were

twice unavoidably obliged to pass.

.On the
ing,

1st

of September we waited once more

and then buried another of my poor men

cannot conceive how any one was able


series

of

climate

toil,

3'et

such a debilitated

in

some

and

morn-

while I yet

to survive

state,

in

such a

a tropical

At length, being

though few.

did,

till

persuaded that the rebels must have past the cordon, without having thought proper to pay us a
I

determined

to let the

visit

when

from the post

and ten men

all

was too

La

their retreat,

remaining few watch no longer,

but permit them to die a natural death.


evening,

on

late, there

At

last,

in the

came down by water

Rochelle to our assistance, one officer

having had but nine

do the duty

left to

at the time of their arrival.

On the 2d another man died and I once more reviewed


my forces, which now amounted exactly to seven marines,
;

the few scarecrows of the Society excepted

however, the

chance of being massacred by the rebels was at

this

time

over, thanks alone to their pusillanimity, or rather their

hurry
I

now

received a letter from Colonel Fourgeoud, con-

me on
me that

doling with

the loss of so

quainting

many good

was to be reinforced

my recommendation my

scijeant,

officers,

ac-

and that on

Mr. de Cabanus, was


appointed

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
appointed an ensign

which gave

me

Macdonald was

sign
I

answered to

down

sent

my

poor en-

very sick to Paramaribo.

that I was obliged to

all this,

and took

pleasure,

place at a very suitable time, since this day

193

him

adding,

that while I remained without reinforcement, I could not

be accountable for what consequences might happen,


place where I was

but sick people

left to

defend a whole river

and even these without

and hourly expiring

nition,

for

Avith

in

none

ammu-

sufficient

want of proper medicines,

or a suro-eon to attend them, there beinsj none here but one


or two surgeon's mates belonging to the troops of the So-

who could do

ciety,

little

more than occasionally

draAV

blood, and cut off a beard or a corn.

On

the 4th w^e buried another of

my

had not one now

the following day another died; and I

remaining

by

viceable,
chigoes

who was not

or

who was not rendered

his feet being swelled

these poor

been accustomed
try.

ill,

to

began now

marines, and on

unser-

with the insects called

men were mostly Germans, who had


a healthy climate in their own coun-

to

be reconciled to putting

my last man

under ground, and almost wishing to leap into the grave


after

him myself; when a barge

arrived from Paramaribo

with the proper reinforcement, ammunition, provisions,


medicines, a surgeon, and an order from

my

chief to trace

out the track of the rebels immediately, on the former

path of communication called the Cordon, between Cottica

and Perica, and

VoL.

I.

to write

him the
c

result

of

my

discoveries

NARRATIVE OF AN

194

he intimated

veries;

he intended to keep

also that

magazines at Devil's Harwar, and that

his

was not to make

use of the spot I had found out for that purpose at Bar'-

bacoeba Creek.

On
ed a

the 6th I prepared to


strength,

little

march

myself, having recover-

on the grand project of discovery, and

then placed the ammunition in the magazine.

As the manner of marching


different

from that

endeavour

Europe,

in

in this

country

I shall, before

is

so very

we

set out,

briefly to describe the nature of these expedi-

tions.

In the

first

place, in

as three or even

two ranks

divisions or platoons
in

Surinam no such thing

thus there

is

is

practicable

no marching by

but the Avhole party being dressed

one rank, face to the

right,

and every man

leader, the negro slaves interspersed

follows his

between the men, in

order to guard their persons as well as what they carry

and

this

manner of marching

is

called Indian

file.

With

a detachment of sixty men, consisting of one captain, two


subalterns, two Serjeants, four corporals, one surgeon,
fifty privates,

twenty negro slaves at

ployed, for the use of

two

rate of
is

be,

whom

shillings sterling a

much greater expcnce


which in

this

least

and

ought to be em-

their masters are paid at the

day by the colony

and

this

than waggons and horses would

country cannot be employed for military

service.

The manner of

interspersing

them amongst the troops


iS'

..

lO

S)

References
Tiro Xeip-oM
One Coiporal

1
V
.'{

One

J'/ir CiTf)faT7i

-'

J/ic Oim/eojt

one Corpoiul

3ar ofBall

>'eri/.-<int

Three

Office/'

atc.c

J,' <p-oe.t-

Privates

Jfed]eme.c,A'ettl^,i-,^ixe.r, Spatie.'-, Sec

iri't/i

T/ave JSi'eijroe.' ivdh

<>

Tuc

Privates
Three jS'etjroe.f
One Private

Tuo
JO One

ta

,)

Cartridqes

J'n\\ttej'

Suho/iiTn

Tuo

Twelve

Two Pru

if

<!1

Net^ro ii'it/i a
J^ujhl rnviUe.c
One Coiynrii/

-I

i:

fath
Van

or conmiandino OiTicer

J'lio /'/y'i'ii/ey

10 One

:i

Six Tiirativ.

0'

above March.,

tlie

hooks
.

Subiiltttyi

Priidtiv ,to cover the Fowder


-d Xetjro iift/t 1/ JSo.v of Hull Otrtridges

.9

to

'->"

to cf^iat a
^- tiro 1'rivatc.i- to covei- tfic

liiH

iiitii

Tnn

.1

'/

13

12

Jl

kc

Beef, SaltForJc

I'olt

uitfi

Bhich Bread or Husk Bjsiidl


.

Kill-den'l.orScwliian

Ne^ijroes. with

o^V

Piivatc

11

One A'et/r-o, with the Oitplains Provisions


Ji One Pn\ate

J3

Xcipro with Proi-isions for tlie tieo Subaltem


J4 One Private
1.7 Tliree JS^eip'oes to carry the Sick X.- Voimded
16 .Civ Privates.
(hie

p^

Officer's.

17 One .(et\;eant
IS One Corporal

two

Marks

Ptii'ote.e. to

cover

Hear..

tlic

....

be cut on the Tree s on a March

to

A +
Fouracoudii-

-^r*"

Society's

Column

Sid).

If^ Cohwni

Sub

2'^

T>

2^ Dem,Sul>.E

Bitt)}.

Suh.B

3^ Ditto,
3" DHto

Sub.

Sub. F.
T.Cmdtr Soj/pt

I'/'f/^Vf'/

//^//y/ ////(/

London.

PiJili.t/icd

///f

//rtv/t ^-Z

Ditrj-:' ijp hvJ.Johii.tmi

STJ'atUs

'

'//t
v/////^////

CJiuiv/i

yant.

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
is

as follows

The foremost

are generally two negroes,

make a

with bill-hooks to cut a way, so as to

men

path, with one corporal and two


front,

practicable

to reconnoitre the

and, in case of necessity, to give the alarm

then one subaltern,


van.

195

Then

divisions
privates,

six privates,

follows, at

in the first,

some

and a corporal, form the

and then again

is

two

distance, the corps in

one captain, one corporal, twch e

one surgeon, and two negroes

der; in the second,

and

to carry the

pow-

one serjeant and twelve privates;

follows, at

some

distance, the rear guard,

consisting of one subaltern, one serjeant, one corporal,

and

eighteen privates, with sixteen negroes to carry the medicines, beef, bread, spades, axes,

are carried.

The

three last of

two men at a distance,


attack, as the others

ends the

rum, &c.

all

my

the sick also

being one corporal and

to give the alarm in case of

had orders

to

do

in the front

an

m hich

train.

Every thing being ready, according


for

to the

above

rules,

small party, which consisted of myself, an officer

of the Society, Mr. Hertsbergh, one surgeon's mate, one


guide, two Serjeants, two corporals, forty privates, and only
eight negro slaves to cut open the passage, and carry the

baggage, we faced to the right at

and

sallied forth into the

for the Perica river

six o'clock in

the morning,

woods, keeping our course directly

and having marched

till

about eleven

o'clock on the Cordon, I discovered, as 1 had expected,

the track of the rebels by the marks of their footsteps in


c c 2

the

NARRATIVE OF AN

196

mud, by

the

the broken bottles, plantain-shells, &c. and

found that by appearance

it

bore towards Pinneburgh,

already mentioned.

had now indeed found the

AVe continued our march

flown.

we

nest,
till

but the birds were

when

eight o'clock,

arrived at the Society post Soribo, in Perica, in a

most

shocking condition, having Avaded through water and mire

above our

hips,

climbed over heaps of fallen

crept underneath on our

trees,

This, however,

bellies.

and

was not

the worst, for our flesh was terribly mangled and torn

the thorns, and stung by the Patat


wassTf,

This last

or wild bees.

an English blue-bottle
different

swarm wild

an

and

wassi/-

an insect not larger than

is

of a black colour, quite

in the forest, Avhere they build in hollow treea


their nests

being sometimes as

inflated cow's bladder, to

which they bear na

bad resemblance, both

in colour

in being less regularly oval

nest

ants,

they are never kept in hives, but

or between the branches


large as

and

fly,

from our bees

is

lice,

by

and smoothness, except

from these abodes (when the

and the branches are inadvertently touched) thousands

of warriors sally forth

and

this little flying

army

is

ex-

tremely formidable, pitching always by instinct on the


eyes, lips,

lodged

and

hair,

their stings generally cause a fever,

parts so very

much

hours ; their honey


their wax, but
11

whence they cannot

easily

and

be

dis-

swell the

that they occasion blindness for several


is

of a dark-brown colour, and so

gummy, being both


.

of

little

is

value.

The

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
The worst of our

however, was the fatigue

sufferings,

of marching in a burning sun, and the


total darkness, holding
ins;

ten

left

men

two hours in

last

each other by the hand

and hav-

behind, some with aoues, some stuno*

blind,

and some with

in the

most hospitable manner received

commanding

197

officer, I

their feet full

went

to

of chigoes.

Being

by the

at Soribo

my hammock

very

of a

ill

fever.

On

the following morning I felt myself better for

night's rest
to

but neither myself nor

my men

my

were able

march back, wherefore the other captain sent a small

party of his soldiers to pick up the poor marines I had


lost the

day before, and of

seven, carried in

whom

hammocks

tied

they brought with them


to poles, each

by two

negroes, the other three having scrambled back to Devil's

Harwar.

During our stay here


geovid,

couched

senses

would do to

all

such terms as few people in their


their

commanders,

viz.

that I

full

had

had had support

in

off the

enemy's

retreat, instead

of finding their

but that now

knocked up

been since

told,

march, we

to

all

left

was too

no purpose.

incensed him, as

the highest degree.

my

Colonel Four-

letter to

that if I

footsteps only

party

wrote a

found the path

have cut

in

Being

it is

This

time I might

late,

and the

letter, I

have

easy to suppose, in

sufficiently refreshed to

renew

Soribo on the 9th, at four o'clock in


the

NARRATIVE OF AN

198

CHAP,
^^]^

the morning,
,

and

at four o'clock p.m. arrived, after in-

describable sufferings,

mud

with
torn

covered over

at Devil's Ilarwar,

and blood, and our

legs

by the thorns and branches

and thighs cut and

most of the men being

without shoes and stockings of necessity,

had gone

march

tJiis

had absolutely

in the

same condition from

choice,

whole party, by

suffered the least of the

having inured myself gradually

who

Avhile I,

walk barefooted on the

to

barges.

At

Devil's

Plarwar, I

now found Lieutenant Colonel

Westerloo and a quarter-master arrived to take the com-

mand,
I

his troops

was by

this

Scc.

self

&;c. I

till

last to

my

the next day.

made

circumstance, hoAvever,

happy, hoping at
ing ceded him

not being expected

meet with some

exceedingly

relief;

and hav-

written orders, the magazine, hospital,

stripped and plunged into the river to wash

my-

and take a swim, by which (being before much over-

heated)

found myself greatly refreshed, as

receiving a quantity of fine fruit,


sugar, from

Joanna

but how did


first

violence to this poor

my

blood

Devil's

got drunk with

woman

Harwar next day, when

her just resentment on his face

The

reader

v/ill,

I trust,

my

chill,

my

when

serjeant,

wine, offered

and that he was

by

as

Jamaica rum, wine and

the quarter-master told me, as a secret, that

one Fowler, having

Avell

to be at

should see the marks of

excuse

my

violence,

when

tell

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
tell

lain

him, that

vowed immediate destruction

and having ordered a negro

199

to the

vil-

bamboo

to cut twelve

canes, I retired like a person deprived of his senses, deter-

mined

On

punish him according to his supposed crime.

to

the 10th there arrived two subalterns, with a se-

cond barge

full

of men, amraunition, medicine, and pro-

which having marched into quarters and stowed,

visions,

I sent for the hapless Fowler,

places wounded, I locked

whose face being

him up

out asking one question, broke


his

and

head,

my

till

he escaped

all

six

tions, at

a room, and,

of the bamboos over

He

resentment gradually abated.

being

still

geoud had seized

furtlier

all

my

Avith-

bloody out at the window,

much, but nothing equal

suffered

in

in three

to

certainly

what were

my

sensa-

informed, that Colonel Four-

effects,

which he had scaled and

locked up in an empty store-room, in expectation of


decease, which, according to

looked for

means

relieve

me

my house

while

my

the hope of going

The

all

much

to another,

myself,

my

by which

as a clean shirt to

disgraceful tatters

down

my

appearances, migiit be

was given

could not procure so

from

had

spirits

nevertheless,

by

were supported.

other news, of more importance, was, that the hero in

person, with most of the troops, had at last

maribo

that he

had quartered them partly

left

Para-

at Devil's

Ilarwar, in Rio Cottica, the estate Bellair, in Rio Perica,

and

at the estates Clarenbeek,

and Cravassibo,

in

Rio

Come-

NARRATIVE OF AN

200

Comewina

move

Society and the Rangers, he intended to

the rebels

that he

relieved at last,

and

had

in quest of

also ordered all the barges to

be

remaining troops to reinforce the

their

above-mentioned posts,

troops of the

Avith the

whence, conjunctly

Av^hich I

must remark was a very

wise and well-planned regulation.

From Patamaca we

Avere informed, that the rebels,

their repassing the river

on

above La Rochelle, had again

destroyed a small estate, and murdered

its

proprietor, a

Mr. Nyboor.
It

was either about

this time, or

very shortly

after, that

an overseer escaped by the assistance of a negro boy, who,


desiring

him

his belly,

ming

to leap into a canoe,

leaped himself into the

Avith

lie

Avater,

his

master safe

upon them

all

flat

upon

where, by SAvimAvith the

over the creek Pata-

maca, through a shoAver of musquet


firing

down

one hand, and guiding the canoe

he ferried

other,

and

bullets, the rebels

the while, but Avithout execution

hoAvever, for this material piece of service, he Avas re-

compensed the

AA-eek after Avith

three hundred lashes

by

the same master, only for having forgotten to open one

of the sluices or flood-gates.


I shall

able

On

make no comment, but proceed

situation.

Having remonstrated

Colonel Westerloo on the state of

abled

this act

me

my

to

of inhumanity

my own

Avith

health,

miser-

Lieutenant

which

dis-

from joining the corps on their march, I


requested

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

201

requested that I might be removed to Paramaribo for the

chance of recovery

but

he peremptorily refused to

this

allow me, by Colonel Fourgeoud's express


refusal of so reasonable a request

tracted,

my

and agitated

morning of the

The

made me almost
much,

spirits so

12th, determined to

command.

exchange

on the

that

my wretched

existence one Avay or other, I insisted on being


diately removed, or wished for death,

dis-

imme-

which the surgeons

declared must be the consequence soon,

if I

was not per-

mitted to go down, and in the meanwhile I vowed that


should attribute

my

decease to their unprecedented bar-

A consultation Avas now held

barity.

on the subject

at last, not without great difficulties, a boat


to

row me down

to Paramaribo, but

permitted to attend me.

o'clock at

no white servant was

Thus leaving the Lieutenant

now also was

noon walked

left

palli-

a numerous garrison, I at twelve

to the water side, supported

negro, on whose shoulder I rested,


into the boat, followed

by

and

was ordered

Colonel employed in fortifying Devil's Harwar with


sadoes, where

my black

till

I at length

stepped

boy Quaco, and

the diabolical spot where I had buried so

by a

finally

many

brave

fellows.

On

the

14th, having

o'clock in the morning,


ill

indeed;

rowed day and

we

night,

I-

two

arrived at the town, extremely

where, having no residence of

my

was hospitably received at the house of a Mr.


^^01"

at

own,

De La
Marre,

NARRATIVE OF AN

202

Marre, a merchant

this

gentleman not only received

me, but immediately sent a servant

was at her mother's,


attend me, as
quired

and another

my weak and

poor Joanna,

for

^vlio

a physician to

hopeless condition

every assistance that the

could aftbrd.

for

now

re-

town of Paramaribo

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

CHAP.
Some Diseases peculiar
newhj imported going

the

to

to be

i-'OS

IX.

CUmate-Group of Negroes

soM-Reflectious on the Slave

selling them
TradeThe Voyage from Africa Manner of

in the

Plantation.

Colony Description of a Cotton

EPTEI^IBEPv

5th, I

found myself

an elegant and

in

by the hopes

well-furnished apartment, encouraged

given by the physician, caressed by

my

of
ported by the care and attention

friends,

my

and sup-

incomparable

Mulatto.

Captain Brant having at

this

command

time the

in

the morning after


Colonel Fourgeoud's absence, he sent,

my arrival, my
up

been sealed
trunks and baggage, Avhich had

but on looking into them, I found

home

as Avell as

abroad

since most of

had enemies at

my

shirts,

books,

blatta or cock-roach,
&c. were gnawed to dust by the
nay, even my shoes Avcro
cackerlakke in Surinam
:

called

destroyed, of which I

new from Europe,

had brought with

me

twelve pairs

as they were extremely dear

and bad

in

this country.

This insect, which

is

of the beetle kind,

inch and sometimes two inches long, oval,

dark reddish colour.

By

is

flat,

here one

and

ot

of
getting through the locks

D d

t^^iests

c h a

p.

NARRATIVE OF AN

204

chests or boxes,

commits

comes

in

its
its

it

not only deposits

ravages on linen, cloth,

way

by getting

drink of every kind,


for

leaves the

it

that of a bug.

it

renders

shall

smell, worse indeed than

them home

fly,

bottles kept free

to place

is,

way

to

them on

from dust, which, by

prevent the insects

(especially

in great

but creep very

that the best, and I think the only

from them

vessels

quan-

more concerning them, only

that they are seldom seen to

free

fast

keep the boxes

empty wine

four

their smoothness,

ascending to get through

precaution had been neglected by

Colonel Fourgeoud.
for present use,

found, however,

key-

the

comfort

I felt

my

and

shifted
I

gratitude the blessing of a strong constitution

still

ill

at

was

conceive the

mental faculties were recruiting apace, and

Macdonald was

but

linen sufficient

None can

in being properly dressed

good friend

and by the industry of Joanna

soon provided with a ne^v stock.

and

holes, or even the smallest openings in the bottoms


this

and

the victuals

them extremely loathsome,

As most West India

say nothing

eggs there, but

or any thing that

silk,

also into

most nauseous

those loaded with sugar) bring


tities,

its

felt

my
with

but poor

Mr. Kennedy's, who had hu-

manely afforded him an asylum on

his return

from Devil's

Harwar.

Having now time,


duct

when, to

my

I inquired concerning Fowler's con-

infinite surprise, I

was informed that

he had indeed got drunk, as was reported to me, by which


5

he

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
he bnd

fallen

amongst the

bottles

and cut

05
but

his face,

that he never had attempted the smallest rudeness: so

much

indeed was his conduct the reverse of what had

been reported, that

resentment at seeing both

my

had proceeded from

his inebriety

me and Joanna

ill

his

and

treated,

property transported away against his inclination.

was now extremely chagrined at

my

was gently reproved by the cause of


to be Fowler's friend for ever after

My

fever

shall

to

whom

and
I

kept

promised

my

Avord.

was infested

this climate,

but indifferently describe

Surinam the ring-worm, and

and

past conduct,

was now much abated, but

another disorder peculiar to


afraid I

it,

and which
:

it

is

w^ith
1

am

called in

consists of long scarlet irre-

gular spots, particularly on the under parts of the body,

which increase

in

magnitude from day

to day, unless pre-

Those spots are surrounded

vented by timely application.

with a kind of hard callous border, and are as troublesome

by

their itching as the prickly heat, or the

musquitoes; and so very infectious


if

any person

who

certain to be infected with

this

complaint, that

by chance on a chair imme-

seats himself

diately after another

is

stmg of the

has the disorder, he


it

it is,

to get rid of; but the best cure

is

is

almost

beheve, very difficult

to rub the spots with a

com-

position of refined saltpetre, benzoin, flower of brimstone,

and white mercury, mixed with

The numerous inconveniences


this climate are

fresh butter or hog's-lard.

to which the inhabitants of

exposed, are almost inconceivable.

On

ii

a p.

'^'

NARRATIVE OF AN

'206

G H A
IX.

Oil the C6th

P.

day.

was also

had a

relapse,

morning

this

young volunteer

uian, a

On

by poor Mr. Hene-

visited

left

sick at

Paramaribo

the 2d of October I was a

left at

and was ex-

better,

little

living like a savage, to the

of a few troops

temporary

command

Farainariho, Captain Brant being

ordered to join Fourgeoud in Rio

Comewina

when

colours, regiment's cash, &c. were transmitted to

lodging,

The

and a

first

sentinel placed before

as Avell as the

my

men,

my

had been bought

whom

possession, with

I supplied,

the

my own

door.

made of my power was

exercise I

the sour Avine, which

in

to

for himself.

from

alted

one

in

have not before mentioned, who

looked like a ghost, and Avas

manage

and was twice bled

to discharge

for the sick officers

from the money now

good Avholesome

claret

but

was

sorry not to be able also to exchange the salt beef, pork,

and pease, that were

commander;

Avere taken

amongst

man

the hospital, for fresh provi-

This step Avas hoAvever particularly forbidden by

sions.

the

left at

ten,

Avhile the butter,

cheese,

and tobacco

away, for Avhich they got one quart of

and

their

for ^ ivhole Aveek.

oil

bread reduced to two pounds each

As

to the officers, they Avere left

to shift for themselves, or submit to the

same

alloAvance,

notAvithstanding they kept on paying their quota to a regi-

mental mess, Avhich noAV no longer existed.

On

the 3d, I took the air for the

back, in

company

Avith

first

time on horse-

Mr. Heneman, though

Ave

coidd

not

^y/ic ,^/i/i^^

ii

^'//r/A'/r

i ///r

Lotuion, Publuhfd Df^.'Yf^ij^, bv

^^m^7yz/>?i

J. JolmsoTt.SfFaille

CfiunfiTard-

/A/r^///^

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

207

not ride above three English miles distance out of town,

on a species of gravel that leads

which

to

the

Wanica Path,

have already mentioned as communicating with

the river Seramica, and as the only passable road in the


colony.

During

which (on account of the

this little ride,

dry season being commenced) we took at


the morning,

and elegant

we observed a

birds,

known by

Surinam called ravens, from


rots,

great
the

six o'clock in

number of

those large

name of macaws, but

their proportion to

in

the par-

which may be looked upon as a kind of tropical

crows.

The macaws

are divided into diiferent species, of which

I shall only describe two, wishing to say nothing for

which

am sorry to observe
too many authors have done, among whom are men of
genius and learning some indeed may have erred from
I

have not competent authority, as

ignorance or wrono; information, but numbers for the gratification

of vanity have,

I fear,

been gudty of imposing

on the too credulous public.

The blue and yellow macaw


fowl, with short legs

common

parrot

is

as large as a barn-door

and a crooked

the

bill,

like that of the

former dai'k coloured,

black claws, two before and two behind

the latter also

black, the upper mandible alone moveable.


like a

with four

Its tail is

wedge, and consists of a few very long and

feathers.

of which

The back of
is

this bird,

strait

from the head (the top

a sea-green) to the extremity of the

tail,

is

most

NARRATIVE OF AN

i20S

most beautiful azure blue, and, underneath,


is

of a pale orange colour

white, interspersed with

round

eyes

its

whole body

its
it

is

perfectly

black rings, composed of very

small feathers.

The
is

other

is

called in

Surinam the Amazon macaw.

rather less than the former


in the

white

the head, the neck,

a bright

where

scarlet, the

it is

its tail,

same manner, but the

formed
;

tail,

liancy and

unequalled by

their bill

of a dirty

its

wings

may be

said

which

shrill

in the
art.

down

to the

sun shines with a

The macaws

bril-

fly in

disagreeable shriek, and bite

being very hard and sharp, which

of great use to them in climbing

and may be taught

of

into four colours, being scarlet at

extremity of the

severely

are

this bird are

the top, next green, then yellow and blue,

couples, and have a

bill,

space round the eyes only excepted,

by bars

eft'ect

and

latter is

and breast of

white, A\ith black rings;

to be divided

legs,

This

to

is

they are easily tamed,

speak like other parrots.

The

Indians frequently bring them to Paramaribo, Avhere they


part with them for a bottle of rum, or for a few

fish-

hooks.

This evening arrived sick, from the head-quarters at the


estate

Crawasibo in Comewina, Colonel Texier, the com-

manding

officer of the Society

had intended

to

This gentleman

have marched conjunctly with Colonel

Fourgeoud through the woods,


but

troops.

his constitution, already

in quest

of the rebels;

weak, not being able to support

* %

\'y

^.-

'

siii!iijii
...,*'

lljiiill

1/ //>////

/y,^'y^'y/-/-t^r/,<'/,/

/////^V(^v^^ ^^ /y-

'

'':i':^!''llll|

.lo/f/ //"/^yyU/Ayrj

^t^^^iii^JtliitmmJiJimiik^Mui^ihtU

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

209

port the regimen of the Conunander in Chief, and to live


onl}'^

on

ning,

salt provisions,

had begun

from the begin-

to flag

he was sent home to Paramaribo in

till

this

drooping

condition.

On

the sixth of October the fever

ring-worms began to abate

which

my

had

so lately

constitution,

undergone

and enormous

still

biles

me

me

physician, however, ordering

had an opportunity

this

had an

and

daily to take the

group

who had

my

homeward,

I shall

my

My
air,

friend

Ken-

I stopped the

human

attention.

This

circumstantially endeavour to describe.

They

strongly attracted

were a drove of newly-imported negroes,


with a few children,

who were

men and women,

just landed from

a Guinea ship that lay at anchor


for slaves.

left

his excellency

carriage at the water-side, to behold h group of


beings,

upon

my

from walking.

day of waiting on

as I returned

effect

broke out on

the Governor of the colony, by the help of


nedy's chaise

me, and the

left

but the misery and hardships

which entirely prevented

thigh,

had

on board

in the roads, to

The whole party was such a

be sold

set of scarcely

animated automatons, such a resurrection of skin and


bones, as forcibly reminded
objects appeared that

me of the

moment

to

or escaped from Surgeons' Hall;

last

trumpet.

These

be risen from the grave,

and

I confess I

can give

no better description of them, than by comparing them to


walking skeletons covered over with a piece of tanned
leather.

Vol.

I.

'

And


NARRATIVE OF AN

210
"

And the Lord

me to pass by them

caused

" and behold there were

many

in the

open

round about,

valley,

and

lo

" they were very dry.

"
'

And he said unto me, Son of Man, can these bones


live? And I answered, O Lord God thou knowest."

Ezekiel, xxxvii. ver. 2, 3.

Before these Avretches, which might be in


in

number, Avalked a

about sixty

and another followed behind

sailor,

with a bamboo-rattan

all

the one serving as a shepherd to

lead them along, and the other as his dog to worry

any one lag behind, or wander away

occasionally, should

from the

flock.

At

same time, however, equity de-

the

the acknowledgment, that instead of

mands

all

those horrid

and dejected countenances which are described


lets

and newspapers,

look amongst them

ment of

the

by the

ration

all

and

pamph-

must add, that the punish-

inflicted with the

who brought up

with amazement, I drove


;

home

where

to

utmost mode-

the rear.

Having viewed this sad assemblage of my

of perfect humiliation

in

perceived not one single downcast

bamboo was
sailor

them

fellow-creatures

my lodgings

in a state

noted down, as I could

learn

it

from the best authority, both white and black,

what

is

really the fate of these people,

ment of

last

mo-

their liberty in Africa, to the present period of

their slavery in
relate,

from the

America

and

preceded by a few of

this I shall

endeavour to

my own unbiassed

upon the Slave Trade, which has

lately

sentiments

been the object of


both

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
both public and private investigation

and

this,

ii

I trust,

do with that candour and impartiality which not

I shall

only e\ery gentleman, but every man, should think

it

ne-

cessary to be possessed of.

been

It has

said, Will

you, for the sake of drinking rum,

and sweetening your coffee with sugar, persevere


unjust and execrable barbarity?

Take

this it

most

answered,

is

under the enthusiasm of humanity, you do

care, lest,

not, at the

To

in the

expence of your neighbour, and perhaps of your

up your advantages,

country, inconsiderately give

w^ithout

the least chance of benefiting or improving the condition

whom

of those,

most heartily join with you

in calling

our

brethren.

After so

many volumes

been written on
tion in
rule,

me

am

may appear great presump-

my poor opinion

but

have made

it

the various subjects I have mentioned, to dwell

on those only
which

this subject, it

to offer

among

which, Avithin a few years, have

to

which

have Ijcen an eye-witness

convinced there are few others in

that have seen

and so accurately observed.

this

and

country

have seen

the most cruel tortures inflicted, for submitting to the desire

of a husband, or for refusing the same to a libidinous

master, and

more frequently a

rascally overseer

on the most innocent, from the


ful

false accusations

Avoman, prompted alone by jealousy.

other places,

nay, even

of a

lust-

have seen in

negro slaves as well treated as the most

favoured servants in England

and

E e 2

as I

have seen some


sailors,

NARRATIVE OF AN

212

sailors, soldiers,

and apprentices most tyrannically treated

when under the command of ill-tempered

despots, I

must

pronounce the condition of such not to be envied even by


negroes.

If,

therefore, so

humour of

tion or

those

or a temporary power,
hastily

much depends on

who

the disposi-,

permanent

are exercising a

we must duly

consider, before

w&

judge the whole from partial information.

Cruelty

is

too often exercised in our plantations; but if

not so shockingly to

human

nature as in other countries,

what are we doing by a sudden emancipation, but turning


the poor creatures

over to more cruel masters

quantum of sugar, &c.


by

will

The

be had, and must be provided

negroes, natives of Africa, Avho alone are born to endure

labour under a vertical sua.

The

national character of these people, as I have re-

marked

it,

where they are as free to act by

and disposition

as in Africa,

is

their

perfectly savage

own

will

the twenty

thousand Ouca and Seramica free negroes have lived separated,

and under no controul of Europeans,

for

a number

of years, and yet I have never seen any marks of civilization, order, or

trary,

government among them, but, on the con-

many examples of ungovernable passion, debauchery,

and indolence.
I love the African negroes,
cerely I have felt for

them on many occasions

ever wrong construction

on

this subject, I Avish,

and have shewn how

from the bottom of

and what-

may be put on what

my

sin-

have said

heart, that

my

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
my

213

Avords could be submitted to the consideration of that

respectable

body the

British parliament

and

so far

be

regarded, as to prevent the fatal decision of a total aboli*


tion of slaAxry

For

if

till

1800, or the beginning of next century.

such a measure should be rashly enforced, I take

the liberty to prophesy, that thousands and thousands^.,

both white and black,


it,

when

may repent, and more


more be

the evil can no

From what

be ruined by

redressed.

have learned by inquiry, from persons well

informed on the subject,

clearly appears^ that

it

numbers

of the negroes offered for sale have been taken in

and made prisoners of war

many

while

battles,-

others have been

scandalously kidnapped, and some others transported for


offences, &c.

of

all

which

I shall

produce a few examples

in future.

These groups of people are marched from every inland


part, to the factories erected
coast,

where they are

by

sold, or

different nations

upon

the-

more propedy speaking,,

bartered, like the other productions of their countrj',

viz.

gold, elephants teeth, &c. to the Europeans, for bars of


iron, firearms, carpenters tools, chests, linens, hats, knives,,
glasses, tobacco, spirits,

&c.

