ay:aygufvmyHkordkif;

(tusOf;csKyf)

qvdkif;uD;vJatmrf;

1

csif;trsdK;om;ae‹ ay:aygufvmykHordkif; (tusOf;)
rmwdum

pmrsufESm

Ù ed'gef;
Ù yxrydkif;
csif;trsdK;om;rsm;ordkif;ESifh jrefrmEkdifiHordkif;qufEG,fjcif;
e,fcsJŒpwifusK;ausmfr_ESifhckcHawmfvSefr_rsm;jzpfpOftusOf;
vli,frsm;OD;aqmifr_jzifh awmfvSefa&;yDjyifvmjcif;
Ù 'kwd,ydkif;
EkdifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;ay:aygufvmjcif;
csi;f awmifnDnw
G af &;tzJG‹
csi;f trsKd ;om;rsm; nDnw
G af &;tzJG‹
t*Fvdyfodk‹ &mZoH(9)csuf
Ù wwd,ydkif;
uefyufvufawmfvSefa&;oyddwf
awmifwef;om;rsm;pnf;vkH;nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹
csif;awmfvSefa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;tzrf;cH&jcif;
awmfvSefa&;tp csif;awmifu
wpfAkdvfus wpfAkdvfwuf/ 'l;raxmufvufrajr‡muf
*syefr[mrdwfppfyJGESifh csif;awmiftkyfcsKyfa&;
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh OD;0rRol;armif;
csif;awmfvSefa&;wyfzGJ‹ESifh zufqpf*syefawmfvSefa&;
Ù pwkxWydkif;
qif;rvm;puULjzLpDrHudef;
awmifwef;om;rsm;/AdkvfcsKyfESifh yxryifvkH
awmifwef;om;rsm;ESifh zqyv
'kwd,yifvHkESifh yifvHkpmcsKyf
csif;/ jrefrmcspf=unfa&;nDvmcH
awmifwef;om;rsm; 'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcH
awmifwef;a'opkHprf;a&;aumfr&Sif
vGwv
f yffa&;ESifh 47 Oya'
csif;awmiftkyfcsKyfa&;pHepfcsrSwfa&;
csif;trsdK;om;ae‹owfrSwfjcif;
Ù ed*kH;
aemufqufwJGazmfjycsurf sm;

