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PETE 661

Drilling Engineering

Lesson 15
Torque and Drag
Calculations

Slide 1 of 62
Torque and Drag Calculations

◆ Friction
◆ Logging
◆ Hook Load
◆ Lateral Load
◆ Torque Requirements
◆ Examples

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HW #8

Well Survey

due 11-04-02

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Friction - Stationary

• Horizontal surface N
• No motion
• No applied force

Σ Fy = 0
N=W
W

N= Normal force = lateral load = contact force = reaction force


Slide 4 of 62
Sliding Motion
N
• Horizontal surface

• Velocity, V > 0
µ N F
• V = constant
• Force along surface
W
N=W
F=µ N=µ W
Slide 5 of 62
Frictionless, Inclined, Straight Wellbore:

1. Consider
a section
of pipe
in the
wellbore.

In the absence of FRICTION the forces acting on the


pipe are buoyed weight, axial tension and the reaction
force, N, normal to the wellbore.
Slide 6 of 62
Frictionless, Inclined, Straight Wellbore:

∑F = 0 along wellbore : ∆T = W cos I (1)

∑F = 0 ⊥ ar to wellbore : N = W sin I (2)

These equations are used for ROTATING pipe.

Slide 7 of 62
Effect of Friction (no doglegs):

2. Consider Effect of Friction ( no doglegs):

Slide 8 of 62
Effect of Friction (no doglegs):

Frictional Force, F = µ N = µ W sin I

where 0 < µ < 1 (µ is the coeff. of friction)


usually 0.15 < µ < 0.4 in the wellbore

(a) Lowering: Friction opposes motion, so

∆T = W cos I − Ff

∆T = W cos I − µ W sin I (3)


Slide 9 of 62
Effect of Friction (no doglegs):

(b) Raising: Friction still opposes motion,

so ∆T = W cos I + Ff

∆T = W cos I + µW sin I (4)

Slide 10 of 62
Problem 1

What is the maximum hole angle (inclination


angle) that can be logged
without the aid of drillpipe, coiled tubing or
other tubulars?
(assume µ =0.4)

Slide 11 of 62
Solution

From Equation (3) above,


∆T = W cos I − µW sin I (3)

When pipe is barely sliding down the wellbore,


∆T ≅ 0

∴ 0 = W cos I − 0.4W sin I


Slide 12 of 62
Solution

∴ cot I = 0.4 or tan I = 2.5

I = 68.2 

This is the maximum hole angle


(inclination) that can be logged
without the aid of tubulars.

Note: µ = cot I
Slide 13 of 62
Problem 2

Consider a well with a long horizontal section. An


8,000-ft long string of 7” OD csg. is in the hole.
Buoyed weight of pipe = 30 lbs/ft. µ = 0.3

(a) What force will it take to move this pipe


along the horizontal section of the wellbore?

(b) What torque will it take to rotate this pipe?

Slide 14 of 62
Problem 2 - Solution - Force
(a) What force will it take to move this pipe along
the horizontal section of the wellbore?
N
F=? F=0

W
N = W = 30 lb/ft * 8,000 ft = 240,000 lb
F = µ N = 0.3 * 240,000 lb = 72,000 lb

Force to move pipe, F = 72,000 lbf


Slide 15 of 62
Problem 2 - Solution - Force

(b) What torque will it take to rotate this pipe?


As an approximation, let us
assume that the pipe lies on T

the bottom of the wellbore.


d/2
Then, as before, F
N = W = 30 lb/ft * 8,000 ft = 240,000 lbf
Torque = F*d/2 = µ Nd/2 = 0.3 * 240,000 lbf * 7/(2 * 12) ft

Torque to rotate pipe, T = 21,000 ft-lbf


Slide 16 of 62
Problem 2 - Equations - Horizontal

N=W T=F*d
F=µ N

Force to move pipe, F=µ W = 72,000 lbf

Torque, T = µ Wd/(24 ) = 21,000 ft-lbf


An approximate equation, with W in lbf and d in inches
Slide 17 of 62
Horizontal - Torque

A more accurate equation for torque in a horizontal


wellbore may be obtained by taking into consideration
the fact that a rotating pipe will ride up the side of the
wellbore to some angle φ .

