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1 Introduction In earlier days, the squirrel cage induction motor (SCIM) was used for essentially constant speed drive, and the wound rotor induction motor (WRIM) was used for variable-speed drive systems. The wound rotor induction motor (WRIM) offers a lot of flexibility for wide range of speed control compared to squirrel cage motor. Although the WRIM is more expensive and less rugged than the SCIM, it has been used favored for use in high power applications in which a large amount of slip power could be recovered. Classically, speed of WRIM was changed by mechanically varying external rotor circuit resistance. The Simplest speed control scheme for wound-rotor induction motors is achieved by changing the rotor resistance. It has been established that this rotor resistance control method can provide high starting torque and low starting current and variation of speed over a wide range below the synchronous speed of the motor. Torque (N-m) Tm

ax

R

’

R

’ 1

R

’ 2

,

R’ < R1’ < R2’

0

1

Slip Speed (rad per sec)

Speed-torque curves for rotor resistance control are shown in figure 1.1. While maximum torque is independent of rotor resistance, speed at which the maximum torque is produced changes with rotor resistance. For the same torque, speed falls with an increase in rotor resistance. Advantage of rotor resistance control is that motor torque capability remains unaltered even at low speeds. Only other method which has this advantages variable frequency control. However, cost of rotor resistance control is very low compared to variable frequency control. Because of low cost and high

Figure.1.1 Speed-torque curves for rotor resistance control

1

torque capability at low speeds, rotor resistance control is employed in cranes, Ward Leonard Ilgener drives, and other intermittent load applications . Major disadvantage is low efficiency due to additional loses in resistor connected in the rotor circuit. As the losses mainly take place in the external resistor they do not-heat the motor. However, there are certain applications that require enormous variation of the motor speed . with the increase in availability of high current power electronic devices, smooth and quick variation of external resistance introduce in the rotor circuit of wound rotor induction motor to control speed can be accomplished electronically. Such schemes employing chopper control can be used to obtain a constant speed. Such circuit are widely used in industrial application where the drive operation is intermittent such as hoists ,cranes ,conveyers, lifts and high starting torque are more important with low starting current to avoid voltage dip. The rotor chopper controlled contains the three phase uncontrolled bridge rectifier and a chopper controlled external resistance . The rectifier bridge acts as an electronic frequency changer (EFC), so that the machine will chiefly see the effect of EFC switching at rotor frequency. This system consequently loses the capacity to control rotor current waveform by pulse width modulation of electronic switch (ES). The high chopper frequency tend to improvement the performance of wound rotor induction motor drive system as, rotor rectified current, rotor phase current, speed smoothing with torque pulsation and ripple of rotor rectified current. The principle operation of high chopper frequency drive for wound rotor induction motor with a resistively loaded rotor chopper is detailed in the consequent chapters. 1.2 Objectives of the work The main objectives of this work are as give below, To develop the dynamic modeling of wound rotor induction motor using MATLAB/SIMULINK toolbox. To design and develop the variable speed drive using wound rotor induction motor controlled by variation of an external rotor resistance by parallel electronic chopper. To study the analysis of high chopper frequency, duty cycle on the rotor current, rotor rectifier current, ripple in rotor rectified current, speed and torque pulsation for wound rotor induction motor drive with the low value of filter in rotor side.

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**CHAPTER 2 DYNAMIC MODELING AND SIMULATION OF WOUND ROTOR INDUCTION MACHINE
**

2.1 Introduction In an adjustable speed drive, the machine normally constitutes an element within a feedback loop, and therefore its transient behavior has to been taken in to consideration. The dynamic performance of an AC machine is somewhat complex because the rotor three-phase windings move with respect to the three phase stator windings. The dynamic model considers the instantaneous effects of varying voltages/currents, stator frequency, and torque disturbance. The dynamic model of the induction machine is derived by using a two phase motor in direct and quadrature axes. This approach is desirable because of the conceptual simplicity obtained with two sets of windings, one on the stator and the other on the rotor. The concept of power invariance is introduced: the power must be equal in three phase machine and its equivalent two phase model. The reference frames are chosen to be arbitrary. The different possible reference frames are as given below Stationary reference frame(Stator) Rotor reference frame Synchronously rotating reference frame The differential equations describing the induction motor are non linear. For stability and controller design studies, it is important to linearize the machine equations around a steady state operating point. This chapter contains detailed description to modeling of wound rotor induction machine (T-Model). 2.2 Real Time Model of a Two Phase Induction Machine The following assumptions are made to derive the dynamic model: 1) Uniform air gap 2) Balanced rotor and stator windings, with sinusoidally distributed mmf 3) Inductance Vs rotor position is sinusoidal and 4) Saturation and parameter changes are neglected A two phase machine with stator and rotor windings is shown in figure 2.1. The windings are placed 90 degrees electrical, and the rotor windings α, is at an angle Ө r from the stator d axis winding. It is assumed that d axis is leading q axis for clockwise direction of rotation of the rotor. If the clockwise sequence is dq, the rotating 3

magnetic field will be revolving at the angular speed of the supply frequency but counter to the phase sequence of the stator supply.