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ed'gef;
csif;trsKd;om;rsm;. trsdK;om;e,fajrudk tdEdN,EkdifiH ta&S‹ajrmufjcrf;jynfe,frsm;/ b*Fvm;a'h&Sf
EdkifiH ppfwaumif;[D;vfx&kdufa'o/ jrefrmEdkifiHwGif [l;aumif;awmif=um;rS csif;wGif;jrpfa=umif;/ {&m0wD
jrpfa=umif;rsm;. taemufbufurf;a'orsm;tjzpf awG‹&Sd&onf? ,if;a'orsm;twGif; csif;rsKd;EG,fpk
trsm;tjym; aexdkif=ujyD;/ uGJjym;aom bmompum;udk ajymqdkokH;pGJ=uonf? ,if;wdk‹ajymqdkaom
bmompum;toD;oD;Y vlrsdK;udk,fpm;ðy trnfemronfvnf; uGJjym;onf? ,if;uGJjym;aomtac:ta0:
trnfemrrsm;onf “csif;” [lIac:qdkaom vlrsdK;wckvHk;tm; &nfn$ef;I wlnDonfht"dy`g,fudk az:aqmif
onf? uGJjym;aom,Ofaus;r_udkvnf; toD;oD;ydkifqdkif=uonf? odk‹aomf eD;pyfonf? wlnDaom t&mrSm
,if;w‹dk. rlv"avhxHk;wrf;pOfvmjzpfonf? odk‹jzpfI vlrsKd;tm;jzifh ,if;wdk‹onf csif;vlrsKd; wpfrsKd;
wnf;om jzpfonf?
trsKd;tEG,fcGJ&mY csif;trsKd;om;zcifrS qif;oufaom om;a,mufsm;rsm;udk yifwdkifðyI owfrSwf
aom "avhxHk;wrf;ESifhtnD rsKd;EG,fpkrsm; toD;oD;ay:xGef;vmjyD;/ awmawmifa&ajrobm0 vrf;yef;
qufoG,fa&;cufcJr_ESifh pmayr&SdchJjcif;wdk‹a=umifh bmompum;rsm; uGJjym;vm&onf[k cef‹rSef;&onf?
TuGJjym;r_tm; òzdcGJvkdolrsm;u tcGifhaumif;wpf&yf tjzpfjrifawG‹=uaomfvnf;/ trSefpifppf rdrdvlrsKd;/
rdrde,fajrudkcspfjrwfEkd;onfh trsKd;om;a&;pdwf"gw/f vl‹tcGifhta&; ESifh 'Drdkua&pDtESpfom& tjynfht0
&Sdaom "avhxkH;wrf;rsm;tm; umuG,fapmifha&Smufonfh nDnGwf&J&ifhaom wlnDonfh tpOftvmrsm;
onfum; rnfonfhtcg r# ròydysufcJhay?
csif;trsKd;om;rsm;. EdkifiHa&;ordkif;a=umif;udk oHk;oyf&v#if e,fcsJhudkvdkeDvufatmuf rusa&mufrSD
umv/ e,fcsJhawmfvSefa&;umv/ udkvdkeDEdkifiHrsm; vGwfvyfjyD;umv [lI tcsdefumv okH;ydkif;awG‹jrif&rnf
jzpfonf?
csif;trsKd;om;rsm;onf e,fcsJht*Fvdyf usK;ausmfodrf;ydkuftkyfpdk;r_ ròyrSDumvtxd/ awmawmif
a&ajrobm0 taetxm;tavsmuf rsKd;EG,fpktvdkuf tcsKyftjcmtjynfht0jzifh vGwfvGwfvyfvyf
'Drdkua&pDusus aexdkifcJh=uolrsm;jzpfonf? rnfonfhya'o&mZf/ tm%m&Sif/ tkypf dk;olvlwef;pm;[lIr&Sd/
apGrsKd;pktwGif; vdktyfcsuf&Sdu aqGrsKd;pkacgif;aqmifrsm; pkaygif;!‡dEd_if;wdkifyifavh&SdjyD;/ trsm;ESifhygufouf
aomta&;udk rsKd;EG,fpkacgif;aqmif udk,fpm;vS,frsm;pHknD ajz&Sif;avh&Sd =uonf?
aer0iftifyg,mudk xlaxmifrnfqdkaomjAdwdo#e,fcsJhwdk‹. usL;ausmfppfrsm;/ tkyfpdk;v$rf;rdk;r_
rsm;a=umifh urBmtESH‹tjym;Y e,fcsJhawmfvSefa&;rsm;jzpfay:vsuf e,fcsJh0g'/ zufqpf0g'rsm;. udkvdkeD
e,fvkppfyGJrsm;rS yxrurBmppf/ 'kwd,urBmppf ay:aygufum TurBm}uD;tm; ppfrD;}uD;ESpf}udrf
avmifuGsrf;cJhonf? udkvdkeD EkdifiHtoD;oD;. vGwfvyfa&; wdkufyGJrsm;Yvnf;aumif;/ udkvdkeDe,fvkppfyGJrsm;Y
vnf;aumif;/ urBmhjynfol oef;aygif;rsm;pGm. touf/ aoG;/ acGs;/ tdk;tdrfpnf;pdrf ajrmufrsm;pGm aoa=u
ysufpD;qkH;&H_;cJh&onf?
urBmhjzpf&yfrsm;ESifh tvm;wlpGm/ csif;trsKd;om;rsm;. ordkif;a=umif;onfvnf; at;csrf;wnfjidrf
aomb0rS e,fcsJhawmfvSefa&; vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJrsm;ESifhtwl =urf;wrf;cufxefaomb0odk‹ ul;ajymif;
3