Taking moments about the point P: T F


Torque, T = W * (d/2) sin φ in-lbf
d/2 φ
Where φ = atan µ = atan 0.3 = 16.70
o P

T = 240,000 * 7/24 * 0.2873 = 20,111 ft-lbf W


Slide 18 of 62
Problem 3
A well with a measured depth of 10,000 ft. may be
approximated as being perfectly vertical to the kick-off
point at 2,000 ft. A string of 7” OD csg. is in the hole;
total length is 10,000 ft. The 8,000-ft segment is inclined at
60 deg. Buoyed weight of pipe = 30 lbs/ft. µ = 0.3

Slide 19 of 62
Problem 3

Please determine the following:

(a) Hook load when rotating off bottom


(b) Hook load when RIH
(c) Hook load when POH
(d) Torque when rotating off bottom

[ ignore effects of dogleg at 2000 ft.]


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Solution to Problem 3

(a) Hook load when rotating off bottom:

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Solution to Problem 3 - Rotating

HL = HL 2000 + HL 8000
0. 5

lb lb ↓
= 30 * 2000 ft + 30 * 8000 ft * cos 60 
ft ft
= 60,000 lbf + 120,000 lbf

HL = 180,000 lbf When rotating off bottom.


Slide 22 of 62
Solution to Problem 3 - lowering

2 (b) Hook load when RIH:


The hook load is decreased by friction in the
wellbore.
Ff = µN
In the vertical portion,
oo
N = 30 * 2000 * sin o0 = 0
Thus, F2000 = 0
Slide 23 of 62
Solution to Problem 3 - lowering

In the inclined section,

N = 30 * 8,000 * sin 60
= 207,846 lbf

Slide 24 of 62
Solution to Problem 3 - Lowering

Thus, F8000 = µ N
= 0.3 * 207,846 = 62,352 lbf

HL = We,2000 + We,8000 - F2000 - F8000

= 60,000 + 120,000 - 0 - 62,354

HL = 117,646 lbf while RIH

Slide 25 of 62
Solution to Problem 3 - Raising

2(c) Hood Load when POH:

HL = We,2000 + We,8000 + F2000 + F8000

= 60,000 + 120,000 + 0 + 62,354

HL = 242,354 lbf POH

Slide 26 of 62
Solution to Problem 3 - Summary

ROT
RIH
2,000
POH
MD
ft

10,000
0 60,000 120,000 180,000 240,000
Slide 27 of 62
Solution to Problem 3 - rotating

2(d) Torque when rotating off bottom:


In the Inclined Section:

Torque
N = W sin I
= Force * Arm
F = µN
d
= Ff *
2

Slide 28 of 62
Solution to Problem 3 - rotating

(i) As a first approximation, assume the pipe


lies at lowest point of hole:

d  d  d 
Torque = Ff   = µN  = µW sin I 
2 2 2
7 1 
= 0.3 * 30 * 8000 * sin 60 *  * 

 2 12 

Torque = 18,187 ft - lbf


Slide 29 of 62
Solution to Problem 3 - rotating

(ii) More accurate evaluation:


Note that, in the above figure, forces are not balanced;
there is no force to balance the friction force Ff.

The pipe will tend


to climb up the
side of the
wellbore…as it
rotates

Slide 30 of 62
Solution to Problem 3 - Rotating

Assume “Equilibrium”
at angle φ as shown.

∑F Along Tangent = 0 = Ff − W sin I sin φ


µN = W sin I sin φ …… (6)

∑F Perpend. to Tangent = 0 = N − W sin I cos φ


N = W sin I cos φ …… (7)
Slide 31 of 62
Solution to Problem 3 - rotating

µN W sin I sin φ
Solving equations (6) & (7) ⇒ =
N W sin I cosφ
µ = tan φ
−1
φ = tan ( µ ) (8)

Slide 32 of 62
Solution to Problem 3 - rotating

(ii) continued
Taking moments about the center of the pipe:
d
T = Ff *
2
Evaluating the problem at hand:

−1 −1
From Eq. (8), φ = tan ( µ ) = tan (0.3)

φ = 16.70 

Slide 33 of 62
Solution to Problem 3 - rotating

Evaluating the problem at hand:

