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Original Title: 15. Torque and Drag Calculations

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You are on page 1of 67

Drilling Engineering

Lesson 15

Torque and Drag

Calculations

Slide 1 of 62

Torque and Drag Calculations

◆ Friction

◆ Logging

◆ Hook Load

◆ Lateral Load

◆ Torque Requirements

◆ Examples

Slide 2 of 62

HW #8

Well Survey

due 11-04-02

Slide 3 of 62

Friction - Stationary

• Horizontal surface N

• No motion

• No applied force

Σ Fy = 0

N=W

W

Slide 4 of 62

Sliding Motion

N

• Horizontal surface

• Velocity, V > 0

µ N F

• V = constant

• Force along surface

W

N=W

F=µ N=µ W

Slide 5 of 62

Frictionless, Inclined, Straight Wellbore:

1. Consider

a section

of pipe

in the

wellbore.

pipe are buoyed weight, axial tension and the reaction

force, N, normal to the wellbore.

Slide 6 of 62

Frictionless, Inclined, Straight Wellbore:

Slide 7 of 62

Effect of Friction (no doglegs):

Slide 8 of 62

Effect of Friction (no doglegs):

usually 0.15 < µ < 0.4 in the wellbore

∆T = W cos I − Ff

Slide 9 of 62

Effect of Friction (no doglegs):

so ∆T = W cos I + Ff

Slide 10 of 62

Problem 1

angle) that can be logged

without the aid of drillpipe, coiled tubing or

other tubulars?

(assume µ =0.4)

Slide 11 of 62

Solution

∆T = W cos I − µW sin I (3)

∆T ≅ 0

Slide 12 of 62

Solution

I = 68.2

(inclination) that can be logged

without the aid of tubulars.

Note: µ = cot I

Slide 13 of 62

Problem 2

8,000-ft long string of 7” OD csg. is in the hole.

Buoyed weight of pipe = 30 lbs/ft. µ = 0.3

along the horizontal section of the wellbore?

Slide 14 of 62

Problem 2 - Solution - Force

(a) What force will it take to move this pipe along

the horizontal section of the wellbore?

N

F=? F=0

W

N = W = 30 lb/ft * 8,000 ft = 240,000 lb

F = µ N = 0.3 * 240,000 lb = 72,000 lb

Slide 15 of 62

Problem 2 - Solution - Force

As an approximation, let us

assume that the pipe lies on T

d/2

Then, as before, F

N = W = 30 lb/ft * 8,000 ft = 240,000 lbf

Torque = F*d/2 = µ Nd/2 = 0.3 * 240,000 lbf * 7/(2 * 12) ft

Slide 16 of 62

Problem 2 - Equations - Horizontal

N=W T=F*d

F=µ N

An approximate equation, with W in lbf and d in inches

Slide 17 of 62

Horizontal - Torque

wellbore may be obtained by taking into consideration

the fact that a rotating pipe will ride up the side of the

wellbore to some angle φ .

Torque, T = W * (d/2) sin φ in-lbf

d/2 φ

Where φ = atan µ = atan 0.3 = 16.70

o P

Slide 18 of 62

Problem 3

A well with a measured depth of 10,000 ft. may be

approximated as being perfectly vertical to the kick-off

point at 2,000 ft. A string of 7” OD csg. is in the hole;

total length is 10,000 ft. The 8,000-ft segment is inclined at

60 deg. Buoyed weight of pipe = 30 lbs/ft. µ = 0.3

Slide 19 of 62

Problem 3

(b) Hook load when RIH

(c) Hook load when POH

(d) Torque when rotating off bottom

Slide 20 of 62

Solution to Problem 3

Slide 21 of 62

Solution to Problem 3 - Rotating

HL = HL 2000 + HL 8000

0. 5

lb lb ↓

= 30 * 2000 ft + 30 * 8000 ft * cos 60

ft ft

= 60,000 lbf + 120,000 lbf

Slide 22 of 62

Solution to Problem 3 - lowering

The hook load is decreased by friction in the

wellbore.