Figure 2.1 Stator and rotor windings of a two phase induction machine

Therefore, the rotor is pulled in the direction of the rotating magnetic field. The terminal voltages of the stator and rotor windings can be expressed as the sum of voltage drops in resistance and the rate of change of flux linkages, which is the product of currents and inductances. 2.3 Axes Transformation Consider a symmetrical three-phase induction machine with stationary as-bs-cs axes at 2π/3-angle apart as shown in figure 2.2. our goal is to transform the three-phase stationary reference frame (as-bs-cs) variables into two-phase stationary reference frame (ds-qs ) variables and then transform these to synchronously rotating reference frame( de-qe), and vice versa.

4

bs V b s

Vqs s qs-axis Vcs cs Vas as

Vds s ds-axis Figure 2.2 Stationary frame a-b-c to ds-qs axes transformation

2.3.1 Three -Phase Stationary Reference Frame (as-bs-cs) Variables into TwoPhase Stationary Reference Frame (ds- qs) Assume that the ds-qs axes are oriented at θ angle, as shown in figure 2.2. The voltages in and the can be resolved into as-bs-cs components and can be represented matrix form as

2.3.2 Two-Phase Stationary Reference Frame Variables (ds- qs) into Three -Phase Stationary Reference Frame (as-bs-cs) The corresponding two-phase stationary reference frame variables (ds- qs) in to Three -Phase Stationary Reference Frame (as-bs-cs) can be written as

5

Where

is added as the zero sequence component, which may or may not be

present. We have considered voltage as the variable. It is convenient to set θ = 0, so that the qs-axis is aligned with the as-axis. Ignoring the zero sequence components, the transformation relations can be simplified as (2.3)

And inversely

Figure 2.3 shows the synchronously rotating de-qe axes, which rotate at synchronous speed ωe with respect to the ds-qs axes and angle the de-qe axes. . The two-

phase ds-qs axes windings are transformed in to the hypothetical windings mounted on

qe

e = ωet qs

e de

The

ds Figure 2.3 Stationary frame ds-qs to synchronously rotating frame axes de-qe transformation voltages on the ds-qs axes can be converted in to the de-qe frame as follows: transformation

6

For convenience, the superscript e has been dropped from now on the synchronously rotating frame parameters. Again, resolving the rotating frame parameters in to stationary frame, the relations are

2.4 Equivalent Circuit of T-Model The equivalent circuit of two phase induction machine (T-Form) for q (quadrature axis) and d (direct) axis is as shown in the fig 2.4(a) and (b).

dψ qs dt

dψ qr dt

dψ ds dt

dψ dr dt

Figure 2.4 Dynamic Equivalent circuit (T-Model): (a) q-axis (b) d-axis

2.4.1 Stator equations We can write the following stator equations

Where

and

are q-axis and d-axis stator flux linkages respectively.

Vqs

Converting to d e − qe frame

7

are the speed electromagnetic field due to rotation of the axis

2.4.2 Rotor equations In a similar manner we can write the rotor equations Case1: rotor not moving (ωr = 0)

Case 2: rotor actually moves at speed ωr

Equivalent circuits of the motor in the synchronously rotating reference frame are indicated in follows Figs. 2.4(a) and 2.4(b). The flux linkage expressions in terms of the currents can be written from Fig. 2.4 as

Combining the above expressions with equations (2.12), (2.13), (2.16) and (2.17), the electrical transient model in terms of voltages and currents can be given in matrix form as

8

Where ωr, is the rated frequency in radian/s. and s is the Laplace operator. The slip s is expressed as

The electromagnetic torque, positive for motor action, may be expressed in

The relation between torque and speed is expressed as

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**CHAPTER 3 CONTROL OF WOUND ROTOR INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE
**

3.1 Introduction The Simplest speed control scheme for wound-rotor induction motors is achieved by changing the rotor resistance. It has been established that this rotor resistance control method can provide high starting torque and low starting current and variation of speed over a wide range below the synchronous speed of the motor. The rotor resistance is altered manually and discreet steps this mechanical operation is undesirable the response is slow and speed variation is not smooth. These undesirable features of the resistance control can be eliminated by using a chopper controlled external resistance. This chapter presents the complete analysis, design, and control of wound rotor induction motor drive with a resistively loaded rotor chopper (RLC). 3.1.1 Block diagram for WRIM drive with RLC

Stator fr Va Vb Vc WRIM Rotor f=0 Rex f=0 fch

ES EFC Resistively Figure3.1 Fundamental structure of electronic rotor cascade consisting of WRIM, rotor rectifier and resistively loaded loaded loaded.