From Eq. (6), Ff = W sin I sin φ

= 30 * 8000 * sin60 * sin16.70

Ff = 59.724 lbf

Slide 34 of 62
Solution to Problem 3 - rotating

Evaluating the problem at hand:

d
From Eq. (9), T = Ff *
2
7 1 
= 59,724 *  * 
 2 12 
Torque = 17,420 ft - lbf

Slide 35 of 62
Solution to Problem 3

2 (d) (ii) Alternate Solution:

Slide 36 of 62
Solution to Problem 3

Taking moments about tangent point,

d
T = W sin I sin Ο
2
7
= 30 * 8000 * sin60 * sin 16.70 *
 
24

T = 17,420 ft - lbf
Slide 37 of 62
Solution to Problem 3

Note that the answers in parts (i) & (ii) differ


by a factor of cos φ

(i) T = 18,187
(ii) T = 17,420

cos φ = cos 16.70 = 0.9578

Slide 38 of 62
Effect of Doglegs

(1) Dropoff Wellbore δ = dogleg angle

Slide 39 of 62
Effect of Doglegs

A. Neglecting Axial Friction


(e.g. pipe rotating)
δ δ
∑ Falong normal : W sin I + (T + ∆T) sin 2 + T sin 2 − N = 0
δ δ
WWsin + sT sin + ∆T sin − N = 0
sinII +
2T 2 2

δ
N ≅ W sin I + 2T sin (10)
2
Slide 40 of 62
Effect of Doglegs


A. Neglecting Axial Friction

δ δ
∑ Falong tangent : (T + ∆T) cos 2 − W cos I − T cos 2 = 0
δ
∆T cos = W cos I
2
s
o
W

δ
I
c

cos → 1 ⇒
T

(11)
2
Slide 41 of 62
Effect of Doglegs

B. Including Friction (Dropoff Wellbore)

While pipe is rotating

δ
N = W sin I + 2T sin
2 (10)&(11)
∆T = WcosI

Slide 42 of 62
Effect of Doglegs

B. Including Friction
While lowering pipe (RIH)

δ (as above)
N = W sin I + 2T sin
2
∆T = W cos I − µN

i.e. ∆T = W cos I − µ ( W sin I + 2T sin δ ) (12)


2
Slide 43 of 62
Effect of Doglegs

B. Including Friction
While raising pipe (POH)

∆T = W cos I + µN

δ
∆ T = W cosI + µ ( W sin I + 2T sin )
2 (13)

d d δ
Torque = µN  ≅ µ  ( W sin I + 2T sin )
 2  2 2
(14)
Slide 44 of 62
Effect of Doglegs

(2) Buildup Wellbore δ = dogleg angle

Slide 45 of 62
Effect of Doglegs

A. Neglecting Friction
(e.g. pipe rotating)

δ δ
∑F along normal : W sin I − ( T + ∆T ) sin − T sin − N = 0
2 2
δ δ
W sin I − 2T sin − ∆T sin − N = 0
2 2

δ
N ≅ W sin I − 2T sin
2
Slide 46 of 62
Effect of Doglegs


A. Neglecting Axial Friction


δ δ
∑ Falong tangent : (T + ∆T) cos 2 − W cos I − T cos 2 = 0
δ
∆T cos = W cos I
2 s
o
W

δ
I
c
T

cos → 1 ⇒ (16)
2
Slide 47 of 62
Effect of Doglegs

B. Including Friction (Buildup Wellbore)


When pipe is rotating

δ
N = W sin I − 2T sin
2 (15)&(16)

∆T = WcosI

Slide 48 of 62
Effect of Doglegs

B. Including Friction
While lowering pipe (RIH)
δ
N = W sin I − 2T sin
2 (15)
∆T = W cos I − µ N

δ
∆T = W cos I − µ W sin I − 2T sin
2 (17)
Slide 49 of 62
Effect of Doglegs

While raising pipe (POH)

∆T = W cos I + µN

δ
i.e. ∆T = WcosI + µ WsinI - 2Tsin
2 (18)

d d δ
Torque = µ N   ≅ µ   W sin I − 2T sin
 2  2 2 (19)
Slide 50 of 62
Problem #4 - Curved Wellbore with Friction

In a section of our well, hole angle drops at the


rate of 8 degrees per 100 ft.
The axial tension is 100,000 lbf at the location
where the hole angle is 60 degrees.