a&muf&SdcJh&onf? e,fajrcsif;qufpyfaeaom tdrfeD;csif;wdkif;jynfrsm;.ordkif;ESifhvnf; ygwfoufESD;EG,f
vmcJh&onf?
yxrurBmppf/ 'kwd,urBmppfrsm;tjyD; ,if;wdk‹tay: urBmEdkifiHacgif;aqmifrsm;. jyefvnfokH;oyf
r_t& urBmhjidrf;csrf;a&;ESifh wdk;wufzGH‹òzd;a&;twGuf urBmhukvor*~ ay:aygufvmcJhonf? udkvdkeDwdkif;jynf
rsm;onfvnf; vGwfvyfaomEkdifiHrsm;tjzpfodk‹ ajymif;vJa&muf&Sd=uygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; csif;trsKd;om;
rsm;tzkd‹&mrlum; e,ffcsJhpepf. qdk;0g;aomtusKd;qufonf csif;trsKd;om;e,fajrudk jrefrm/ tdENd,/ b*Fvm;
a'h&Sf okH;EkdifiH cGJa0ydkifqdkifonfhtjzpfodk‹ a&muf&SdapjyD; csif;trsKd;om;wdk‹tm; ordkif;. cg;oD;aom tawG‹t
óuHrsm;udk ,ae‹wdkif &ifqkdifcHpm;apcJhonf?
txufaz:jyyg trsKd;om;a&;ordkif; jzwfoef;vmcJh&aom jzpfpOfY csif;trsKd;om;ae‹onf ordkif;.
rSwfwdkifwpf&yftjzpf ay:aygufvmcJhonf? csif;trsKd;om;ae‹onf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹ jzpfonf?
rnfonfhwdkif;jynf/ EkdifiH/ rnfonfha'owGifrqdk aexdkif=uukefaom csif;trsKd;om;rSefor#wdk‹. trsKd;om;ae‹
ae‹xl;ae‹jrwf jzpfayonf?
jrefrmEkdifiHwGif csif;trsKd;om;ae‹udk csif;0daoowddkif;ae‹/ csif;jynfe,fae‹[k vGJrSm;pGm ac:a0:wwf
=uonf? 1947ckESpf pufwifbmv (24)&ufae‹ csrSwfjyXmef;onfh jrefrmEkdifiHawmf zGJ‹pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccH
Oya't& csif;0daoowdkif; ay:aygufI csif;0daoowdkif;ae‹onf pufwifbmv (24) &uf jzpfonf? 1974
ckESpf ZEM0g&Dv(3)&ufae‹ twnfðyaom zGJ‹pnf;ykHtajccHOya't& csif;jynfe,f jzpfvmI csif;jynfe,fae‹
onf ZEM0g&Dv(3)&uf jzpfonf? 0daoowdkif;ae‹/ jynfe,fae‹onf ,if;owfrSwfxm;aom e,fajrtydkif;
tjcm;twGif; aexdkifolrsm; ESifhom oufqdkifonf?
pifppf csif;trsKd;om;ae‹onf ta=umif;rJhay:aygufvmonf r[kwfyg? azaz:&D (20) &ufae‹udk
csif;trsKd;om;ae‹ jzpf&rnf[k ta=umif;rJhowfrSwfcJhonf r[kwfyg? csif;trsKd;om;rsm;. e,fcsJhawmfvSefa&;
vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyJGpOf umvwav#mufY xl;jcm;r_ t}udrf}udrf&SdcJhaom orkdif;ay;onfh ae‹wpfae‹
jzpfayonf? om"u tcsKdhrSm - 1918ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹wGif csif;trsKd;om;rsm;. yxrOD;qkH;aom vlr_a&;
tzGJ‹tpnf;jzpfonfh “csif;trsKd;om;rsm; ynma&;jr‡ifhwifa&; tzGJ‹” udk zGJ‹pnf;onf?
- 1928ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹wGif csif;trsKd;om;rsm;. yxrOD;qkH;aom EkdifiHa&;tzGJ‹
tpnf; jzpfonfh “ csif;awmifnDnGwfa&;tzJG‹” udk zGJ‹pnf; onf?
- 1938 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv (20) &ufae‹wGif uefyufvufòrd‹Y t*Fvdyftpdk;& udk,fpm;vS,f
rsm;tm; csif;trsKd;om;xku xdyfwdkuf&ifqdkif oydwfarSmufarmif;xkwfonf?
- 1948 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv (20) &ufae‹wGif zvrf;òrd‹Y vGwfvyfaom nDvmcH usif;yI
'Drdkua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&; tkwfjrpfcscJhonf?
twdwforkdif;a=umif;udk jyefajymif;òcHikHo;kH oyf&rnfqdkv#if csif;trsKd;om;rsm;. ordkif;onf
vnf;aumif;/ csif;trsKd;om;ae‹ ay:aygufvmykHordkif;onfvnf;aumif;/ t*Fvdyfe,fcsJh vufatmuf
uGsefb0 usa&mufjcif;rS tpðya=umif; awG‹&Sd&rnfjzpfonf?
uGsefawmfonf csif;trsdK;om;wpfOD;jzpf&jcif;twGufvnf;aumif;/ csif;trsdK;om;tm;vHk;. trsdK;
om;ae‹wnf&Sdjcif;twGufvnf;aumif;/ Tordkif;rSwfwrf;tm; jyD;jynfhpHkr_r&Sdaomfjim;vnf; vufvSrf;rSDor#
ðypkjzpfonfhtwGufvnf;aumif;/ TrSwfwrf;jzifh twdwf/ ypPKy`ef/ tem*gwf. rsdK;cspfyk*~dKvftaygif;tm;
4