The block diagram of WRIM drive with resistively loaded chopper is shown in figure 3.1. The wound rotor induction motor (WRIM) offers a lot of flexibility for wide range of speed control compared to squirrel cage motor. The torque depends on motor resistance. Therefore, increasing the rotor resistance will at a constant torque causes a proportionate increase in the motor slip with a result decrease in rotor speed. Thus, the speed for a given load torque may be varied by varying the rotor resistance. The function of this resistance is to introduce voltage at rotor frequency, which opposes the voltage induced in rotor winding.

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The main demerit of this method of control is that energy is dissipated in rotor circuit resistance, internal and external, and this energy is wasted in the form of heat. Because of the waste-fullness of this method, it is used where speed change are needed for short duration only. With the recent progress in power semiconductor technology, these undesirable features of conventional rheostat control scheme can be eliminated by using a three phase uncontrolled bridge rectifier and a chopper controlled external resistance. The rectifier bridge acts as an electronic frequency changer (EFC), so that the machine will chiefly see the effect of EFC switching at rotor frequency. With the high frequency switching effects of the chopper, which is power switch electronically monitored by a control module. This system consequently loses the capacity to control rotor current waveform by pulse width modulation of electronic switch (ES). 3.1.2 Basic Chopper Circuit Conventionally, the rotor resistance is controlled manually and in discrete steps. With the advent of power semiconductors, the conventional resistance control scheme can be eliminated by using three phase rectifier bridge and chopper controlled external resistance as shown in Figure 3.2. A chopper is a power switch electronically monitored by a control circuit. When the chopper is in the "ON" mode all the time the equivalent external resistance Req in the rotor circuit is Rf. When the chopper is in the "OFF" mode all the time equivalent external resistance Req in the rotor circuit is (Rf + Rex).

Va Vb Vc Stator Rotor Idc Rf Lf Rex Ideal power switch

WRIM filter

Rectifier Figure 3.2 Basic chopper circuits with L-R

If the chopper is periodically regulated so that, in each chopper period, it is "ON" for some time but is "OFF" for the rest, it is possible to obtain variation of Req between Rf and (Rf + Rex). Thus the chopper electronically alters the external resistance Rex in a continuous and contactless manner. Effect of ripple in the bridge output on current waveform is neglected. In this arrangement no external inductor is used. Only inductance in the circuit is the rotor leakage reactance. This offers very small time constants during ON and OFF periods. Due to this, current reaches to steady state

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during ON and OFF periods. Rex should be chosen as large as possible to obtain lower speeds. However, this will increase the voltage spike across the switch, which will require a IGBT with excessively high voltage.

Figure 3.3 Rectifier chopper current waveform

Using such a simple chopper circuit for controlling the average value of resistance (rotor current) introduces the additional problems such as discontinuity in the rotor winding currents, and voltage spikes across the chopper IGBT. Highly distorted waveforms of currents within the rotor cause excessive heating of the windings. This requires considerable derating of the motor capacity. To certain extent this heating can be reduced if chopping frequency is much lower than the supply frequency. However, chopping at such low frequency may cause fluctuations in the motor speed for low inertia loads. Increasing the chopper frequency will certainly give speed output without any fluctuations. But this will increase the amplitude of current harmonics and hence, heating of the motor. This problem can be taken care of by introducing a filter in the rotor circuit as shown in Figures. 3.2. Figure 3.3 shows the rectifier chopper current waveform. With a filter in the rotor circuit current waveforms can be made continuous and ripple in DC current can be reduced to a very small value by selecting the appropriate chopper frequency and corresponding parameters of the filter circuit. This improvement permits application of motors with a derating factor of almost 90%. In the next section it will be shown that to reduce the ripple in the DC current it is necessary that τoff ≈ τon and τon > T τon = time constant during "ON" period τoff = time constant during "OFF" period and l/T is chopper frequency.