Next they are embarked

for

exportation, during which time they, without contradiction, feel all the
inflict.

nectioiis,

pangs that mental or corporeal misery can

Being torn from

their country

stowed hundreds together

the sexes being separated

in

and dearest con-

a dark stinking hold,

while the

men

are kept in

chains

NARRATIVE OF AN

214

CHAP,
i:

In this manner are

chains to prevent an insurrection.

they floated over turbulent seas, not certain what


their destiny,

is

to

be

and generally fed during the passage with

horse-beans and

sufferinps are often alleviated

more humane:

But

whole subsistence.

oil for their

so far, that

these

with better food by the

none or few of the cargo die

during the passage, and the whole crew arrive healthy in


the

West

Indies.

even remember one instance, where

the captain, mate, and most of the sailors, having expired


at sea, so that the remaining

few could not work the ship

without the negroes assistance, yet these last having been


well treated, helped at last to run the vessel

which means they not only saved many

and even cheerfully allowed themselves


sold to

any person who would please

made

these reflections, I shall

to

now

on

lives,

to

shore,

by

but tamely

be fetched and

buy them.
brietl}^

Having

proceed with

the manner in which the slaves are disposed of

No

sooner

is

a Guinea ship arrived, than

all

the slaves

are Jed ujx)n deck, where they are refreshed with pure air,

bananas,

plantains,

cleaned, washed,

of

stars,

and

their hair

no

and without soap.

of them

&c.

and being properly

shaved in different figures

half-moons, &c. which they generally do the one

to the other, (having


bottle

oranges,

is

razors)

by the help of a broken

After this operation, one part

sent ashore for sale, decorated Avith pieces of

cotton to serve as fig-leaves, arm-bands, beads, &c. being


all

the captain's property;

while the others spend the

day

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
day

in dancing, hallooing,

215

and clapping hands on board

the vessel.

Having

sufficiently described their figures after landing,

we now may suppose them walking along


and through the

number which he

that
lost

streets,

by death or

Good

should a

of,

and begins

to

woman chance

mented accordingly

to supply those

make a

Amongst

to be pregnant, her price

for

bargain

negroes are generally valued at

hundred pounds each.

to a

fifty

every planter picks out

stands in need

desertion,

with the captain.

from

-\\^here

the Avater-side,

which reason

captain of a Dutch Guinea vessel,

these,
is

aug-

have known the

who acknowledged

himself to be the father, take advantage, with a brutalit}^

and Yarico, of

scarcely credited in the story of Inkle

doubling the value, by selling his


bidder

for

which however he

own

offspring to the best

Avas highly

censured by his

companions.

The next circumstance


gain

is

struck,

another, to
are visited

is

that takes place before the bar-

to cause the negroes for sale,

mount on a hogshead

one after

or a table, where they

by a surgeon, who obliges them

to

make

all

the different gestures, with arms and legs, of a Merry-

Andrew upon
soundness

the stage, to prove their soundness or un-

after

which they are adopted by the buyer,

or rejected, as he finds
wise.

them

If he keeps them, the

fit

for his purpose, or other-

money

is

paid

down

and

the new-bought negroes are immediately branded on the

breast

NARRATIVE OF AN

21^

breast or the thick part of the shoulder,

of

with the

silver,

we mark

as

size

These hot

new

master's

which are about the

letters,

No

or three days.

new name

sooner

being rubbed directly with a

is

this

ceremony

delivered to an old one of the

six

weeks

skeletons, they

clean skin,

is

same

fed,

and sent

during which period, from living

disfigured

fat,

with a beautiful

by the inhuman flogging of

must leave them

for

some

time,

and continue

narrative, after observing that the negroes are


diflferent

my

composed

nations or casts, such as the

Abo,

Congo,

Loango,

Pombo,

Conia,

Gango,

N. Zoko,

Wanway,

Blitay,

Konare,

Nago,

Coromantin,

Riemba,

Papa,

With most of which


and of which
of

to

without working, for the

become plump and

till it is

sex,

rascally proprietor, or rather his overseer.

Here

of

and a

properly kept clean by his guar-

and well

dian, instructed

space of

over,

two

given to the newlj^-bought slave, than he or

the estate, where each

some

may be

butter, are perfectly well in the space of

little fresh

is

blisters

name,

else to authenticate

of a sixpence^ occasion not that pain which

imagined, and the

she

any thing

furniture or

them properly.

of the

initial letters

by a stamp made

I shall

&c. &c.

have found means to get acquainted,


speak more amply in another place

this narrative.

On

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
On

10th, the surgeon having lanced

the

scrambled out once more to witness the

reader

may

fusion,

when

my surprize and conamong them my inestimable Joanna

found

day sold by an execution,

creditors of

now

its

I continually

whole stock, being

for the

my

of the

benefit

the horrors of the damn'd.

felt all

become her

to

its

Mr. D. B. who had

late possessor,

again and again

me

selling of slaves

form some judgment of

the sugar-estate Fauconberg, with


this

thigh, I

After what has been related, the

best bidder.

to the

my

217

fled.

bewailed

unlucky fortune, that did not enable


proprietor myself,

and

in

my mind

painted her ensuing dreadful situation.

fancied I saw her tortured, insulted, and bowing under the

my

weight of her chains, calling aloud, but in vain, for


assistance.

of

all

my

friend,

was miserable, and indeed nearly deprived

faculties,

JNIr.

till

Lolkcns,

restored

who

by the assurances of

my

providentially was appointed

to continue administrator of the estate during the absence

of

its

new

sterdam,

possessors,

who bought

IMessrs. Passelege
it

and

its

and

son, at

Am-

dependants for only four

thousand pounds.

No

sooner was he confirmed in his appointment, than

this disinterested

presence;
Avhicli

and steady

and pledged

friend brought

himself,

that

in

Joanna

to

my

every service

he could render to myself or her, and which he had

now more

in his

power than

should be wanting.

Vol.

I.

ever,

no

efl:brts

on

his side

This promise I desired him to keep

in

NARRATIVE OF AN

218
in

remembrance, and accordingly he ever since most nobly

persevered.

Being informed that Colonel Fourgeoud had


assibo estate, and entered the

on

tation Clarenbeck,
if

he could

him

to the

Wana

Creek, to try

last-mentioned

the

off for

and such surgeons of ours as had been

Paramaribo,

of the Society, on

employed Mr. Greber, the surgeon

my own authority, and

at the regiment's

expence, to attend the sick officers and soldiers,


left in

town, destitute of cash, and

At the same time

now without

also ordered to be

more ankers of the


was

my

last

friend

ture, with his twenty-five


;

assistance.

Thus

best claret for their support.

which at best could but

Surinam

who were

purchased two

determined properly to avail myself of

This evening

letter,

there as soon as I should be reco-

and having shipped

estate medicines
left at

way

just above the plan-

with the rebels, I requested, by a

fall in

that I might join

vered,

his

woods

Craw-

left

my command,

a few days longer.

De La Mara
free

took his depar-

mulattoes,

he being a captain of the

for the river

and they be-

militia,

ing infinitely preferable to the European scarecrows.


I

Avas so

far

recovered as to be able to ride out every

morning, when the following ludicrous adventure hap-

pened

to

me on

place a Mr.

the road that leads to Wanica.

Van de

Velde, boasting

could gallop, proposed to

me

how

In

fast his

to run a race

to

this

horse

which

agreed, allowing him the start at twenty paces distance.

The

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
The

start

219

indeed he had, but did not long retain

vantange, for

my

his

ad-

English horse passing him with the ra-

pidity of a cannot-shot, his galloway sprung, rider and


all,

through a hedge of thick limes, and

Van de

left

Velde, not like Doctor Slop, in the

poor

dirt,

but

INIr.

like

Absalom, hanging among the branches.

The

horses in

Surinam are

asses (except those

little

better or laroer than

which are brought from North America

or Holland, the latter of which are generally

employed

for carriages) yet they are useful in the sugar-mills,

number of mules

are also employed.

These

where

last are

brought over from Barbary, and sometimes sold as high


as fifty guineas.
to

Guiana;

ported, and

None

but, as

of these animals are indigenous

many

other animals have been im-

become the inhabitants of the

unnecessary repetition,

climate, to save

here give the following

list

of such

quadrupeds as are not natives of the new continent

The Elephant,

NARRATIVE OF AN

220
Horse,

Genett,

Ichneumon,

Ass,

Civet,

Jerboa,

Zebra,

Cat,

Maki

Ox,

Antelope,

several kinds

Buffalo,

Chamois Goat,

of Monkies.

Should the number of

this

list

seem rather

great, I in

Count de Buffon, whence

that case refer to the celebrated


it

and

was extracted.

On

from Devil's Harwar Ensign

the 18th arrived sick

Mathew, one of the


lieved;

officers

by Avhom

and the same day he was

mander and
soldiers.

had been

folloAved

by

his

re-

com-

friend. Colonel Westerloo, supported

by two

me

after a

They had

ridiculed

for complaining,

many weeks on board

confinement of so

the barges

while these gentlemen had been out but a few days and

always on shore, the latter of them having attempted to

accompany

the old Colonel

he had joined at

La

Fourgeoud

I saAv

him

pass

forget what

him

(Avhom

by

his

very

first

entry

was at dinner with a Mr. Day, when

by a miserable

spectacle,

and chusing

had passed at Devil's Harwar, and

having a regard for


diately

Wana

Rochelle in Patamaca) but was com-

pletely unfitted for proceeding

into the woods.

to

this

gentleman,

and got him a coach,

in

I started

which

to

in reality

up imme-

accompanied

to his lodgings, where, having placed a sentinel be-

fore his

chamber-door to keep out the rabble,

I sent for

a Doctor

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
Dam,

as well as a

rican, to attend him,

forbidding

all

woman,

his

a Doctor \'an

that of an old negro

221

Doctor Kissam, an Ameother communication,

man

and a

servant,

black boy excepted, and by these means I apparently


preserved his

On

Lieutenant Count de

the 20th,

down

my

life.

also

Randwyk came
at

last

poor old shipmate Lieutenant Hamer, who had been

kept at Devil's Harwar near four months,

by

and

indisposed with Ensign Coene,

disease,

overcome

till,

he obtained leave to be transported to Para-

maribo.

On

the 22d, the

I copied
will

and

Governor sent

as I cannot

now proceed

me

have a better opportunity,

years

1735,

in

Surinam from about

but not with advantage

1750 or 1752.

cotton-tree, but I

to a description of that useful plant,

which has only been cultivated


the year

a cotton twig, which

fliall

about the

till

There are several species of the


confine myself to that which

most common and the most useful


species of cotton, which grows

eight feet high, bears before

it

tree

3'^ear

about

old,

the

This

in this colony.

upon a
is

is

six or

and pro-

duces two crops annually, each of about tAventy ounces


in weight

the leaves are

vine, of a bright green,

colour.

The

cotton-balls,

something

and the

like

fibres

those of the

of a cinnamon

some of which are

as large as

a small hen's egg, and divided in three parts, grow on a


very long stalk, and in a triangular pod, which

is

first

produced

NARRATIVE OF AN

222

CHAP,

produced by a yellow flower,


itself,

and

the globular

discloses

snow;

flakes of

and when

ripe

opens of

contents as

white as

the middle of these are contained

in

small black seeds, formed not unlike those that are usually

found

The cotton

Avill

prosper in any of the

and produces a good

profit if the crops are

in grapes.

tropical soils,

not spoiled by a too long rainy season, being cultivated


with very
required

trouble and expence

little

is,

put

it is

indeed that

to plant the seeds at a little distance

other, Avhen each seed, as I

year

all

in the

from the pulp,


of a machine

have

The

ground.

made

ton has undergone

for the

man

purpose

only,

after

by the help

which the

the necessary process, and

all

first

separation of the seeds

the work of one

is

from each

produces the

said,

is

is

cot-

put in

bales of between three and four hundred pounds weight

each for transportation, Avhich bales ought to be well


moistened at the time of stowing

it,

from sticking to the canvass.

In the year before

arrival in

terdam alone,

this

The

sterling.

colony to Amsterdam and Rot-

produced about forty thousand

Avhich

thousand pounds

best

Aveight.

estates

make

The average

tM'enty-five

prices have

from eight pence to tAventy-two pence per pound.


raAv material

spindle,

is

spun

in the

and extremely

knit into stockings, &c.


1

my

Surinam, near three thousand bales of cotton

were exported from

pounds

to prevent the cotton

fine,

West

Indies by a rock

when by

the negro girls

been

The
and
it is

one pair of Avhich are sometimes


sold

r^

/.m,l,ui.ri,/'/i.r/i,,l D.,-ri"i^t)i

//

.r.,l,.hn.f,in,.i:>r<ml:r

iViiinii I'miI


EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

223

sold for the price of a Portuguese joe, or

sometimes for

The Indians

Guiana make

two guineas.

hammocks of

very good

or

natives of

cotton, which they barter with

the inhabitants of Paramaribo for other commodities.

In the annexed plate

the cotton ball, and

scale than nature.

cacao,

them

the seed,

myself, and better adapted to diversify

Being now perfedlly recovered,

to

forest

hair, as

more

Wana

at the

it

is

a rule to speak

more pleasant

my narrative.

resolved to join Colonel

his

excursions through the

consequence of which, having

cropt

first

my

being more convenient in the woods, as well as

cleanly,

and provided myself with the necessary

bush-equipage, such as jackets, trowsers, &c.

on the Governor
in a

to

Creek, without waiting his orders,

accompany him on
in

the pod,

but on a smaller

made

of things only as they occur, which

and

should here also describe the coffee,

another occasion, having

Fourgeoud

itself,

and indigo plantations, but must reserve

sugar,

till

the twig

is

most

now going
undergone.

to ask his

polite

commands; he

waited

entertained

manner, and told me, that what

to suffer Avould surpass


I

nevertheless

what

persisted

in

me
was

had already

wishing to go

without waiting an order from the chief, and accordingly


applied to the magistrates for a boat, and the necessary
jnegroes to transport

me

which being promised

for the

Bucceeding day, I transferred the colours and regiment's


cash, with the

command

of the remaining sick troops, to

Lieutenant

NARRi\TIVE OF AN

224

Lieutenant Meyer, the only healthy officer then at Paramaribo.

Indeed the colours, the cash, and the sick


nearly of equal use in Surinam, the

first

soldiers

never having

been displayed except at our landing, the second


to all except to Colonel Fourgeoud,

away one

after another.

were

and the

invisible

third dying

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
CHAP.
Colonel Foiirgeoud inarches

Enemy

the

rious Uses

Account

March

Rebels

So?ne

X.

the JFana Creek

Harasses

of the Manicole Tree, xmth

to the

taken

to

23,5

va-

its

Mouth of Cormoetibo River

Shockins^

Treatment of a wounded

captive Negro.

the 25th of October, being ready

upon

my

second campaign,

sailors, to

wina,

whence they were going

row nic

pleased, beg the rest of


for

to

an estate in the

my

to

in the boat,

might,

was able.

when, reflecting that

if I

had already
I

was going

witiiout orders,

desire to serve an ungratefid people, I

repented, and stepped back


tively declaring I

Come-

bring their captain

voluntarily on a hazardous expedition,

and only from a

river

passage upwards, or manage

myself in the best manner

one foot

the

where, instead

Paramaribo, and from which place

to

to

found a greasy yawl, with a few drunken

Dutch

back

proceed

repaired

water-side at six o'clock in the evening

of a tent boat,

to

upon the

would not move

shore, where, posi-

in their defence

till

should be decently transported, should the whole colony

be on

fire,

Americans

Vol.

I.

was seconded by

in the town,

all

the

English

and

and a general tumult took place.

The

chap.
'^

NARRATIVE OF AN

226
Tlie

Dutch exclaimed

Avhich

would cost them

have the other


they were

who

against the expence of a tent-boat

nothing; wiiile the others declared

for

mean and parsimonious

a set of

wretches,

deserved not the smallest protection from Colonel

A mob

Fourgeoud's troops.

collected,

before Mr. Hardegen's tavern,

and

hats, wigs, bottles,

The

Avhen they could

thirty shillings,

and the

when

I with

my

and

lost

one of

the rabble in a passion

had not

for,

but to no purpose

my

friend

ten o'clock

till

friends fairly kept the field,

having knocked down several


overseers,

while

out at his windows.

fighting continued in the street

at night,

riot ensued,

at the water-side,

glasses, fle^v

magistrates were next sent

and a

my

sailors, planters,

which

pistols,

nor would

it

Jews, and

threw after

have ended here,

Mr. Kennedy, who was member of the

Court of Policy, and two or three more gentlemen

whom

he brought with him, found means to appease the


putants, by declaring I

had been very ill

treated,

dis-

and should

have a proper boat the next day.

Having now

slept

and refreshed myself a few hours,

was waited on by four American captains,

viz.

Timmons of the Harmony, Captain Lewis of

Captain

the Peggy,

Captain Bogard of the Olive Branch, and Captain Minet


of the America,

who

insisted

whatever from the colony

me up

in

one of

sailors only, to

their

on

my

this time,

own

boats,

refusing any vessel

and

offering to send

manned by

their

own

which each would equally contribute.

can

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

227

can aver, that notwithstanding the threatening rupture C h a

between Great Britain and her Colonies, which seemed


then upon the eve of breaking out into open violence,

nothing could surpass the

warm and

cordial friendship

which these gentlemen possessed, not only

bore a British name,

for every individual that

any connexion with that


still

retained

Britain, but

its

polite proposal

island

administration.
;

professing,

greatest regard

the

after

me, but

for

thing

in

accepted of their very

having received a

which,

had

that they

every

for

or

letter

from Mr. Kennedy, to be delivered to one of the miUtia


captains, a

Mr. N. Reeder,

orders to send

me

farther

in the river

up

Comewina, with

in a proper tent-boat

and

having arranged matters in such a manner at home, that


jieither

Colonel Fourgeoud nor the cock-roaches could

injure me, I shook hands with


in the evening repaired

escorted by

my

English

once

my

IMulatto,

more

to

and American

and

the water-side,
friends,

having drank a bowl of punch, we separated.


departed for

on board

my

station, they

all their vessels

going off saluted


satisfaction,

me

and

cheers,

three

then

at the boat's
to

my

great

and the mortification of the gaping multitude

by which we were suri'ounded.


tlie

where,

having hoisted the colours

in the road,

with

at six

AVe soon rowed beyond

view of Paramaribo.

Being arrived at the


were obliged to stop

fortress

of

for the return

G g 2

New

Amsterdam, we

of the tide, to row up


the

_^'

v.

NARRATIVE OF AN

228

Comewina.

the river

In this interval, I was genteelly

entertained with a supper by the Society officers quartered there

but at twelve o'clock we got aboard, and

having rowed

night,

all

Captain

with

breakfasted

Macneyl, who was one of General Spork's captains


1751

we once more

after Avhich

the plantation Charlottenburgh,

Kennedy's

morning
usage

Mr.

to

letter

to assist

me.

in

set out,

and arrived at

where

delivered

Mr.

who promised next

Rceder,

So much incensed

Avas I at the

had met with at Paramaribo, and so well pleased

with the English

sailors,

that I ordered the tars a dinner

of twelve roasted ducks, and gave them thirty-six bottles

my

of claret, being

whole stock, besides a guinea.

the ebb tide they took their leave, and rowed

down

to

as

drunk as wine or

now pursued my voyage upwards

as far as the estate

their vessels,

as well pleased,

strong spirits could


I

With

Mondesir
estates,

and

make them.

afterwards, having viewed the ruins of the three

Zuzingheyd, Peru, and L'Esperance, which had

been burnt when

commanded

at

Harwar,

Devil's

me

arrived at Lepair.

Here one of the overseers gave

an account of

miraculous escape from the rebels,

which
Sir,"

his

shall relate

said he,

house in which

in

his

own

Avords.

"

The

" had already surrounded

the dwelling-

knew of

their being in

I Avas, before I

the plantation, and Avere employed in setting


four corners of

rebels,

it,

so that to run out of doors

fire

to the

was rushing

on

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
In

on certain death.

this

v'here I laid myself flat

dilemma

to the garret,

I fled

upon one of the beams,

of their dispersing soon,

and that

might

the

or to leap from

my

to light

and at

where

and

was,

than to be burnt to ilcath,

a high garret

exasperated

ever, I resolved

left,

but in

so fast, that the heat

in the place

had no other alternative

my

effect

remained

still

same time the flames encreased

became insupportable

of

they

hopes

in

escape before the building should be burnt down


this I Avas disappointed, as

i229

window
This

enemies.

last

into the midst

measure, how-

upon, and had not only the good fortune

unhurt upon

my

but to escape without a

feet,

wound, from among so many men armed with sabres and


bill-hooks.

I flew to the river-side, into

which

headlong; however, not being able to swim,

sunk

to the

bottom

but (said he)

still

plunged

immediately

kept

presence of mind, and while they concluded

my

me

full

to

be

drowned, found means, by the help of the moco-moco and


mangi'ove roots, to bring myself not only under cover of
the impending verdure, but just so far above water with

my

lips as to

over.

continue in a state of respiration

Having

departed, and

killed
I

every

other

was taken up

l)y

person,

till

all

the

a boat from

was

rebels

my

very

perilous situation."

On

the 30th I arrived at Devil's Harwar, and the fuc-

ceeding day rowed up the Cormoetibo Creek;

having tied the boat to a tree which overspread

where,
it

with
thick

NARRATIVE OF AN

!30

we

thick branches,

Quaco

night; myself and

dowa

quietly lay

boat upon the benches,

in the

and the negroes under the

to sleep during the

seats,

ordered alternately to keep watch, and awake

heard the least rattling

me

make any
As

us.

who was

for myself,

white person amongst them

all,

we

o'clock

till

lay

ail

down and

about three

they
all

miglit

the only

was confident

not, in such a case, escape their fury.

cautions,

noise, lest the rebels,

Avho were hovering on both sides of the Creek,

hear and surprize

if

woods, forbidding them

in the

absolutely to speak or

whom

except those

should

After these pre-

slept soundly,

from nine

morning, at which time

in the

Quaco and myself were both suddenly thrown down


from our benches, by the boat

one

side,

the water.

while
I

the

all

all

at once heeling

negroes leaped overboard into

instantly cocked

my

pistol,

up, asked aloud what was the matter

mined

a few seconds

thrown

off

my

out, " IMasera,

which

positively deter-

relentless

an enemy. For the space of

obtained no answer, when again the boat

suddenly rectifying

it

.'*

and jumping

to defend myself to the last extremity, rather than

be taken alive by so

ness

upon

feet)

itself (by

the motion of which I was

one of the swimming negroes called

da wan sea-cow

;"

and

to

my

great happi-

proved to be no other than the manati, or sea-cow,


is

called in

of the negroes

it

Cayenne the
had

creature's awaking,
1

slept

lamentyti.

By

the account

under the boat, which, by the

had been

lifted

up and thrown upon


one

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
one

side,

and again replaced when the manati made

escape from underneath

darkness of the

after

it.

much

Avhich

night,

lasted

At

last

tlie

bright

sun's

through the trees and gild

as see the

owing

to

some hours

oflf

the

beams began

foliage

to dart

on which we

from our moorings, and continued rowing up

Cormoetibo Creek (which was now very narrow)


noon, when
the

its

but during that time we had no farther inclination

to rest.

cast

did not so

nor indeed hai'dly had the negro,

creature,

the

23i

we

mouth of

discovered a smoak, and at last


the

Wana

Creek, Avhich runs

till

near

came
into

to

the

!Marawina, and Avhich was the place of rendezvous, Avhere

however the troops were not yet arrived; and opposite

to

which were encamped a few of the rangers, to guard


the provisions that were Avaiting the arrival of Colonel

Fourgeoud and

his

party from Crawassibo, and

last

from

Patamaca..

One

of the rangers having killed a tattu or armadillo,

called in

Surinam

capasce,

of describing

nity

sometimes
being

stiled

much

it.

I shall

^This

rings, like those

mentioned,

the

turtle,

with

one over

one

its

with

solid

propriety

head and ears


its

whole

shells like shields, sliding in

of the qiiee-quee
the

other,

shoulders and the rump, which are


like

is

opportu-

this

of a roasting pig, and

body covered over with hard


moveable

animal

a hog-in-armour

like those

embrace

fish

except

already

on

the

covered something-

mass of unmoveable bone,


called

ha

v.

NARRATIVE OF AN

232
called

by some a

cuirass

many

there are

species

from the snout to


feet

length,

in

the

tail

tip

of

the

and marked

colour,

figures.

above three

tail

all

eyes are small, the

Its

long and thick at the root, and tapering gradually

like a carrot

the

this creature

Guiana, the largest being

in

of a reddish

over with hexangular

Of

and a helmet.

towards the point, and

body with moveable

short legs with four toes,


fore-feet,

and

This animal has four

rings.

armed

two claws on the

Avith

The armadillo walks

on those behind.

five

covered over like

is

generally during the night, being seldom seen through

the day, and sleeps in burrows under grovmd, Avhicli

makes with great

facility,

or terrified,

it

making

hog,

are

Avhicli

tail

its

forms

which

itself into

enclosed

its

a round

dish,

when

dressed

though

no great delicacy
fond of

though he

AVhen attacked
ball like

a hedge-

and helmet meet together,


head,

appeared

to

in

and whole body.

feet,

me

fruits,

birds,

&c.

a tolerably good

general by Europeans

in

sticks so fast

out,

it

This creature feeds on roots, insects,

and

it

with both hands.

cuirass

its

in

man cannot draw

that the strongest

were to pull

and

it

it

is

accounted

the Indians are, however, extremely

it.

I shall, in this place, also

tioning the

take the opportunity of men-

Guiana porcupine, which

here the adjora.

This animal, which

to the root of ihe tail sometimes three

is
is

frequently called

from

its

muzzle

feet in length,

is

covered

ry/i^^f^^^//y/^//<rA//^> ,/-^ll^/iiry

I.r'iulnn ./lilli.'/ii-il IJ, ,:L-":'iyij;;hy

/"/ /O/z/t'/z/aJ^.

./..r,'/ill.-fll..>'.' I'finl, (liiir. I:

),;l

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
covered with hard prickles, the
excepted.

its tail

233

the face, and part of

feet,

These prickles are about three inches

long, yellow at the root, a dark chesnut colour in the

and white at the points

middle,

highly polislied,

sharp,

creature's defence,

they are extremely

and moveable, serving

which, when irritated,

it

versary

lik'e

porcupine

is

never

it

ears,

On

bites.

its

much

like those of

climbing trees to seek for

is

back,
the

which are very small

each side of

its

nose
its

it

its

food, in which

its

has

feet are

a monkey, Avhich assist

very serviceable, which, like a

tail is also

twists

its

eyes are large,

j'jng whiskers, very like the otter or the cat

shaped

ad-

of a roundish make, and joined to the body

and placed under the

andi round

in

its

The head of

the bristles of a hog.

by a remarkably thick short neck;


bright,

on

at othor times these prickles lie flat

something

ing

dresses

and makes a formidable appearance before

array,

the

for

it

in

long taper-

fifth

limb,

it

about the branches, and which near the extremity,

covered over with hair like the face, the under part near

the tip only excepted, Avhich

is

as are also the inside of all

its

this

country

is,

I think,

little

perfectly callous
feet.

and black,

The hedge-hog of

difterent

from that of the

old continent, being about eight or ten iiKihes in length,

covered over with pale yellow prickles, but with hair on


the face and under the belly, which

longer than in
.torown spots like

Vol.

I.

is

rather softer

the hedge-hog of Europe.

eye-brows over

its

eyes,

It has

and no

and
dark

ears but

auditory

chap.
^^^,,_

1^^

NARRATIVE OF AN

234
c

HA

P.

auditory holes, and five toes with bended claws on each,


foot;

very short, and

its tail is

ing itself into a round ball in the


Its

food consists of

and

fruit,

manner of the

armadillo.

roots, vegetables, insects, &c,,

not disestecmed

its flesh is

defence consists in form-

its

b}'

the Indians or natives

of the country.

Colonel Fourgeoud not having yet arrived, I amused

myself with swimming, and paddling up the mouth of the

Wana

deep

Creek, with a canoe; during \\rhich time a

Mr. Rulagh, one of our


served

officers

who was with me, ob-

top of a mangrove-tree) a battle between a

(in the

snake and a frog

and

for

an additional proof that frogs

are to be found in trees, I refer the reader to the MontJxly

Review

for

March

1785, page

Spallanzani's Dissertation

199, where, in the

upon Frogs, the Tree Frog

particularly mentioned.

But

the branches did not so

much

finding this animal


excite

my

and

in

first

when

Indeed

which the poor frog


perceived

him,

is

amongst

surprize, as the

contest between a snake and a frog, which I


tinctly relate,

Abbe

fliall

dis-

lost the battle.

his

head

and

shoulders were already in the jaws of the snake, which


last

appeared to

poker,
the
size

and had

mangrove

of a man's

claws of
tion

its

me about
its

tail

the size of a large kitchen

twisted round a tough limb of

while the frog,


fist,

had

hinder legs,

laid

who appeared

hold of a twig ^vith the

as with hands.

were they contending, the one for


10

to be the

In this posilife,

the

other
for

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
for

forming one straight line between the

dinner,

his

two branches, and thus

beheld them for some time,

apparently stationary, and without a struggle.


not without hope,

the poor

that

himself by his exertions

their

and

fore-legs of the frog

by

little

and

relaxing,
orifice,
little

and by
the

body

disappeared,

nothing more Mas seen than the hinder feet

finally

till

was

but the reverse was the case,

forming an incredible

elasticity

Still I

might extricate

frog

the jaws of the snake gradually

for

235

and claws, which were

at last disengaged from the twig,

and the poor creature was swallowed whole by suction

down

the throat of his formidable adversary,

was drawn some inches farther

and

canal,

at last

stuck,

throat immediately contracted

we

whose jaws and

and re-assumed

their for-

The snake being out of our

natural shape.

could not

the alimentary

forming a knob or knot at

times as thick as the snake,

least six

mer

down

whence he

reach,

him, as we wished to do, to take a

kill

further examination.

Thus wo

left

him, continuijig in

the same attitude Avithout moving, and twisted round the

branch.

On

the third of

November, one party of the troops

being arrived, and encamped on the south-west side of the

Cormoetibo Creek, about one mile above the mouth of


the

Wana

them a
officer,

Creek,

visit

went with a couple of rangers to pay

when Major Rughcop,

informed

me

that Colonel

H h

the

commanding

Fourgeoud had marched


last

chap.
X.

NARRATIVE OF AN

236

from Patamaca in two columns, of which he led the

last

one, while the other was hourly expected


rest of the
tica,

and that the

regiment was divided between the rivers Cot-

and Comewina, excepting those that wero

Perica,

sick in the hospital at Paramaribo.

and good

lent health

spirits

and

was now

in excel-

hopes of being-

in the

my

reconciled to Fourgeoud by this voluntary proof of


zeal for the service, I

wait his arrival.

was indeed well acquainted

irreconcileable temper,

ungovernable disposition, when

myself

treated

but soon forgot

now determined, by my
make him my
At length

to

Avith his

and at the same time conscious of

my own wild and


ill

camp

retvirned to the rangers'

thought

trifling injuries,

and was

and

active

affable behaviour, to

friend if possible.

the wished-for hour arrived

and being ap-

prised of Colonel Fourgeoud's approach, I went half a

mile from the

camp

was come pour


his

meet him, acquainting him that I

participer de la gloire,

and to serve under

immediate command, which he having answered with

a boAv, I returned
rangers'

it,

and we marched together

to the

camp.

The occurrences
ing

to

from

the

in

enemy

this

march were the troops tak-

three

villages,

particularly

one

called the Rice Country, on account of the great quantity

of rice wliich was found there, some ripe and some in

full

blossom, which

rebels to flight.

we

totally destroyed, after putting the

These were comnianded by one Bonny, a


relentless

Cj2v%'-

')

Av///,) ,'/

A'r//._/('A//^//;'^, A'/-

f.,inl,;,.i;,lli.,lml ll,,-'':i1l-o:i.ly J J-'i"-'"

.2i_

''

I'.n.l.^

i/iunh

r/ /f/.u//lf^i/.

l.irl.

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
relentless

Mulatto,

who was born

in the forest,

237

and was c n a

quite unconnected with Baron's party, which had lately

We

been driven from Boucou.

had found seven human

skulls

further learned that they

stuck

upon

stakes,

under

which lay mouldering the bodies above ground, and part


of the garments, (as

may be

and which proved them

seen in the annexed plate)

be the remains of the unfortu-

to

nate Lieutenant Lepper, with six of his unhappy men, most


of

whom

being taken

had one by one been stripped

alive,

naked by the rebel negroes

and

(for the recreation

at the arrival in their village,

of their wives and children) by

Bonny's orders flogged to death. This information we got

from a rebel woman, who had been made a prisoner by

Fourgeoud on
eondre,

and

march through the above

his

whom we

treated with every kindness.

This inhuman conduct in


to that

of Baron, who,

and menaces,
maribo

He

it

was

ditferent

accomplices, and

in

wx:ll

known had

whom

furnished

all

his threats

sent back to Para-

he might have

killed.

them with

provisions, per-

were not the cause of the

But not a ranger,

had the misfortune

directly opposite

concealing them from his enraged

fectly sensible that they

turbance.

Bonny was

notwithstanding

soldiers,

even assisted

village or rice

as I

to fall into his

dis-

have said before, that


hands could escape his

ungovernable fury.

On

further conversation,

we found

that the whole part}^

being nearly starved, had conjimctly called out for bread,


as

^'

f.