Buoyed weight of pipe = 30 lbm/ft

µ = 0.25
Slide 51 of 62
Problem
#4
- Curved
Wellbore
with
Friction

T = 100,000 lbf
Slide 52 of 62
Evaluate the Following:

(a) What is the axial tension in the pipe 100 ft. up the hole
if the pipe is rotating?

(b) What is the axial tension in the pipe 100 ft up the hole
if the pipe is being lowered into the hole?

(c) What is the axial tension in the pipe 100 ft up the hole if
the pipe is being pulled out of the hole?

(d) What is the lateral load on a centralizer at incl.=64 if


the centralizer spacing is 40 ft? 

Slide 53 of 62
Solution 4(a) - Rotating

Axial tension 100 ft up hole when pipe is rotating :

60 + 68
IAVG =
2
IAVG = 64 o

Pipe is rotating so frictional effect on axial load may be


neglected.
Slide 54 of 62
Solution 4(a) - Rotating
T68 = 101,315 lbf
From equation (11),
∆T = W cos I
lb
= 30 *100ft * cos 64 
ft
= 1,315 lbf
∴ T68 = 100,000 + 1,315 T60 = 100,000 lbf

T68 = 101,315 lbf ← rotating


Slide 55 of 62
Solution 4 (b)

(b) Tension in pipe 100 ft Up-Hole when Pipe is being


lowered:
From equation (10):
δ
N = W sin I + 2T sin
2
N = 30 *100 * sin 64 + 2 *100,000 * sin 4
= 2,696 + 13,951
N = 16,648 lbf

Slide 56 of 62
Solution 4 (b)

From equation 10,

Friction Force = µN = 0.25 *16,648


Ff = 4,162 lbf

From equation 12,

∆T = W cos I − µN

Slide 57 of 62
Solution 4(b) - Lowering
T68 = 97,153 lbf
From equation 12,

∆T = (30 *100 * cos 64  ) − 4,162

= -2,847

∴ T68 = 100,000 − 2,867 (T + ∆T)


T60 = 100,000 lbf

T68  = 97 ,153 lbf


Slide 58 of 62
Solution 4 (c)

(c) Tension in Pipe 100 ft Up-Hole when pipe is being


raised:
From equation (10),

δ
N = W sin I + 2T sin
2
N = 30 *100 * sin 64 + 2 *100,000 * sin 4
= 2,696 + 13,951
N = 16,648 lbf
Slide 59 of 62
Solution 4 (c)

Friction Force = µN = 0.25 *16,648


Ff = 4,162 lbf

From equation 12,

∆T = W cos I + µN

Slide 60 of 62
Solution 4(c) - Raising
T68 = 105,477 lbf
From equation 12,

∆T = (30 *100 * cos 64 ) + 4,162


= 5477 lbf

∴T68 = 100 ,000 + 5477 (T + ∆T) T60 = 100,000 lbf

T68 = 105,477 lbf

Slide 61 of 62
Solution 4(a, b and c)
SUMMARY

T60 T68

Rot 100,000 101,315

RIH 100,000 97,153

POH 100,000 104,477


Slide 62 of 62
Solution 4 (d)

(d) Lateral load on centralizer if spacing = 40 ft. (after


pipe has been rotated):

From above, at θ = 64 

N = 16,648 lbf

This is for 100 ft distance

Slide 63 of 62
Solution 4 (d)

for 40 ft distance,
∴  40 
N centr . = 16,648 *  
 100 
= 6,659 lbf
i.e., Lateral load on centralizer,

N centr. = 6,659 lbf

lb
Note : 40 ft of pipe * 30 = 1200 lbf
ft
Slide 64 of 62
Alternate Approach

(d) Lateral load on centralizer if spacing = 40 ft.


(after pipe has been rotated)

From above, at θ = 60 , T = 100,000 lbf


From above, at θ = 68 , T = 101,315 lbf

So, 30 ft up-hole,
T = 100 ,000 + 1,315 * (30 / 100 ) lbf
T = 100 ,395 lbf
Slide 65 of 62
Alternate Approach

δ
From Eq. (10), N = W sin I + 2T sin
2
N = 30 * 40 * sin 64 + 2 *100,395 * sin(1.6 )
{4 * 40/100}
= 1,079 + 5,606

N = 6,685 lbf
∴ for 40 ft centralizer spacing,
N centr . = 6,685 lbf
Slide 66 of 62
Centralizer

Slide 67 of 62