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This restricts R 2 to a very small value resulting in not so wide variation in the speed-torque characteristics. This problem is taken care of if we use 1st order filter as shown in Figure 3.2. This will give reduced ripple and also wider variation in the speed torque characteristics. 3.1.3 Analysis of WRIM drive with RLC Exact analysis is tedious, involving the phasor calculations for motor fundamental and harmonic quantities and step-by-step analysis of nonlinearities in the rectifier-chopper circuitry. However, it has been found possible to develop circuit models from which a good prediction of the performance characteristics can be made. Figure 3.4 shows the per-phase equivalent circuit of IM referred to the rotor side. The DC model is derived for three phase system. If for the given chopping frequency filter components are chosen such that ripple in the current Id is negligible then rotor current is composed of alternating square pulse of 2π/3 duration. Rotor RMS current I2 is given by

Where Id is the average value of the rectified rotor current and Ir is the rotor RMS phases current. The power loss in the stator and rotor resistance for all three phases is 2Idc2(sR1 +R2) in the DC side. Because of leakage reactance in the motor windings there is a voltage reduction of 3ω(LI + L2)/π from the terminal voltage of the rectifier voltage. The system is represented by the DC equivalent circuit model as shown in figure (4).

2L1

2R1

2L2

2R2

Lf

Rf

sE

Rex

S

Figure 3.4 DC equivalent circuit model

)

13

Where E = Average value of rectified rotor voltage at stand still. E2 = Rotor voltage per phase in RMS at stand still and the different parameters used in the figure L1 + L2 = Total leakage inductance per phase referred to rotor R1 = Stator resistance/phase referred to rotor R2 = Rotor resistance/phase Rf, Rex = External resistances Lf = External inductor s = Motor slip Let τon = ON-period, τoff = OFF period, neglecting the voltage drop due to the commutation over lap of diode bridge, current during “ON” mode is given by i 1 = I1 And during “OFF” mode is given by +i02 Where ) + i01 i 2=I2

The i01 and i02 are initial values of current for “ON” and “OFF” mode, respectively. If the chopper frequency is very high with low value of smoothing inductor such that

It can be shown that

Therefore the equivalent resistance is given by

14

This equation shows that Req is proportional to the off period of the chopper circuit. This is show the external resistance in the rotor circuit can be varied by controlling the duty cycle (D) of the chopper period. If the duty cycle

Then the equation (10) may be written as Req = Rex (1-D). The rotor copper losses is given by (3.11)

Where pg is air gap power Irms is rms value of Idc. If the chopper frequency is high, then Therefore Idc ≅ Irms

Then the developed torque(T) in N.m

Neglecting the voltage drop across the stator resistance (R1), the eq. obtain torque for various slip for different on-off times.

) Used to

Referring to figure 3.2, using the high switch power transistor such as SIT, IGBT and power MOSFET for chopper switching permit a high chopper frequency, with reducing of smoothing inductor

For low value of smoothing inductor the above equation is satisfied if (fch>>fr). Higher the chopper frequency, lower the ripple in the rotor rectified current and consequently the torque ripple. Also high values of fch are required to avoid any interaction between the chopper frequency and the output frequency of rectifier for all slip values. The smoothing inductor (1mH) is used, but with high chopper frequency to compensate the minimal value of smoothing inductor. Eliminating or reducing the smoothing 15

inductor reduces the volume and then the cost of system drives. The minimum value of external resistance Rex, 50Ω is used, which gives the required operation in the speed torque characteristics to half of full load speed. 3.2 Open loop speed control of WRIM drive with RLC

Torque (N.m) Tmx a R1 R11 R 21

R1< R11< R21

Slip Speed (rad per sec) 1 0 Figure 3.5 Speed-torque characteristics of rotor resistance control Idc Rf Stator Va Vb Vc WRIM Chopper Lf

Rotor

Vd

Rex

Vdc

Diode Bridge Rectifier

Controller

Figure 3.6 Circuit diagram of the open loop speed control system.

In a slip ring induction motor, a three phase variable resistor R21 can be inserted in the rotor circuit. Conventionally, the rotor resistance is controlled manually and in discrete steps. By varying the rotor circuit resistance R21 the motor

16

torque can be controlled as shown in figure 3.5. The starting torque and starting current can also be varied by controlling the rotor circuit resistance. The disadvantages of rotor resistance control method of speed control are: (1) reduced efficiency at low speeds, (2) speed changes very widely with load variation. These drawbacks can be eliminated by replacing the three phase resistor by a three phase diode rectifier, chopper and one resistor as shown in figure 3.6.