NARRATIVE OF AN

S38
as

that
in

was knoAvn that there was plenty

it

it

its

had been kept back three days, and

stead.

had rushed

'J'o

in

but

in the boxes,

out

rice served

suppress this kind of mutiny, the officers

amongst the men with cocked

pistols

and

drawn swords, and indiscriminately laying hold of the


first

in their

way, had unluckily seized a poor

whom, notwithstanding

Skmidt,

be innocent, they had,

naded between two corporals,


of his mouth like a fountain

One

of the conductors,

to serve

till

basto-

rest,

the blood gushed out

and thus ended the

named Mongol,

revolt.

disdaining at

under Colonel Fourgeoud's command, had

him without asking

his consent, after

all

left

which he forsook the

These were the particulars of the march

service entirely.
in

the others averred to

all

an example to the

for

man named

both columns, from Crawassibo

in

Comewina

to the

"VVana Creek,

Whilst I was

now about noon

resting in

very contentedly, I was accosted by


Campbell,

who acquainted me,

my

my hammock

friend Lieutenant

with tears in his eyes, that

the evening before Colonel Fourgeoud had given to the


officei"s

of the Surinam Society, not only of that brave

and gallant corps the


but of the British

Scots brigade in the

in general, the

racter that could be invented.

Dutch

service,

most unmerited cha-

immediately started up;

and having got Campbell's information confirmed,


to

Avent

Fourgeoud, and asked him in public the cause of

unmanly

slander.

He

replied

with a stare,

this

that his

observations

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
observations only regarded

wore

men

fo]-

do,

my

petticoat-trovvsers,

coohiess and conveniency, as

many

239

which

British sea-

and which he had never seen on the mountains

of Switzerland.

But

specting us, he laid

as to the rest of

captain of the Cottica militia,

said re-

charge of Mr. Stocbnan,

totally to the

it

what was

who

Avas absent.

Thus

could only answer by denouncing, in the severest terms,

vengeance upon

this assassin

promising to transform

my

of our reputation

and

after

short trowsers into long ones,

w^e coolly separated.

An

hour however

command

column at

or

a sudden order

Cormoetibo River, and be henceforth under

to cross the

the

after this, I received

who was with

of Major Rughcop,
this

his party

time encamped on the south-side at the

mouth of Wana Creek. " Force

is

indeed the ruling prin-

" ciple in military afiairs," says a certain author; and, upon


the whole, could the ingenious advice given to a
in chief, as published in a late pamphlet,

by Colonel Fourgeoud,
studied

it,

commander

have been read

must have imagined he had

sentence after sentence, since nothing could

better correspond with his general character.

Being arrived

in

Major Rughcop's camp, and having

got a couple of negroes to serve me, the next measure

was
over

to build a hut, or,

my hammock,

the sun

As

to

more properly speaking, a shed


keep

me

free

from the rain and

which was done within the space of one hour.

these huts are of very material

and of general use

in

tropical

chap.
X.

NARRATIVE OF AN

240
tropical

marches and campaigns, Avhere no tents can

pitched,

and where

(as I

have seen so

many

thousands of

these temporary erections) I will describe the

on

different occasions

because neither hammers nor

all

that

wanted,

curious,

a strong cutlass or bill-

and

useful, as they are

lasting,

but the most

and convenient habitations, with even two

one above the

other,

are

by the French called

or the pine-tree

For

required.

if

not more than two articles


n)anicole,

and form not only

instantly raised,
delightful

is

in

nor indeed any kind

nails,

of carpenter's tools are required

hook being

manner

being not only extremely

which they are constructed,


curious, but very useful

be,

these erections

wanting

latanie,

stories,

the

and here

first

the

parasalla,

and the second the nebees, called by the

French Imnnes, by the Spaniards

bejucos,

and

in

Surinam

iay-taij.

The
is

manicole-tree, which

is

of the palm-tree species,

mostly found in marshy places, and

of a rich and luxurious

soil.

It

is

is

always a proof

about the thickness of

a man's thigh, very straight, and grows to the height of

from

which

thirty to
is

fifty

feet

from the ground

the trunk,

jointed at the distance of two or three feet,

is

of a light-brown colour, hard externally for the thickness


of half an inch, but pithy, like the English elder, and

good

for nothing within,

wood becomes
white

fruit,

except near the top, where the

and

incloses a delicious kind of

called cabbage,

and which, being peculiar to

green,

all

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
the palm-trees,

all

On

describe.
in

fliall

the top of

2H

on another occasion amply


the nianicole-trce spreads

all this

beautiful oreen bouo'hs, uith leaves hansins; straioht

downwards

like

The manner of

umbrella.
cottages,

is

feet long as

which form a kind of

ribbons,

silk

usins;

it

by cutting the trunk

you w ish

to

for buildinG: huts or

many

in pieces of as

have the partition

high

for

instance, seven feet, which pieces are next split into small

and then they are

their pith}' substance,


use.

and divested of

the breadth of a man's hand,

boards,

Having cut and prepared

you may want

as

fit

many

for

immediate

of these laths as

to surround the dwelling, nothing remains

but to lash them

in

a perpendicular position and close to

each other to two cross bars of the same tree fixed to


the corner posts, and the whole

is

cut and shaped with

the bill-hook alone, and tied together by the nebees or

which

tay-tay,

verb

to

tie,

since

have derived their name from our

had possession of the

the English

The nebees

colony.
sizes,

I think

are a kind of ligneous ropes of all

both as to length and thickness, that grow

woods, and climb up along the trees


they are

so

plentiful

like the ligneous

forest

appear

in

the

in all directions

and wonderfully dispersed,

that,

cordage of the mangrove, they make the

like

a large fleet at anchor, killing

many

of the trees by mere compression, and entwining themselves with

each other to the thickness of a

ship's cable,

without any kind of foliage, which gives them some-

VoL.

I.

times

NARRATIVE OF AN

242
tiiues

when ascend-

a wonderful appearance, particularly

manner

ing lofty trunks in a spiral

which they next hang down

the

to

and

to the earth, take root,

Sometimes the thin nebees are

re-ascend.

from

top,

so closely in-

terwoven, that they have the appea?ance of fishing nets,

and game cannot get through them.

may be

exceedingly tough, and

used for mooring large

Having only

vessels to the shore.

These nebees are

to add,

that

some of

the species are poisonous, especially those that are

flat,

grooved, or angular, I shall proceed to the roofing of the


cottage.

This

is

done by the green boughs or branches of the

same manicole-tree
lowing manner

that

made

the walls, and in the fol-

each bough, Avhich

can compare to

nothing so well as to the shape of a feather, and which


as large as a

bottom

man, must be

two equal

in

when a number of
by

their

own

split

parts, as

from the top

you would

verdure, and form a

bunch

in

looks like the


covering,

mane

which at

and

you next take

as thick as

of a horse, hangs downwards.


first

close,

and

is

green,

finidies

without the help of a


10

you

such a manner that the verdure, which

is

very beautiful,

your house, as

hammer

This

but soon takes the

colour of the English reed-thatching,


lasting

a pen,

them with nebees one above an-

other upon the roof of your cottage,

and

to the

these half boughs are tied together

these bunches, and tie

please,

split

is

or

nails

have
the

said,

doors

and

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
and M'indows,

243

&c. are niade in the same

tables, seats,

manner, so are the inclosures for gardens, or other places


for

keeping cattle

and by

conveniency

it is

want good houses, which,

rebel negroes never


to

this

that the

burnt

if

ashes one day, are again perfectly rebuilt the next,

though they never rebuild them exactly

in

the places

where they have once been discovered by Europeans. The


Indians, instead of the manicoles, generally cover their

wigwams with

las or

with

on another occasion.

trooly,

of which I shall speak

ought not to

forget, that the

seeds of these trees are contained in a spatha, near the


top, of thirty or forty knotty fibres, forming a species of

broom,

for

which they are used throughout the colony

while the manicole

thus,

house,

it

affords

also

supplies

materials for a

the

means of keeping

the

This tree produces also the cabbage, which,


said,

is

that I

found

now

in all the other palm-trees,

&c.

it

clean.

The hut

lay under was not built in the convenient

ner above described

it

was not requisite,

time we generally continued in one place

have

as I

man-

for the short

my

habitation

The

consisted only of a roof or cover without any walls.

manner of

erecting these

soldier builds for himself,

little
is

sheds,

which every private

simply by planting four forked

poles in the ground, at such a distance that a

can conveniently hang between them


short poles, strong

body

in the

above

hammock

next, to rest

two

enough

to support the weight of the

forks,

the one at the head and the


1

other

NARRATIVE OF AN

244

other at the feet, to which are fastened the clews of the

hammock. On
long

sticks,

the other extremities of these are laid

and on them again two short ones, and thus

alternately two long

When

degrees.

two

and two

the whole

short, all

is

which diminish by

must be

finished, the top

covered with branches from the manicole, exactly as they

grow, without either splitting or tying them, and as thick

may

as the season

When
will

require.

temporary fabric

this

completely finished,

is

not only keep dry both the

inhabitants

and

it

their

boxes, but (by the help of the nebecs) fuzees, swords,


pistols,

&c.

may be suspended

from the

have been describing the manicole,

mention the cocoa-nut

more than any of


so

much

shelter,

but

the

tree, as I

palm

still is

mer, in a

tall

my

opinion,

all

resembles that
tree,

which

is

food, clothing,

those qualities,

grows

It

like the for-

jointed trunk, sometimes from sixty to above


thick in proportion, but seldom

is

perpendicularly straight
is

in

it

man

As

induced also to

This

species.

well worthy of notice.

eighty feet high, and

wood

think

celebrated, as afibrding to

&c. possesses not,

am

rafters.

its

bark

is

of a grey colour

hard without, but pithy within, hke

Great Britain

its

tlie

the

elder in

branches are larger, and of a deeper

green, than those of the manicole-tree, but are equally


divided, with pinnated leaves on both sides, which in the

other I compared

hang

so straight

to green ribbons

but they neither

downwards, nor are the branches regularly

^A^y.y7u/'/zih<y^if/i4^y^6fC477Zy

-^.yy///'^

.^^ree/^.

London, Pub lijhrd Dr^rL^ij^i.br J.Johnjon.X' PtilM tYmn^i Tanl.


2"

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
larly arched,

which gives them the appearance of

and they spring up at the

feathers,

produces a cabbage at

of

loss

its

it is

known, when divested of

six

or

never seen with-

tree

hammer

husk,

its

break

to

is

The

nut,

it is w^ell

or to be sawed throuo-h

it,

affords

it

of a white liquid, which

this consists

they arc the

exceedingly hard, and

the middle to procure the nourishment

young,

when

they grow usually six or eight on one stalk,

of a man's head, but more conical.

requires a

inadequate to the

It bears the nuts

which diverges from the heart of the


size

too vakiable to

is

for the sake of a prize so

eight years old, after which period

out them

cocoa-tree also

tlie

summit, but

other produce.

its

lai-fre

top, in proportion as

they fade and go off at the bottom

be cut down

245

when

can com-

pare to nothing better than to milk and water mixed with


sugar,

and which

beverage

but at a riper period

crisp kernel,
for

an exceedingly cool and agreeable

is

which adheres close

it

remains perfectly

This kernel, which has a fine flavour, and

hollow within.

hke the

formed into a

is

to the inside of the shell

about half an inch thick, while

tastes

this

liquid,

is

good

eating, as

most of my readers

have probabl}^ experienced.


In the plate annexed, J,
trunk

D,

split into laths

is

C, the nebees to tie

the leaf split from the top

same

tied into

figure of

bunches

one of

its

the manicole-tree

F,

is

branches

downwards

//, the

B, the

them together
;

and E, the

the cocoa-nut tree


;

G, the

cocoa-nut in the
green

NARRATIVE OF AN

46
green husk

and

the

/,

same divested of

that outer sub-

stance.

But
nued

to proceed with

in this station,

sitting

narrative.

the other officers,

of

Ave conti-

one morning, being returned from a

round a species of table

Meyland,

While

and

twenty marines and twenty rangers,

with

patrole,

my

some dinner with

to take

was rudely insulted by a Captain

the Society troops, who,

as

with

I said,

Lieutenant Fredericy, had taken Boucou, and who was


Colonel Fourgeoud's countryman and friend.

The

affront

consisted in INIeyland's handing round to each a drop of


claret,

he having indeed but one bottle

me

impertinent manner, excepting


the glass in

my hand

insult to originate

to receive

from

alone, although I held

my commander
I

and, in an

Justly suspecting this

it.

than appear to seek a quarrel,

left,

in chief, rather

endeavoured to make an

apology, telling him, I had inadvertently erred in holding-

out

my

glass,

from the other

not imagining
officers

assuring

value of his wine, which

next neighbour

but

it

was not

for the

my

relintjuished to

concession had no other effect

this

it

him

I politely

than to increase the wrath of


apparently mistaking

was to be distinguished

my

fierce adversary,

who,

became

over-

for pusillanimity,

bearing and scurrilous, in which he was seconded by


the other Swiss and Germans without exception.

no more, and having

tore

called

stood

powese,

that

away a wing of a
before

me

all

1 said

boiled bird

(which bird had

been

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
been shot by one of the rangers)

and

ceremoQ}'-,

my

support

went
(m}"^

to the

left

or

hut of a sick

it

with

little

with a determination to

the table,

character

devoured

247

Thus

die.

resolved,

whose sabre

soldier,

I first

boiTowed

o^vn being broken) on pretence of going out to cut a

few sticks;

went

after this I

in quest of

Mr. Meyland,

and found him contentedly smoking

his

water-side, looking at one of his friends

who was

Having tapped him on the


before the other, that

now

pipe by the
angling.

shoulder, I hastily told him,


if

me

he did not fight

that

instant like a gentleman, I was determined to take revenge

another way, with the

He

at

first

seemed
great

flat

of

my

declared that he had only meant a joke, and

but perceiving that

for peace;

knocked the

sang froid

we walked

I persisted,

he with

tobacco-ashes from his

pipe against the heel of his shoe


his sabre,

where he stood.

sabre,

then having brought

together without seconds about half

a mile into the wood

here I stopt the captain short,

and drawing

my

weapon, now desired him

his defence

this

he did, but at the same time observed,

that as the point of his sword

unequally armed
still

to

so

him

that sabres were not

off,

indeed we Mere,

near one foot lons-er than

with, I offered to
I

and

was broken

to stand

mv own

made

being

therefore callins

to thrust, but

make an exchange

were

Ave
his

on

to cut

but he refusing,

dropped mine on the ground, and eagerly with both

hands endeavoured

to wrest his

from him,

till

(as I

had
hold

NARRATIVE OF AN

24S
liold

of

it

by the blade)

saw the blood

down

trickle

all

my fingers, and I was obliged to let go. I noAv grasped


my own sabre, with which I struck at him many times,
but without the least
the utmost facility

effect, as

at last, with

xvard off

instant striking sideways for

fortune to

make a gash

and

came down dangling by

my

having passed through

my

had glanced

to

inch deep.

At

pardon, or on
chose the

his side.
for

shoulder, and cut

had,

sabre,

his

hat without touching

my

scull,

about one

it

my

time I insisted on his asking

both our

pistols left-handed

which ended the

that such
;

rig"ht

this

firing

first,

Englishmen

battle.

but he

now reminded

Swiss jokes were always too serious to

when we shook hands, and


to

the

who having sewed up

the

him, covered with blood,

hammock, and

formed no duty.

for the

to

surgeon of his own

wound, he went

reconciled

to

to

Captain

the greatest satisfaction,

acknowledging the affront was

would be agreeable

conducted

space of several weeks per-

Thus was

Meyland and what gave me


his

consequence of which

in

not escaped entirely unhurt,

however,

his

of his right arm

the two lips of which appeared

through his blue jacket,


his right-hand

had the good

throat,

his

in the thick part

at least six inches long,

corps,

made

he

force,

his

all

my head, which, being conscious" I could not


by my skill, 1 bowed under it, and at the same

a cut at

him

he parried every blow with

Fourgeoud

was

offered, as finding it

to

have

me

mortified

and

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
and indeed ever

after this acknowledo;nient

my

lot, for

that very afternoon I found myself

under the necessity of challenging two other

this

had the

satisfaction

officers, mIio

me

had espoused Meyland's quarrel against


but in

lived in

Peace, however, was not yet de-

the utmost intimacy.

creed to be

we

249

at dinner;

of establishing

my

without violence or bloodshed, both of the

character

gentlemen acknowledged

their error;

and

became

at

once the favourite of the camp.

On

camped
near

November both columns met, and

the 9th of

together on the north side of the

mouth, where

its

it

Wana

en-

Creek,

runs into the Cormoetibo, placing

advanced guards at both creeks, at one mile distance


from

it

and

this

very evening I took the opportunity of

acquainting Colonel Fourgeoud, that I had nearly cut

head of

off the

beloved countryman in a duel (well

his

knowing he must be informed of

me

others)

was not only pleased graciously

trespass he
to tell

by

it

which

to pardon, but

with a smile that I was a brate garpn, but in

those smiles I put no more trust than

Avould in the tears

of a crocodile.

My
my

doubts of his friendship were soon confirmed, since

only true friend, Campbell, going doAvn sick to Devil's

Harwar, he would not so nmch as allow the boat or ponkee to wait


for
I

till

some clean

by

this

Vol.

I.

had

linen

finished a letter, directed to

Joanna,

however, a ranger (of which corps

time was become a remarkable favourite) found

Kk

means

11

X.

p.

NARRATIVE OF AN

250

meaos

to enable

me

to overtake this poor

young man

in

a corialla or small canoe, composed of one single piece of


timber; Avhen, shaking hands with Campbell, we separated with tears, and I never saw him more, for he died
in a few days after.

Colonel Fourgeoud

now being

de-

termined to scour the north banks of the Cormoetibo, we

broke up

in

two columns,

Major Rughcop,
ing;

we

to

viz. his

which

own

first,

and that of

belonged, follow-

last 1 still

behind a strong guard, with the provisions

left

Before we set out,

for the sick.

I shall specify

the sub-

stance of our orders to be observed on a march, as issued


since

by the chief on the 15th of August


and which, though nine months

vassibo,

\774' at

Cara-

after this date,

(being rather late) are so judicious, that they do infinite

honour

to his

Adjutant Captain Van Giurike, who had the

principal share in their composition


Article

I.

in

Quietness and sobriety was strongly recom-

mended.

On

Article II.

pain of death none to

fire

without

receiving orders.
Article III.

Also death to whoever quits or loses

his

arms.
Article IV.
to

The same punishment

for those

who

dare

plunder while they are engaging the enemy.


Article V.

An

officer

and

serjeant to inspect the dis-

tribution of the victuals at all times

and

Article

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
Each

Article VI.

be limited

officer to

251

number

in the

of his black attendants.

The

" That in case om' marines

other orders were,

" marched in two or three divisions


" were to

mark

or columns,

they

the trees with a sabre or bill-hook, to

" give intelligence to each other where they had passed,

" in the manner noticed on Plate


**

denote the marks cut by our

" division or column, and

J),

XX. where A,
first,

B, and C,

second, and third

E, and F, the marks

made

" by the several divisions or columns of the troops of the


" Surinam society

which marks were to be cut in such

" trees only as were on the

left side in

marching.

Also

" when the troops marched over sandy desarts, heaths, or


" savannahs, they were occasionally to drop small twigs
" or reeds, tied together in the form of a cross

" each camp, on the troops leaving


" bottle and blank paper

but

if

it,

and

were to be

in

left

any thing particular

" should happen, the same to be specified thereon.

In

" case of the troops being attacked on a march, a small


" entrenchment was to be formed of the baggage-boxes,
" at the back of which the negro slaves were to
" the ground

and

this

entrenchment

to

lie flat

on

be defended by

" the rear-guard only, while the other troops had orders
" not to linger on the defensive, but vigorously,

with

" bayonets fixed, to rush

fire

in

upon the enemy's

" nevertheless humanely giving quarter to


*'

all

such as

should be taken alive, or suiTcnder themselves to the

K k

" troops."

NARRATIVE OF AN

252
" troops."

These were the stated rules of our future

mihtary conduct

but for the present I beg leave to

observe, that every thing was in the most unaccountable

hurry and confusion. In

this

way, however, we proceeded,

keeping our course toward the mouth of the Cormoetibo


Creek, each officer provided with a pocket compass, by

which we were

to steer, like sailors,

where nothing

is

through a dark wood,

be seen but the heavens, as at sea

to

nothing appears but clouds and water: thus those who

were acquainted with navigation were the best qualified

for

marching, and ran the least hazard of losing themselves in

a black unbounded

my

deservedly attracted
slaves,

But those wretches who most

forest.

who were bending under

on which they carry


their servitude

condemned

all

the}-^

to subsist

their loads;

were driven forward

on half allowance,

like oxen,

In short, to increase our mis-

deluge

we were

other covering

between two
sticks,

began

the heavens like a torrent, continuing

during this

all

of

trees,

(according

to

to

all

pour

night

Colonel Fourgeoud's

ordered to

encamp without

any kind,

slinging

huts or

our hammocks

under which, upon two small forked

were placed our fire-arms, as the only method

of keeping the priming-powder dry in the pan


this

and

Avhile they per-

fortune, though in the dry season, the rains

order)

whose heads,

burthens, bore the bald marks of

formed double drudgery.

down from

negro

pity, Avere the miserable

piece

of architecture

did I hang,

like

above

IMahomet
betwixt

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
betwixt the two loadstones,

my

bosom, and,

in spite

my

Avith

253

sabre and pistols in

of wind and weather,

fell

most

profoundly asleep.

On

the 14th,

at

five o'clock in

awaked by the sound of

Up

up

the morning,

up

when

continuing, the half of the officers and

and

I rose

was

the rain

still

men were

sick,

my hammock soaked as in a wash-tub


the lock of my firelock, in miitation of the

from

having secured
rangers,

with a piece of the bark of a palm-tree, and

swallowing a dram, with a piece of dry rusk biscuit, for

my

breakfast,

we again marched

forget mentioning the negroes,


slept in the water

But

on.

who had

ought not to

the whole night

on the ground, and yet were

Had we now been

health than any of the Europeans.

attacked by the enemy,

we must

in better

inevitably have been all

cut to pieces, being disabled from resisting with our


arms, in which not only the priming but even
the cartridges

were completely

wet

this

fire-

many of

might have

been prevented by having cased and waxed down our


arms, as

is

these were
ever,

practised by the buccaneers of America; but


trifles

not to be thought of:

now happened which

that Avas,

one thing, how-

threatened to be no

that the provisions were gone,

trifle,

and

and those we

expected to meet us in the creek not arrived, having by

By this accident we were


and men without exception, to

some mistake been neglected.

now

reduced,

subsist

officers

on one rusk biscuit and water

for

our allowance for


twenty-

chap.

NARRATIVE OF AN

254

twenty-four hours, to keep us from starving *

while

be remarked, that Monsieur Laurant, our

to

is

it

hero's

French valet-de-chambre, who had charge of the provision,

was blown down to Baram's point, and another time

sunk with
tinent

the provisions

all

which produced the imper-

remark from some of the

had mistaken him


of

this distress,

soldiers, that the devil

In the midst however

for his master.

we were again

presented by one of the

rangers with a large bird, called here boojjy-calcoo, being a


species of wild turkey

of this fortunate acquisition

make

resolved in the evening to

was

it

broth, each throwing a

piece of his rusk biscuit into the kettle, and (standing

round the

began

beginning to ladle away as soon as the broth

fire)

to boil,

standing

its

Avhich

had another

being put over at

virtue,

six o'clock in the

evening, at

twelve o'clock at midnight the kettle was just as


first

moment we had begun

notwith-

viz.

full as

the

supper, though the broth Avas

rather weaker I must acknowledge, the heavy rain having

dashed into

it

During

without intermission.

this severe

storm we were as destitute of huts as the night before,

but

I availed

myself once more of

trowsers, which, loosening

my
fire

"*

and continuing

shoulders,
(like

from

my
to

my

middle,

is

made of

it,

hung about

turn round before the

a fowl roasting on a string)

Tliis rusk biscuit

English petticoat

passed the hours

though mouldered, and impreg-

coarse lye loaf, out in two, and baked

nated with woiins, spiders, gravel,

as hard as a stone

and even broken

ith

my

fuzee,

often broke

and was glad

it

bottles.

to eat

with

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
with rather more comfort than

companions.
tioned

that

is,

common

All
I

miserable coughing

can say of the bird above men-

thought

it

which here

turkeys,

my

255

differed

from the

little

frequently weigh above

twenty pounds.

The

largest bird in

others emu. It

is

Guiana

is

there called Uiyew, and

by

a middle species between the ostrich and

the cassowary, as I was told, for I never saw one in the

country

said to

it is

be about

of the head to the ground

its

six feet high,

head

is

from the top

small,

its bill flat,

the neck and limbs long, the body round, without a

and of a whitish grey colour


thick and strong,

and

This bird,

but runs very swiftly

all,

its

motion with

wings

its

parts of the rivers

thighs are remarkably

its

has three toes on each foot, while

it

the ostrich has but two.


at

tail,

it is

it is

said,

cannot

and, like the ostrich,

fly

assists

mostly found near the upper

When

Marawina and Seramica.

ing about birds, notwithstanding few of

them

speak-

sing here

with any degree of melody, for which the beauty of their

plumage
this

is

thought by some to compensate

march, so

much charmed

was induced

of the

to

Avith

two

I was,

during

in particular, that

put their sweet notes to music.

Those

first

Rather quick

The second slow

ffl^

^g^teg
These

chap.
X.

NARRATIVE OF AN

256

CHAP.

These notes they sung so


time, that in

any other place

to believe they

upon

true, so soft,

his flute.

and

to such proper

should have been inclined

were the performance of a human

As

artist

never saw either of those birds but

imperfectly and at a distance, I can say nothing more

concerning them, than that they are frequently heard in

marshy

On

situations.

we marched

the succeeding morning

again through

very heavy rains, Avhich by this time had swelled the water
so high in the

woods that

it

reached above our knees, and

prevented us from crossing a small creek in our way, without the help of a temporary bridge.
I prevailed therefore

on the rangers, with the help of a

few slaves, to erect one, which they did in the space of forty
minutes, by cutting

down a

straight tree,

across the creek, to this they also

but

still

with this our

made

which

fell

directly

a kind of railing

commander Rughcop, whose temper

was soured by misery, and whose constitution was already


broken by hardships, was not pleased.
for their pains with oaths

of contempt,

left

him

He paid the rangers

and reproaches, who, with a smile


SAvearing,

and crossed the creek,

some by swimming, and others by climbing up a


whose branches hung over

down on
ample

it,

the opposite shore

and here we stopped

tree

from which they dropped


in this I folloAved their ex-

till

the arrival of the poor

trembling and debilitated Major Rughcop,

Avith two-thirds

of his troops as sick as himself.


I

still

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
I

by

still

continued

in perfect health,

different insects,

but

Zbi

was much stung

and torn by a thousand thorns or

maccaws, particularly one species, which are strong black


prickles of several inches long,

wound

that break short in the

they project like the back of a porcupine, on a

kind of low or dwarf palm-tree, called the cocareefo, whose


larse branches diverge from the earth like the

Another inconvenience to be met

from a bomb.
throughout

all

of a fdzz

fire

the low

and marshy places

Avith

in the forest,

is

a kind of roots called matakee, and more vulgarly trumpets,

on account of the form, resembling the windings of that


instrument, which rise above ground like nebees, three
or four feet high, continuing thus to an almost endless

and

length,

so thick that,

can get through them


difficult

like

over these matakees

walk, as they every

to

the feet, and frequently trip


footstep care

short-limbed

is

our brambles, no dog

moment

extremely

catch hold of

up the body, unless

at every

taken to step clear over them, Avhich for

men

is

With

an absolute impossibility.

inconvenience we were troubled

march

it is

throuffhout

this

the whole

but we had no opportunity of falling in with

any kind of good


except a few

grow on a

tnaripas,

tall

avoira that I

roots,

vegetables,

or fruits for food,

which are a species of nuts that

palm-tree, and are very

have already described, only

much

like

the

larger,

and

less

of an oi-ange colour, the stone and kernel being exactly


the same.

Vol.

I.

LI

We

NARRATIVE OF AN

258

We
before

marched again with better weather, and arrived


noon

at Jerusalem, near the

mouth of Cormoetibo

Creek, where I had formerly halted during

Here Colonel Fourgeoud, with


arrived just before us

his

drooping

my

cruise.

soldiers,

was

and here we made our appear-

ance, in such a shocking situation as will scarcely admit

of description.

sufficient

is

say,

to

small

number excepted

fatigue, a very

while several, unable to walk at

had been carried upon poles by negro

hammocks
nothing.

and during

One

thing

is

the whole

that

army was exhausted by famine and

little

all,

It

all

to

this

slaves in their

time we had discovered

be considered, that while the

old gentleman himself went through

all

the above-men-

tioned hardships, (to Avhich he seemed as invulnerable as

a machine of iron or brass)

Ave

had the

reason to

less

complain of bad usage. In short, having as usual plunged


in the river, to

the

scratches,

wash

this I

mire and blood occasioned by

and having taken a

my

looked round for

but in

off the

as they were

to build his kitchen, although

nothing to dress in

once overlooked

negroes to erect a comfortable hut

was disappointed,

Mr. Rughcop

refreshing SAvim,

employed by
he had as yet

This piece of unpoliteness I for

it.

and the rangers having made

nice bed of manicole-branches

me

on the ground, (there

being no trees in the place to sling a hammock) and

having lighted a blazing

down next

to

them on

fire

by the

side of it, I lay quietly

my green mattress, where,

in a clear

moonshine

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
moonshine night and no

rain,

fire

was out, the

being so

stiff

the

damp

companions

he,

feet,

not avoid groaning aloud

had scarcely strength

be able

my

the pain however

last fell

I hid
still

the negro slaves

supposing

down behind

In

cabbage-tree.

me

myself in the

augmenting,

my

skirts

of

soon was
difficulty,

the rotten trunk of an old

this situation I

who was going

was discovered by one of


and who,

to cut raftei-s,

was taken up and carried

one of the Society surgeons instantly sent

in

but with

sides that I could

in

a hammock,
cover,

and

for to attend

me.

by the care of a Captain Medler, under proper

this

fire.

dead, ran instantly back, and alarmed the

whole camp.

By

sable

new

to rise,

prevented from breathing without the greatest

and at

my

but to prevent Fourgeoud

and the others from hearing,


;

almost dead with

however, having kindled a

such excruciating pain in one of

wood

and awake one of

I recruited so as at six o'clock to

the

awaked, when the

that exhaled from the earth,

and benumbed that

on hands and

to crawl

moon was down, and

dew and

the cold

But

sound asleep.

I fell

about two hours before day-break

259

time I was suiTounded by spectators, and the pain

side

became

phobia, I tore

my

so acute, that, like one in the hydroshirt

with

my

teeth,

till

being rubbed by a

and

bit

whatever

chanced

to

come near me

hand on

my

side with a kind of ointment, the complaint

suddenly vanished like a dream, and I

felt

warm

myself com-

pletely recovered.

To
L L 2

NARRATIVE OF AN

260

To

prevent a relapse, however, the

of

my

to

murder the Berbice

employ them

my

the

the slaves, if he did not instantaneously

to build for

to regard

who had

Geusary,

ruffian,

Avoukl order the contrary,

had

made

use that I

strength was to cut a cudgel, with which I swore

management of

first

me a comfortable
my life being the

and following him

cudgel clubbed upon

my

hut, let

who

dearest thing

close at his heels, with

shoulder, I had

the satis-

faction to be well housed in the space of two hours.

must not omit, that Colonel Fourgeoud, during the


of

my

illness,

to Devil's

On

had made

Harwar

but

of being transported

this I refused.

and now Major Rughcop him-

was sent down extremely

officer

offer

ill,

being the eleventh sick

Being now almost

during this short campaign.

starving for

want of

provisions,

supplied by a quantity of

we were most opportunely

fish,

particularly the Jackee,

already described as changing to a frog

which

is

of the same

size,

very rich and fat ; these

where they were


negroes caught

fish

many

after which,

fish

they

and the warappa,

and equally good, both being


were so plentiful

with their hands,

mud

in the

marshes,

but mostly by

with their bill-hooks and

grasping with their fingers,

brought up pieces and half

Another

by the retreating waters, that our

left

striking at hazard in the

sabres

crisis

the 18th the news arrived, that poor Campbell died

on the preceding day


self

me an

also

fishes

caught

in great

in

the

they

abundance.

cieek,

called

coemma^

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
which

coemma-coemma,

261

from one to three feet long,

is

exceedinoly sweet, but not near so delicious as the jackee,


or warappa, which two last the negroes generally

dry or barbacue, and which


either bread or salt.

was glad to eat without

The barbacuing

consists in laying

upon twigs of wood above the

the fish

smoke-

where,

fire,

by

they dry to a consistency that gives them

the smoke,

no disagreeable

taste,

and

them

will preserve

for several

weeks together: thus prepared, they require no further


dressing.