Ff = µN

In the vertical portion,

oo

N = 30 * 2000 * sin o0 = 0

Thus, F2000 = 0

Slide 23 of 62

Solution to Problem 3 - lowering

N = 30 * 8,000 * sin 60

= 207,846 lbf

Slide 24 of 62

Solution to Problem 3 - Lowering

Thus, F8000 = µ N

= 0.3 * 207,846 = 62,352 lbf

Slide 25 of 62

Solution to Problem 3 - Raising

Slide 26 of 62

Solution to Problem 3 - Summary

ROT

RIH

2,000

POH

MD

ft

10,000

0 60,000 120,000 180,000 240,000

Slide 27 of 62

Solution to Problem 3 - rotating

In the Inclined Section:

Torque

N = W sin I

= Force * Arm

F = µN

d

= Ff *

2

Slide 28 of 62

Solution to Problem 3 - rotating

lies at lowest point of hole:

d d d

Torque = Ff = µN = µW sin I

2 2 2

7 1

= 0.3 * 30 * 8000 * sin 60 * *

2 12

Slide 29 of 62

Solution to Problem 3 - rotating

Note that, in the above figure, forces are not balanced;

there is no force to balance the friction force Ff.

to climb up the

side of the

wellbore…as it

rotates

Slide 30 of 62

Solution to Problem 3 - Rotating

Assume “Equilibrium”

at angle φ as shown.

µN = W sin I sin φ …… (6)

N = W sin I cos φ …… (7)

Slide 31 of 62

Solution to Problem 3 - rotating

µN W sin I sin φ

Solving equations (6) & (7) ⇒ =

N W sin I cosφ

µ = tan φ

−1

φ = tan ( µ ) (8)

Slide 32 of 62

Solution to Problem 3 - rotating

(ii) continued

Taking moments about the center of the pipe:

d

T = Ff *

2

Evaluating the problem at hand:

−1 −1

From Eq. (8), φ = tan ( µ ) = tan (0.3)

φ = 16.70

Slide 33 of 62

Solution to Problem 3 - rotating

Ff = 59.724 lbf

Slide 34 of 62

Solution to Problem 3 - rotating

d

From Eq. (9), T = Ff *

2

7 1

= 59,724 * *

2 12

Torque = 17,420 ft - lbf

Slide 35 of 62

Solution to Problem 3

Slide 36 of 62

Solution to Problem 3

d

T = W sin I sin Ο

2

7

= 30 * 8000 * sin60 * sin 16.70 *

24

T = 17,420 ft - lbf

Slide 37 of 62

Solution to Problem 3

by a factor of cos φ

(i) T = 18,187

(ii) T = 17,420

Slide 38 of 62

Effect of Doglegs

Slide 39 of 62

Effect of Doglegs

(e.g. pipe rotating)

δ δ

∑ Falong normal : W sin I + (T + ∆T) sin 2 + T sin 2 − N = 0

δ δ

WWsin + sT sin + ∆T sin − N = 0

sinII +

2T 2 2

δ

N ≅ W sin I + 2T sin (10)

2

Slide 40 of 62

Effect of Doglegs

≅

A. Neglecting Axial Friction

δ δ

∑ Falong tangent : (T + ∆T) cos 2 − W cos I − T cos 2 = 0

δ

∆T cos = W cos I

2

s

o

W

δ

I

c

cos → 1 ⇒

T

(11)

2

Slide 41 of 62

Effect of Doglegs

δ

N = W sin I + 2T sin

2 (10)&(11)

∆T = WcosI

Slide 42 of 62

Effect of Doglegs

B. Including Friction

While lowering pipe (RIH)

δ (as above)

N = W sin I + 2T sin

2

∆T = W cos I − µN

2

Slide 43 of 62

Effect of Doglegs

B. Including Friction

While raising pipe (POH)

∆T = W cos I + µN

δ

∆ T = W cosI + µ ( W sin I + 2T sin )

2 (13)

d d δ

Torque = µN ≅ µ ( W sin I + 2T sin )

2 2 2

(14)

Slide 44 of 62

Effect of Doglegs

Slide 45 of 62

Effect of Doglegs

A. Neglecting Friction

(e.g. pipe rotating)

δ δ

∑F along normal : W sin I − ( T + ∆T ) sin − T sin − N = 0

2 2

δ δ

W sin I − 2T sin − ∆T sin − N = 0

2 2

δ

N ≅ W sin I − 2T sin

2

Slide 46 of 62

Effect of Doglegs

∆

A. Neglecting Axial Friction

≅

δ δ

∑ Falong tangent : (T + ∆T) cos 2 − W cos I − T cos 2 = 0

δ

∆T cos = W cos I

2 s

o

W

δ

I

c

T

cos → 1 ⇒ (16)