Vo(desired) Vo(actual) + Amplifier Repetitive waveform (a) Vst = Saw tooth voltage Vcontrol (Amplified error) 0 Switch control signal On Off Ton T (Switching frequency) fs = 1/T (b) Figure 3.7 Pulse-width modulator (a) block diagram (b) comparator signals Toff Vcontrol > Vst Vcontrol < Vst t in secs Vcontrol Comparator

Switch control signal

Figure 3.7 shows the block diagram of pulse width modulator for chopper circuit and comparator signals. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) is a method of transmitting information on a series of pulses. The data that is being transmitted is encoded on the width of these pulses to control the amount of power being sent to a load. In other words, pulse width modulation is a modulation technique for generating variable width pulses to represent the amplitude of an input DC. An oscillator is used to generate a saw tooth waveform. A comparator compares the saw tooth voltage with the reference voltage. When the saw tooth voltage rises above the reference voltage, an IGBT is switched on. As it falls below the reference, it is switched off. This gives a square wave output to the WRIM drive with a RLC. Pulse width modulation is used to reduce the total power delivered to a load without resulting in loss, which normally 17

occurs when a power source is limited by a resistive element. The underlying principle in the whole process is that the average power delivered is directly proportional to the modulation duty cycle. High frequency pulse width modulation power control systems can be realized using semiconductor switches. Here, the discrete ON or OFF state of the modulation itself can be used to control the switches, thereby controlling the voltage or current across the load. The major advantage with these types of switches is that the voltage drop across it during conducting and nonconducting states is ideally zero. Pulse width modulation is widely used in voltage regulators. It works by switching the voltage to the load with the appropriate duty cycle; the output will maintain a voltage at the desired level. At low frequencies the motor speed tends to be jerky, at high frequencies the motor's inductance becomes significant and power is lost. Frequencies of 30-200Hz are commonly used. The function of inductor Lf is to smoothen the current Idc a chopper allows the effective rotor circuit resistance to be varied for the speed control of WRIM drive with a RLC. Diode bridge rectifier converts slip-frequency input power to DC at its output terminals. When chopper is on, Vdc = Vd = 0 and resistance Rex gets short circuited. When chopper is off, Vdc = Vd and resistance in the rotor circuit is Rex. The above circuit topology is realized using Matlab/Simulink tool box. The simulation results are observed, analyzed, and reported. 3.3 Closed Loop Speed Control of WRIM drive with RLC The rotor resistance controlled slip ring IM has very poor speed regulation with open loop control. In many industrial applications, very good speed regulation of the drive is essential. In such cases it becomes necessary to go for closed loop speed control. Precision closed loop regulators for conventional rotor resistance control are impractical. However, with a IGBT chopper, a slip ring IM may now be applied in closed loop drives, with a good degree of precision. Rotor current Ir and therefore, Id has a constant value at the maximum torque point, both during motoring and plugging. If the current limiter is made to saturate at this current, the drive will accelerate and decelerate at the maximum torque, giving very fast transient response. For plugging to occur, arrangement will have to be made for reversal of phase sequence. Compared to conventional rotor resistance control, static rotor resistance control has several advantages such as smooth and step less control, fast response, less maintence, compact size, simple closed-loop control and rotor resistance remains balanced between the three phases for all operating points.

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3.3.1 System Description Stator Va Vb Vc Rotor

Idc Rf Lf Rex Idc Power switch

WRIM

Diode Rectifier

ωm Speed sensor + ωm*

Speed controller Current limiter

+ Idc *

Current controller

Pulse generation circuit

Figure 3.8 Block diagram of the closed loop speed control system.

Figure 3.8 gives a block diagram of the closed loop speed control system. A chopper with first order filter is connected on the rotor side of three phase slip ring motor. A Speed sensor is used to obtain speed feedback signal. The rotor current is sensed by connecting a small resistance in the DC circuit. The duty cycle of the chopper circuit (chopper frequency x on time) is controlled by varying the output of speed controller. A simple arrangement of proportional speed control with current limit will also give improved speed regulation with protection against excessive currents during starting and under over load conditions. However, the scheme shown in the block diagram uses a PI controller to get almost zero steady state error. Care is taken to make controller response as fast as possible. The speed controller output has adjustable saturation level. This sets the reference for current control loop. The current control loop maintains constant current against disturbances in supply voltage. Moreover, this provides fast response compared to current limit arrangement. During starting and under overload condition, output of speed controller limits the rotor current to a preset reference value. The starting current and hence starting torque can be adjusted by adjusting the saturation level of output of speed controller.