On
vates

and twenty

village of

died

we detached a

the 20tli

self to

to reconnoitre the

rangers,

Boucou

captain, Avith twenty pri-

on the

folloAving

day Major Rughcop

and now Colonel Fourgeoud resolved


Boucou, leaving

me

the

to

command

hammocks but of that number


;

thirty to die at Devil's

with leave

down

Harwar, while

to Paramaribo.

march him-

of four hun-

dred men, white and black, two hundred of


sick in their

demolished

whom

were

transported

I sent sixty rangers

These

latter

went away

declaring, that Fourgeoud's operations were only calculated


to

murder

his

own

troops instead of the enemy's.

the nature of the negroes, that where they


is

likely to

be done, they

will

not march

tremely diflScult to maintain

proper

Such

is

know nothing

it is

indeed ex-

discipline

among

them, and when they expect to see the enemy, nothing

can possibly keep them back.


with what

skill

It

is

amazing

to observe,

one negro discovers the haunts of another


while

chap.
X.

NARRATIVE OF AN

262

while an European discerns not the smallest vestige of a

man's foot in the

forest, the

roving eye of the negro-ranger

catches the broken sprig, and faded leaf trod


ever missing

it

without

flat,

but when he finds the marks of the enemy

being near, he can then no longer be restrained.

doubtedly

is

inconsistent with

cates that spirit of liberty,

modern

which

tactics,

This un-

but indi-

in antient times alone

completed the valiant soldier; and such was at


the native and natural spirit of a people,

this

time

who had but

yesterday been slaves.

On

the evening of the 21st, I availed myself once

more

of being commandant, by sending two barges for provisions, the

one to

Harwar, which
biscuit, sent

On

this

me

La

Rochelle and the other to Devil's

brought

last

back a box with Boston

from Paramaribo.

day two

slaves Avere put in confinement, accused

of having taken pork from the magazine

and

was ad-

dressed by the troops to inflict an exemplary punishment,

the

common soldiers

despising the negro slaves, as in their

imagination greatly below themselves, and stupidly considering them as the causes of their distress.

Having found

a large piece of pork in their custody, yet having no

proof that was sufiicient to establish the

myself greatly at a

loss to

faction to both parties


cusing,

and the poor

companions
3

in

theft, I

found

distribute justice with satis-

the Europeans unmercifully acslaves

vindicating their starved

such a clamorous

style,

that the whole

camp

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
camp
had

stalen

it,

persisted that the latter

firft

and the others that they had saved

allowance,

their

The

an uproar.

M^as in

to

263

take to their families.

Affecting,

therefore, the style of a despotic prince, I ordered

ring to be formed of the plaintiffs,


to

be

let

within

I then, Avith

it,

commanded a block and a


was with

from

it

first

and next the prisoners

a stern and loud voice,

hatchet to be brought.

heart-felt satisfaction that I

apparatus, and the apprehension that

found

It

solemn

this

we might commit a

rash and criminal action, soon dispelled every feeling of

resentment

in the soldiers,

and

all

was implored by the very

Obdurately stopping

accusers to shew mercy.

however, to

intreaty from either side, I

my

made a

ear,

strong

negro slave take up the hatchet, and instantly chop the

pork into three equal pieces

when, giving one share to

the prosecutors, another to the malefactors, and the third


to the executioner for having so well

was ended

farce

more of robberies

On

to general satisfaction,

the 24th in the evening,

two

officers

Devil's

from

One

their late indisposition.

Le Baron de Z

esprii de corps,

on

duty, the

his

and

heard no

or complaints.

Society troops an'ived from

self

done

h,

his arrival

of the Surinam

Harwar, recovered

of them, calling him-

and being infected with the

seemed determined

to espouse

Captain Meyland's cause, abruptly alledging, that

had

disgraced him by epithets unbecoming his dignity.

was

amazed, and being conscious of my innocence, endeavoured


to

NARRATIVE OF AN

f64

to explain the matter in a friendly manner, in which I

was seconded by a Mr. Rulagli, one of

German,

the

faction.
I

life,

told

never had

my

hut

in

me

suddenly re-kindle,

when,

pistols, I returned, fully

hammock,

as

my
my

indignation

hammock

retired to

Mr. Rulagh with a summons,

him, that

tell

and

sabre

with

he did not instantly

if

come

my

in,

knife,

cut

and

down
treat

thought his pride and insolence deserved.

this

with

ariTied

turn out to fight me, I should

clews of his

I felt

determined to end the quarrel in

I dispatched

desiring he would

my

and walked

But now, finding the Baron

the moon-shine.
his

reply,

in all

gloomy mood imaginable.

was not long, however, before

It

but

more out-

less inclination to battle

the most

that he insisted on satis-

him without a

therefore left

towards

officers

instead of being appeased, grew

and plainly

rageous,

my

appeared a figure that

will

the

him

Upon

never be effaced from

my memory.
The Baron was more than
thin

and

pair of

sallow,

his

the middle size, extremely

meagre visage ornamented with a

enormous red whiskers under the nose, while a

white quetie near three feet long adorned his graceful


back.

He

Avas

in his

under-waistcoat, and walked on

stocking soles, which were black

worsted

these hanging

silk,

down upon

his miserable spindle shanks

darned with white

his heels,

discovered

while on his head he wore

a striped worsted night-cap of

all

colours, also in

many
holes

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
holes

and over

must not attempt


now, with
intreated

me

and

dram of

which

figure that

me

buss,

and

pretending not to have under-

forgiveness,

stood
a

Such was the

to describe.

humiliation, offered to give

all

my
;

breech his Aalour Avas displayed by

his

which hung out, but the hlazon of which

colours,

his

265

having granted with a loud laugh

last I

he faced about, and by the quick

brand}^,

step re-entered his den.

On

the 26th Colonel Fourgeoud,

ttirned

from

his trip to

Boucou, having surrounded three

straggling rebel negroes

unarmed,

as they

had escaped, another was taken

a third, with his thigh shot to shivers

was

first

were cutting a

While one of them,

cabbage-tree for their subsistence.


called Passitp,

with his party, re-

alive,

and

a slug cartridge,

b}^

lashed hands and feet, and thus carried

b}'

two

negroes on a pole, in the manner of a hog or a beerbarrel,

bearing

all

the

weight of

body upon

his

his

shattered limbs, which were dropping Avith blood, with-

out a plafter or a bandage to cover the wounds, and with


his

head hanging downwards

all

the time

in

which man-

ner the imhappy youth, for he had not the appearance of

being tAventy, had been brought through thick and thin


for

above

six

miles distance from the camp, Avhile he

might just as well have been carried

hammocks

of the soldiers.

I Avas

in

one of the spare

shocked and surprised

at this act of barbarity in Fourgeoud,

Avhom I never had

observed to be cruel in his cooler moments to an indivi-

VoL.

I.

Mm

dual


NARRATIVE OF AN

266
dual

indeed

reverse,

must do him the

unless he

me

times was by

justice to say, quite the

was opposed, as
but on

this

occasion he was so

tered with this trophy of victory,

and humanity was

feeling

on a

table,

wounds

had made

increasing,

many round

me

was more fortunate,

The

some water, which

my

hat,

when he

my

said,

fever

gave

" Thank

inexpressible satisfac-

His companion, called September^

for

Fourgeoud,

discoveries, regaled

tinction than he did

his feelings

for

Masera," sighed, and, to

tion, instantly expired.

some

during the operation.

hoire

what must have been


he begged

patches as the

he could never recover,

holes, declaring

him myself clean out of


ye,

laid

on which, that he might seem to do

and singing Dragons pour


Poor negro

that every spark of

The body being

extinct.

something, he put just as


slugs

flat-

implored one of the surgeons, called Pino,

to dress his

must own he some-

in

hopes of making

and treated him with more

any of

his officers

dis-

while September,

looking as wild as a fox newly caught, was put in the


stocks during the night

by the negro
which

his

being.

slaves,

unhappy

According

and

his

companion was interred

with those marks of commiseration


fate

demanded from every human

to their

custom, they spread his grave

with the green boughs of the palm-trees, and offered a


part of their scanty allowance by
following day
arrived,

way of

libation.

Mr. Stoelman, the

militia captain,

one day only

camp,

to stay

in the

The
being

I took the

opportunity

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

267

opportunity to remind Colonel Fourgeoud of Avhat he had


told

me

concerning his unbecomhig insinuations, which

begged him now to repeat


I

was determined

to

have

in that gentleman's hearing, as


this

matter cleared up, and to

obtain that satisfaction to Avhich I thought myself entitled.

But

the gallant Colonel was not easily brought to proof.

He now

imputed

all

the

blame

Major Rughcop, who

to

was dead, and requested of me to say nothing more about


I left

it.

him with contempt, and shook hands with

supposed adversary; and then, to


told

him

all

my

his inexpressible surprise,

that had happened.

The consequence

was,

that in less than two hours the captain quitted Fourgeoud

and Jerusalem

in disgust,

and was followed by the

re-

maining rangers.

On

the 29th, Captain de Borgnes Avas

made major

in

Rughcop's place; but no new subalterns were created,

Fourgeoud
cate

declarina:

them with

Serjeants

who had

he had no more materials to

which

fabri-

might be true amongst the

in part

but two brave youths, both gentlemen's sons,

entered as volunteers, and gone through every

danger and fatigue, remained unnoticed

one named

Sheffer,

the other Meyer

in the ranks, the

such ever was, and

ever will be, too frequently, the consequence of wanting


friends

and

fortune.

" Et genus et virtus nisi

cum

re vilior alga est."

h a p.

NARRATIVE OF AN

268

CHAP. XL
The Troops march back
near the

The Rebels pass


Great

Pursued without Success


of Water Mineral Mountains The

Camp

for Waiit
arrive at

Wana Creek

to the

La

Distj-ess

Troops

Rochelle, in Tatamaca.

the 30th of

troops broke

November, 1773, the whole of the

up

and leaving Jerusalem,

together,

we once more marched back

to the

Wana

Creek, but did

not keep exactly the track that had brought us thither


Colonel Fourgeoud, however, revoking his former orders,

now

allowed his remaining party to sling their

under cover, of which indeed


to set

them the example

comfortably lodged, but,

he, at this crisis,

am

we

condescended
at least

more

sorry to add, not

more

thus Avere

hammocks

comfortably victualled, while the old gentleman himself


Avanted for nothing that was good.

We

continued our march for three days successively,,

with good weather

my

sound sleep by a

but

I Avas every night aAvaked out of

sentinel, Avho

was sent by the

colonel's,

orders to disturb me, Avith a charge of having whistled or


spoke.

On

the 3d Ave arrived once

Here, after a fatiguing march,

more

at the

I flattered

Wana

myself

Creek..

Avith the

hope

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
my

hope of recruiting
a quiet night's rest
so

sound

shake

my

Avas

me

exhausted strength and

spirits

by

but was once more awoken, though

sleep, that the

sentinel

by the

three or lour times

started up, denying the charge


sitting upright in his

2G9

was obliged to

shoulder.

then

but Fourgeoud himself,

hammock, now

swore, in a tremen-

dous voice, that he was determined to Jiang and quarter

whoever should dare to disobey

gloomy woods resounding with


deadly silence succeeded
till

happened

moderate

fit

his

dark and

bellowing threats.

storm throughout the camp,

this

to break

his orders, the

by bursting out

it,

an im-

into

of laughter, in which I Avas instantly accom-

many

panied by so

others,

began

that he

to roar like

thunder, without being able to distinguish one person's


voice from another.

In this music he was seconded by a

large toad, called here the pipa, to which monster he actually

gave shelter

in his hut,

and which kept croaking

every night, with such a voice as could only be exceeded

by Fourgeoud

himself, or

Swisserland bear.

me

again, but to

by that of

jNIorpheus I

countryman, a

now invoked

to befriend

no purpose, such was the impression

which these several roarings had


in this

his

gloomy temper

left

on

my

mind

I shall describe this hateful

animal, the colonel's dear companion,


largest of all the toads in

viz.

South America,

tlie

if

and

gloomy

pipa, the

not in the

world.

The pipa

is

an animal supposed by some

to partake

of

botk

NARRATIVE OF AN

270

both the nature of the frog and the toad.


hideous of

the most

is

upon

earth, covered over with a

scrofulous skin,

very uneven, and marked

creatures

all

dark brown

It

with irregular black spots

the hinder feet of the creature

are webbed, and the toes longer than those before


it

can both swim and leap

from other toads.


duck

like

Its size is often larger

when plucked and pinioned

which takes place generally


loud.

a frog, in which

But what

the manner of

hatched

till

is

in the night,

most remarkable
propagation

its

existence

common
croaking,

its

inconceivably

in this monster, is

the young ones being

they become tadpoles in a kind of Avatery

on the back of the mother,

cells

thus

it differs

than a

and

first

commences

for

in

which the embrio's

on the back she

nated by the male, and thence issues

this

is

impreg-

most extraordi-

nary birth.

Toads are not venomous,


are even tameable

many

for

years,

as

is

for instance,

as,

and

generally imagined,
]Mr.

Awcott fed one

and Colonel Fourgeoud kept

his

as a

domestic favourite during the whole time of our campaign


at

Wana Creek

frog.

That the

indeed
laft

myself have since lodged a tame

mentioned animals are eatable as

know by experience but

as their thighs, I also


is

far

their taste

extremely insipid.

To

return at once to

croaking of this pipa

my hammock

the

and journal.

^The

hammering of another, which

produces a loud and constant sound of tuck, tuck, tuck, from


1

sun-

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
sun-set to sun-rise

',

the howling of the baboons

ing of the snakes, tigers, &c.

to

271

the hiss-

which add the growhng

of Fourgeoud, and sometimes heavy rains into the bargain,

made
The

the night very uncomfortable

rising sun, however, dispelled

and gloomy indeed.

my

resentment

having taken a sound nap during the day,


after

it,

and

as well pleased, as the forest of

and

was as well

Guiana could

make me.

On

the morning of the 4th, I discovered a couple of

fine powesas

on the branches of a high

camp, and requested


of them, which

pretence that the


rnusquet, though

liberty

ourselves.

near the

from the chief to shoot one

on

however was bluntly refused me,

enemy might hear


by the way,

to express myself, they

we did

tree

knew

little

if it

report of

tlie

be not a solecism so

we were

better where

after,

appearing on the top of another

my

than

however, a large snake


tree, it Avas

ordered to

be shot immediately, whether from fear or antipathy

know
fell to

not.

On

the discharge of the

musquet the animal

the ground, quite alive, and slided instantly into

Upon this occasion I had an


the uncommon intrepidity of a

thicket near the magazine.

opportunity of remarking
soldier,

who, creeping

in after the reptile,

brought

it

out

from among the brambles, superstitiously pretending that

he was invulnerable

to

its

bite.

However

this

the snake, which was above six feet long, erected

and half

its

body

successively to attack him,

may
its

be,

head

and he

as

often

NARRATIVE OF AN

272

often knocked

sabre severed

it

down

in

it

doing which he

with his

and

fist,

at last with his

two pieces, which ended the battle

Avas regaled

for

bj Fourgcoud with a dram

of rum.

Lest
is

should be accused of introducing a vrord which

probably new and unintelligible to

beg leave
Guiana,

readers, I will

to add, that the powesa, or peacock-pheasant of

is

common

my

a beautiful bird indeed, about the

turkey, to which

appearance and

taste.

except on the belly

its

it

size

of a

bears a resemblance both in

a shining black,

Its feathers are

and

legs are yellow,

except near the point, where

it is

also

its bill,

blue and arclied.

eyes are lively and bright, and on

its

head

it

is

Its

crested

with a brilliant plume of black frizzled feathers, ^vhich


give

it

These birds cannot

a noble appearance.

may be

and being

easily

poses

Paramaribo they are frequently sold

at

tamed,

than a guinea a-piece.


called

reared for domestic pur-

Another

for

bircT peculiar to

by the French thega?c, and

I will also

fly far;

in

more

Guiana,

Surinam camy-cami/,

take this opportunity to describe.

It

is,

like the

former, nearly the size of a turkey, but totally different


in

its

tail,

formation and plumage

breast, Avhere

down
is

its

body, Avhich has no

being perfectly the shape of an egg

except on the back, where


its

like those

it is

it is

also black,

of a grey colour, and on

the feathers are blue and long, hanging

of the heron.

The eyes

are bright, the bill

pointed, and of a blueish green, as are also

its legs.

The

^A^y^QA/^////./y, .yi^v/v;/^ ^v_ /-^///v/,

J.cnili'ii

I'iihli..l,,il Jli<-:'-j":'l-lt:^,iyJ..I<'lili.r,'tt

X'.

>v//v/.>^////.

Jiilih(7mni,y,ml.

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
The

vulgar

name of

bird in

this

country

this

trumpeter, on account of the sound

273
the

is

frequently makes,

it

which bears some distant resemblance to that of a trumpet, -but M'hence that

to certify

sound proceeds

some suppose

it is

made by

the feathered creation this bird

the greatest friend to man,

even seems to protect

is

is

whom

not in

my

power

Of

the nose.

all

the most tameable, and


follows, caresses,

it

and

attachment of a dog.

Avith the

have seen many of them kept on the

estates, where, like

the powesa, they are reared for domestic uses, and feed

among

On

the turkeys and other poultry.

the 6th I received six gallons of

rum from Para-

maribo, four of which I gave as a present to Fourgcoud.

About

evening Iavo of our slaves, Avho had

six in the

been out

gang of

brought intelligence that a

to cut manicoles,

had passed not above a mile from the

rebels

camp, headed by a Captain Arico,

-with

Avhom they had

spoken on the banks of the Cormoetibo Creek, but coidd


not

tell

which way they steered

had they been

terrified.

orders to pursue

morning, at

On

this

their course,

information

we

so

much

received

them by break of day; and the next

five o'clock,

all

was ready, and we again

broke up, leaving a detachment with the

stores,

and

re-

paired to the spot whence the intelligence procee,ded.

Here we saw a
*

Vol.

I.

large

The

palm

largest of

or mawrisee tree*, floating in

all

the

Nn

palm

species.

the

cjiap.

NAllRATIVE OF AN

274
the river,

and moored

to the opposite shore

which plainly indicated that Arico, with

by a nebee,

his

men, had

crossed the creek, Avhich they do by riding astride on the

one behind the other, in which manner

floating trunk, the

they are ferried over, (sometimes with

women and

children)

by those who are the best swimmers.


Notwithstanding
colonel,

that

he

it

this plain evidence,

the faith of our

Fourgeoud, now began to waver, and he averred

was no more than a stratagem of the

said,

had come from the place

them gone, and who had only

to

who,

rebels,

which we supposed

tied the tree across the river

to deceive us.

To

this

opinion neither myself nor the other officers

could subscribe

but no arguments would prevail

him, and we marched directly from them,


stead of crossing and pursuing

would certainly have done


near dark,

though

the

them

thus

Avith

east,

viz.

in-

west, as the rangers

we kept on

till

it

was

bread was forgotten, and the

whole day not a drop of water to be obtained, marching


through high sandy heaths or savannahs.
a httle to the right,

we were

just

making a camp, when a negro

come

to the

come sound

Wana
;

my

ears

we were

was a wel-

and giving him a calabash, and the best

part of a bottle of
creek,

upon the point of

called out that

This in

Creek.

After inclining

and make

my

rum,

me some

poor fellow, never having

desired

him

to run to the

grog, and this he did

made grog

before,

but the

poured

in all

the

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
the spirits and but very
that the stronger

it

S7j

water, doubtless thinking,

little

was the better;

which beverao-e

swallowed to the bottom, without taking time to taste

and

became

hardly keep

On

the

from a

instantly so

my

fruitless

intoxicated that

could

ourselves returned to our old

camp,

Fourseoud

cruise, Avhen Colonel

captive negro, September, at liberty,

shepherd's dog attending a flock


chief Avas indefatigable,

who

we

we had kept

set the

followed like a

but our commander in

and not only crossed and recon-

noitred the west side of the creek himself, but

knapsacks,

it,

feet.

we found

9tli

much

fillins:

our

the next morning set out in the same track

the eighth, he

overtake the enemy.

persisting that

still

Having thus marched

he should

till

towards

dark, avc altered our course, and passed the night in an


old

camp

of the rebel negroes, having again passed the

whole day without water.

The

following day

we

still

proceeded, but neither ene-

mies nor water were to be found

now began

to

be extremely

carried in their

hammocks.

faint,

It

the

men and

ofhcers

and some were already

was by

this

time indeed

insufferably hot,, being in the very heart of the dry season.

In

this

dilemma we dug a hole

of which a

ball cartridge

being

to trickle forth, but so slow

six feet
fired,

and

deep, in the bottom


little

moisture began

so black, that

it

proved

not to be of the least use.

We

still

marched on, and encamjied

N n

in

an old weedy
field,

ii

^^"

['

NARRATIVE OF AN

276
field,

where the rebels some time before had cultivated

During the night

plantations.

was truly affecting to

it

hear the poor soldiers lament for Avant of drink, but to

no purpose
still

for in spite of all this misery,

Fourgeoud

persisted in going forward even the third day, build-

some creek

ing his hopes on meeting with

In

alleviate this general distress.

or rividet

to

he was however

this

mistaken; for having again, on the 12th, marched over


burning sands

till

about noon, he dropped down himself,

amongst a number of

want of means
It

thirst.

to

slake

was happy that

make any

resistance,

distressed objects that

and intolerable

raging

their

not

in this situation Ave Avere

attacked by the negroes, as


to

miserable spectacle, for

others, a

must have been impossible

it

the ground being strewed Avith

appeared

to

be

of them in raging

all

Despair now seemed to be impressed even upon

fevers.

Fourgeoud's countenance, as he lay prostrate on the earth,


Avith his lips

dition,

my

and tongue parched black

though so

httle deserving of

it,

and

in this con-

he again attracted

pity.

During

all this,

some of the

pork, Avhile others crept on

drops of

dew from

the ground.

negro

is

all

soldiers

salt

and licked the scanty

fours

the fallen leaves that lay scattered

now experienced

capable when he

is Avell

treated

me

of as good Avater as ever

in

drank

on

the kindness of Avhich a

being presented by one attending

devoured

stilt

by

his master,

Avith a large

my

life

calabash

and

this

he

met

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

'^n

with, after unspeakable difficulty, in the leaves

met

few wild pine-apple plants, from which


the followino;

it

oi^

was extracted

in

manner

The

plant

is

other,

when

at

held in one hand, and a sabre in the

one

blow

is

it

severed from the root,

through the thick under parts of the leaves.

It

is

llica

held over a cup or calabash, and the water flows pure,

and

cool,

sometimes of a quart from each

This water has been caught in the time of the

plant.

by the channelled leaves of the

rains

means

plant,

and conveyed

proper reservoir.

Some

other negroes found

to relieve themselves

by the

water-mthij, but this

their

to

to the quantity

The

was not

sufficient to assist the

withij

a kind of very thick nebee of the vine species,

is

which grows only

in very

dying troops.

sandy places,

water-

being slashed

this

with the sabre in long pieces, and suddenly held to the

mouth, produces a limpid stream, and

and healthy beverage, of great

cool,

affords a pleasing,

service in the parch-

ing forests of Guiana.

As Providence had
could not for
lief Avith

my

graciously sent

poor Fourgeovid, Avhose age and natural

refreshed,

further

saw himself at

his favovu'

last obliged to return,

hammocks by

many were

my

re-

infirmi-

and who, being now

hope of overtaking the enemy.

w-as the party, that

their

this supph"^, I

soul resist the impulse of sharing

pleaded greatly in

ties

me

But

without any

so exhausted

carried on long poles in

the slaves.

As

ii

p.

NARRATIVES OF AN

278

As

our

his last resource,

commander now detached

the

Ijcrbicean negro, Gattsarie, by himself, to try if he could

bring him any intelligence while we continued our retreat.

As we returned by our former

we had dug

quence approached the

pit

convinced that by

time

I therefore

one of

my

this

dispatched

footsteps,

it

gallon bottles before


;

yesterday, I was

must contain

my boy Quaco

a puddle, and this he did

and of conse-

it

clear water.

to the front, to

should be changed to

but being met on

his return

by Colonel Fourgeoud, he with the butt end of


relentlessly

knocked the

preserve the

But

at this

water

all

moment

for himself

with orders to

and

his

favourites.

subordination being extinguished,

others,

who

all

pit,

now changed

good

Having slung our hammocks


a dram of

old rebel camp,

to a perfect mire, Avas

kill-devil

my

the water

dered

it

to

share to

my

faithful

it

an

this fluid,

negro who had given

me

being observed by old Fourgeoud, he or-

this

be snatched out of the poor man's hand, and

returned into the earthen jar


" drink

in

was distributed to

each without distinction; but, as I never used


1 offered

fol-

fought to come at the

water, which being


for nothing.

gun

pit,

the two protectors were forced headlong into the

lowed by several

his

and doubling

bottle to pieces,

placed two sentinels at the

his pace,

fill

telling

myself, or have none."

asperated at this

mark of

ingratitude,

me, "

must

either

was exceedingly ex-

and finding means


to

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

279

to procure that very evening a whole bottle, I gave

to

it

the slave.

Near midnight,

Good God

accidentally good water was discovered

what joyful news

surpassing any wine

remember!

much

and such
drank

all

warm supper

ordered a
so

Now

as a fire to

how sweet

mv small

and Fourgeoud

heartily,

and pork

have

it

hung

dressed

it

but

ness to assist me, alarmed the hero, Avhen

The

luncheon into the

old gentleman

kettle,

now

cut sticks against his orders,

hammock
sured

in the dark, to

him

cook

his black

in his eager-

was obliged to

my heels.

to

some person had

quietly stepped

up

to his

undeceive him, and softly as-

camp was

that the whole

and take

insisting that

tied

quietly over the

chancing to drop a log of wood upon another

my

we forced

thus Avere

for-

However, having

7'aw.

allowance to a string,

side of his kettle, to

drop

but not

for himself,

be lighted for any other person,

bidding even the cutting of a stick


to eat our salt beef

as I shall ever gratefully

be boiled

to

the taste

fast asleep

when

he,

on pretence of not knowing me, suddenly gave a loud


roar,

and, with both his hands, caught hold of

the hair of the head.


cover, while he called,

their

" Fire at him

hammocks convulsed

out Quaco,

luncheon

escaped, and got fairly under

amusement of

the infinite

instantly

and such was

me by

the whole

to

camp, who lay

in

fire

with laughter.
sent

him

!"

him back

at

Having found
to

his diligence, that

l)ring

my

he actually

brought

na

p.

NARRATIVE OF AN

80

CHAP,
-\

me back

brought

a piece of beef at least ten times as

large as wliat I

had

left,

with which I had once

the satisfaction to regale the poor slaves

more

and thus ended

this horrid day.

The

we once more returned

3lh

to the

Wana

be3ond the power of description

fatigued

Creek,

Avitli

these

fruitless sufierings.

Here the old gentleman regaled


in

my

Here
the

his friends with

presence, and without offering

found a

also I

East Indies,

Arnoldus

De

Maturee,

letter

where

me

my rum

a single drop.

from the island of Cej'lon in

my

and

friend

relation,

]\Ir.

Ly, being governor of Poind-de-Gale and

was invited

to

come and

made, but which

for the present

my

it

accepting, as

find

my

my fortune ready

evil stars

prevented

would have been dishonourable

to

leave the service at this juncture.

The

following day the negro Gausarie returned from his

expedition, reporting that he

had discovered nothing.

Captain Fredericy, who had marched on the 20th

ult.

with forty men, Mdiife and black, from Jerusalem, not

having been heard of since,

met

Avith

on the

it

was apprehended he had

some dreadful accident, and,

15th,

in consequence,

two captains, two subalterns,

men, were dispatched

to the river

Marawina

and
for

fifty

some

intelligence.

The

post at the Marawina, which

is

called

Vredenburgh,

consists of houses surrounded with palisades in a kind of

square,

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
square, which are

all built

the woods of Guiana so

and four

are a guard

of the manicol':>-tree, with which

much abound. On

sentinels,

river,

and the

the outer side

fort itself

is

de-

It

is

situated in an o}>ening,

where

is

placed a large

fended by several cannon.

on the banks of the

28i

flag,

and

where the garrison communicates with the French post on


the

both being situated at but

opposite shore,

distance from the

To

mouth of the Marawina.

little

give the

best idea of this spot, I shall present the reader with a

view of

as also of our situation at the

it,

Wana Creek,

which, however beautiful on paper, was a dreadful post

many

to

unfortunate sufferers.

In the annexed Drawing, three camps are distinctly


exhibited

those

of Colonel Fourgeoud and of the de-

ceased Major Rughcop, on both sides of the

and that which was


to

its

Creek,

directly opposite

mouth.

The
up

lately the rangers,

Wana

barges, &c. were ordered

on the same day

and take doMn the

provisions,

time the whole

camp was

temper the bloody

flux,

sick

but at

to brinothis

attacked by that dreadful dis-

which

is

both infectious and

epidemical, and daily carried numbers to their grave.


emetic, or

some other medicine, administered

were the only

relief in

Vol.

I.

at

An

random,

our power, as there was not a pro-

per surgeon on the spot,


hospitals in

very

all

Comewina and

of them being engaged at the


in Paramaribo.

The

NARRATIVE OF AN

282

The poor

unhapp}^ who,

slaves were peculiarly

have stated, having but half allowance, lived

on the produce of the cabbage-tree,


&c. and to

berries,

the

first

may

be attributed

introduction of this dangerous disease into the

naked bodies^

that they tied ropes or nebees about their


is

a practice of the Indians when their abdomens

are shrunk with hunger, as they find


least fancy, that

relieved
others,

by the compression.

I,

escaped the infection, but

and

called the consaca,

Europe, as

between the

it

is

hoM'ever^

with a few

I Avas laid

up with a

swelled foot
is

at

which disease

is

not unlike our chilblains in

occasions a very great itching, particularly

toes,

The negroes

by experience, or

the pain occasioned by want of food

miserable bad cold and

whence

issues a

watery

fluid.

are very subject to this comj^laint, which

they cure by applying the skin of a lemon or lime,


as hot as they can bear
I

wild

So starved indeed were these wretched negroes,,

camp.

which

months

seeds, roots,

circumstance

this

for

as I

made

it.

have frequently had occasion to mention oor provi-

sions, viz. salt beef, pork, rusk, biscuit,

and water,

for our

allowance, which were dealt out regularly every five or six

days; the two former having perhaps

made

the tour of the-

world, after leaving Ireland, and were even so green, so


slimy, so stinking,

and sometimes so

at other times they

full

of worms, that

would not have remained upon

my

stomach.

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
But

stomach.

however,

will

have not described our furniture.

not occupy

much

and

spirits,

This,

it

consisted only

officer, to

carry his linen,

time, as

of a square box or chest for each


fresh provisions,

283

when he had

These

either.

boxes served not only as cupboards, but as chairs and

On

camp.

tables in the

the head of a negro

had no

lis;ht

after six o'clock in the evening, that of the

moon

excepted,

yond

description.

had not

fork

me

serve

so

when

all

much

was solemn and melancholy be-

as a trencher,

and second

for the first

must observe, moreover, that we

a march they were carried on

made a

agreeably to the practice of the slaves

each person carried one

make

in his

bially ingenious,

and

upon

my

number of

in

struct, I also

a knife,

for

I at last contrived
;

in

which having

Necessity

oil,

and a

prover-

is

now have had what

is

formerly

have ardently thanked

of ingenuity, I ought not to forget a

pretty baskets which were made

camp, and

leaf,

such a situation every nicety

plate, I should

God for it.


When speaking

and as

produced a quantity of

it

Indeed, could I

forgotten.

in the

pocket.

of m}' shirt served for a wick.

I left

used a folded

a lamp by breaking a bottle

melted some pork,


slip

negro's calabash

a fork 1 Avanted not, and a spoon but seldom

instead of that article, therefore,

to

bason, spoon, or

^vhich,

made

to

by the negroes

they having taught

me

to con-

amuse myself, and sent them


o o 2

as

presents

NARRATIVE OF AN

28i

These baskets

presents to several friends at Paramaribo.

were composed of a kind of strong ligneous cord that

is

found in the bark of the cabbage-tree, and, as Dr. Bancroft


expresses

consists of a

it,

web-hke plexus, which

made

fibres are

For holding

fish at

ombre

is first

thin nebees

split

make

made

besides

but those that

&c.

vegetables,

fruit,

or quadrille,

are quite

and made of a kind of bulrush, called warimbo,

different,

which

holding

it,

use of as withies are

nothing can be better or more beautiful


are large for

as

These threads are drawn from

tough as whalebone.

used in England.

divided

brown and

cross-wise in long, hard, polished threads,

and the filaments or

is

and deprived of its pithy substance

the

no bad baskets.