2

Slide 47 of 62

Effect of Doglegs

When pipe is rotating

δ

N = W sin I − 2T sin

2 (15)&(16)

∆T = WcosI

Slide 48 of 62

Effect of Doglegs

B. Including Friction

While lowering pipe (RIH)

δ

N = W sin I − 2T sin

2 (15)

∆T = W cos I − µ N

δ

∆T = W cos I − µ W sin I − 2T sin

2 (17)

Slide 49 of 62

Effect of Doglegs

∆T = W cos I + µN

δ

i.e. ∆T = WcosI + µ WsinI - 2Tsin

2 (18)

d d δ

Torque = µ N ≅ µ W sin I − 2T sin

2 2 2 (19)

Slide 50 of 62

Problem #4 - Curved Wellbore with Friction

rate of 8 degrees per 100 ft.

The axial tension is 100,000 lbf at the location

where the hole angle is 60 degrees.

µ = 0.25

Slide 51 of 62

Problem

#4

- Curved

Wellbore

with

Friction

T = 100,000 lbf

Slide 52 of 62

Evaluate the Following:

(a) What is the axial tension in the pipe 100 ft. up the hole

if the pipe is rotating?

(b) What is the axial tension in the pipe 100 ft up the hole

if the pipe is being lowered into the hole?

(c) What is the axial tension in the pipe 100 ft up the hole if

the pipe is being pulled out of the hole?

the centralizer spacing is 40 ft?

Slide 53 of 62

Solution 4(a) - Rotating

60 + 68

IAVG =

2

IAVG = 64 o

neglected.

Slide 54 of 62

Solution 4(a) - Rotating

T68 = 101,315 lbf

From equation (11),

∆T = W cos I

lb

= 30 *100ft * cos 64

ft

= 1,315 lbf

∴ T68 = 100,000 + 1,315 T60 = 100,000 lbf

Slide 55 of 62

Solution 4 (b)

lowered:

From equation (10):

δ

N = W sin I + 2T sin

2

N = 30 *100 * sin 64 + 2 *100,000 * sin 4

= 2,696 + 13,951

N = 16,648 lbf

Slide 56 of 62

Solution 4 (b)

Ff = 4,162 lbf

∆T = W cos I − µN

Slide 57 of 62

Solution 4(b) - Lowering

T68 = 97,153 lbf

From equation 12,

= -2,847

T60 = 100,000 lbf

Slide 58 of 62

Solution 4 (c)

raised:

From equation (10),

δ

N = W sin I + 2T sin

2

N = 30 *100 * sin 64 + 2 *100,000 * sin 4

= 2,696 + 13,951

N = 16,648 lbf

Slide 59 of 62

Solution 4 (c)

Ff = 4,162 lbf

∆T = W cos I + µN

Slide 60 of 62

Solution 4(c) - Raising

T68 = 105,477 lbf

From equation 12,

= 5477 lbf

Slide 61 of 62

Solution 4(a, b and c)

SUMMARY

T60 T68

Slide 62 of 62

Solution 4 (d)

pipe has been rotated):

From above, at θ = 64

N = 16,648 lbf

Slide 63 of 62

Solution 4 (d)

for 40 ft distance,

∴ 40

N centr . = 16,648 *

100

= 6,659 lbf

i.e., Lateral load on centralizer,

lb

Note : 40 ft of pipe * 30 = 1200 lbf

ft

Slide 64 of 62

Alternate Approach

(after pipe has been rotated)

From above, at θ = 68 , T = 101,315 lbf

So, 30 ft up-hole,

T = 100 ,000 + 1,315 * (30 / 100 ) lbf

T = 100 ,395 lbf

Slide 65 of 62

Alternate Approach

δ

From Eq. (10), N = W sin I + 2T sin

2

N = 30 * 40 * sin 64 + 2 *100,395 * sin(1.6 )

{4 * 40/100}

= 1,079 + 5,606

N = 6,685 lbf

∴ for 40 ft centralizer spacing,

N centr . = 6,685 lbf

Slide 66 of 62

Centralizer

Slide 67 of 62

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