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3.3.2 Speed Controller A Speed sensor is used to obtain a speed feedback signal from the motor. This feedback signal is compared with a reference signal and then error signal is generated. The output of speed controller should be unidirectional and with well defined saturation level. Besides this, to make current limit adjustable it is desirable to make this saturation level rather than the feedback factor adjustable. A PI controller was used to obtain zero steady state error in the speed. Design-procedure is more or less same as current controller. In ideal case PI controller is supposed to give zero steady state error. Moreover, it is very difficult to obtain stable DC level as reference source. Here the reference source is a train of pulses with constant frequency. The scheme of comparing reference frequency with feedback frequency and giving the DC level proportional to phase difference as output works as an integrator in the forward path. This will give absolutely "'zero" steady state error. A comparator compares the saw tooth voltage with the reference voltage. When the saw tooth voltage rises above the reference voltage, a IGBT is switched on. As it falls below the reference, it is switched off. This gives a square wave output to the WRIM drive with a RLC. The closed loop control WRIM drive with a RLC is realized using Matlab/Simulink tool box. The simulation results are observed, analyzed, and reported. 3.4 Conclusion The wound rotor induction motor offers a lot of flexibility for wide range of speed control compared to the squirrel cage motor. Problems associated with simple chopper circuit such as reduced ripple in rotor rectified current and discontinuity in the rotor current are eliminated by introducing a filter in the rotor circuit. With high switching frequency of power electronic devices, the effect of chopper frequency at different duty cycle of motor performance is studied. The analysis of high chopper frequency, duty cycle on the rotor current, rotor rectified current, speed and torque pulsation for wound rotor induction motor drive with resistively loaded chopper is studied.

CHAPTER 4

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**SIMULATION RESULTS AND COMPARISON
**

4.1 Introduction The Simplest speed control scheme for wound-rotor induction motors is achieved by changing the rotor resistance. It has been established that this rotor resistance control method can provide high starting torque and low starting current and variation of speed over a wide range below the synchronous speed of the motor. The rotor resistance is altered manually and discreet steps this mechanical operation is undesirable the response is slow and speed variation is not smooth. These undesirable features of the resistance control can be eliminated by using a chopper controlled external resistance. This chapter presents the complete analysis and performance of different characteristics such as electromagnetic torque, rotor speed, rotor rectified current and ripple in rotor rectified current, of wound rotor induction motor drive with a resistively loaded rotor chopper is discussed. The open loop and closed loop control of WRIM drive with a RLC are discussed.

Figure (4.1) Torque -Speed characteristics for different frequencies at D=0.9.

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Figure (4.2) Torque -Speed characteristics for different frequencies at D = 0.5.

The computed torque speed curve for different frequencies with the duty cycle fixed at 0.9 and 0.5 are shown in figure (4.1 and 4.2) respectively. At high chopper frequency (fch >10 kHz) with 0.9 duty cycle, torque speed curve give essentially the same results. But for 0.5 duty cycle give the approximately the same results at chopper frequency greater than 1 kHz.

**4.2 Open loop characteristics
**

4.2.1 Rotor rectified current - Speed characteristics for different frequencies at D=0.9 and D=0.5. The low value of smoothing inductor was used. Though, as in other similar applications, the presence of inductance will have reduced the fluctuations in current. Figure 4.3 (a) and 4.3 (b) show the rotor rectified current against speed for 0.9 and 0.5 duty cycle at different values of chopper frequency. The variation in rotor rectified current from minimum to maximum current level is larger in 50Hz chopper frequency.

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Figure (4.3) Rotor rectified current -Speed characteristics for different frequencies at D=0.9

Figure (4.4) Rotor rectified current -Speed characteristics for different frequencies at D=0.5

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4.3 Ripple in rotor rectified current - Speed characteristics for different frequencies at D=0.9 and D=0.5.

Figure 4.5 Ripple in rotor rectified current -Speed characteristics for different frequencies at D=0.9

Figure 4.6 Ripple in rotor rectified current -Speed characteristics for different frequencies at D=0.5

The low value of smoothing inductor was used. Though, as in other similar applications, the presence of inductance will have reduced the fluctuations in current. Figure 4.5 (a) & 4.6 (b) show the rotor rectified current against speed for 0.9 and 0.5 duty cycle at different values of chopper frequency. The variation in rotor rectified current from minimum to maximum current level is larger in 50Hz chopper frequency. From these characteristics we observe that increasing the chopper frequency, the ripple in rotor rectifier current decreases.

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4.4 Closed loop characteristics 4.4.1 Torque response Figure.4.7 (a) and 4.7(b) show the electromagnetic torque response for duty cycle 0.5 and 0.9 respectively.

Fig.4.7 (a)

Fig.4.7 (b)

Figure 4.7 Electromagnetic torque at (a) D= 0.5, (b) D=0.9.