The negroes here

curious nets, and even

hammocks, of the

also

silk grass plant.

This

is

a species of wild aloe that grows in the woods

and

the leaves are indented


tudinally very strong

and contain

prickly,

and small white

With

bruised and beaten to hemp.


stronger than any in Europe.
fectly for the rigging of ships

fibres,

this

longi-

wdiich are

we made

ropes

These would answer per-

and other purposes, had

it

not been discovered that they are sooner liable to rot in


the
silk,

v/et.

This kind of

that the importation

to prevent imposition

fraud

is

more

mixed with
11

by

difficult to

silk.

By

so very

much

like white

forbidden in

many

countries,

hemp
is

is

selling it for the

same; and the

be detected when

the Indians this plant

is

it is

artfully

called curetta,

and

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
and

Surinam vulgarly Indian soap,

in

as

it

285

contains a

saponaceous, pulpy substance, which answers for washing


as

common

negroes and
this,

soap, and

many

is

emplojxd

others.

for that

Another plant

purpose by the

much resembling

by the black people termed baboon

is

knifee, as

it

sometimes cuts through the skin to the very bone, of which


I

myself had some proofs in

any

ill

but without

this wilderness,

consequence.

In the manner

have already related the time

during this period, in which the whole

M'as

camp was

spent

destitute

of stockings, shoes, hats, &c. Colonel Fourgeoud walked a

whole day barefooted himself to furnish an example of


patience and perseverance, and to keep the few remaining
troops from murmuring.

advantage of

the

all

foot or consaca,

whole from

my

In

had

this respect I

compan}^

my

fairly the

skin being (the swelled

and a few scratches excepted) perfectly

habit of walking thus, Avhile not a sound

among

limb was to be found

the

rest,

whose

legs in general

were broken out in dreadful ulcers, with a discharge of


pus.

nience,

have already

in part

accounted for

this

and

farther

account

by observing,

shall

still

that while the stockings

for

it,

and shoes of these unhappy people

remained, they were never otf the feet of

who,

after

many

wearers,

marching through water, mud, and mire, in

this filthy condition,

hammocks, where,
filth

inconve-

rested during

in fair weather,

was dried upon

their

limbs,

the

night in

their

before morning this

and

in

consequence
caused

chap.
^^*

NARRATIVE OF AN

28G

caused an itching and redness on the skin, which bj


scratching broke out in

became

scrofulous,

many

places

and ended

in

these

open

wounds soon

sores

and

ulcers,

which, from the want of care and proper application, often

changed

to mortification

which some

and intolerable

lost their limbs,

swellings,

and others even

their lives

when they were not saved by amputation. Such


causes, and such the effects of the evils

with

had

to undergo.

time a compliment of a

this

of port wine being sent

gave

to struggle

and might be called only the precursors of what we

still

At

wei'e the

but they were far from the whole of our wretched-

ness,

we had

by

all

in

a present

ciated with fatigue,

with the other

to

me by

and

ham and a dozen

Captain Van Coeverden, I

poor Fourgeoud, Mho was ema-

except four bottles which

ofllicers

drank

and next da}^ the 29th,

the honour to be ordered on


Bo7-g7ies,

fine

.1

had

patrol with Colonel des

forty privates, ojicc more to

Uy

if

we could

not take the negroes who had crossed the creek three weeks
before.

Having dropped down the

we

lay

all

night,

marched N. E.

we soon
savanna,

lost

we landed

which

the following morning, and

after which, being Avithout a compass,

our way, and having crossed a large sand-

slung

our

and obscure wood.

same

river Avith a barge, in

hammocks

On

in the skirts of

the 31st

we again

course, in hopes of meeting with the

set

a thick
out the

marks of some
former

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

287

former path cut upon the trees by some of our troops

but were jnistaken, for having got into a marsh, where Ave

waded

noon up

till

to our chins, at the hazard of being

drowned, we saw oursehes under


the

same way we came,

and

after

forced

necessity of returning

perfectly soaked

and

in

rags

march encamped once more on the

banks of Cormoetibo Creek,,

in

during the whole night as

rain

tlie

such a heavy shower of


I

did seldom remember,

which caused so much confusion and hurry, each striving


build his shed,

to

and get under cover

got a broken head, but persevering was one of the


slinging

my hammock

that I

first,

first

in

above which spreading green

boughs, and under wliich having Hghted a comfortable


I

fire,

most profoundly asleep

fell

the smoke, which saved

me from

the;

the

in

middle of

stings of the

mus-

quitoes.

While speaking of
this

insects, I

ought not to forget that

evening one of the negro slaves who had been look-

ing, for

dry wood, presented me, to

a beetle no

above two
account of

less

in.

its

my great

surprise, with

than three or four inches in length, and

breadth, called in Surinam the t^fimoceros, on


proboscis or horn, which

and thick as a goose -quill

on

tlie

is

head

hooked, forked,,

it

has

many hard

polished knobs; the limbs are six; the wings are u^rge,

and the
of

all

Avhole anin:al is perfectly black, being the largest.

the beetle kind in America,

chap.
XI.

NARRATIVE OF AN

288
In Guiana

is

also another species of these insects, called

the cerf-volant, or flying hart, from

its

exuberances

sembling the horns of a stag; both these beetles

an uncommon buzzing

and are so

noise,

we met with

plagues however
large as a

common

equally powerful

liorse-fiy in

Having

of the greatest

in the forest,

was a

fly as

bee, the stings of which were almost

the negroes call

can best I think compare to w^hat


or

with

strong, that but

One

very few birds dare to attack them.

fly

re-

is

it

the cow-Jiy

this I

called the hippoboscus

Great Britain.

slept

most soundly

for six or seven hours, in spite

of the rains, the smoke, the nmsquitoes, and

my

head, I turned out perfectly refreshed at

and at

we commenced

the year

banks of the Cormoetibo

774,
till

five,

broken

by marching up along

six

the

mid-day, when we arrived

once more at the grand encampment at the mouth of the

Wana Creek,
On the 3d,

from, as usual, a fruitless cruise.


to our joy returned also

with his party,


called Cupido

Society troops,

bringing

and

Captain Fredericy,

in a captive negro in chains,

relating that a poor soldier of the

on receiving

his

pardon,

Avhen on his

knees to be shot, was gone out of his senses.


Colonel Fourgeoud being
*

this

the
I

finally

determined to break up

campaign, sent out a party of sixty men to cruise on

way

to

Patamaca before him.

now washed my

shirt,

Creek (but was obliged

to

the last I had, in the

keep swimming

till it

Wana

was dried

by

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
by the sun)

my letter,

S89

sent for linen, having never reached

Paramaribo, and what

me

had brought with

being torn

to rags.

On
all

the 4th of January, at six o'clock in the morning,

were ready to decamp.

Thus having sent down the

barges with the sick to Devil's Harwar,

we

Cormoetibo Creek, and marched

directly south for

first

at last crossed

Patamaca, over steep mountains covered with stones and


impregnated with minerals.

This again contradicts Dr.

Bancroft's observations, these mountains not being above

twenty miles from the ocean, though he


hill is

be found at near

to

fifty

asserts that

miles from the sea.

evening we encamped at the foot of a high

hill,

no

In the

where we

found a small rivulet of good water, and a number of


manicole-trees, the two chief requisites.

It

is

curious,

and

indeed beautiful, to behold, in the space of an hour, a


green town spring up as

it

after all the fires hghted,

their

hard

fare,

were from nothing, and a

on which the men are boiling

while others are employed in drying their

cloaths; though, as I have stated, this last was

means a general
them

rot

on

little

mimber

rule, the greater

by no

preferring to let

their bodies.

This night, however, the whole

camp was

disturbed

by

a diarrhoea complaint, occasioned by drinking the water

we found

here,

which indeed was very pure, but was so

impregnated with minerals, that


of Bath or the

Vol.

I.

German

it

Spa.

pp

tasted almost like that

This

is

a circumstance
^vhich

NARRATIVE OF AN

290

which 1 think mdicates that these mountains contain

Dutch would go

metals, if the

to the

expence of searching

in their bowels.

On

the 5th

we marched the same course again over

mountains and

some of which were

dales,

so excessively

steep that one or two of the slaves, not being able to ascend

them loaded, threw down


to the

enemy, but found

their burdens,
their

where they were pardoned


burthen and

all,

way

and deserted, not

to their masters estates,

while others tumbled doA\ n,

from top to bottom.

This evening we found our quarters ready-made, and

lodged in the a/oaowis or huts that Mere

when the
His

country was destroyed, and

rice

men put

left

to flight

in

that

where

standing

Bonny

I lay I

with

found a

very curious piece of candle, which the rebels had

behind,

composed

of

bees-wax

left

and the heart of a

bulrush.

Bonny 's own

house, where. Fourgeoud lodged, was a

perfect curiosity, having four pretty

little

rooms, and a

shed or piazza inclosed with neat manicole palisades.

The whole
tigued,

corps appearing on the 6 th excessively fa-

Fourgeoud ordered a general day of

detaching Captain Fredericy with six men, as he

rest,

only

knew

the

country best, to reconnoitre the banks of the Claas Creeky

a water that issued from near


of Rio Cottica.

this

place in the upper parts

They were hardly marched when

eye of our chief by chance

falling

the

on me, he ordered

me

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
me

and return with a report of c

instantly to follow alone,

what

could discover on the other side the creek.

291

I over-

took the party soon, when after a short march we were in


Avater

up

to our very arm-pits

but desiring him to wait for me,

retreat,

cloaths,

my

and with only

now

Fredericy

sabre in

took off

my

ordered
all

a,

my

swam by

teeth,

myself across the Creek, where having ranged the opposite


shore,

and finding nothing,

we

returned to the camp.

all

At noon, making my

he had not expected

he took

me by

swam

back, after which

report to Colonel Fourgeoud, he

was astonished indeed at


fact

again

this

desperate action, which in

but

was not

the liand, entertaining

less

me

amazed when

with a bottle of

wine, and ordering Monsieur Laurant to set

some bacon-

ham

may

before me, to find, however incredible

that the one

was actually

with live worms; while

were

fresh,

sour,

my own

left

his reptiles, with that

they deserved, alleviating

my

rusk biscuit and a barbacued

now

his,

This meanness so

exasperated me, that, starting up, I

and

appear,

and the other creeping

provisions,

were withheld me.

valet, his wine,

it

which

much

Fourgeoud,

his

contempt which

hunger with a piece of dry

fish,

called warappa,

which

got from a negro.

On

the 7th of January

we marched again

day having caught one of those beautiful large


of which I

made mention during my

this

hiitterjlies

cruize in the river

Cottica, I will here attempt to give a

and

more particular
description

ir

^^'_
.

p.

NARRATIVE OF AN

292
description

This

names.

from

of

it,

fly

though I know nothing about their

measured, in the extension of the wings

about seven inches

tip to tip,

the superior and inferior wings

is

the colour of both

of such a vivid and

splendid blue, as can only be compared to the azure sky

which not the purest ultramarine co-

in a bright day, to

loured sattin can approach

brown variegated with


that

its

the under side


I

spots.

is

of a lovely

cannot help repeating,

skimming and hovering with such a magnitude,

and such a hue, among the

different shades of green,

the most enchanting effect.

Of the antennae, head,

and abdomen,
This

loured.

if I

mistake not,

division of Linnaeus, of the

the chrysalite or aurelia

a yellowish grey colour,

is

and about four inches

Danai

is,

species.

as thick as a large

never saAv

man's

is

of

finger,

The annexed drawing I have

improved from one of Miss Merian.

of Guiana abound

according to the

but the caterpillar, which

long.

merable indeed are the

thorax,

only say that they were dark co-

I shall
fly,

had

butterflies

some people,

catching their business, get

Various and innu-

with which the forests


in fact,

who make

much money by

it

fly-

and

having arranged them in paper-boxes, with pins stuck

through them, send them


Europe.
spirits

off to the different cabinets

of

Doctor Bancroft mentions, touching them with

of turpentine as necessary to preserve them, but

fixing a piece of

camphor

in the

box with the

flies is

quite

suflicient.

This

.**^ -.<#*<

9i///'r /'///r /y?>///f^/y///

/.,ni,l,<i,.rul-IMr,l

/>r,-."rr'/;,.;i,/M

(^iJ^^M^^^^n^'T'tr^^z/^

.l.r,^liii.',>,i

X' t\u,U

il,i,i;-l,

iani.

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
we encamped near

This evening

where the poor negro

some

victuals

woman

and water

shot

Patamaca Creek,

cried bitterly,

and scattered

at the root of a tree

libation, as being the spot

who had been

the

293,

by way of

where her husband was interred,

some former skirmish by

in

the

Europeans.

Here Captain Fredericy and myself, walking without


the skirts of the

camp

in a

sandy savannah, discovered

the fresh footsteps of a large tiger Avith her young,

which time they are extremely ferocious


prudent therefore to make a sudden

at

we thought

retreat.

it

measured

the diameter of the dam's claws printed in the sand,

which were nearly of the dimensions of an ordinary


pewter-plate.

Having marched a few hours longer the succeeding


morning, we at
in

last arrived at the Society

post

Patamaca: such a display of meagre,^

burnt,

La Rochelle

starved, black,

and ragged tatterdemalions, and mostly

shoes or hats, as
country.

Avithout

think were never before beheld in any

They could be compared

to nothing but

a gang

of gypsies, while their leader was not unlike Bampfield

Moore Carew, and myself


in his worst condition, with

one-half of

we found

my

at best like the forlorn Crusoe

my

only check shirt and the

trowsers, the rest being torn away.

Here

a set of poor wretches ready to enter the woods

which we had just

same manner the

left,

and destined

to

undergo in the

severest misery that ever

was

inflicted

oa

chap.
XI.

NARRATIVE OF AN

294

on sublunary beings.

have already mentioned the prickly

heat, ring-worm, dry gripes, putrid fevers, biles, consaca,

and bloody
climate

flux, to

the musquitoes,

also

which human nature

cock-roaches,

chigoes,

ants,

is

exposed

Patat and Scrapat

lice,

wild-bees,

and

horse-flies,

and peree

bats, besides the thorns, briers, the alligators,

the rivers; to which if

in

tigers, the hissing

geoud,

we add

the howling of the

of serpents, and the growling of Four-

dry sandy savannas,

the

in this

cold and

burning hot days,

damp

unfordable
nights,

marshes,

heavy

rains,

and short allowance, the reader may be astonished hoAv


any pereon was able
this

to survive the trial.

Notwithstanding

black catalogue, I solemnly declare I have omitted

many

we

other calamities that

prolixity,

though perhaps

guilty of

it.

have been already too often

might have mentioned indeed

dropsies, &c. Sec. besides the

scorpions,

suffered, as I wish to avoid

locusts,

many

bush-spiders,

small snakes, lizards,

bush-worms,

tipedes, nay, even flying lice, with

lethargies,

which the

perpetually tormented, and by which he

is

and centraveller

is

constantly in

danger of being stung; but the description of which cursed

company

The

must defer

reader

state in

the

may

to another opportunity.

form some conception of the famished

which we came

moment

of our

hither,

arrival,

when

I infoim him, that

observing a negro

woman

sujjping on plantain broth from a calabash, I gave her

half-a-crown,

and snatching the bason from her hands,

devoured

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
devoured the contents with a greater

relish

than

ever tasted any dehcacy before or since during


existence.
pitiable

now

-^95

have

my

whole

observed to Colonel Fourgeoud,

how

was, not to regale his remaining soldiers with

it

vegetables and fresh beef or mutton,

besides providing

them with

hats,

stockings, shoes,

that Hannibal had lost his

but he replied,

Capua by

at

too

much

In short, he quoted not only Hannibal but

indulgence.

Horace

army

&c.

for his

example, according to the advice given

certain pamphlet,

Ibit eo

and appeared

quo

vis

qui Zonaiii perdidit

fully convinced,

that

no persons

will

be-

have so desperately in action as those who are tired of


their lives.

On

the 11th, the other party which had

day before

La

Wana

the

ourselves, arrived, having, according to custom,

neither taken nor seen

On

left

any

thing.

the 12th, one of the rebels with his wife

came

to>

Rochelle, and smTcndered themselves voluntarily to the-

commander

now

in chief.

himself,

that I was

Paramaribo when
gladly

accepted,

departure,

This day Fourgeoud acquainted

at liberty to

thought proper.

and that moment

with some other

officers,

go and

refit

me
at:

This proposal I

prepared for

my

leaving behind us

himself and a band of such, scare-crows as would have


disgraced

chap.
^^'

NARRATIVE OF AN

296

disgraced the garden or field of any farmer in England.

Among

these was a Society captain,

me

declared to
shifted, or

his

my

leave of

he never combed, washed,

even put

At

body.

oflf

his boots,

tattered companions, I
six oars,

rowed

good health and

the very

summit of contentment.

Harwar

butter, sugar, lemons,

sent

me by my

five

more, with

down

for Para-

and

in a flow of spirits,

still

Devil's

and

straight

maribo,

in

met a cargo of

rum, and twenty bottles of

friends, directed to

met

at

tea, coffee, biscuit,

La

claret,

Rochelle, Avhich I

again, notwithstanding the barbarous usage that I


lately

or

was rotted from

all

till

shaved,

happy hour, when, taking

last arrived the

a tent-boat and

At

named Larcher, who

with, gave all in a present to

twelve bottles of wine excepted, which

had

so

poor Fourgeoud,

we drank

barge to the healths of our wives and mistresses

in the

nor could

I help pitying Colonel Fourgeoud, whose age (he being

about

sixty)

and indefatigable exertions claimed the

tention of the most indifferent

for during this trip,

at-

though

but few rebels were taken, he had certainly scoured the


forest

from the

river

Comewina

to the

mouth of the Wana

Creek, dispersed the enemy, and demolished their habitations, fields,

and gardens, and thus cut them

off

from

all

prospect of support.

On

the evening of the 13th,

we supped

Mondesire, and thence kept roAving down


day, shouting and singing

till

at the estate
all

night and

the 15th at noon, when,


the

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
the tide serving,

we went on

97

shore at the fortress Amster-

dam whence crossing the river, we arrived before Mr.


De Lamar's door at Paramaribo. I stept ashore among
;

a croud of friends, who

welcome me

still

moment

existing (for

my

my

inestimable Joanna,

it

had been reported that

my

I.

burst into

second campaign, and with

my

was no more)

very distressed situation.

to the chapter.

Vol.

who

she beheld me, not only for joy at

but also from seeing

ended

flocked round to see and to

to town.

I next sent for


tears the

all

this I

^Thus

put an end

chap.
XI.

NARRATIVE OF AN

29S

H A

XII.

P.

Description of the town of Faramaribo and Fort Zelandia-

march

Colonel Fourgeoud's

the river

to

in the

Mope

in

shot

the

Rio Comewina.

EING

once more arrived at Paramaribo,

be improper to introduce in
Before

of that beautiful town.


tion however, I
to

Some Privates Strange Execu-^


Capital Account of Fort Somelsdyk Of

Captain wounded
iiofi

Marawina

this

will

not

place some account

commence

it

the descrip-

must observe, that being long accustomed

walk bare-footed,

not bear the confinement of

I could

shoes and stockings for some time, they heated and even

my

swelled

January with
to throw
to send

them

my

friend

me home

river

velly rock,

in his
is

its

which

whisky.

half,

streets,

and

its

whence he was
I

6th of

was actually obliged


so kind as

have already mentioned

on the right

level

It

is

side of the beau-

built

upon a kind of gra-

with the rest of the country, in

the form of an oblong square,

and a

at about sixteen or eighteen miles

mouth.
is

dining on the

that,

Kennedy,

situated

Surinam,

distance from

much,

off at his house,

that Paramaribo
tiful

so

feet

its

length

is

about a mile

breadth about half as much.

which are perfectly

All the

straight, are lined with orange,

shaddock,

/y///' f'/ /'///

/(>/r//

f>/ RlltfBlliMIV/U).//'^///

M/'y^h'f/r/.\-

/v J.J.-hn^.-n SfP,H,/j

lYmnA

/Ttnt

///////// //y. Ar^/f //- f'/f/ff.u/r

//ff>e

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
and lemon-trees, which appear

shaddock, tamarind,
everlasting

bloom

are weighed

down with

the richest clusters of odoriferous


is

made

use of here for

pavement, the whole being one continued gravel, not


ferior to the finest

garden walks

on the surface with

in

The

sea-shells.

in-

England, and strewed

mostly of two, and some of three

houses, Avhich are


high, are

stories

timber, a very few excepted

built of fine

in c

while at the same time their branches

Neither stone nor brick

fruit.

299

all

most of the

foundations are of brick, and they are roofed with thin


split

boards,

Windows

called

shingles,

instead of slates or

are very seldom seen in this country, glass being

inconvenient on account of the heat,

they use gauze frames

until six at night.

no

fires

As

for

instead of which

some have only the

which are kept open from

colony,

tiles.

shutters,

six o'clock in the

morning

chimnics I never saw one in the

being lighted except in the kitchens,

which are always built at some distance from the dwellinghouse, where the victuals

and the smoke


these timber

nam,

as

let

are

out by a hole

upon the

made

houses are however very

may be
There

dear

is

no spring

cost

afford

for the

in

roof:
Suri-

him above ^. 1 5,000

Avater to

be met with in

Paramaribo, most houses have wells dug

which

in the

floor,

evinced by that lately built by Governor

Nepven, which he declared had


sterling.

dressed

in

the rock,

but a brackish kind of beverage, only used

negroes,

cattle,

&c. and the Europeans have

Qq 2

reservoirs

ha
XII.

p.

NARRATIVE OF AN

300

which they preserve rain-water for

reservoirs or cisterns, in
their

own consumption

those of nicer taste let

it

first

drop through a fiUering-stone into large jars or earthen


pots,

the native Indians on purpose, which they

made by

The inha-

barter at Paramaribo for other commodities.

bitants of this country, of every denomination, sleep in

hammocks, the negro

who mostly

slaves excepted,

hammocks used by

stations are

made of cotton, ornamented with

these are also

made by

above twenty guineas

on

those in superior

the ground

the

lie

rich fringe

the Indians, and sometimes worth


neither bedding nor covering

is

necessary, except an awning to keep off the musquitoes.

Some people indeed

lie

on bedsteads

in that case

they

are surrounded, instead of curtains, with gauze pavilions,

which admit the

air freely,

the smallest insect.

and

The houses

are elegantly furnished with


chandeliers, china jars, &c.

at the

same time keep

in general at

Paramaribo

gilding,

paintings,

off

crystal

the rooms are never papered

or plastered, but beautifully Avainscoted with cedar, Brazil,,

and mahogany wood.

The number

of buildings in Paramaribo

about one thousand


is

fovu'

Zelandia.

the

garden

This

which has

lately

in the colony.

is

at

a private passage

which communicates

house,

computed

hundred, of which the principal

the governor's palace, Avhence there

through

is

,witli

Fort

and that of the commandant,,

been burnt, were the only brick buildings

The

town-hall

is

an elegant new

building,.

and

T, Ci'vder Scull'-'
r.-/uf.>/i,r>ij'/i..-/u./ /)<.-.'> r^/;_/./.i

jjoiiii..-ou.s.'i',iui:c

riauTh

r.irj.

EXPEDITION TO SURT^NAM.
and covered with

tiles

here the different courts are held,

and underneath are the prisons

who

the military excepted,

worship

for

European delinquents,

are confined in the citadel of

The Protestant church, where

Fort Zelandia.

performed both in French and

is

301

a small spire with a clock

Low

Dutch, has

besides which

divine

there

is

Lutheran chapel, and two elegant Jewish synagogues,


one German, the other Portuguese.
hospital for the garrison,

The

and

this

Here

mansion

is

is

also a large

never empty.

military stores are kept in the fortress, where the

Society soldiers are also lodged in barracks, wilh proper

apartments

for

some

The town of Paramaribo

officers.

has a noble road for shipping, the river before the town

being above a mile in breadth, and containing sometimes

above one hundred


pistol

shot of the shore

and indigo,

men that

bring slaves from Africa, and the North

spirits, herrings,

vessels,

and lumber,

bounded by

is

W.

which bring

and mackarel

the river

Guinea-

American

flour, beef, pork,

salted, spermaceti-candles,

which they receive chiefly melasscs

for

to be distilled into rum.

on the

there are indeed seldom fewer

for Holland, including also the

and Leeward Island

horses,

moored within a

fourscore ships loading coffee, sugar, cacao,

there than
cotton,

vessels of burtherr,

This town

on the

S.

E.

is
;

not

by a

fortified,

is

large savamaah

by an impenetrable wood on the N. E.

protected by Fort Zelandia on the east.

but

and

This citadel

is

only separated from the town by a large esplanade, where

tha

NARRATIVE OF AN

302

The

the troops parade occasionally.

a regular

fort is

pentagon, with one gate fronting Paramaribo,

command the river it is very small but


made of rock or hewn stone, surrounded

bastions which
strong,

being

by a broad

On

the East side,

fronting the river,

On

battery of twenty-one pieces of cannon.


is

the sentinel,

other
is

is

some

fosse well supplied with water, besides

out-works.

bastions

and two

which

bell,

who

is

is

struck with a

by an

directed

is

one of the

hammer by

On

hour-glass.

the

planted a large ensjgn-staff, upon which a flag

hoisted

upon the approach of

The

public rejoicing days.

embrasures but no parapet.

ships of war,

on

or

walls are six feet thick, with

have already spoken of

its

antiquity.

Paramaribo

is

a very lively place, the streets being

generally crouded with planters,

Indians,

sailors,

and Negroes, while the

soldiers,

river

is

Jews,

covered with

canoes, barges, &c. constantlj^ passing and repassing, like

the wherries on the Thames,

bands of music

many

accompanied with

the shipping also in the road adorned

with their different


the

often

flags,

guns

firing,

groupes of boys and

girls

&c.

pensate

for

the

serve, in

many

not to mention

playing in the water,

altogether form a pleasing appearance

and variety of objects

and such gaiety

some measure,

inconveniencies of the climate.

Their carriages and dress are truly magnificent


broidery,
1

Genoa

velvets,

com-

to

diamonds, gold and

silk

em-

silver lace,

being

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

303

being daily worn, and even the masters of trading ships

appear with buttons and buckles of

They

solid gold.

are equally expensive at their tables, Avhere every thing


that can be called delicate

produced at any

is

and

pi-ice,

served up in plate and china of the newest fashion, and

But nothing

most exquisite workmanship.

displays the

luxury of the inhabitants of Surinam, more

number of

twenty or thirty
to be

money,

current

pounds

gold

as

and

silver

for specie

is

base Dantzic coin called a

than sixpence,

attended,

have already

is

from

different value,

exchange premium

they are

often

in this colony.

stamped cards of
fifty

whom

one family. White servants are seldom

in

met with

The

by

slaves

than the

so

is

stated,

are

five shillings

that

scarce,

to

the

often above ten per cent.

value something less

bit,

English and

also cuiTent in Surinam.

Portuguese coin are sometimes met with, but mostly used


as

ornaments by the Mulatto, Samboe, Quaderoon, and

Negro

girls.

money,
its

value

The Negro

for as they
;

when

it

This town

fire

or children,

becomes a
is

any paper

cannot read they do not understand

besides in their hands

accidents, from
rats,

slaves never receive

little

it

would be

and

liable to

particularly from the

greasy.

well supplied with provisioiis,

cher's meat, fowls, fish,

ticular the country

many

and venison.

abounds with

Vit.

but-

Vegetables in parbesides

the luxuries

p&euliar to this climate, they import whatever Europe,


Africa,.

NARRATIVE OF AN

304

and Asia can

Africa,

excessively dear

in

Provisions, however, are

afFoj'd.

general,

especially those imported,

which are mostly sold by the Jews and masters of

The

first

enjoy extraordinary privileges in

erect

latter

temporary warehouses

for

this

ships.

colony; the

purpose of

the

trade, during the time their ships are loading with the

Wheat

productions of the climate.

pence

one

to

meat never under one

butcher's

and

shilling

per pound

shilling

six

pence

four shillings a couple.

flour

is

sold from four

butter two shillings

shilling,

and often

for

-six

price

three

Jamaica rum a crown a

gallon.

Fish

fruit

almost for nothing.

while limes and tamarinds


is

may be had

excessively high.

with

two apartments

me

and a

on a

Shoes

hundred guineas yearly.


pair

me forty oranges

pence, and half a dozen pine-apples for the same

furnished costs three or four guineas a

house

and

Wine

six

boy, Quaco, has often brought

House-rent

ing.

five,

one

pence.

for

and vegetables are cheap, and

My black

me

single turkey has coit

European potatoes twelve


a bottle.

one

ducks and fowls from three tq

guinea and a half; eggs are sold at the rate of

shillings

at

suit of cloaths,

small

room un-

month

floor,

sell for

for gather-

lets

and a

for

one

half-a-guinea a

with silver binding, has cost

twenty guineas.

The wood with which

the houses are generally built

deserves also to be noticed,

The Wana

is

viz.

the Wana, and the Cttppyi

a light durable timber of a coarse grain, and


does

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
does not take the best polish

it is

so5

of a very pale red,

approaching mahogany, and mostly used for doors and


cupboards, also for boats and barges.

This tree grows to

a considerable height*.

The Cuppy-tree resembles


knotty, and durable;

it is

the wild chesnut,

hard,

is

sawed into boards, and used

to

enclose the houses for fences, instead of brick and stone


walls

the timber

is

of a brown colour, and takes a good

polish.

For a better idea of


the annexed plan

this

town, I shall refer the reader to

and proceed

give

to

some further

account of its inhabitants.

The

whites or Europeans in this colony, and

principally in town, are

cluding the garrison.


five

thousand.

The

computed

The negro
military

is

evening guns are


;

At

night.

and the same hour

harbour

at five thousand, in-

slaves at

but the safety of the

morning,

by the commanding ship

and

in the

at the evening signal, all the flags are instantly

a ringing, whilst the drums and


through the town.

The watch

* This Dr. Bancroft,


I.

who keep

the evening, the morning

in

fired

six o'clock in the

lowered on board the difterent vessels

Vol.

about seventy-

entrusted to the burghers or militia,

watch during the

reside

mount guard every morning

at eight o'clock, in the fortress

town

who

is

their bells are set

fifes

then

beat the tattoo

set,

and no negro

I think, calls the Tetermcr.

Rr

of

chap.
YTT


NARRATIVE OF AN

306
of cither sex

allowed to appear in the streets or on

is

the river, without a proper pass signed

without

this

he

next morning.

is

At

by

his

owner;

taken up, and infallibly flogged the


ten at night, a

band of black drums

beat the burgher, or militia retreat, through the streets of

Paramaribo.

At

who

this

time the ladies begin to

are particularly fond of a

make

their appearance,

titc-ii-iete

by moon-light,

when they

entertain with Sherhet, Sangaree*',

and water

besides the most unreserved

and wine

and unequivocal

conversation concerning themselves, as well as the peculiar qualifications

of their husbands, and the situation of

their female slaves,

Avhom they propose the acceptance of

to the

gentlemen they converse with at so

Aveek,

according to their

own

"

this is

Sir,

a callebasee, that

is

per

Sometimes

estimation.

placing half a dozen of them in a row,

much

the lady says,

a maid, and

this is not"

thus are they not only unreserved in their conversation,

but also profuse in their encomiums upon such gentle-

men

as

have the honour of their instructive company,

and whose person or

figure

meets with their appro-

bation.

They
their

are

poor

also
slaves,

Thus every

rigid

disciplinarians,

male and female,

country

has

its

as the backs of

sufficiently testify.

customs,

and from these

* Water, Madeira wine, nutmeg and sugar.

customs

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
customs exceptions are to be made

for I

307

have known

whose deUcacy and poUte conversation

ladies in Surinam,

would have graced the

circles in

first

Europe.

Besides

the amusements of feasting, dancing, riding, and cards,


Avhere

they have a small theatre,


fashion act plays for their

As they

their friends.

keep

inhabitants of

own amusement, and


They use

washed with Castile soap

its

white-

bleached linen in Europe appear like

the best

canvass.

the finest

and would

ness can only be compared to mountain snow,

make

that of

are elegant in their dress, so they

their houses extremely clean.

linen, exquisitely well

the

parlour floors are always scoured with

'J'hcir

sour oranges cut through the middle, which gives the house

an agreeable frasrance: the

neo;ro girls taking

each hand, keep singing aloud

Such

is

Avhile

apply to the natives of


Indies.

But

more reconciled

gentleman,

was

ill,

having
it

avIio

all

to shoes,

and the character m

Dutch

my

bound

had relieved

me

in a

Being once

Colonel AVesterloo on
for

Holland.

This

at Devil's llanvar

when

most miserable condition,

use of his limbs.

In

this debilitated state,

was doubtful whether any thing but the

native country would recover him.

now under

ill

settlements in the

narrative.