*g&0ðy&onfhtwGufvnf;aumif;/ rsm;pGm*k%f,l0rf;ajrmufygonf? xdk‹xufydkI csif;trsdK;om;ae‹onf
csif;trsdK;om;rsm;. 'Drdkua&pDae‹jzpfjcif;twGuf rsm;pGmydkI *k%f,l0rf;ajrmufygonf?
-csif;trsKd;om;ae‹ ay:aygufvm&jcif;aemufcHorkdif; (tusOf;) yxrydkif;
- csif;trsKd;om;rsm;ordkif;ESifh jrefrmEkdifiHorkdif;qufEG,fjcif;
- e,fcsJhpwifusL;ausmfr_ESifh ckcHawmfvSefr_ jzpfpOftusOf;
- vli,frsm;OD;aqmifr_jzifh awmfvSefa&;yDjyifvmjcif;/

csif;trsKd;om;rsm;ordkif;ESifh jrefrmEkdifiHordkif;qufEG,fjcif;
csif;trsKd;om;rsm;e,fajrESifh e,fajrcsif;qufpyfaeaom ArmjynfwGif tkyfpdk;ol ya'o&mZfrsm;.
nHhzsif;csufa=umifh ajcukwf&aeaom e,fcsJh.t&Sdefonf awmrD;yrmjyef‹ESH‹jyD; ,ckjrefrmEkdifiH[kac:wGifrnfh
a'otm;vkH;udk 0g;òrdv$rf;rdk;oGm;onfhtcsdefrSpI csif;trsKd;om;rsm;.ordkif;onf jrefrmEkdifiH.ordkif;ESifh
vnf; qufEG,fvmcJh&ayonf?
e,fcsJhawmfvSefa&;ordkif;pOfY csif;trsKd;om;rsm;onfvnf;aumif;/ jrefrmEkdifiH. jynfaxmifpk
wdkif;&if;om; vlrsKd;taygif;wkd‹onfvnf;aumif;/ e,fcsJhvufatmuf uGsefb0usa&mufaomfvnf;
te,fe,ft&yf&yfrS rsKd;cspfyk*~Kdvftaygif;onf &&mvufeuf vltiftm;jzifh ae&ma'otESH‹ rdrdwdk‹a'o
toD;oD;Y e,fcsJhudkawmfvSefcJh=uonf? odk‹aomf pkpnf;r_r&Sd/? tiftm;rr#/ t&mrxifcJhay?
e,fcsJhvufatmufusa&mufaom uGsefouf&Snf=umvmonfESifhtr# wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;aygif;pkH
pnf;vkH;nDnGwfpGm pkaygif;awmfvSerf Som atmifjrifrnfjzpfa=umif; acwfynmwwf vli,facgif;aqmifrsm;
u od&Sdoabmaygufvm=uonf? ,if;ynmwwf wuUodkvfausmif;om; vli,frsm;wGif jrefrmEkdifiH. vGwf
vyfa&;Adokumtjzpf ordkif;wGifrnfh udkatmifqef;vnf; tygt0ifjzpfonf? ,if; ynmwwfvli,frsm;.
OD;aqmifr_jzifh wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;tm;vkH; pnf;vkH;nDnGwfpGm óud;yrf;tm;xkwfjcif;.tusKd;aus;Zl;onf
vGwfvyfa&;rk'fOD;odk‹ jrefrmEkdifiHtm; ta&mufydk‹aqmifcJhayonf?
e,fcsJhpwifusL;ausmfr_ESifh ckcHawmfvSefr_rsm;jzpfpOftusOf;
csif;trsKkd;om;e,fajrudk 1824-26 t*Fvdyfjrefrmyxrppfuwnf;u e,fcsJht*FvdyfrS pwifusL;
ausmfa=umif;/ ,if;t*Fvdyf-jrefrm yxrppftjyD;wGif &ckdifurf;&kd;wef;a'oudk jAdwdo#wdk‹tm; ay;vdkuf
&pOfu yvuf0e,fESifh vla&Sawmifwef;ay:&Sd csif;trsKd;om;rsm; pwifwdkufyJG0if=ua=umif;/ xdkumvwGif
&cdkifajrmufjcrf; yvuf0a'o/ vla&Sawmifwef;qDodk‹ e,fcsJhppfa=umif;wpfa=umif; xkd;azguf0ifa&muf
cJha=umif;/ 1827 wGif tmoHjynfrSwqifh r%dyl&jrpfa=umif;twdkif; pkefqif;vmaom e,fcsJhwyfpkwpfpk
zvrf;a'otm; usL;ausmf&efp wdkufcdkufr_&SdcJhbl;a=umif;/ 1829 ckESpf {jyDvwGif e,fcsJh a=u;pm;wyf
AdkvfyguifzD;ESifh bdkvwGefwdkh OD;pD;aomppfa=umif;udk vla&Scsif;rsKd;cspfrsm; 0dkif;0ef;wdkufcdkuf&m e,fcsJhAkdvf
ESpfOD;pvkH;ESifhwyfom;trsm;tjym; usqkH;a=umif;/ 1850 ckESpf ZEM0g&DvwGif tqdkyga'oodk‹ e,fcsJhwyfrSL;
AdkvfrSL;}uD;vpPbmESifh t&m&Sd(&)OD;/ a=upm;ppfom; (229)OD; xyfrHa&muf&Sd&m wdkufyGJjyefvnf jzpfyGm;jyD;
a=u;pm;wyfrsm; tustqkH;rsm;jym;a=umif;/ 1870 ckESpf azaz:0g&DvwGif Adkvfba&mif;edef;OD;pD; aom
e,fcsJha=u;pm;wyfpcef;wpfcktm; vla&Scsif;rsKd;cspfrsm; 0ifa&mufwdkufcdkuf&m e,fcsJhwyfom;rsm; xdcdkuf
5