4.4.2 Speed response

25

The rotor speed of WRIM drive with a RLC is affected by a duty cycle and reference speed. Increasing the reference speed, rotor speed will be increases due to decreases in rotor resistance. The rotor resistance decreases due to increases in turn “ON” period of chopper. Figure 4.8 (a) and 4.8 (b) show the steady state speed response for duty cycle 0.9 and 0.5 respectively. For different duty cycles d =0.9 and d = 0.5 the rotor speed 152(rad/sec) and 148(rad/sec) respectively.

Fig.4.8 (a)

Fig.4.8 (b)

Figure 4.8 Rotor Speed response (ωm in rad /sec) at (a) D= 0.5, (b) D=0.9.

4.4.3 Rotor rectified current response The low value of smoothing inductor was used. Though, as in other similar applications, the presence of inductance will have reduced the fluctuations in current. Figure.4.9 (a) and 4.9 (b) show the rotor rectified current for duty cycle 0.5 and 0.9 respectively. Increasing the duty cycle, the ripple in rotor rectified current decreases. 26

Fig.4.9 (a)

Fig.4.9 (b)

Figure 4.9 Rotor rectified current response at (a) D= 0.5, (b) D=0.9.

4.4.4 Speed response in rpm The rotor speed of WRIM drive with a RLC is affected by duty cycle and reference speed. Increasing the reference speed, rotor speed will be increases due to decreases in rotor resistance. The rotor resistance decreases due to increases in turn “ON” period of chopper. Figure 4.9 (a) and 4.9 (b) show the steady state speed response for duty cycle 0.9 and 0.5 respectively. For different duty cycles d =0.5 and d = 0.9 the rotor speed 1410rpm and 1458rpm.

27

Fig.4.17 (a)

Fig.4.10 (b) (b) D=0.9, N=1458 rpm.

Figure 4.10 Rotor Speed (N in rpm) response at (a) D= 0.5, N=1410 rpm

4.4.5 Rotor phase current response The rotor current is approximately composed of alternating square pulse of (2π/3) duration. Due to the leakage reactance of rotor and stator windings, the commutation of current between diodes in the rectifier bridge is no longer instantaneous. There is a period of current overlap where by two phase carry current simultaneously. Figure 4.11 (a) and 4.11 (b) show the rotor phase current response at normal operation at 0.5 and 0.9 respectively.

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Fig.4.11 (a)

Fig.4.11 (b)

Figure 4.18 Rotor rectified current at response (a) D= 0.5, (b) D=0.9.

4.5 Torque- Speed characteristics at D = 0.5 & D = 0.9 The computed torque -speed curve for different duty cycles at 0.5 and 0.9 are shown in figure (4.19 and 4.20) respectively.

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Figure (4.12) Torque -Speed characteristics at D = 0.5.

Figure (4.13) Torque -Speed characteristics at D = 0.9.

4.6 Rotor rectified current - Speed characteristics at D=0.9 & D=0.5 Figure 4.13 (a) and 4.14 (b) show the rotor rectified current against speed for 0.9 and 0.5 duty cycles respectively.

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Figure (4.14) Rotor rectified current -Speed characteristics at D=0.9

Figure (4.15) Rotor rectified current -Speed characteristics at D=0.5

4.7 Comparison of open loop and closed loop characteristics From the below figures 4.22 to 4.26 it is observed that the performance of WRIM drive with a RLC is better in closed loop control compared to open loop control.

31

Figure (4.23) Rotor rectified current -Speed characteristics at D=0.9

Figure (4.24) Rotor rectified current -Speed characteristics at D=0.5

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Figure (4.25) Torque -Speed characteristics at D = 0.9.

Figure (4.26) Torque -Speed characteristics at D = 0.5.

4.8 Conclusion The wound rotor induction motor (WRIM) offers a lot of flexibility for wide range of speed control compared to squirrel cage motor. With high switching ability of power electronic devices, the effect of chopper frequency at different duty cycles of WRIM drive with a RLC performance is studied. The results shown that with low value of

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chopper frequency may cause fluctuations in motor speed and torque pulsation. Increasing the chopper frequency, decrease the ripple in rotor rectified current, rotor current, speed variation and improvement in the electromagnetic torque characteristics of WRIM drive with a RLC is studied. And also the performance of WRIM drive with a RLC is better in closed loop control compared than the open loop control.

