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# PETE 661

Drilling Engineering

Lesson 15
Torque and Drag
Calculations

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Torque and Drag Calculations

◆ Friction
◆ Logging
◆ Torque Requirements
◆ Examples

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HW #8

Well Survey

due 11-04-02

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Friction - Stationary

• Horizontal surface N
• No motion
• No applied force

Σ Fy = 0
N=W
W

## N= Normal force = lateral load = contact force = reaction force

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Sliding Motion
N
• Horizontal surface

• Velocity, V > 0
µ N F
• V = constant
• Force along surface
W
N=W
F=µ N=µ W
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Frictionless, Inclined, Straight Wellbore:

1. Consider
a section
of pipe
in the
wellbore.

## In the absence of FRICTION the forces acting on the

pipe are buoyed weight, axial tension and the reaction
force, N, normal to the wellbore.
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Frictionless, Inclined, Straight Wellbore:

## These equations are used for ROTATING pipe.

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Effect of Friction (no doglegs):

## 2. Consider Effect of Friction ( no doglegs):

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Effect of Friction (no doglegs):

## where 0 < µ < 1 (µ is the coeff. of friction)

usually 0.15 < µ < 0.4 in the wellbore

## (a) Lowering: Friction opposes motion, so

∆T = W cos I − Ff

## ∆T = W cos I − µ W sin I (3)

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Effect of Friction (no doglegs):

## (b) Raising: Friction still opposes motion,

so ∆T = W cos I + Ff

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Problem 1

## What is the maximum hole angle (inclination

angle) that can be logged
without the aid of drillpipe, coiled tubing or
other tubulars?
(assume µ =0.4)

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Solution

## From Equation (3) above,

∆T = W cos I − µW sin I (3)

∆T ≅ 0

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Solution

I = 68.2 

## This is the maximum hole angle

(inclination) that can be logged
without the aid of tubulars.

Note: µ = cot I
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Problem 2

## Consider a well with a long horizontal section. An

8,000-ft long string of 7” OD csg. is in the hole.
Buoyed weight of pipe = 30 lbs/ft. µ = 0.3

## (a) What force will it take to move this pipe

along the horizontal section of the wellbore?

## (b) What torque will it take to rotate this pipe?

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Problem 2 - Solution - Force
(a) What force will it take to move this pipe along
the horizontal section of the wellbore?
N
F=? F=0

W
N = W = 30 lb/ft * 8,000 ft = 240,000 lb
F = µ N = 0.3 * 240,000 lb = 72,000 lb

## Force to move pipe, F = 72,000 lbf

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Problem 2 - Solution - Force

## (b) What torque will it take to rotate this pipe?

As an approximation, let us
assume that the pipe lies on T

## the bottom of the wellbore.

d/2
Then, as before, F
N = W = 30 lb/ft * 8,000 ft = 240,000 lbf
Torque = F*d/2 = µ Nd/2 = 0.3 * 240,000 lbf * 7/(2 * 12) ft

## Torque to rotate pipe, T = 21,000 ft-lbf

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Problem 2 - Equations - Horizontal

N=W T=F*d
F=µ N

## Torque, T = µ Wd/(24 ) = 21,000 ft-lbf

An approximate equation, with W in lbf and d in inches
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Horizontal - Torque

## A more accurate equation for torque in a horizontal

wellbore may be obtained by taking into consideration
the fact that a rotating pipe will ride up the side of the
wellbore to some angle φ .

## Taking moments about the point P: T F

Torque, T = W * (d/2) sin φ in-lbf
d/2 φ
Where φ = atan µ = atan 0.3 = 16.70
o P

## T = 240,000 * 7/24 * 0.2873 = 20,111 ft-lbf W

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Problem 3
A well with a measured depth of 10,000 ft. may be
approximated as being perfectly vertical to the kick-off
point at 2,000 ft. A string of 7” OD csg. is in the hole;
total length is 10,000 ft. The 8,000-ft segment is inclined at
60 deg. Buoyed weight of pipe = 30 lbs/ft. µ = 0.3

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Problem 3

## (a) Hook load when rotating off bottom

(d) Torque when rotating off bottom

## [ ignore effects of dogleg at 2000 ft.]

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Solution to Problem 3

## (a) Hook load when rotating off bottom:

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Solution to Problem 3 - Rotating

HL = HL 2000 + HL 8000
0. 5

lb lb ↓
= 30 * 2000 ft + 30 * 8000 ft * cos 60 
ft ft
= 60,000 lbf + 120,000 lbf

## HL = 180,000 lbf When rotating off bottom.

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Solution to Problem 3 - lowering

## 2 (b) Hook load when RIH:

The hook load is decreased by friction in the
wellbore.
Ff = µN
In the vertical portion,
oo
N = 30 * 2000 * sin o0 = 0
Thus, F2000 = 0
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Solution to Problem 3 - lowering