I visited

ship,

was now himself

lost the

the

to return to

board a West-India

they rub the boards.

the town, and such are the inhabitants of Para-

maribo, the capital of Surinam

West

one half in

air

of his

Several oflacers Avere

the necessity of selling their effects to procure

a sub-

chap.

NARRATIVE OF AN

SOS

a subsistence, not being able either to procure their pay


or allowance from Fourgeoud.
less,

hard usage the

I felt this

from

from, the kindness I experienced

my

numerous

friends.

On

the 2Sth of January, as I was walking in the

ing by the river side, I saw a


deserves to be mentioned for

brought ashore, that

fish

its size

and goodness, being

sometimes near two hundred pounds weight*.


called grow-munech, or grey friar,

cod genus, to Avhich

it

and

and colour, the back being a dark


belly white

of which
as

it

it

olive brown,

was soon cut up into large

my opinion,

is

sometimes

The negroes here

the rivers.

are regularly trained

up

who make them pay a


expert and

if

and the

my

friends
It is

an

be met with in

to

and

by

their masters,

sum weekly.

If they are

to this profession

money

they soon acquire

themselves, and some even

shape

are the only fishermen,

certain

industrious,

in

slices, several

even superior to turbot.

inhabitant of the sea, but

here

is

said to be of the

purchased, and sent as presents to

was, in

contrary,

is

It

some resemblance

bears

morn-

become

rich

but,

they are indolent, and do not

for

on the

fulfil

their

weekly engagements, they are certain to be punished very


severely.

This custom

is

also

by perseverance and
* Dr.

Fcrmyn

is

common

to

many

other trades, and

sobriety they are actually enabled to

Diistaken,

when he

says this fish weighs but forty pounds.

live

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
Thus

live happily.

have bought slaves


their

mone}^ preferring

have known slaves in Surinam, who


their

for

freedom from

own

Some purchase

use.

their masters, whilst others


to

keep their

be the slave of an indulgent master;

being, so long as they continue slaves, free from

and

taxes, which, in case of

liable to.

blacksmith,

upon account of
refused

it,

his

duties

who being

was a negro

oifered his liberty

long and faithful services, positively

chusing rather to be the slave of a worthy

man had

This

master.

Joseph,

all

manumission, they become

particular instance of this kind

named

509

several slaves of his

own, kept a

decent house, with handsome furniture, and some plate

and when

visited

by

his

humane master

or mistress, enter-

tained them with Sangaree, port or claret.


ever,

acknowledge

this to

I must,

how-

be a very singvdar instance ; and

observe, that although a few hve comfortably at Para-

maribo, the greatest number are Avretched, particularly


those governed by a lady,

who have many

but not the smallest indulgence to boast

Among

of.

the slaves, those of the class called Quaderoons

are in general

peans

wales to show,

much

respected for their affinity to Euro-

a Quadei'oon being the offspring of a white and a

mulatto, and they are very numerous in this colon3\

Here one not only meets with the white, the black, and
olive,

but with
"

The Samboe

" The Miesti

dark, and the Mulatto browji,

fair *,

the well-limb'd

Quaderoon."

* The offspring of aa European and of a Quaderooii,

These

NARRATIVE OF AN

310

These boys are generally placed out

some good

to

such as cabinet-makers, silversmiths, or jewellers;

trade,
M'hilst

the girls are employed as -waiting-women, and taught the


arts

of sewing, knitting, and embroidery, to perfection

much

they are generally handsome, and take

pride in the

neatness and elegance of their dress.

To

give the reader a

more

shall describe the figure

they usually appear in


straight,

lively idea

of these people, I

and dress of a Quaderoon

They

this colony.

and gracefully formed

rather

are mostly

more

petticoat,
jacket,

covered

made

with

flowered gauze

silk,

and

shoes,

in

the slaves

Avaist, like

a close short
laced before,

hand-breadth of a

between the jacket and the petticoat.

ino-s

tall,

consists of a satin

of best India chintz or

and shewing about an


shift

commonly

Their dress

as

slender than

the Mulattoes, and never go naked above the


the former.

girl,

fine

As

muslin

for stock--

country never wear

this

Their heads are adorned with a fine bunch of

them.

they Avear a black or

white beaver hat, with a feather,

or a gold loop and

black hair in short natural linglcts

button

their neck,

arms, and ancles

are ornamented

with chains, bracelets, gold medals, and beads.


fine

women have European

mortification

known
a

of the

that an

slave of

and the

fair

husbands,

Creolians

to the

All these

no small

yet should

it

be

European female had an intercourse with

any denomination, she

slave loses his

life

is

for ever detested,

without mercy.

Such

are
the

[/'(//u//r ^^//<'/^//w7/

/,,../,/

l/v/^y'

2;,l,litl>r,1 n.:-'t"ij..).l.l:y

('/ f^/// /v/^^////

.nJi'hn^.'n.SrP.ti,/^ C/uuti/, I7ir,/

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
the

despotic laws of

weaker

But

men

in

311

Dutch Guiana over the

sex.

to

change the

sul)ject.

The tyranny of our com-

mander, Colonel Fourgeoud, seemed daily to increase.


Lieutenant Count Runtwick,

who was

Holland with Colonel Westerloo, being


to

proceed for

to

was ordered

sick,

remain in Surinam, for having only said that he had

been
will

ill

As a specimen of

by him.

treated

only observe, that

all

the officers had

whole year upon a private


visions,

soldier's

his justice, I

now

subsisted a

allowance of

pro-

salt

a few weeks at Paramaribo only excepted.

accommodation

cost

me

thirty

pounds; but

This

have already

mentioned he kept back our money, and why should he


not our allowance

also,

it

not being the part of a good

soldier to inquire after trifles

On

the 1st of February we, however, received notice

that henceforth

fast

but that

we should pay
if

we could

nothing, provided

not, ten

we could

pounds yearly was

be the ne plus ultra of the expences for our

salt

to

beef

and pork.

On

the

2d

Colonel Becquer,

scorning

Fourgeoud's bounty,

by which
company.

intelhgence that

received

any longer

to

Lieutenant
partake

had suddenly given up the

in rotation I

became possessed of

his

ghost,.

vacant

This was some compensation for so

trouble and fatigue.

But

fortune, a certain lady,

to

counterbalance

of

this

much
good

whose husband had shewn

me

extraordinary

a p.

NARRATIVE OF AN

S12
extraordinary

civilities,

now made me an

could not with honour accept

But

at Highgate.

and golden

besides, 1

persisting in

offer,

^o

much my

so

much

friend,

my refusal

of her favours

Her husband, who had


and whose honour

I,

had been sworn

presents, I at last felt the effects of a

hatred and revenge.

which

woman's

lately

been

in this instance,

respected, was suddenly perverted into a bitter

enemy.

I bore their frowns with resignation, conscious of

my own

rectitude, in not

too

many

others

committing a trespass of which

would have made a

however, this gentleman again became

more than before

this affair

Shortly after,

boast.

my

friend,

even

happened, having been per-

fectly undeceived.

On

a present of some

and oranges,
against
trait

drummer of

the 6th, a poor

my

for

alligato, or

the Society brought

me

more properly avogato pears

having supported him, he said, in Holland

servant, Avho

had knocked him down.

This

me more pleasure than the coolhad given me pain. The avogato

of gratitude afforded

ness of

my

late friend

pear grows on a tree above forty feet high, and not unlike

a walnut-tree

the

of a large pear,
in

my

fruit,

viz.

which

is

about the

a pale green,

and colour

the most exquisite,

is

opinion, of any in the colony, or even in the world

the inside

is

yellow,

rind like a chesnut.


tious, that it

is

and the kernel

The pulp

is

is

and

often called the vegetable marrow,


:

inclosed in a soft

so salubrious

frequently eaten with pepper and salt


11

size

nutri-

and

is

nor can I compare


it

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
it

any thing so well as a peach, melting

to

same manner, not

in the

bly

more

so sweet indeed, but

in

Surinam are of three

the sour, the bitter, and the sweet,

excellent cure for sores

and running

sour oranges are an

ulcers, so

bear any thing.

The

may be

which

is

that bear

all

used for pre-

and exqui-

eaten freely, without any pernicious

I shall afterwards describe.

these species are truly beautiful,

without fragrant blossoms or

fruit

The

trees

and never

throughout the

3'ear.

the l6th, the news arrived that Colonel Fourgeoud,

with the remaining

troops,

having

marched from La

Rochelle, had been attacked by the rebels

and amongst

others Captain Fredericy, marching in the front,

shot through both thighs.

both

supposed

not the case with that kind called the

China apples, which

On

bitter are only

in

which rea-

it is

the sweet, which have a luscious taste

site flavour,

common

for

who

son they are only used for the negroes,

effects,

different species

but painful in the operation

this climate,

incompara-

being originally im-

all

The

ported from Spain or Portugal.

serving

mouth

delicious.

The oranges

may

in the

his

This brave

hands on the wounds, and

had been

officer,

clapping

sitting in

water up

to his breast to conceal the bleeding,

and prevent

his

misfortune from discouraging the troops, remained in this


situation until the surgeon

carried in his

had dressed them, when he was

hammock by two

negroes.

Nothing, indeed, could exceed the zeal which both

Vol.

I.

this

officer,

313

NARRATIVE OF AN

314
officer,

and Fourgeoud's adjutant, Captain Vangewrike,

shewed during the whole expedition


service,

whether

upon

continually

their constitutions could bear it or not.

But honour was the only advantage they derived from a


five years

assiduous and extraordinary attendance.

opinion. Colonel Fourgeoud never recompensed

cording to their merit

and even some

field

In

my

them ac-

while he treated the subalterns,

worse than ever

officers,

I did

my

corporals.
I

now made another

him

offer to join

but instead of permission, he sent

me

in

orders to hasten to

L'Esperance, in English the Hope estate, as


forth call

it,

I shall

hence-

situated in the

upper part of Rio Comewina,

command

of the whole river during his

there to take the

absence

the woods

which being new to me,

I repaired to this post

with the greater satisfaction.

Having provided myself with a complete camp-equipage,


and purchased provisions,

my new

station.

remark,

that during

But before

my

I leave

off,

This punishment

administration of justice, and

is

to depart for

Paramaribo,

must

there no less than nine

stay

negroes had each a leg cut


their masters.

was soon ready

for

is

running away from

a part of the Surinam

performed at the desire of

the proprietor, and was executed by a Mr. Greuber, the

surgeon of the hospital.

During

this

inhuman operation,

the poor sufferers very deliberately smoked their pipe of

tobacco.

For

this service the

surgeon received about six

pounds

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
pounds a limb

315

but, notAvithstanding his great abilities,

four of them died immediately after the operation.

A fifth

destroyed himself, by plucking away the bandages and

These amputated

bleeding to death during the night.

negroes are

common

in this colony,

and are employed

Others are

rowing the boats and barges of their masters.


seen deprived of an arm
to raise

and

daring

this is the forfeit for

against an European.

it

embarked on the 17 th of February

in

for the

Hope,

in

the river Comewina, on board a decent tent-boat rowed

by

six negroes,

Joanna.

having once more bid adieu to

In the evening I passed the Sporksgift estate, in

the Matapica Creek


in

my beloved

the next day I arrived at Arentrust

Comewina, having passed the Orelana Creek and the

fortress

Somelsdyk, which

about sixteen miles above Fort

is

Amsterdam, and forms the separation between that and


the river Cottica,
the

fire

of

its

commanding

the

two opposite shores by

This fortress was built in the year

cannon.

1684, by Governor Somelsdyk, whose


It

is

built in the

mounted with
vided

form of a pentagon, having

artiller}'

far

above

this,

has a fosse, and

it

Avith military stores

well defended, especially

Not

name

by

though
its

it

is

it still

bears.

five bastions
is

well pro-

not large,

it

is

low and marshy situation.

to the right,

is

Creek, called

fine

Comete-Wana.

On
found

the 19th, about noon, I reached the


this river

still

Hope

more charming than the


s s

having

river Cottica,

both

NARRATIVE OF AN

316

both being bordered with beautiful estates of coffee and


sugar, the

About

first

half

of which abounds principally near

way up both

its

mouth.

these rivers are also in each a

Protestant church, Avhere the plantation people resort to

hear divine worship: the expence of the parson, &c. being


paid by the planters.

The

estate L'Esperance, or the

the

command,

the

left side

now

took

a valuable sugar-plantation, situated on

is

of the Comewina,

called Bottle Creek,


called Cassivinica

the

Hope, where

Comewina and

at.

the

mouth of a

and almost opposite

rivulet

to another creek

the Bottle Creek communicating with


Pirica, as the

Wana

Creek does with

Cormoetibo and Rio-Marawina.

Here the troops were lodged


with the manicole-tree

as at spring-tides to

officers

were

construction

temporary houses

crowded

be entirely under water.

in

gentlemen, was

made

The

one apartment of the same

Avhile the planter's fine house,

have been serviceable

built

but the situation was so low and

marshy

all

in

which might

and health of these

for the pleasure

use of by nobody but the overseer

of the estate.

About a cannon-shot higher up


Clarenbeek

the river

is

the estate

where I went, on the 22d, to examine the

state of the hospital,

and v/here

found the troops more

disagreeably quartered than at the Hope, owing chiefly


to the amazing

number of

rats with

infested, destroying the men's clothes

which

this place

was

and provisions, and

runnmg

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

317

running over their faces by dozens as they lay in their

The only mode of remedying

hammocks.

this horrid in-

convenience, was to break holes in the bottoms of quart


bottles,

and then

them

string

like

beads upon the lashings

of each hammock, both at head and foot


properly done, their pohsh rendered

it

when

this

was

impossible for the

rats to reach the canvass.

Here the crowded

hospital aflforded a melancholy spec-

by the miserable objects

tacle,

much from such

suffers so

upon

my

return to the

much

the

same

as they

the estates from the


regvdarly sent

Humanity

presented.

happy

scenes, that I felt myself

My

Hope.

had been

enemy

me by

it

were

here

orders

at Cottica, viz. to protect

the parole or watch-word was

One

Colonel Fourgeoud.

Berbice negro captains, before mentioned,

of the

named Ackeraw,

here discovered an old decrepid slave called Paulus, belonging to this estate, to be his brother.

He acknowledged

and treated him with much

him with

cordial affection,

kindness

the scene of their meeting was of course very

interesting.

In

my

walks round

this plantation, I

had an

opportunity of observing several curious birds, which I


shall

now embrace

The

the opportunity to describe.

queese-queedee, so called

about the

size

on account of

its

note,

is

of a thrush, and of a brown colour, except

the breast and belly, which are of a beautiful yellow

it is

very mischievous, and an unwelcome guest upon the plantations.

The wild pigeons

are also

common

here.

I shot

one

NARRATIVE OF AN

318

one that was very large, and resembling what


ring tail pigeon of Jamaica.

an ash colour

the

tail

Its

back and

a lead colour

is

called the

sides

were of

the belly white

the neck reflecting a changeable green and purple

and

iris

were

feet of this pigeon

dwarf pigeons here Avalking in


size

red.

have also seen the

They

pairs.

the

are about the

of an English sparrow, and rather of a lighter colour.

I take these to

were bright, with a yellow

iris,

eyes

and upon the whole these

They

diminutive creatures are very pretty.


steen-duyjie

The

be the picui-nhna of Marcgrave.

by the Dutch, because they

are called

are frequently

found amongst stones and gravel. * Turtles are also found


in

Guiana, but seldom near the plantations, as they de-

They

light chiefly in the deepest recesses of the forest.

build their nests in trees of the thickest foliage, where I

have found them, and even stroked them with


without their attempting to
different

rather

from those

less,

and

in

fly

Europe

their wings of

away.

my

They

hand,

are

little

in point of colour,

but

a more considerable length

than those of any other dove or pigeon whatever.


I

became

daily

more charmed with

at liberty to breathe freely,

and

my

my

situation

the river;

caressed

was

for

my

past

Respected as the prince of

by the neighbouring

* Pr. Bancroft erroneously

prospects of future

contentment promised amply to compensate


hardships and mortifications.

calls this bird the

planters,

who

only dove in Guiana,

plentifully

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
plentifully supplied

and vegetables,

me

Avith presents

of game,

fish,

319
fruit,

was scarcely the same man, and had

very few wishes unsatisfied.

One day
I

(the 5 th of

March) during

my

residence here,

was surprised by the waving of a white handkerchief

from a tent boat that was rowing up the

my

augment

happiness,

in the

town

and

when, to

who now

my

preferred

above the Hope, to residing

estate, four miles


;

unexpectedly proved to be

it

Mulatto, accompanied by her aunt,

Fauconberg

river

to this plantation I immediately

accom-

panied them.

Here Joanna introduced me


grandfather,

He

to a venerable old slave, her

who made me a present of half a dozen

fowls.

was grey-headed and blind, but had been comfortably

many years

supported for

numerous

offspring.

He

through the kind attention of his

me he

told

Avas

born

in Africa,

where he had once been more respected than any of

his

Surinain masters ever were in their country.


It

will

no doubt appear surprising to many of

readers to find

with so

much

me

mention

respect;

this

but

my

female slave so often, and

cannot speak with

indif-

ference of an object so deserving of attention, and whose


affectionate

attachment alone counter-balanced

other misfortunes.

more and more


birth

my

Her

virtue, youth,

esteem

all

my

and beauty gained

while the lowness of her

and condition, instead of diminishing, served to

increase

my

afi^ection.

What can

I say farther

upon

this

subject

NARRATIVE OF AN

520

CHAP,
^^^'

subject

Nothing

lation given

"

by Horace

Ne

content myself with the conso-

bttt

to Phocius, the

sit ancillas tibi

" Let not

" For a

my

"

"

And bend

own

it

shame

his flame

slave could stern Achilles


his

soldier:

amor pudori," &c.

Phocius think

fair slave to

Roman

move,

haughty soul to love

" Ajax, invincible in arms,


"

Was

captiv'd by his captive's charms.

" Atrides 'midst

" And
"

triumph mourn'd,

a ravish'd virgin burn'd

for

What

his

time the fierce barbarian bands

" Fell by Pelides' conquering hands,


"

And Troy

(her Hector swept away)

" Became to Greece an easier prey.

"
"

Who

knows, when

To what

Phillis is

your bride,

high rank you'll be allied

" Her parents dear, of gentle race,


" Shall not their son-in-law disgrace.

" She sprung from kings, or nothing


"

On

And weeps

the 6th of

less,

the family's distress."

March

I returned to the

Hope, loaded

with fowls, aubergines, brocoli, agoma, and a few Surinam


cherries.

The aubergines

are a species of fruit Avhich

grows

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
grows

in the

shape of a cucumber; they are of a purple

colour without, and white within

and eaten

The

leaves of the tree which bears

The agoma

coloured down.

they are very

and green, covered with a purple-

are large

fruit

they are cut in slices

sometimes stewed

like salad,

good and wholesome.


this

321

a bitterish vegetable

is

brocoli as in Europe, but scarce.

The

very sour, and unless very ripe

only for preserving.

On

fit

some company

operations

amounted only

to

lost in the

Cupido escaped with

all his

woods

shot

whilst the rebel

one was

he sent

terribly cut

haunch of venison on the

and one of

my

with a lizard called sapagahi, which


agreeable food than the iguana,
described,

dainty

and which the Indians


I

and

less

less in size

which

entertained

have already

wmjamaka.

all

roebuck,
full

Vol.

Avith short

of
I.

fire

the

is

about the

curvated horns
tail

short

Of

this

to the overseer,

it

my officers.

the deer species there are two kinds

largest, called the hajew,

7th

me

is

call

slaves presented

did not partake, but gave

while with the venison

and

men

rebels.

from a Mr. D'Onis

Of

his

Of two men

chains.

for the hospital at Clarenbcek,

I received a present of a

last

but the sum of his

having some of

by the negroes, some

by the

March,

to drink his health, whilst Colonel

Fourgeoud kept scouring the bushes

me

cherries are ribbed,

the Prince of Orange's anniversary, the 8th of

I invited

the

size

the stag or

of the English

the eyes are bright,

the hair a reddish brown,


t

except

NARRATIVE OT AN

322

except the belly, which

is

These animals,

white.

wliei-v

pursued, run with amazing strength and velocity.

They

are frequently seen near the plantations, where they

com-

mit great devastations among the sugar-canes

they are

by the negro or Indian huntsmen, which the

often shot

Hunting

on purpose.

planters keep

impracticable as a

is

sport to Europeans in this country, owing to the thickness

of the woods.

The deer

are sometimes taken alive

crossing rivers, which they often take to

The

or to escape their enemies.


fat,

tender, nor juicy, being

flesh

of this stag

their colour

covered with small white spots


piercing
antlers

and

their

ears

more

European

call boosee-cahitta;

a yellowish brown
eyes lively and

their

narrow and short

their limbs are small,

their flesh

neither

These are much smaller, and

the Indians wirrehocerra.


in leaping

to the

is

by the inhabitants of

Surinam. The other species the negroes

more nimble

when over-heated,

much inferior

venison, though greatly esteemed

they have no

but nervous and strong

delicate than

any other venison I

ever tasted.

On

the 21st, having visited Mi\ and Mrs. Lolkens at

Eauconberg, we, after dinner, walked to a brick-manufactory, called Appe-cappe,

which

lies in

hood, and belongs to Governor Nepveu


as

good brick, and as expeditiously, as

also a profitable business, not being

This

the neighbour-

where they make


in

Europe.

common

in

It is

Surinam.

only relate as a proof of the abundant advantages

of

oyAcCy^^ay^s^/^
c^r f^Zizy ^>^ ip^/^v/ii'z/^.
/<^^

jy/^

///r/'t/^tn:^/vtz,

ln,i,l,i.J'u/>lijAr.l

IWVijpi,

^-

cr

j.y/^zo'/c.zy'e^^/r'^

J- Jchnj,<n ,SS PoilU

i'/uirA r,ir

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
of this country
bricks

where, moreover, the

may be had

be industrious.

wood for burning

for cutting, if the inhabitants

We

leave,

and return

the

chuse to

were here, however, so pestered with

clouds of insects, called monpeira, that

my

323

to the

I Avas

glad to take

Hope. The monpeira are the

smallest kind of gnats, but equally troublesome with the

They

larger species called musquitocs.


close

smoke

fl}-^

so thick

and

together, that they appear like a cloud of black


:

they are so snmll that numbers of them stick in

the eyes, whence they cannot be extracted without pain,

and even danger.


I always visited by water, having at the
tent-boat, with half a dozen negroes at
also shot

so

and

happy and

fished for

so

much

engaged never more

me.

Upon

Hope an

elegant

my command, who

the whole, I was here

respected, that I could almost havo

to

change

my

situation.

ii

p.

NARRATIVE OF AN

524

CHAP.
A

Sugar Plantation described


Cottage

Further

HAVE

Account of Fourgeoud's Operations

injiicted

some Overseers

my

me

new

visit

me

my

proprietors of

my

This desire

complied

Avith

slaves to work,

at the

by

Mr. and

and Son at

Am-

Mulatto, but even

Hope, where she would


either at

Avas

me

to build

Hope

one evening, and not only

to take her to the

or Paramaribo.

Instance

feUcity augmented, Avhen

be more agreeably situated than

readily

happy

the address of Messrs. Passalage

sterdam, the
desired

hi/

already said that I was

Mrs. Lolkens came to

me

Happiness

a Rebel Negro Captain.

in

but hoAv was

gave

Domestic

in

Dreadful Cruelties
of Resentment

XIIL

Fauconberg

unquestionably most

and

immediately set

a house of manicole-trees

for her reception.

In the meantime I wrote the following

letter to Messrs.

Passalage and Son.

"
"

Gentlemen,

BEING

informed by Mr. Lolkens, the administrator

" of the estate Fauconberg,

" proprietors
2

that

you are the present

and being under great obligations

to

one
*'

of

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
" of youi" Mulatto slaves named Joanna, who
" daughter of the late Mr. KruythofF,
" having attended
" request of you,

me

who

during sickness

the

in gratitude

which favour

" thankfully acknowledged, and the

is

particularly for

me

are her masters, to let

" her liberty without delay

325

purchase

fliall

money

be ever

for her ran-

" som immediate paid, by


" Gentlemen,
" Your most obedient servant,
"

John Gabriel Stedman,


" Captain in Colonel Fourgeoud's

" Corps of Marines."

This letter was accompanied by another from


Lolkens,

who much cheered my

my

friend

prospects by the assurance

of success.

Having dispatched these

letters to

Holland, I had

now

the opportunity of observing the whole process of a sugar-

plantation

of which I shall endeavour to give an accurate

description.

The

buildings usually consist of an elegant dwelling-

house for

planter,

tlie

outhouses for the overseer and

book-keeper, besides a carpenter's lodge, kitchens, storehouses,

and

stables,

horses or mules
as

the wheels

if

the

but on the

move by

sugar-mills

Hope

water,

be wrought by

these are not requisite,

stored in canals during

the

NATxRATIVE OF AN

S20

the spring-tide by

means of

pour out

at low water

chinery in motion.

sluices,

like

wiiicb being

opened

a deluge, and set the ma-

sugar-mill

is

built at the

expence of

nay sometimes seven or eight thousand

four thousand,

pounds.

particular description of

tedious.

its

construction might be too

only observe, that the large water-wheel

I shall

moves perpendicularly, and corresponds with another large


wheel placed
acts

in

upon three

an horizontal direction, and

again

this

cylinders or rollers of cast-iron, supported

underneath by a strong beam, so close together that when


tlie

as

whole

is in

motion, they draw in and squeeze as thin

paper whatever comes between them.

the sugar-cane

from the

Those

upon

the

is

In

this

manner

bruised, to separate the juice or liquor

trash.

wrought by

mills that are

same

mules answer

principles, only the horses or

the purpose of the horizontal wheel,


large lever.

cattle are constructed

by dragging round a

If the water-mills woz"k the fastest,

and be

the cheapest, yet as they must wait for the tides, they can

only work part of the day

whereas the cattle-mills are

always ready whenever the proprietor finds


to use

them.

Adjoining to the mill-bouse

ment, also built of brick,

in

is

it

a large apart-

which are fixed the coppers

or large cauldrons to boil the liquid sugar.


usually five in

number

convenient

These are

opposite to these are the coolers,

which are large square flat-bottomed wooden

vessels;,

into

which

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
%rhich the sugar
it is

is

put from the cauldrons to cool before

put into hogsheads, which are placed near the coolers

upon strong channelled


as

it

rafters,

that receive the melasses

drops from the sugar, and convey


placed underneath to receive

cistern

it

ing sugar

is

into a square

The

it.

joins this apartment, where the dross or

distillery

scum of

the boil-

converted into a kind of rum, mentioned

and known by the name of kill-devil. Every

before,
in

327

Surinam keeps a tent-boat and several other

the conveyance of

tlieir

produce

estate
for

craft,

they have also a covered

dock, to keep them dry and repair them.

The sugar

estates in this colony

hundred acres;

contain

five

or six

the parts for cultivation being divided

into squares, Avhere pieces of cane, about one foot long,

are stuck into the ground in an oblique position, in rows


straight

and

rainy season,

They

parallel.

when

the earth

shoots that spring from


or sixteen

months

is

usually plant
well soaked

these joints

are

them

and

become yellow, and of

the thickness of a

rich.

The

about twelve

arriving at maturity,

in

in the

when they

German

flute,,

and

jointed, forming a

very beautiful appearance, with pale

green leaves like

and from

six to ten feet in height,

those of a leek, but longer and denticulated, and Avhich.

hang down

as tlie crop

becomes ready

for cutting.

The

principal business of the slaves during the growth of the

canes

is

pulling

up

the weeds,

which Avould otherwise

impoverish them.

Some

;:

NARRATIVE OF AN

328

CHAP.
XIII.

Some

have above four hundred

suo-ar estates

The expence of purchasing


amounts

frequently

ings,

thousand pounds

slaves.

and erecting the build-

these,

twenty or five-and-twenty

to

sterling, exclusive

of the value of the

ground.

But
which

to give the reader a clearer idea of the sugar-cane,

supposed to be a native of Guiana,

is

to the

annexed

ferent

stages,

being

appearance above the ground

cane come to half maturity

when

leaves,

bnjken

We
here

fully ripe

is

now examine

the

the

same with drooping

a piece cut off at one end, and

its

progress through the mill

bruised between the three cylinders or rollers

through Avhich
it

off at the other.

shall

it

in the dif-

it

though on a smaller scale than nature

first

its

where he may view

plate,

him

I refer

it

passes twice, once

when

returns,

it

is

changed

substance into liquid, which

is

it

and once

enters,

to trash,

and

its

pithy

conducted as extracted,

through a grooved beam, from the mill to the boilinghouse,

where

it

received

is

into

a kind

of

wooden

cistern.

So very dangerous
attend the

rollers,

is

the

work of those negroes who

that should one of their finaers be

caught between them, which frefjuently hai)pens through


inadvertency,
pieces,

if

the

whole arm

not part of the body.

Jcept ready to

chop

is

instantly

shattered to

hatchet

off the limb, before the

is

generally

working of
the

^//-^^-oy/zya /

(-(///^

/// /A/ A'///- ^/v//<'vvy// /A//yrj,

L.;ulon,rnlh:,-li{,l Dr.-ri-'.'ij,)!, In

.LJohiijon Sf I'auU (7,nf, Y.inl

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
Another danger

the mil] can be stopped.

529

that should

is,

a poor slave dare to taste that sugar which he produces

by the sweat of

some hundred
by the

brow, he runs the lisk of receiving

lashes, or

overseer.

Such

having

all his

teeth knocked out

From

the above

wooden

copper cauldron,

first

here, having boiled

the liquor

cistern
filtering

keep back the trash that

may have

some

time,

and been scummed,

it is

put into the next cauldron, and so on

or last

the

it

in the fifth

a few pounds of lime

and allum are thrown into the cauldrons


;

till

brought to a proper thickness or consistency

it is

be admitted into the coolers

nulate

let into

is

escaped from the

imtil

to

through a grating to

mill

to

and dangers

are the hardships

the sugar-making negroes are exposed.

M'liich

the

his

thus

it is

make

it

gra-

boiled gradually stronger and stronger,

reaches the last cauldron.

wooden

to

coolers the sugar

is

equally throughout the vessels

When

it

well stirred,

Avhen cold

put into

is

and scattered

it

has a frozen

appearance, being candied, of a brown glazed consistency,


not unlike pieces of high polished walnut-tree.
coolers
will

it is

the

put into the hogsheads, which, upon an average,

hold one thousand pounds weight of sugar

settles,

From

there

and through the crevices and small holes made

the bottoms

it

is

purged of

all its

liquid contents,

it

in

which

are called melasses, and, as I have said, are received in

an under-ground
which the sugar

Vol.

I.

cistern.

is fit

This

is

the last operation, after

for exportation to

Europe, where

it
is

NARRATIVE OF AN
is

and

refined

cast

into loaves.

only farther

shall

observe, that the larger the grain the better the sugar,

and

that

tlian

Guiana, the richness of which

no

soil

can be more proper for


is

its

cultivation

inexhaustible,

and

produces upon an average three or four hogsheads per


In

acre.

no

1771,

than

less

twenty-four

thousand

hogsheads were exported to Amsterdam and Rotterdam


only, wliich, valued at six
it

pounds per hogshead, though

has sometimes sold for double, returned a

one hundred and

fifty

thousand pounds

sterling,

the vast quantity of melasses and kill-devil

North Americans
second, which

is

for twenty-five
distilled in

by the negroes, valued


duces no

less

and

puted at seven thousand hogsheads,

sum

the

of near
besides

first

com-

sold to the

thousand pounds

the

Surinam, and used chiefly

much

at as

more, which pro-

than two hundred thousand pounds per

annum *.

The

kill-devil is also

but too

much by

when new,

the

negroes, but

is

soldiers

and

with a single
far

On

the contrary,

it

sailors,

and,

upon an Eu-

never hurts the

even necessary and wholesome, especially

in the rainy seasons,

is

common

acts as a slow pernicious poison

ropean constitution.

custom

drank by some of the planters,

when they

dram per day by

their masters,

from being general.


* The

first

are sometimes indulged

There

is

though

no part of

this
this

sugar was refined anno 1659,

salutary

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
salutary plant useless

the chaff refuse, and leaves of the

cane, being used for


are closely surrounded

manure and

whence

commit very great

ravages,

the pieces being surrounded

dogs

set in

abounds

by armed negroes, and

them, they are frequently shot.

to disperse

may form an

the estates

forest,

when

All

fuel.

by the uncultivated

the herds of wild deer often

From what

331

have said upon

this subject alone, the reader

idea of the riches with which this country

which, nevertheless, did not seem to stimulate

its

enemies during the late war to attempt the possession

of

it

but

must

say, I

doubt whether Surinam,

in the

hands of any other nation than the Dutch, would not cease
to be of

its

present consequence, the Hollanders being

indisputably the most patient,

persevering,

industrious

people that inhabit the globe.