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CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION

The wound rotor induction motor (WRIM) offers a lot of flexibility for wide range of speed control compared to squirrel cage motor. The Simplest speed control scheme for wound-rotor induction motors is achieved by changing the rotor resistance. It has been established that this rotor resistance control method can provide high starting torque and low starting current and variation of speed over a wide range below the synchronous speed of the motor. The rotor resistance is altered manually and discreet steps this mechanical operation is undesirable the response is slow and speed variation is not smooth. These undesirable features of the resistance control can be eliminated by using a chopper controlled external resistance. With high switching ability of power electronic devices, the effect of chopper frequency at different duty cycles of WRIM drive with a RLC performance is studied. The results shown that with low value of chopper frequency may cause motor speed fluctuations and torque pulsation. Increasing the chopper frequency, ripple in rotor rectified current, rotor current and speed variations are decreased and electromagnetic torque characteristics are improved. The performance of wound rotor induction motor drive with a resistively loaded chopper is better in closed loop control compared to open loop control. In closed loop control, speed regulation is better than the open loop control. 5.1 Major contributions The major contributions of in this work are listed below The dynamic modeling of wound rotor induction motor has been studied and developed using MATLAB/SIMULINK toolbox. The open loop control of wound rotor induction motor drive with resistively loaded chopper was designed, developed using Matlab/Simulink toolbox. The simulation results are obtained and the performance of drive was studied. The analysis of high chopper frequency, duty cycle on the rotor current, rotor rectifier current, rotor speed, ripple in rotor rectifier current and torque pulsation for open loop control of wound rotor induction motor drive with RLC have been studied. The closed loop control scheme of wound rotor induction motor drive with resistively loaded chopper was designed, developed using Matlab/Simulink toolbox. The simulation results are obtained and the performance of drive was studied. 35

The analysis of high chopper frequency, duty cycle on the rotor current, rotor rectifier current, rotor speed, ripple in rotor rectifier current and torque pulsation for closed loop control of wound rotor induction motor drive with RLC have been studied. The wound rotor induction motor drive with resistively loaded chopper provides continuous and contact less adjustment of rotor resistance by electronic means. The simulation results shown that the low value of chopper frequency may cause fluctuations in motor speed and torque pulsation. Increase in the chopper frequency, decrease the ripple in rotor rectified current, harmonic rotor current, speed variation and improvement the electromagnetic torque waveforms.

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REFERENCES

[1]. Paresh C. Sen. “Electric motor drives and Control-Past, Present, and Future” IEEE Transaction of industrial Electronics, Volume -37, No.6 December 1990. [2]. Paresh C. Sen and K.H. Ma, “Rotor chopper control induction drive: TRC strategy” IEEE Transaction industrial applications, vol. IA-11, PP (43-49), no.1, January/February 1975. [3]. [4]. Gopal K. Dubay, “Power semiconductor controlled drives” Book, First edition, prentice hall, Inc. 1989. Leson S., Smiai Ms., Shepherd W. “ Control of wound rotor induction motor using thyristor in secondary circuits” Industrial application conference Twenty-eight IAS Annual meeting of IEEE , 1993, pp ( 380-389), volume 1. [5]. Ns.Wani and M. Ramamurthy, “Chopper controlled slip ring induction motor“IEEE Transaction of industrial Electronics and control instruments, Volume IEC-24. No.2 may-1977. [6]. J.D Van Wyk,” Variable –speed ac drive with slip ring induction machines and a resistively loaded force commutated rotor chopper” Electric power applications, October 1979, volume 2, no.5 , pp(149160). [7]. [8]. Gopal K. Dubay, “Fundamental of Electrical Drives” Book, 2nd edition, Alpha Science International Ltd. 2001. Zuhair D. Shbeeb, “Slip power recovery induction motor drive system” PhD, Thesis submitted to the Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department, University of Technology, 1998. [9]. [10]. [11]. Hilmi Fadhil Amin, “High chopper frequency for wound rotor induction motor drive with a resistively loaded rotor chopper” 2005. Muhammad H. Rashid, “power Electronics: Circuits, Devices and Applications” 2nd Ed. Prentice- Hall Inc. New Jersey 1993, 2005. Bimal K.Bose,”Modern Power Electronics and AC Drives”, Prentice hall of India.

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[12].

Ing O. Iodro and Dr.Mu. Agu, “Induction motor control strategies: past and present” The specific journal of science and Technology, volume 6, number 1, may 2005(spring), pp (64-74).

[13].

Roohollah fadaeinedjad, Mehrdad Moallem and Gerry Moschopoulos,” Simulation of a Wind Turbine with Doubly fed Induction Generator by Fast and Simulink” IEEE Transactions on energy conversion,vol.23,no.2,june 2008.

[14].

S.AL-Jufout and K.Khandakji” Dynamic simulation of starting and chopper speed Control of wound rotor induction motor” I.J of simulation vol.8, no.2, 2006

[15].

M.B.Mohamed, M.Jemli, M.Gossa,”Doubly fed induction generator in wind turbine, modeling and power flow control” IEEE International conference on Industrial Technology, 2004.

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