## In the inclined section,

N = 30 * 8,000 * sin 60
= 207,846 lbf

Slide 24 of 62
Solution to Problem 3 - Lowering

Thus, F8000 = µ N
= 0.3 * 207,846 = 62,352 lbf

## HL = 117,646 lbf while RIH

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Solution to Problem 3 - Raising

## HL = 242,354 lbf POH

Slide 26 of 62
Solution to Problem 3 - Summary

ROT
RIH
2,000
POH
MD
ft

10,000
0 60,000 120,000 180,000 240,000
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Solution to Problem 3 - rotating

## 2(d) Torque when rotating off bottom:

In the Inclined Section:

Torque
N = W sin I
= Force * Arm
F = µN
d
= Ff *
2

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Solution to Problem 3 - rotating

## (i) As a first approximation, assume the pipe

lies at lowest point of hole:

d  d  d 
Torque = Ff   = µN  = µW sin I 
2 2 2
7 1 
= 0.3 * 30 * 8000 * sin 60 *  * 

 2 12 

## Torque = 18,187 ft - lbf

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Solution to Problem 3 - rotating

## (ii) More accurate evaluation:

Note that, in the above figure, forces are not balanced;
there is no force to balance the friction force Ff.

## The pipe will tend

to climb up the
side of the
wellbore…as it
rotates

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Solution to Problem 3 - Rotating

Assume “Equilibrium”
at angle φ as shown.

## ∑F Along Tangent = 0 = Ff − W sin I sin φ

µN = W sin I sin φ …… (6)

## ∑F Perpend. to Tangent = 0 = N − W sin I cos φ

N = W sin I cos φ …… (7)
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Solution to Problem 3 - rotating

µN W sin I sin φ
Solving equations (6) & (7) ⇒ =
N W sin I cosφ
µ = tan φ
−1
φ = tan ( µ ) (8)

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Solution to Problem 3 - rotating

(ii) continued
Taking moments about the center of the pipe:
d
T = Ff *
2
Evaluating the problem at hand:

−1 −1
From Eq. (8), φ = tan ( µ ) = tan (0.3)

φ = 16.70 

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Solution to Problem 3 - rotating

## = 30 * 8000 * sin60 * sin16.70

Ff = 59.724 lbf

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Solution to Problem 3 - rotating

## Evaluating the problem at hand:

d
From Eq. (9), T = Ff *
2
7 1 
= 59,724 *  * 
 2 12 
Torque = 17,420 ft - lbf

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Solution to Problem 3

## 2 (d) (ii) Alternate Solution:

Slide 36 of 62
Solution to Problem 3

## Taking moments about tangent point,

d
T = W sin I sin Ο
2
7
= 30 * 8000 * sin60 * sin 16.70 *
 
24

T = 17,420 ft - lbf
Slide 37 of 62
Solution to Problem 3

## Note that the answers in parts (i) & (ii) differ

by a factor of cos φ

(i) T = 18,187
(ii) T = 17,420

## cos φ = cos 16.70 = 0.9578

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Effect of Doglegs

## (1) Dropoff Wellbore δ = dogleg angle

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Effect of Doglegs

## A. Neglecting Axial Friction

(e.g. pipe rotating)
δ δ
∑ Falong normal : W sin I + (T + ∆T) sin 2 + T sin 2 − N = 0
δ δ
WWsin + sT sin + ∆T sin − N = 0
sinII +
2T 2 2

δ
N ≅ W sin I + 2T sin (10)
2
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Effect of Doglegs

A. Neglecting Axial Friction

δ δ
∑ Falong tangent : (T + ∆T) cos 2 − W cos I − T cos 2 = 0
δ
∆T cos = W cos I
2
s
o
W

δ
I
c

cos → 1 ⇒
T

(11)
2
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Effect of Doglegs

## While pipe is rotating

δ
N = W sin I + 2T sin
2 (10)&(11)
∆T = WcosI

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Effect of Doglegs

B. Including Friction
While lowering pipe (RIH)

δ (as above)
N = W sin I + 2T sin
2
∆T = W cos I − µN

## i.e. ∆T = W cos I − µ ( W sin I + 2T sin δ ) (12)

2
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Effect of Doglegs

B. Including Friction
While raising pipe (POH)

∆T = W cos I + µN

δ
∆ T = W cosI + µ ( W sin I + 2T sin )
2 (13)

d d δ
Torque = µN  ≅ µ  ( W sin I + 2T sin )
 2  2 2
(14)
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Effect of Doglegs

## (2) Buildup Wellbore δ = dogleg angle

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Effect of Doglegs

A. Neglecting Friction
(e.g. pipe rotating)

δ δ
∑F along normal : W sin I − ( T + ∆T ) sin − T sin − N = 0
2 2
δ δ
W sin I − 2T sin − ∆T sin − N = 0
2 2