Notwithstanding, however, the immense wealth that the

West Indies

in general afford, it will ever

be

my

opinion

that the Europeans might live as comfortably, if not


healthily,

without them

the

want of

more

sugar, coffee, cotton,

cacao, indigo, rum, and Brazil wood,

might be amply

supplied by honey, milk, wool, Geneva, ale, English herbs,


British oak, &c.

And now once more


already mentioned that

to

resume

my

slaves

my

narrative

have

were employed in pre-

paring an house for the reception of

my best friend, which

was about

It consisted of

lour,

which

six

days in completing.

also served for a

dining-room

u u 2

a par-

a bed-chamber,

where

i;

p.

NARRATIVE OF AN

S32

CHAP,

where

I also

stowed

my

baggage

under before the door;

a piazza ov shed to

sit

a small kitchen detached from

the house, and a poultry-house, the whole situated on a

spot by

commanding an enchanting prospect on

itself,

every side, and surrounded with paling to keep off the

My

cattle.

tables, stools,

and benches, being

com-

all

posed of manicole boards, the doors and windows were

guarded with ingenious wooden locks and keys, that were

me by

presented
hands.

My

a negro, and were the work of his

own

house being thus far finished and furnished,

m^y next care was to lay in a stock of provisions from

Paramaribo,

a barrel of

viz.

flour,

another of salted

mackarel, Avhich in this country are delicious, they are

miported from North America

Boston biscuit

also wine,

of spermaceti candles

and a hog,

sent

me by

hams, pickled sausages,

Jamaica rum,

tea, sugar,

a box

two charming foreign sheep

also

Kennedy from

]\'Ir.

his

estate

Vriedyk, besides two dozen of fine fowls and ducks presented

me by

vegetables,

Lucretia,

my

Joanna's aunt; while

and venison, flowed upon

fish,

me

fruit,

from every

quarter as usual.

On
in the

the

st

of April

774,

Joanna came down the

river

Fauconberg tent-boat, rowed by eight negroes, and

arrived at the

Hope:

the contents of

my

communicated

letter to

to her

immediately

Holland, which she received

with that gratitude and modesty in her looks which sjxke

more

forcibly than

any

reply.

I introduced her to her

new
I

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
new

habitation, M'here the plantation slaves, in token of

respect,

immediately brought her presents of casada,

and never two people

yams, bananas, and plantains,


were more completely happy.

Free

like the

roes in the

and disencumbered of every care and ceremony,

forest,

we breathed
our limbs

the purest ether in our walks, and refreshed

in the

were now again

353

limpid stream

my

health

portion, while

my

and good

spirits

partner flourished

youth and beauty, the envy and admiration of

all

the

colony.

Colonel Fourgeoud

and encamp
ComcAvina,

by an

at

reviewing

my

intending to quit the woods,

Magdenberg, a post near the source of the

I sent

officer

now

a large barge with provisions, escorted,

and twenty men,

to that place

at

Cassivinica Creek.

an estate called

few

and upon

remaining marines, they did not amount to

twenty men, besides a small detachment at

mouth of

Cupi/,

Calis,

near the

Higher up the same creek,

were also posted an

officer

and a

soldiers.

On

the morning of the 4th, I was witness to a very

wonderful

battle

between two snakes, the

three feet long, the other no

when,

after

one about

more than fourteen

a severe contest of near half an hour,

ijiches

d-.tring

which time the many wrcathings and twistings were truly


curious, the largest gradually shifting his gripe, at length

caught the smallest by the head, and absolutely swallowed

him

alive.

My

h a

p.

NARRATIVE OF AN

S34

My

negro boy about

this

time throwing out some red-

hot embers, I was surprized to see the frogs eat them


with avidity, without receiving any visible danjage from
the

fire,

which most probably they had mistaken


I

fire-fly.

saw another frog

in

for the

the sugar-mil!, feasting

upon a regiment of ants, which are here very numerous,

them up with

licking

Another of these animals

him.

one of the beams of


every night

groes, from

almost

flat,

where

its

it

slept every

cottage, which

great power in leaping

regularly left

it is

very small,

with black and scarlet specks


the

upper

by climbing up the

little

it

day upon

was called yomho-yomho by the ne-

fine yellow,

arrives

a pretty

it

this

my

frequently found in

is

it

tongue as they marched before

his

animal,

of houses,

stories

We

walls.

thought

and would allow nobody

to

hurt it

On

the morning of the 8 th, between six and seven

o'clock,

we heard

wJiilst

we were

detached an

in consequence of which,
officer

and

They returned next day


had attacked the

by

my

of

serjeants,

the report of several minute guns towards the

river Pirica

pillaged

interring one

tivelve
Avith

men

immediately

to give assistance.

an account that the rebels

estate of Kortenduur^

some powder, the plantation

their master,

where,

slaves being

having

armed

had bravely beaten them back before

my

assistance could be of use.

small detachment from Colonel Fourgeoud at

Wana

11

Creek

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

335

Creek arrived at the Hope on the nth, with September,

who

the negro prisoner,


to Fourgeoud,

related that the rebels

and even laughed

heard him giving

his orders,

but to take them alive

at him,

viz.

not to

had spoken

having overfire

on them,

and that amongst those

who had

the woods was the unlucky Schmidt,

lost in

lately

been

and of which he had never yet

so unmercifully beaten,

recovered.

About

the spring

the 13 th,

dams, and

whole post under

laid our

spot where

by

dry, but unfortunately

men

my

had pitched

full

of

My

in water.

at

Wana

men and ammunition

lieutenant in

remaining

my company

troops

were

Upper Comewina,

except the

cabin, which remained

Mr. Heneman, the volunteer, arrived

camp

Avater,

this accident the officers

were up to their knees

Colonel Fourgeoud's

broke down the

floods

he

worthy friend

at this time

was now entered a

he informed us, that the

marching

for

Magdenberg

there to go into quarters.

therefore introduced

him

at his

first

On

the

arrived at
Society,

felt

4th, Colonel

fatigue,

landing to the

dred men, were sent

and

hmiself extremely happy.

Fourgeoud with

his troops being

and

privates of the

Magdenberg, the

and the rangers

in

This poor

eare of Joanna, Avho was a most incomparable nurse,

under whose care he

from

Creek, with a fearge

yoimg man was much emaciated with misery and


I

and

officers

to the

down

amount of near two hun-

in barges to

be stationed on
different

chap.

NARRATIVE OF AN

536

Some landed

different parts of the river Pirica.

Hope

to refresh,

at the

disorderly, as to

and behaved so very

oblige nie and ray officers to

knock them down by half

dozens, to keep the peace

they departed the same day,

after

the

which

till

dispatched a tent-boat and eight oars to row

Commander in chief with some

On

sail for

Holland.

the I6th, the greatest part of the sheep belonging

were

estate

this

to

much-

last jiermitted the

maribo, from which place he at


injured Count Rantwick to

of his favourites to Para-

unfortunately

poisoned by eating

duncane, but mine, amongst some otheis, luckily escaped.


I

am

duncane, as
say

that

is,

it

is

by th negroes.

called

English dock

low and marshy places, and


animal eats of

leaves

its

obliged carefully to root

meadows where
to

nature,

how

it

is

out from the grass savannas or

it

may

an exception to

this

being

to

Avhich

general rule.

the

though contrary
is

said,

the

for that reason

had inadvertently been permitted


garden,

and bullocks are

sheep got

to

instinctively

food from their poison.

question not

of Guiana,

in

the slaves tlierefore should be

most animals know,

in

something-

instant death to whatever

cattle graze, since sheep

to distinguish their

leaf,

can

grows spontaneously

it,

the sheep
tants

it

be remaikably fond of
as

All that I

a shrub with a large green

it is

like that of the

said

examined the

sorry to say I have not particularly

natural

But

inhabi-

be admitted as

This banefid plant


to

grow

access

in

a negro's

by

breaking-

down

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
down

the

fence,

337

^vhich occasioned this unpleasant ca-

In this garden I saw several other roots and plants that

The yamesy,

deserve to be noticed.
root in the

West

its

taste

is

astonishing-

and very Avholesome.

of a whitish colour, without

is

grows

very agreeable, either boiled or

roasted, easy of digestion,


inside

produce an

will

this

of two or three

the weight

to

and an acre

score pounds,

or 3'am, a well-known

Indies, delights in a fat soil

Surinam sometimes

quantity *

approaching towards black

it is

shape

its

The

of a deep purple
very irregular.

is

by cutting them

The yams

are cultivated

potatoes

they are planted a few feet distant from each

and

other,

maturity

in

about

they are

known

to

be

in pieces like

months they

six or eight

fit

or leaves begin to lose their verdure,

for use
till

arrive at

when

the top

then they are of

a deep green colour, and creep along the grovind like


with ligneous shoots.

The yam

is

food of the slaves throughout the

iv}',

amongst the principal

West

Indies,

alone sufficient to supply the want of bread

capable of preservation for almost a

3'ear,

and

is

also being
it

is

often

transported, and used

upon long voyages, and frequently

brought to England.

Another small root I found here,

known

in

Surinam by the name of

naapjes,

and which

eaten in the same manner as the yams, but

is

is infinitely

* Sometimes from ten to twenty thousand pounds weight.

Vol.

I.

na

p.

^'^^^

tastrophe.

in

more

338

NARRATIVE OF AN

'

CHAP, more
^'^^'

delicious

both the one and the other serve here for

food, as potatoes, carrots, or parsnips do in England.

The

maize or Indian corn, which I also saw in this gar-

den, grows on high perpendicular stalks, with long pale

green leaves; the grain

is

of a shining yellow colour, as

large as marrow-peas, and closely set together, round ears

that are the size of the largest

grain

is

European

Surinam

cultivated in great quantities in

used for their poultry and

not only
species,

but

Creoles

make

also

is

This

carrot.
;

it

is

of every

cattle

ground into meal, of which the

excellent puddings and

of a nourishing quality.

With

this

cakes,

which are

they sometimes eat

the young pods of the ocro, or althea plant, which grows

upon a very small

when

shrub, with oblong leaves, and which

boiled, as Dr. Bancroft expresses

laginous,

glutinous

slira3%

and lubricative
however

quality,

makes a very

rich

it,

are of a muci-

texture,

which ropy or

disgusting

in

appearance,

sauce when properly seasoned with

Cayenne pepper.

The same evening

that proved so fatal to the sheep, as

my

I was walking out with

galled here the subacoo


its bill

last

and

gun, as usual, I shot a bird

it is

a species of the grey-heron

legs of a greenish black,

appearing as

if

and very long, the

jointed by large scales of a hard and

horny substance, and the claws on each middle toe are


denticulated.

This bird, though apparently the

common

was so very

fowl,

light,

that an

size

Enghsh

of a

house-^

pigeon

aiiAc

jy'Mar//^///r'//

r/^/

CV2v?^/^

.yr//u//r- /r/////y>r

I.rmloil.l'iil'li.rlil />,;-rxijy.i:i.l'v J.JrIin.riiii ,.r! lUii/y


'.%S

Clinnh

V.ir,/

scji/pf

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
pigeon would have easily counterbalanced

we found

it

to

I have for

have a

and

sorry I

silent

upon the sub-

am, at a time when

appeared harmonious and peaceable,

to

necessity of relating sotae instances, which I

must

inspire the

first

passion during a

visit

beautiful

arms

Samboe

to a tree, as

be under the

am

girl

object which attracted


to a

confident

naked

negro-drivers, that she

my

com-

neighbouring estate, was a

of about eighteen, tied


as she

laceiated in such a shocking

literally

all

most unfeeling reader with horror and

The

resentment.

when dressed

fishy flavour.

some time been happily

ject of cruelty

it

339

came

up by both
and

into the world,

manner by the whips of two

was from her neck

dyed over with blood.

It

was

to her ancles

had

after she

received two hundred lashes that I perceived her, with

her head hanging downwards, a most affecting spectacle.

When, turning

to the overseer, I implored that she

might

be immediately vmbound, since she had undergone the

whole of so severe a punishment ; but the short answer

which

obtained

Avas,

that to prevent

interfering with his government, he

all

strangers from

had made an unal-

terable rule, in that case, always to double the punish-

ment, Avhich he instantaneously began to put in execution

endeavoured to stop him, but in vain, he declar-

ing the delay should not alter his

make him

take vengeance with double interest.

X X 2

but

determination,

Thus
I

had

NARRATIVE OF AN

340

CHAP.

had no other remedy but

to run to

my

and leave

boat,

the detestable monster, like a beast of prey, to enjoy his

bloody

mined

feast,

to

till

break off

could not refrain

whole
of

From

he was glutted.
all

that day I deter-

communication with

from

overseers,

bitter imprecations

Upon

relentless fiaternity.

and

against the

investigating the cause

matchless barbarity, I was credibly informed, that

this

her only crime consisted in firmly refusing to submit to


the loathsome embraces of her detestable

Prompted by

his jealousy

and revenge, he

executioner.

called this the

punishment of disobedience, and she was thus flayed

Not having
this

hitherto introduced the

opportunity,

young woman

Samboe

by here representing

as I

alive.

cast, I take

the

miserable

found her to the attention of the

sympathizing reader.

A Samboe

is

between a mulatto and a black, being of

a deep copper-coloured complexion, with dark


curls in large ringlets.

These

are generally handsome,

slaves,

and

hair, that

both male and female,

chiefly

employed

as menial

servants in the planters' houses.

At

my

return to the

Hope,

was accosted by Mr.

Eibber, the overseer of that estate,

countenance informed

me he had

who

with a woeful

just been fined in the

sum of twelve hundred florins, abbut one hundred guineas,


for having exercised

with

the like cruelty on a male slave;

this -tlifference, that the victim

had died during the


execution.

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

34L

In answer to his complaint, so far from giving c u a

execution.

him consolation,

him

told

liis

distress

gave

me

inex-

pressible satisfaction.

The

particulars of this

murder were

commanded

the time that Captain Tulling

was a

time before

little

came

as follow

to the

Hope,

here,
it

during

which

iiappened

that a fugitive negro belonging to this estate had been

taken upon an adjoining plantation,

guarded by two armed

slaves,

]\Ir.

Ebber

that accompanied him, found

again escaped into the

means

to spring aside,

upon the two

poor slaves that had brought him, tying them up

cifully,

He

continued flogging them so unmer-

for

mercy

but, as in

produced the opposite

mixed with

the cruel lash,

tastrophe.

eftect

their dismal

above an hour

Ebber

law-suit

it

case, his interference

the clang of the

whip,

were heard to continue

one of them expired under

was instantly commei)ced against

hundred guineas, which

my

which put an end to the inhuman ca-

He was convicted,

punishment than

between the

cries,

after, until

for assassination.

to no other

slave

in the

that Captain Tulling thought proper to interfere,

and beg

for

and

This incensed the overseer

forest.

that he instantly took revenge

carpenter's lodge.

which

time Ebber was reading; the letter

fugitive, durino- the

so ihuch,

to

and sent home,

fiscal

to

but condemned

pay the afore-mentioned

price of blood

is

always divided

and the proprietor of the deceased

being a rule in Surinam, that by paying a

fine.

of

p.

XIII.

NARPwVTIVE OF AN

<542

of

hundred

five

any proprietor

is

crime being
this

also to

but

pay him

if

he

kills

many

own

of his

those of his neigh-

for the loss of his slave,

substantiated, which

first

pounds per head,

fiily

at hbertj to kill as

is

negroes as he pleases
bour, he

not quite

florins,

is

the

very difficult in

country, where no slave's evidence can be admitted.

Such

the legislature of

is

Dutch Guiana,

in regard to

The above-mentioned Ebber was

negroes.

tyrannical

he tormented a

of about fourteen called

bo}-

Cadetty, for the space of a whole year,

every day for one

peculiarly

by flogging him

month tying him down

flat

on

his back,

with his feet in the stocks, for another

triangle * or pot-hook

for

a third, which

among

the woods, or

round

his

neck

prevented him from running away

even from sleeping, except

in

putting an iron

an upright or

sitting posture

chaining him to the landing-place, night and day, to a


dog's kennel, with orders to bark at every boat or canoe

that passed for a fourth

punishment monthly,

month

until the

and so

on, varying his

youth became insensible,

walking crooked, and almost degenerated into a brute.


This wretch was, however, very proud of his handsomest
slaves,

and

times

let

robberies

Such

is

for fear of disfiguring their skins,

them

off with

twenty lashes, when, for their

and crimes, they had deserved the gallows.

the state of public

* These

he has some-

triangles

projecting from an

and private justice

have three long barbed

spikes^ like

in

Surinam.

small grapplings,

iron collar.

The

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
The wretch Ebber
and

the

left

Hope upon

this occasion

by flogging every slave belonging

male and female,

a Mr. Blenderman, commenced

his Inaiiane successor,

his reign

343

to the estate,

having over-slept then* time in the

for

morning; about fifteen minutes.

The reader

no doubt, imagine, that such

will,

were unparalleled

but

this is

cruelties

not the case, they Avere even

exceeded, and by a female too.

Mrs. S

Ik

going to her estate in a tent barge, a

negro woman, with her sucking infant, happened to be


passengers, and were seated on the
boat.

bow

or fore-part of the

some other

I'he child crying, from pain peihaps, or

reason, could not be hushed

with the cries of

mother

to bring

this

innocent
aft,

it

and

Mrs. S

little

Ik

r,

offended

creature, ordered the

deliver

il

into her hands

then, in the presence of the distracted parent, she


diately thrust

she held

it

let it go.

it

out at one of the

under water

until

The fond mother,

immewhere

tilt- windows,

was drowned, and then

it

in

a state of desperation,

where floated

instantly leapt overboard into the stream,

her beloved offspring, in conjunction with which she was.

determined to
however,
negroes

finish

she was

who rowed

her miserable existence.

prevented

In

this,

by the exertions of the

the boat, and was punished by her

mistress with three or four

hundred lashes

for her

daring

temerity.

Colonel Fourgeoud

moved on

the 20th,

with

all

his

ti'oops.

chap.

NARRATIVE OF AN

344

troops, from IMagdenberg, in order to establish his head-

His army being

quarters neaier the infirmary.

in

a very

he fixed upon the estate called Ne\v

sickly condition,

Rosenback, situated between the Hope and the hospital,


for his
pa\'

encampment.

my

Thither

respects to the chief;

I immediatel}'^ repaired,

when

to

saw the remainder

of his miserable army landed, and received a further detail


of the campaign.

have already mentioned Captain

wounded

Fredericy's being

another cut and disarmed


chains and

all

sable enemies
left to

now

I shall

die or recover

by bad usage, had

woman was

man

lost

by

neglect,

and ridiculed by

The

arm broke.

also gone, never

his

add, that a sick marine was

by himself; and that one of the


his

and

the captives running away,

the hero scoft'ed at,

one

more

slaves,

captive negro

to return to her con-

queror, considerably increased in size from her connection

with the troops, and likely to present a

recruit to her

These were the particulars of the

dusky monarch.
campaign.

new

But

must mention the humanity of a poor

slave, Avho, at every hazard, deserted

the dying marine

last

Fourgeoud

and havmg performed the

to attend

sad office

last

of friendship, returned to receive his punishment, but to


his infinite surprise

was pardoned.

In justice to Colonel Fourgeoud

must

such expeditions, and in such a climate,


accidents cannot be prevented
his troops

by

scores,

and that

say,

that

upon

many

of these

Avhile

he killed

without making captures on the

enemy,

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

345

enemy, he nevertheless did the colony considerable

sen'Ice,

by

and de-

and harassing the

disturbing, hunting,

stroying their fields

negro

and

For,

provisions.

no

certain,

it is

haunts from

will ever return to settle in those

he has been once expelled.

rebels,

Avhicli

Colonel Fourgeoud's partak-

ing personally in every danger and fatigue at his age,

must make some amends


his character,

for the other faults that stained

and may even

man

establish his reputation as a

tude.

would give

It

me

infinitely

nothing but in his praise


benefit of

good

some measure,

serve, in

of patience and

more pleasure

to write

I display his
as they

qualities I also point out his failings,

may be

forti-

but truth, and the general

mankind, requires, that whilst

and by these means even

serve to correct others,

to

may

his vices

AVhat could be more ridiculous,

rendered useful.

than paying his troops with

paper was just as good

Paramaribo, where

silver at

and now, while

in the rivers,

giving them cards, for Avhich they could not procure a

yam

or a

bunch of

plantains, Avhile he

of specie in his possession


profit of ten per cent,

and

for this

On

Hope,

whom

which

Avere

was to gain a

on the pay of the whole regiment,

st,

several officers

came

to visit

I entertained Avith a fish dinner

me

at the

amongst

the kawiry, the lamper, and macrdy-fisy,

Avhich I shall briefly describe.

without scales, the head


I.

his object

he was justly blamed by the corps in general.

the 2

Vol.

But

had whole chests

is

The

kaAviry

large, Avith

Yy

tAA'O

is

a small

all

fish

long antennae or
Avhiskers

;;

NARRATIVE OF AN

346

whiskers projecting from the upper jaw, and


tiful in

The lamper

the rivers.

that are caught in the


large,

but very

fat,

plen-

a species of the lampern,

is

Thames

is ver}''

those of Surinam are not

of a round shape, slimy or glutinous

colour a blueish green Avith yellow spots, except the

its

belly,

which

is

Avhite

this fish, like the

both the sea and the

rivers.

mackarel, whence

has

blueish,

We

it

and not near

its

name, only

were very happy, and

poor Joanna,

macrely-fisy resembles a
its

colour

is

more

so splendid.

my

But on

with their entertainment.


m}'^

The

salmon, frequents

guests perfectly satisfied

the morning of the

who had been our

22d

cook, was attacked

with a violent fever ; she desired to be removed to Fauconberg, there to be attended by one of her female relations,

which

complied with.

25th she was so extremely

ill,

But on the evening of the


that I determined to visit

her myself, but as privately as possible, as Fourgeoud


to visit

me at the Hope the next day

upon such an occasion


and

knew

a\

as

for his satirical jokes

could very well dispense with

the most laudable motives Avere

no

protectiori

against the ungovernable sallies of his temper.

However

difficult the

undertaking, as

to his post, I like another

the Hellespont

Heneman,

set

had

to pass close

Leander was determined

of which having informed

out about eleven at night

when coming opposite

barge,

New

to cross

my friend
in my own

Rosenback,

heard

Fourgcoud's voice very distinctly, as he walked on the


1

beach

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
beach with some other

was hailed by a

now thought

and immediately the boat

officers,

and ordered

sentinel,

to

come

was over; but, persisting

all

347

ashore.

to the last, I

answer Killestyn Nova, the name of an

told the negroes to

adjoining plantation, and thus got leave to proceed un-

Soon

molested.

found

my

But on
for

after I arrived safe at

dearest friend

much

better.

the 26th, in the morning, mistaking the day-light

moon-shine, I overslept myself, and knew not

Hope,

return to the

as

my

was

useless

my

slaves,

who put me

through the woods, and

my

to

known

Delay

to the Colonel.

so out I set, trusting entirely to the ingenuity

sight of the head-quarters

here

how

barge and negroes could noAv

not pass without being well

of

Fauconberg, and

ashore just before

we came

when one of them

escorted

I arrived safe at the

Hope.

barge soon followed under a guard, and

me

But

all

poor slaves prisoners, with an order from Fonrgeoud for


to flog every

in

my
me

one of them, as they had been apprehended

without a pass, while their excuse was that they had been

out a

fishins; for their

Their

fidelity to

Massera.

me upon

this

occasion was truly asto-

nishing, as they all declared they

would have preferred

being cut in pieces, rather than betray the secrets of so

good a master.
I confirmed

However, the danger was soon over, as

what they had

were intended to regale

said,

and added, that the

the hero.;

donation of two gallons of

after

which

rum among my

Y y 2

fish

made a

sable privycounsellors.

NARRATIVE OF AN

348

This passage, however

counsellors.

trifling,

may

serve as

a sample not only of European weakness, but of African


firmness

and

resolution.

Notwithstanding

geoud did not

Joanna

visit

arrived,

my

preparation,

me on

still

Colonel Four-

the 27th, but the next morning

accompanied by a stout black, who was

her uncle, and whose arm was decorated with a

on which were engraved these words


" peans."
tarily

the

This man,

" True to the Euro-

who was named

Cojo, having volun-

inhuman treatment of Mr. D. B. and


to join

them.

following remarkable

one whose name

From

story,

Tainera, by the hand


is

band,

fought against the rebels, before his companions, by

been forced

"

silver

is

"

had

his overseer,

these he related to us the

having a

little

girl,

called

This child's father," said he,

Jolly Coem', the

first

captain be-

" longing to Baron's men, and, not without cause, one of


" the fiercest rebels in the forest, which he has lately shewn

New Rosenback, Avhere


now commands.
On that estate one

" on the neighbouring estate of


" your colonel

" Schults, a Jew, being the manager at that time,


*'

who

for-

merly was the manager of Fauconberg, the rebels sud-

" denly appeared, and took possession of the whole plan-

" tation.

Having

tied the

hands of Schults, and plun-

" dered the house, they next began to feasting and dancing,
" before they thought proper to end his miserable existence.

" In this deplorable situation

now

lay the victim, only

" waiting Baron's signal for death, when

his eyes

chancing
" to

^
EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
above captain's. Jolly Cceur, he addressed

to catch the

him nearly

words

in the following

now remember Mr.

when you were only a

life

fectly well

ravished

coming

by your powerful

my

'

But you,

pv or

to her assistance.

was perpetrated

this

then

die

this,

by

in

my

intercession.'

The reply

remember

tyrant, recollect

my

it

per-

how you
father for

Recollect, that the shameful

my

infant presence

his

head from

Recollect

his

body

w^ith

with which having played at bowls

upon the beach, he next cut the

skin with a knife from

back, which he spread over one of the cannon to keep

the priming dry."

^Thus ended the

liistor}' of ]Mr.

Schults;

Cojo, with 3'oung Tamera, departed, and left

go, with
I soon

me

ta

an increased impatience, to receive the news, that

was

to expect frons

serving

Joanna should be

pests of

human

On

and now

this,

hands, and next be damn'd.'

he severed

hatchet at one blow

my own

my favourite, my

mother, and flogged

act

when

and

the

Amsterdam,
fiee

viz.

when

the de-

from the villainy of such

natvu'e.

28th,

Colonel

Fourgeoud arrived about ten

o'clock with one of his officers,

and with the very devil

painted in his countenance, which alarmed

however, instantly introduced him to

he no sooner saw

my mate,

my

me much.

I,

cottage, where

than the clouds

chap.

Jolly Cceur, v^^i-^

gave you from

child,

of Jolly Coeur was memorable:

his

'

my

Saying

among so many others remember

darling,

spare

who was once your deputy-

Schults,

master ; remember the dainties


table,

349

(like

a vapour

by

NARRATIVE OF AN

350

CHAP, by
^^ll

the sun) were dispelled from his gloomy forehead

and

more

must

confess, that I never

saw him behave with

civility.

Her heavenly form


" Angelic, but more
"

Her

*'

Of

soft

and feminine,

graceful innocence, her every air

gesture, or least action, over-aw'd

" His malice

and with rapine sweet bereav'd

" His fierceness of the fierce intent

it

brought."

Milton.
Having entertained him
able,

in the best

manner we were

and now related the story of the Hellespont, he

laughed heartily at the stratagem, and giving us both a


shake by the hand departed to

humour and

New

perfectly contented.

Fi'om

circumstances, the above Chapter

age of

my West

Rosenback,

may be

India expedition.

all

in

good-

the preceding

styled the golden

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

CHAP.

XIV.

Colonel Fourgeoud at Taramariho

Of
Commander The Troops
in a Surgeo'n

Example

Virtue in a Slave

of Loango Dancing

351

of Ignorance

Of Ferocity a
Woods Account
in

re-enter the

Uncommo/i

Proof of

Fidelity in

Negro.

T TAVING

delayed

-- -- Colonel

Fourgeoud now

his

departure to the 29th of April, c

rowed down

finally

Paramaribo, accompanied by a few of his


fresh themselves
Mrhile

for

officers, to re-

of which, in truth, they had great need,

an armed barge kept floating up and down the

river,

and while the remaining emaciated troops (which were


melted down to a very small number, and
in

their constitutions, for

greatly required
ture,

he sent

some

rest.

any

unfit,

till

recruited

furtlier military service)

Just before the chief's depar-

me (who now commanded

the river) the

following very cm-ious instructions, which, as a proof of


his generalship, I

cannot help inserting

" to ask the planters

if

Amongst

the rebels were

come

others,

to their

" estates, in which case to attack and drive them away


" but not to follow them, unless

was sure that

I cer-

" tainly should conquer them, and for any miscarriage I


*'

should be called to an account

;"

which

is,

in

plain

English,

ii

p.

NARRATIVE OF AN

3-2

English, that " if I sittacked the

enemy without

"

did not attack them at

"

all,

must be punished
I

was

However

to

and

be called

if I

account

to

success,

for neglect of duty."

judicious the other articles

had received,

could not help thinking the above so very absurd, that

immediately returned them back by an

my

the good fortune (at


into

common

and had

officer,

request) to get

them changed

sense.

How happy

was

I at this

time in particular,

who wanted

for nothing,

and who had such an agreeable partner con-

stantly near

me, whose sweet conversation was divine music

my

to

and whose presence banished every languor

ears,

my mind
straying with me

and hardship from

One

day,

I shot a bird, which

hen of Edwards.

through a v/atery savanna,

found to be the spur-winged water-

This beautiful creature

is

supposed to

be of the plover kind, with the body about the

size

of a

pigeon, being of a deej) cinnamon colour, between red

and a very

rich

orange

the neck and belly are perfectly

black, the larger feathers of the wings of a bright yellow,

and armed on each pinion with a short and sharp horny


spur, which
in

it

Endaad.

length

its

uses for
It has

its

defence, as game-cocks use theirs

no tad

its

bill is

near two inches in

legs are long, and, as well as the bill,

yellowish green colour

its

are of a remarkable length,


its

toes, especially the

hinder ones,

and seem calculated

weight iu the mud, where

it is

are of a

to support

most frequently seen,

if

not

'///f

////// //'///ac:// // f///'///r //

///f _//cf./ /

//

/A//'

30

."/

^Z f ////// //i^/

////.f UCi?/?

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
not wading in the water to seek
like plovers, never

swim

birds,

have a scarlet crest and

the}-

These

food.

its

353

small pearls (like those of the Muscov}' duck) separating

the

bill

from the eyes

when they
throats.

fly

they are always seen in pairs, and

produce an agreeable whistling from

their

The spur-winged water-hen, on account of

great beauty, reminded

me

of another fine bird

saw upon one of the neighbouring

had forgotten

mention

to

here called flamingo,

from

in

European swan.
small heron

it

body

the head

two eggs, which,

is

an

only the size of a

is

small,

The flamingo

and arched.

also long, round,

supposed to be

but a very long neck, and

tail,

long limbs, with four toes

is

parts

as large as that of

This bird, however,

has no

Guiana curlew,

Canada and many

of North and South America, and which


its

great resemblance to the

its

famous bird of that name, seen

of the crane kind, with

I lately

but which

estates,

this w^as the

its

when hatched,

the

and the

bill

lays always

chickens appear

black, next grey, then white, as they

come nearer ma-

the whole bird

becomes a bright

turity

and,

finally,

scarlet or crimson,

They

blood.

some not

lighter than the colour of

live in society like the storks,

on the banks of

rivers, or

and mostly

near the sea, where

the}' are

seen in such amazing flocks, that the sands seem dyed


with vermilion

these birds,

when young,

are accounted

very good eating, and are so tame, that on the plantations

they

Vol.

I.

are

freqoently

seen walking

and

feeding

among

NARRATIVE OF AN

354

among

though

the poultry,

and animal food they

fish

generally prefer.

Thus

I daily

found some new object to describe, and

spent the most agreeable hours, constantly accompanied

by

my young

alas

all

mulatto,

upon

this

by receiving the

Passalao-e at

my

Amsterdam,

fatal

to

mulatto's manumission

double

my

a few months.
all

my

truly

my

It

at once

friend but

my

news of the death of

whom

be a

slave,

dead

the whole estate going to be

could not bear

supported me,

Lolkens would
reflections,

grief

and was

in the

space of

not only

and a
on

slave

whom

sold to a

my

under

I relied,

new master

totally distracted

nay,

had not the mildness of her temper

by suggesting the
still

re-

which she proved

spirits

Mr. Passalage,
it,

to obtain

saw a thousand horrors

upon my dejected

in

become a mother

offspring to

must have died of

had written

IMr.

and what must certainly

was now that

such a government

hopes,

almost plunged into

I v/as

was the situation

distress,

to be, promising fair to

intrude

but

at once, in the midst of

halcyon days were blasted, and


despair,

Elysian plantation

be our friend.

flattering

hopes that

In the midst of these

on the evening of the

4th,

we heard

the

report of several alarm-guns towards the North East, on

which, by day-break next morning, I sent a detachment


to Rio-Pirica, which returned about noon with the account

of the rebels attacking the estate Merseille,

in the ri^er

Cottica; but that they had been beaten back by the


3

plantation

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.

355

plantation slaves, as they had Ijefore by those of Korten-

The

duur.

other news was, that they had

treated a

ill

party of poor Indians, suspecting them to have assisted


the estates in making their defence

an insurrection

ribo,

massacred

to join the rebels, after

the inhabitants

all

Parama-

discovered amons; the neoroes,

^^^as

who had determined

also that at

having

however, they were

that,

first

detected, and the ringleaders executed.

On

the morning of the 6th, Ave again heard several

musquet-shot in the woods, which apprehending to be

some European party

had

that

lost their

way, I

sentinel answer the signals of distress,

by

alternately with theirs, shot for shot, to

which

made my

added two

drums, that kept beating for several hours without


mission,

when

a Society serjeant and


in Pirica,

six

and now at length appeared


privates

and had been

three days, nearly starved, without


drink, excepting water.

best

manner

inter-

the report of their fire-arms gradually ap-

proached nearer and nearer

Reedwyk

piece

firing his

that

belonged to

lost in the forest for

hammocks, meat, or

Having refreshed them

I was able, they all recovered to

in the

my

very

great satisfaction, though one of them remained perfectly


blind for several

hours,

wasps, Avhich are

known

marohonso

with the sting of a kind


in this country

by the name of

of which the only thing that I can say

that they are extremely large, live in hollow trees,

the strongest of the bee kind,


z z 2

and

of

is,

are

sting so violently,

that

NARRATIVE OF AN

356

that the pain

and always occasions a

excruciating,

is

fevei'.

Having,

which

Cottica,

home
by

on the 12th,

in a shiver,

abstaining,

above

is

and next

my

well in a fcAv days

the

twice

half

a mile

da}'

across

the river

broad,

had an intermitting

came
fever

from animal food, and using

however,

plenty of acid with

swam

drink, 1

more

had no doubt of getting


tamarinds grew here

so, as

in profusion.

Indeed, on the l6th, I was^ almost perfectly recovered,

(weakness excepted) when about ten


I

was

sitting with

expected

Joanna before

my

my cottage,

morning, as
I

had an un-

from a Mr. Steger, who happened to be

visit

one of our surgeons.

amined

in the

After having

felt

my

pulse,

and ex-

tongue, he declared Avithout ceremony that I

should be dead before the morroAV, unless Avithout further


delay I

made

use of his prescription.

sentence staggered
I

me

so

much

never used medicines at

dose, which he

that,

all,

had prepared

for

acknowledge the

though at other times

I instantly SAvalloAved the

me

hesitation, but almost as instantly I

in

a tumbler, Avithout

dropped doAvn on the

ground.

In

this

manner

I lay

till

the 20th, being four days be-

on a mattress

my senses, Avhen I found myself stretched


in my little house, Avith poor Joanna sitting

by me

and bathed

fore I

came

to

alone,

in tears, Avho

begged of

me

that time to ask no questions, for fear of hurting

at

my

spirits,

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
but who next

spirits,

action, viz. that the

me

had taken

now was

clay related

moment

my

body, had

were ordered

left

blisters

where

on

se-

declared that I was

the plantation,

my

for

me

burial

when a grave

on the

upon her knees

7th,

which

to implore

that she had dispatched a black to her aunt at

Fauconberg
with the

four strong negroes

fell,

finally

she had prevented by dropping

a delay

the dismal trans-

up, and by her direction placed

dead, and had suddenly


coffin

me

that the surgeon having put

veral parts of

and

to

357

for wine-vinegar,

first

and a bottle of old Rhenish,

of which she had constantly bathed

my

by keeping without

inter-

mission five wet handkerchiefs tied about them,

Avhile

temples,

and

wrists,

feet,

with a tea-spoon she had found means to

low a few drops of the wine mulled


motionless during
night,

me,

hoping

thanked her God.

my

that I had lain

while she had day and

my

To

me by

all this I

started

for

which she now

could only answer by the

from

my

eyes,

and a feeble

the good fortune to recover, but so

notwithstanding the great care that was taken

that excellent

owed my

recovery

hand.

had, however,

sIoAvly that,

of

for

sympathy that

squeeze of
I

that time

swal-

by the help of Quaco and an old negro, attended

still

tear of

all

make me

life)

it

(to

whom

was the 15th of June before

walk by myself, during


species of chair

young woman,

all

which time

alone

could

was carried on a

by two negroes, supported on two poles


like

NARRATIVE OF AN

358

a sedan, and fed like an infant, being so lame and

like

enervated that I was not able to bring

mouth

my

to

while poor Joanna (who had suffered too

my

on

my hand

much

account) was for several days following very

ill

herself.

Great was the change from what


shortly before

had been but

so

then the most healthy and most happy

in

body and mind, and now depressed

my

constitution and

who

visited

me

my

to the lowest ebb, in

My

spirits.

friend

every day, at this time told

me

Heneman,
upon

that

information he had discovered the medicine which had so


nearly killed

me

to

be only tartar-emetic and ipecacuanha,

but in too great a quantity,

mixed with
measured
feet.

viz.

four grains of the

forty grains of the latter

my

constitution

by

my

was so much incensed at

the surgeon having

which

size,

this piece

that on the 4th of June, having drank

Majesty's health in a

surgeon coming to
his foot

a bow,

on the landing-place, where

palanquin or chair for

upon

air,

his guilty pericranium,

of stupidity,
his

was

Britannic
the fatal

sitting in

my

my

my

shoulder, I let

strength being as

The poor

fellow

weight of the pole, than forgetting the

no sooner
rest

compliments, he skipped back into his boat with


dition, with Avhich

six

than, having previously clubbed,

yet too feeble to aim a blow.


felt the

above

he no sooner put

one of the poles that carried me, upon


it fall

is

rummer of Madeira, and

make me

first,

he decamped as

fast as the

all

of his

expe-

negroes
could

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
could row liim, to our no small entertainment,

him with

About

who

359
saluted

three cheers.
this

time, while the troops were doing nothing,

two of the bravest men


entered the woods,
captain, Stoelman

Captain Fredericy, and the militia

viz.
;

with the rangers,

in the colony,

they killed three or four of the rebels,

and took a few more

prisoners,

want of subsistence ever


the surrounding forest,

since

who had been

starving for

Fourgeoud had ransacked

and destroyed

In

their fields.

the creek Patamaca also, two rebel negroes, attempting


to

were shot by

plunder Mr. Winey's plantation,

who

slaves,

sent their right hands

his

barbacued to Para-

maribo.

Being
at the

still

Hope,

so
I

weak

that T was unfit for

now surrendered

to the next officer in rank

of

would be beneficial

air

the

any duty, even

command

of that post

and expecting that a change

to

ledge of Colonel Fourgeoud,

me,
I

know-

Avith the previous

went on a

visit to

a neigh-

bouring estate, called Egmond, where the planter. Monsieur

de Cachelieu, a French gentleman, had given


hearty invitation, with Joanna,
servant.

At

this

my boy

this

Quaco, and a white

my

For instance,

and

speedy recovery

Frenchman's hospitality and good-humour.

inconsistent with this was his injustice


slaves

a most

place I v/as extremely comfortable,

nothing could be better calculated for

than

me

and

How

severity to his

two young negroes,

Avho

well

deserved a flogging, by breaking in and robbing their


master's

chap.

NARRATIVE OF AN

360

CHAP,
XIV.

came

master's store-house,

two old ones, for a

no

to receive

On my

few lashes

off with a

trifling dispute,

while

were each condemned

than three hundred.

less

asking the cause of this partiality, I was an-

swered by Mons. de Cachelieu, that the young ones had


still

a very good skin, and might do

much work
worn

the old ones had long been disfigured,

almost unfit for any service

nay, that

altogether would be a benefit to the estate.

whereas

and

out,

them

killing

At Arentrust,

a few plantations lower down, some days before, a poor

negro was sent with a

manager there

this

from

letter

his proprietor to the

not liking the contents, gave

last,

the messenger four hundred lashes, telling the innocent

man,

at the

same

time, to carry that for the answer to

his master.

But

my

(who was, in

this

alone excepted, as polite, hospitable, and well-bred a

man

to return

as ever I

some

to

French

host,

would wish to converse with)

must mention

particulars of his remarkable oeconomy, viz. a

India rabbit, called in Surinam

coiiet/

coney,

West-

and by the

Indians puccarara, but properly the agouti, I saw one day

come

roasted to the table.

Next day

quarter.

that

is,

with

salt

it

made

Of

what

and pepper on the

and a fourth, the

last

he and I eat one

appearance a

its

day the remaining half entered


fricasee

this,

gridiron.

in the

la crapodine,

The

third

form of a French

quarter was converted into

i call meagre soup.

This

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
This

I relate as

overseer,

his

dog,

a fact

and

36i

and though the planter,

his

two

fourteen stone amongst them

cats,

could not weigh

no family

all,

could be more healthy or contented.

his

As

in

Surinam

an instance of

abstemiousness, the overseer, Mr. Bodewyn, declared that

he never had fought a


horse, or taken

any

battle, fired a

freedom

illicit

nmsquet, mounted a

though he acknow-

ledged he was every day dressed and shaved by the soft

hand of a young negro female.


Nothing could be better than the oranges and china
apples that I found on this estate.
already described
latter,

it is

The

first

have

and, though often confounded with the

a very distinct

upon

fruit

the whole.

The China

apples, or Seville oranges, as they are usually called, differ


in this

from the other oranges, that they are more lucid,

and of a more savoury

taste

that the shell

and not so deep coloured

thinner,

while the oranges

may be

and

is

smoother,

particularly, that

eaten in any quantit}-, without

pernicious consequences, the immoderate use of the China

apples

by long experience

is

duce very dangerous


the
to

same

as that

in this colony

This fruit being here

effects.

which conies from Lisbon,

have been imported at

found to pro-

first

(as

it is

much

supposed

was the other) by the

may

Portuguese or the Spaniards; and

it

that in those countries, where

drops ripe from the trees

in

golden clusters,

than

it

Vol.

it

must be incomparably more delicious

can ever be tasted


I.

it

well be conceived,

in

Great Britain, being sent

thither

chap.


NARRATIVE OF AN

362

which

thither green, after

can never arrive to

its

the fine fragrance that

indeed becomes orange, but

it

is

it

produces,

ceived than described.


this estate,

large.

I also

found some

which however are here thick

and which have,

my

in

odorife-

can be more easily con-

it

There are also a species of

smaller,

for

diffused through all this colony,

by the continued groves of orange-blossoms and


rous fruits that

As

proper state of maturity.

lemons on

fine

but very

shelled,

sAveet ones,

which are

opinion, a very insipid

taste.

Plaving mentioned Mons. de Cachelieu's fine

ought not to forget

his excellent

perfectly unadulterated
his muscadell.
still

But

and

French wines, which

continued a valetudinarian,

on horseback might do
leave of

my

M'ere

truly delicious, particularly

in spite of all these

weakness and indigestion.

fruit,

good

things, I

being oppressed with

Thus, in hopes that exercise

me

good,

determined to take

hospitable French friend, and ask leave of

absence to go for some time to Paramaribo.

In consequence, on the 9th, Colonel Fourgeoud arriving


in the river at the estate Crawassibo,

renew

to

his

letter for the

manoeuvres,

I,

on the 10th, wrote him a

above purpose, and

pay, which was due to me.

style, as I
I

officers,

also for

above

six

months

was answered, on the

not only with a negative to both

been granted to other

and expecting soon

my

but

requests,

in so truly

2th,

which had

impertinent

could not, even from himself, have expected

such

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
in question

such as calling
sick

and refusing

my zeal,

though he knew

me my own money,

wrote him a second

was

or even the proper

This incensed

remedies and means of recovering.

much, that

363

letter, to let

me

so

him know

was incapable of doing or asking any thing unbecoming

my

character, but on the contrary

give him such j^roofs of

my

it

to the proof.

This

who gave me

should he be pleased to

it,

epistle, Aveak

for service, I followed in person

French friend Cachelieu

as I was) ready to

honour as should leave him

no farther room to doubt of


put

(ill

for

my

and

two days

unfit as I

was

with

my

after,

companion and voucher,

the use of his tilt-barge with eight oars for

the purpose.

On

our arrival I expected to see Fourgeoud raging with

resentment, that he would put nie under an arrest, and

ask an explanation of our last correspondence.

But

dreaded not the worst that he could do, after the man}'
trials

to ruin

and death

me which

itself

he had already put in execution,

was almost preferable

Monsieur de Cachelieu and


appointed.

He

I,

however, were both

this affectation I despised,

invitation with contempt, in

French planter.

dis-

not only took us politely by the hand, but

solicited us to dine with him, as if

But

to his cruelty.

When,

cause of his refusing

in

my

nothing had happened.

and refused

which

my

was followed by the

turn, I enquired for the

request,

strange a letter, this was the answer


3 A 2

to accept of his

and sending me so

That

thirty or forty

of

NARRATIVE OF AN

364
c u A

p.

of the

Ouca

negroes,

who were our

alhes

by

had

treaty,

deceived him, in doing nothing while they had been in the

woods, and during the time he had been at Paramaribo


that he was in consequence determined to push on the war

with double vigour

me

forbidden
all

to

on which account he had not only

go to town, but had since ordered even

the sick officers to

come up and

to follow the

enemy,

while they had strength or breath remaining, not so


as leaving

one at Paramaribo to guard the colours and the

regiment's chest, which had both been


quarter-master.
to this he

This,

might

safely,

the care of a

left to

indeed, was literally the fact

and without hurting

his disposition,

he had determined to persecute

me and some

this

ought to mention, that

it

but

his conscience,

have added, the inveteracy of

hilation.

much

with which

others to anni-

was not

till

about

time that he issued orders to be observed on a march,

and that previous


perfect hurry

to this every thing

was performed

in

and confusion, which indeed even afterwards

Avas too frequently the case.

Having now been near two months on the

Egmond, where

could not recover, and not being per-

mitted to go to Paramaribo,
again to take the

command

I preferred

at the

Hope

returning back
;

where having

entertained Monsieur de Cachelieu in the best


I was able, this

estate

manner

gentleman in the evening returned

to his

plantation.

At

the

Hope

I found

my

friend

Mr. Heneman (who


was

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
was now made a captain) very

sick,

36

with several others.

All these, as well as myself, Avere left without a surgeon,

medicines,

or

money

many hogsheads

while,

as

stated

the

before,

of wine sent from Amsterdam, together

with scores of kegs containing preserved vegetables, and


other fresh provisions, were for ever kept invisible from

whom

the poor, emaciated, and languishing troops, for

they had certainly been intended by that

made one more attempt

here
to

city.

indeed

to recover our property, but

no purpose ; money, medicines, wine, and refreshments,

were

Thus did we continue

kept back.

all

lose strength, instead of gaining

part of us

as for myself, I

plain, being well attended

who

the next day

all

it.

had the

mean

arrived from

the greatest

com-

least cause to

by Joanna and

Egmond

and

to pine

my

servants,

at the

Hope,

besides receiving presents, which were as usual sent

from
felt

my

impute

One additional

quarters.

all

feet

inconvenience

were infested with chigoes, which

to having, during

my

illness,

troublesome insect

as being extremely

chigoe

is

Egmond.

numerous

and the

and generally under the


it

feeds,

it

at Devil's

Of

Harwar, but now

it.

a kind of small sand-flea,

between the skin

I partly

have already made some mention,

shall circumstantially describe

The

however

worn stockings and

shoes while at the good Frenchman's estate


this

me

flesh

without

nails of the toes;

keeps growing

till

it

that gets in

its

being

felt,

where, while

becomes the

size

of a
large

NARRATIVE OF AN

366

large pea, causing no further

itching

in process of

time

pain than a disagreeable

appears in the form of a

it

small bladder, in which are deposited thousands of eggs


or nits, and which, if
chigoes,

it

breaks, produce so

many young

create running ulcers,

that in course of time

which are often of very dangerous consequence to the


patient

much

so

so,

indeed, that I have

known a

the soles of whose feet Avere obliged to be cut


razor,

before he could recover

their limbs

by amputation

soldier,

away with a

and some men have

nay even

their lives,

lost

by having

neglected in time to root out these abominable vermin.

The moment,

therefore, that

one perceives a kind of itching

and redness more than usual about the

feet, it is

begin extracting the chigoe that occasions

it

time to

done

this is

with a sharp-pointed needle, at which operation the black


girls

are extremely dexterous, taking every care not to

occasion imnecessary pain, and to prevent the chigoo or

bladder from breaking in the wound.


tobacco-ashes in the
perfectly healed.

orifice,

Being at

by which

The cure
in a little

this time, as I

tioned, infested with the chigoes,

all

hatched under the

be imagined, the most

terrible

to

time

put
it is

have just men-

Joanna with her needle

picked twenty-three of these insects out of

which being

is

nails,

my

left

foot;

caused, as

may

torment, but which I bore

without flinching, with the resolution of an African negro.

These are the insects called niquas by the Spaniards at


Carthagena.

On

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
On

the 2 st I received a letter from the


1

up

my

not an answer to

chief,

head-quarters)

all

Commander

in

but orders to send him

last,

to the estate Crawassibo

367

(Avhich

was at present

his

the provisions, kettles, axes, &c. that

could be spared from the Hope, as he was preparing to


re-enter the woods.

next day

accordingly dispatched them the

but the supply of victuals was not great; for a

whole barge, with beef and pork, bound

had been shipwrecked

On

Mr.

the 25 th

nearly poisoned

me

for the

Hope,

in the river.

Steger,

surgeon

the

who had

so

that I could not yet get the better of

the effects of his ignorance, was discharged from the regi-

ment, as incapable of

my unsettled
to join

Fourgeoud about

more

this time,

his adjutant,

the troops

that were

so,

that relapsing

glad to be superseded in the


the major,
for

and weak as

I was, I

But on the

with another surgeon,

Comewina,

in

on the 29th,

command

Mr. Medlar, who arrived

to continue

my

in-

was even

at the

Hope

this

condemned

one month at Paramaribo

might have perfectly recovered me.


do but

was

of the river by

Nevertheless I was

that purpose.

to linger at this place, while

to

were going

totally incapable of supporting the fatigue

deed so much

day

notwithstanding

be one of the party.

to

morning of the 26th,


visiting all

Still,

state of health, as several officers

intreated once

deemed

his profession.

had now nothing

drawings, for v/hich the above

gentleman at that time offered

me

one hundred crowns,


but

NARRATIVE OF AN

368

but

my

desire was, if possible, to complete the collection

and when

tion with

my

had the

Amongst

gun.

round the planta-

strength, 1 Avalked

others, I shot,

on the 3d of

September, a small bird, called kibry-fowlo, on account of


its

continuing

a manner constantly under cover.

in

was about the

of a quail, which

it

This bird

but runs incredibly

where

dressed,
as an

it

European

On

the

was extremely

through the grass and savannas,

fast

Avas as fat as

bill

it

When

perceived.

is

lump of butter, and

as delicious

ortolan.

Fourgeoud at

Ith of September,

from Crawassibo, and, with


collect (which were

now

not

he again marched into the


previously taken

all

last

broke up

the able troops he could

much more

than one hundred)

forest after the

enemy

very upper parts of Rio Comewina,

Surinam to take care of

Avild

the 19th of this


swine,

leaving

in the

the river

itself.

month

called pingos,

number) having

having

away the post from the Jew Savannah,

which he placed at the forsaken estate Oranjebo,

On

but

very seldom seen on the wing,

is

hides itself the instant

it

the colour

also exactly resembled in shape,

the limbs were rather longer, and the


sharp-pointed.

much

of a thrush, and very

size

It

lost their

in the forenoon, a herd of

(more than two hundred in

way

in the forest,

came

to the

Hope, galloping over the plantation, when above a score


of them were killed by the negroes,

down

who knocked them

with their bill-hooks and axes.

In Surinam the
wild

l-//iC'

//'// /'/vy; ^'/-

,'xS/^^

/L/// ,^Jpf//- r'/

Cj2y;^'_^^^//-y'^; (7r

Limlftt

///'^XUV^n

/y/z/a/zt'/

'-."^/(^Z

riihli.thr<l nrcr:i"''f;i):i,hy .f.Jrlui.-;ii .%' I'miLr Cliiinli V.ii;!

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
which

wild boars are of three species;


this

opportunity to describe

these

will

369

embrace
or

are the pingos

above-mentioned, the cras-pingo, and the Mexican

zeiaree

The

hog, called the peccary.

of our English small hogs


coarse

pingos are about the size

they are black, and have

thinly scattered

bristles

of

they live in herds

sometimes above three hundred,

in the thickest parts of

the forest, and run always in a line, the one closely fol-

lowing the other


the line
'

is

confusion

to

possible)

the rest

the foremost or leader

instantly broken,

knock

after

and the whole herd

at

selves to be killed

others even often

the

one by one, of which

They do not attack

make any

resistance at

when wounded,

As

ously asserted.

tusks,

and

as

it,

The

all,

has

stand

(if

still,

the

like the

have been a

human

species,

European

nor

wild-boar,

been by some authors errone-

for their attacking dogs,

can say

never having had any with me when

cras-pingos are large,

their bristles

in

and allowing them-

one another,

witness.

met them.

is

on the head before

their captain

this

stupidly looking

nothing about

shot,

is

which reason the Indians take care

for

when

still

armed

vvith

coarser than the former.

strong

This

large species indeed are very dangerous, as well from their

strength as their ferocity, attacking any thing that obstructs

them
in the

in their way, especially Avhen

same manner, and

wounded. They move

in as large herds, as

the former,

but inhabit chiefly the more inland parts of the country.

Vol.

I.

Both

NARRATIVE OF AN

S70

Both these

species,

when they hear the

smallest noise in

the forest that indicates danger, stop short in their course,

form

in

a close body, and gnash their teeth, preparing

themselves

defence against

for

enemy

the

am

of

opinion that these are not natural to Guiana, but oriAfrica and Europe.

ginally from

Their flesh

is

eaten

with avidity by the natives, and even esteemed by the


white inhabitants, but

unsavoury.

in

is

That species which

Mexican hog,
Guiana, and

will

orifice

opinion dry, hard, and


is

not intermix with either the wild or


is

particularly remarkable

on the back, which

tains a stinking fetid liquor, Avhich

smell of musk, but which


instant the animal

away

this part

flesh,

which

vulgarly mistaken

it

it

is

is

some compare

killed, the natives

would soon do, making

The

has no

take care to cut

yellowish grey bristles,

it

its

infecting the

so disgusting as

length of the peccary

tail

to the

so very disagreeable, that the

with a knife, to prevent

not to be eatable.
:

is

by

and which, being about one inch deep, con-

for its navel,

three feet

called the peccary or

supposed to be indigenous to

alone

is

domestic hogs. This animal

having an

my

is

about

fine limbs, short tusks,

much

and

resembling those of an

English hedge-hog; on the back they are very long, but

on the sides and on the belly they are both short and yery
thinly scattered.

down from

that comes
breast,

This creature has a light-coloured spot

something
1

the shoulder on each side the

like a horse-collar.

Hogs of

this species

are

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
ave

more uncommon

in the inland parts,

low and marshy countries than

in the

where they prefer feeding amongst the

mountains and dry savannas. The peccary

and

in that state harmless

stupid as

they

is

that feed

light in

Major Medlar had one

for

him

like

chievous.

but not so
says,

it

is,

They go

at the

Hope

a dog, and shewed the greatest de-

being caressed by

observe that

inoffensive,

tamed,

person, and have no attachment to those

them

that followed

and

easily

is

by the Count de Butfon, who

asserted

know no

371

when

its

master.

irritated,

ought also to

very vicious and mis-

in large herds as the other species,

produce many young at a time,

and

their grunting is

extremely loud and disagreeable.

On

the

morning of the 29th, we again heard the report

of several guns toward the river Cottica, where

it

since

appeared the rebels were a second time beaten back from


the plantation INIerseille, by the fidelity and bravery of the
slaves belonging to that estate.

On

the 8th of the succeeding month,

having

news, that Colonel Fourgeoud,

destroyed some

fields

again kept up

belonging to the

we received

the

discovered and

enemy (who had


and

a distant conversation with him)

having found the mangled remains of poor Schmidt, who

had been murdered by the


once more come with
he encamped

till

forest, previously

rebels, as I related above,

his troops to

Magdenberg, Avhere

the eleventh.

He

sending to the

Hope

B 2

was

then re-entered the


the sick, and with

them

NARRATIVE OF AN

372

CHAP, them

a young

tried for not

arrest,

in

order to be

being able to undergo the fatigues as well


In other

himself.

as

under an

officer

watch two days and two

nights, the

youth had proved

and had dropt asleep under arms,

unequal to the

task,

he was

on the ground.

sitting

having been ordered to

words,

such that even without

as

The climate indeed was

these

trials

nature was often

overcome.

The
in

preservation of Fourgeoud's vigour hitherto may,,

a great uieasure, be

attributed

drinking a medicine he called

which had a most nauseous

tisan,

taste,

to

continuall}'

his

in large full

basons

and was composed of

the Jesuits bark, cream of tartar, and stick-liquorice, boiled


together,
to

which he drank as hot

which having accustomed

do without
of the

In

it.

rest, as

this,

as

he could bear

his constitution,

it,

and

he could not

however, he was followed by none

they were apprehensive that

should once cease to operate, (which

it

when

must at

this

last) all

other medicines in time of real need would be ineftectual.

As

for

my own

weak, that
while

my

part, I

continued to be so exceedingly

still

almost despaired of evermore recovering

depressed

and almost hopeless

on account of Joanna's

spirits,

critical

situation, greatly contributed to pre-

vent the restoration of

my

health.

These alarms were not

diminished on the 21st, when, being visited by Mr. and

Mrs. Lolkens at the Hope,

this

gentleman told me, that

the whole estate Fauconberg was again transferred, with


its

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
dependants, since the death of Mr. Passalage

its

the

new

whom
was

town

poisoned.

general report that

that

and that there

we had both been

This sentence was, however, greatly alleviated

by the kindness of

who

his lady,

my

insisted that

should accompany her to Paramaribo immediately

own

at her

Mr. Lude of Amsterdam, with

proprietor was a

he had not the smallest interest

in

37s

where,

house, she should meet with every care and

attention that her situation could require,

thanked her

till

recovered

was

and poor Joanna wept with gratitude.

able,

Joanna

for this I

them

therefore conducted

Nova, where

manner

Havino-

as far as their estate Killestyn-

^ve dined,

Joanna, and bid them

in the best

perfectly

took

my

leave of

them and

an affectionate farewell for the

all

present.

At my

return to the

Hope,

my indignation

was scarcely

to be restrained within the

bounds of prudence, when

found myself upbraided by

my

of

my own

offspring

Do

"

" man, and never fear.

" are provided for; and


" they be d

n'd

" sighs in your


"
to

my boy,

if

belly,

that's all."

shew how much

mess-mates for taking care

we

do," said they, " Sted-

If our children are slaves, they

in the

own

as

they die, what care we, should

bargain

Therefore keep your

and your money

in

I repeat this in their

my

feeling

your pocket,

own language,

must have been hurt and

disgusted with similar consolation.

The

following morning, awaking by day-break in

my

hammock.

chap.
^^^'

NATxRATIVE OF AN

^74

hammock,

the

first

thing that I saw,

when looking up, was

a snake about two yards long, hanging with

wards

and

like a rope,

straight

above

he was not one foot distance, while

round the

head down-

my face, from
his tail

which

was twisted

Observing

under the thatch.

rafters

its

his eyes

bright as stars, and his forked tongue in agitation, I was


so distressed that I scarcely had

which however

did,

power

by running out

to

avoid him,

after

which, I

heard a rustling in the dry thatch, where the negroes

tempted to

kill

him, but in vain, he having escaped, and

thus I cannot say what species he belonged

now by

myself,

guest, I shut

and rather

visiting

dations had

throughout

startled

by

this

Being

to.

unwelcome

up my house, and lodged and messed with

jny friends the Major,

On

at-

my

Heneman, and Macdonald.

boxes, I

now found

been committed by the

all

Guiana

different species, that

so very numerous,

once

had a

that great depreants,

which are

and of

pair of

so

many

new cotton

stockings perfectly destroyed by them in one night only.

Those which frequent the

The only way

very troublesome.

from the refined sugar,


ceiling
it,

on a

nail,

estates are generally small,

is

by hanging the loaf

boxes

in the

them

to the

and making a ring of dry chalk around

very thick, which crumbles

attempt to pass

possibly to keep

but

it.

down

the

moment

imagined that placing

the ants

my

sugar-

middle of a tub, and on stone, surrounded

with deep water, would have kept back this formidable

enemy,

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
enemy, but to no purpose

my

sort (to

whole armies of the lighter

astonishment) marched over the surface, and

The main body

but a very few of them were drowned.

constantly scaled the rock, and in spite of

made
only

their entry through the key-holes

way

to clear the garrison

is

That the ants provide

Dr. Bancroft and


reports,

is

all

efforts

after which, the


it

to a hot sun,

march

off in

is,

the ants

lie

fe\v~

but even King Solomon,

others,

is

no winter

in-

but

dormant, during which torpid

want no food.

My friend Captain Van Coeverden,


tlie

my

for winter, as not only

In Surinam, indeed, there

where there

ing in

all

found to be an error by the most modern

vestigation.

state they

many

to expose

which the invaders cannot bear, and


minutes.

S75

woods, suffered a

much

at this time,

march-

worse depredation at

Paramaribo, where not the ants, but the negro-slaves, had

broken open
effects,

On

his boxes,

and robbed him of

and near twenty guineas

the 6th, a marine

drowned

phrenzy fevers which are so


the

in

his best

money.

himself, in one of those

common

same time another Society

all

soldier

in Guiana.

About

was shot by order of

a court-martial. Thus perished those men who were spared

by the climate

or the enemy.

Having written
was not
lieve

in the

to

a Mr. Seifke, to enquire whether

power of the Governor and Council

it

to re-

a gentleman's child from bondage, provided there was

paid to

its

master fuch a ransom as their wisdom should

judge

NARRATIVE OF AN

376

CHAP,

judge adequate
interest

could

prietor's

consent

much a

no money or

I received for answer, that

purchase

freedom,

its

without the pro-

since, according to law,

slave as if it

had been

bom

it

in Africa,

was just as

and imported

from the coast of Guinea. This information now perfectly

completed

my

misery, and

ing; which temporary

relief,

spirits to flow higher, in

after its evaporation.

that I
called
]\Ir.

Graav,

to

Daring

had recom'se

to drink-

however, only caused

make them

order to

this conflict it

Major

Avith the

Knoppemonbo,

De

power

me

was invited

at last

sink lowe

happened

to dine, at

in the Casavinica Creek,

the proprietor,

amuse me, but

to

my

an estate
where a

did every thing in his

no purpose.

^At last, seeing

seated by myself on a small bridge that led to a grove

of orange-trees, with a settled gloom on

he accosted me, and taking

me by

my

countenance,

the hand, to

my

asto-

nishment, pronounced the following words

"

Sir, I

am

" of your just


*'

acquainted by Mr. Lolkens


distress.

unrewarded.

Heaven never

this

cause

a good intention

have now the pleasure to acquaint you,

" that Mr. Lude has chosen me for


" that from

left

Avith the

day

I shall

his administrator;

pride myself in

making

it

and

my

" business to render you any service with that gentkman,


" as well as the virtuous Joanna, whose deserving character

" has attracted the attention of so

many

people, while

" your laudable conduct redounds to your lasting honour


**

throughout the colony."

No

EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
No
me

377

angel descending from above could have brought

a more Avelcome message

and no

cruiiinal

under

sentence of death could have received a reprieve with

The

greater joy.

my

weigiit of a mill-stone

labouring breast; and having

repeat his promise,


after this I
to

felt

made M\\ De Graav


Soon

should yet be happy.

was surrounded by several gentlemen and

whom my

friend

had communicated

They congratulated me on my

tions.

was removed from

his

generous inten-

sensibility,

having met with so valuable an acquaintance.


to partake in the pleasure that I

being spent

in

Hope, much

now

mirth and conviviality,

felt;
I

All

and on

seemed

and the day

returned to the

than when I

better pleased

ladies,

left

it,

where

next day the whole company was entertained by Major

Medlar

down

nor did we separate, or cease feasting up and

the river,

till

the

3th,

when we once more spent

the

day at Knoppemonbo.

De

Here Mr.

Graav, having bought some new slaves,

gave a holiday to
I

all

the negroes on his estate; an