δ
N ≅ W sin I − 2T sin
2
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Effect of Doglegs

A. Neglecting Axial Friction

δ δ
∑ Falong tangent : (T + ∆T) cos 2 − W cos I − T cos 2 = 0
δ
∆T cos = W cos I
2 s
o
W

δ
I
c
T

cos → 1 ⇒ (16)
2
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Effect of Doglegs

## B. Including Friction (Buildup Wellbore)

When pipe is rotating

δ
N = W sin I − 2T sin
2 (15)&(16)

∆T = WcosI

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Effect of Doglegs

B. Including Friction
While lowering pipe (RIH)
δ
N = W sin I − 2T sin
2 (15)
∆T = W cos I − µ N

δ
∆T = W cos I − µ W sin I − 2T sin
2 (17)
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Effect of Doglegs

## While raising pipe (POH)

∆T = W cos I + µN

δ
i.e. ∆T = WcosI + µ WsinI - 2Tsin
2 (18)

d d δ
Torque = µ N   ≅ µ   W sin I − 2T sin
 2  2 2 (19)
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Problem #4 - Curved Wellbore with Friction

## In a section of our well, hole angle drops at the

rate of 8 degrees per 100 ft.
The axial tension is 100,000 lbf at the location
where the hole angle is 60 degrees.

## Buoyed weight of pipe = 30 lbm/ft

µ = 0.25
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Problem
#4
- Curved
Wellbore
with
Friction

T = 100,000 lbf
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Evaluate the Following:

(a) What is the axial tension in the pipe 100 ft. up the hole
if the pipe is rotating?

(b) What is the axial tension in the pipe 100 ft up the hole
if the pipe is being lowered into the hole?

(c) What is the axial tension in the pipe 100 ft up the hole if
the pipe is being pulled out of the hole?

## (d) What is the lateral load on a centralizer at incl.=64 if

the centralizer spacing is 40 ft? 

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Solution 4(a) - Rotating

60 + 68
IAVG =
2
IAVG = 64 o

## Pipe is rotating so frictional effect on axial load may be

neglected.
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Solution 4(a) - Rotating
T68 = 101,315 lbf
From equation (11),
∆T = W cos I
lb
= 30 *100ft * cos 64 
ft
= 1,315 lbf
∴ T68 = 100,000 + 1,315 T60 = 100,000 lbf

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Solution 4 (b)

## (b) Tension in pipe 100 ft Up-Hole when Pipe is being

lowered:
From equation (10):
δ
N = W sin I + 2T sin
2
N = 30 *100 * sin 64 + 2 *100,000 * sin 4
= 2,696 + 13,951
N = 16,648 lbf

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Solution 4 (b)

Ff = 4,162 lbf

## From equation 12,

∆T = W cos I − µN

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Solution 4(b) - Lowering
T68 = 97,153 lbf
From equation 12,

= -2,847

## ∴ T68 = 100,000 − 2,867 (T + ∆T)

T60 = 100,000 lbf

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Solution 4 (c)

## (c) Tension in Pipe 100 ft Up-Hole when pipe is being

raised:
From equation (10),

δ
N = W sin I + 2T sin
2
N = 30 *100 * sin 64 + 2 *100,000 * sin 4
= 2,696 + 13,951
N = 16,648 lbf
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Solution 4 (c)

Ff = 4,162 lbf

## From equation 12,

∆T = W cos I + µN

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Solution 4(c) - Raising
T68 = 105,477 lbf
From equation 12,

= 5477 lbf

## T68 = 105,477 lbf

Slide 61 of 62
Solution 4(a, b and c)
SUMMARY

T60 T68

Slide 62 of 62
Solution 4 (d)

## (d) Lateral load on centralizer if spacing = 40 ft. (after

pipe has been rotated):

From above, at θ = 64 

N = 16,648 lbf

## This is for 100 ft distance

Slide 63 of 62
Solution 4 (d)

for 40 ft distance,
∴  40 
N centr . = 16,648 *  
 100 
= 6,659 lbf

## N centr. = 6,659 lbf

lb
Note : 40 ft of pipe * 30 = 1200 lbf
ft
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Alternate Approach

## (d) Lateral load on centralizer if spacing = 40 ft.

(after pipe has been rotated)

## From above, at θ = 60 , T = 100,000 lbf

From above, at θ = 68 , T = 101,315 lbf

So, 30 ft up-hole,
T = 100 ,000 + 1,315 * (30 / 100 ) lbf
T = 100 ,395 lbf
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Alternate Approach

δ
From Eq. (10), N = W sin I + 2T sin
2
N = 30 * 40 * sin 64 + 2 *100,395 * sin(1.6 )
{4 * 40/100}
= 1,079 + 5,606

N = 6,685 lbf
∴ for 40 ft centralizer spacing,
N centr . = 6,685 lbf
Slide 66 of 62
Centralizer

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