'%f&mtrsm;tjym;ESifh pcef;pGef‹cGmxGufajy;=u&a=umif;/ vla&Sawmifwef;csif;rsdK;om;rsm;. awmfvSefa&;
wdkufyGJudk awG‹&Sd&onf?
t*Fvdyf-jrefrm wwd,ppfudk 1885ckESpf 'DZifbmv(3)&ufae‹wGif oDaygbk&iftm;zrf;qD; ac:
aqmifEkdifjcif;jzihftqkH;owfcJhjyD; tdENd,bk&ifcH avm'f'yfz&ifu 0dwdk&d,bk&ifrodk‹ 1886 ckESpf ZEM0g&Dv (2)
&ufae‹wGif Armjynfudk ay;tyfqufocJhonf? ArmjynfrSwqifh csif;wGif;ESifh {&m0wD. taemufzufa'o
jzpfaom csif;awmifwpfckvkH; odrf;ydkufa&;tpDtpOfwGif uav;a'o umbdkcsKdifh0Srf;rS wD;wdefe,fodk‹
ppfa=umif;wpfa=umif;/ ajrmufa,ma'o xD;vif;/ *ef‹a*ge,frS [m;cg;odk‹ ppfa=umif;wpfa=umif;/
awmifa,ma'o yckuULrS rif;wyfodk‹ ppfa=umif;wpfa=umif;/ xdk;ppfqifcJha=umif;/ ,if;xdk;ppftwGuf
tiftm; (2600) xyfrH jznfhwif;&I tajrmufvufeufrsm; tokH;ðy&a=umif;/ ppfqifa&;uGyfuJr_udk 'kwd,
AdkvfcsKyf}uD; wpfOD;tm; wm0efay;cJh&a=umif;/ jAdwdo#rSwfwrf;rsm;Y az:jyxm;onf?
ajrmufydkif;csif;awmif csif;trsKd;om;rsm;. e,fcsJhawmfvSefa&;ordkif;pOfY 1887 ckESpf 'DZifbmvwGif
uav;òrd‹ jyifomqdyfpcef;tm; wD;wdefrsKd;cspfrsm;u 0ifa&mufwdkufckduf&m e,fcsJhwyfom; (5) OD; usqkH;I
csif;rsKd;cspf (4) OD; usqkH;&a=umif;/ 1887 'DZifbmv(7)&ufwGif ta&;ydkif rpPwm&dyf. tpDtpOfjzifh csD
wufvmaom ppfa=umif;wpfa=umif;udk uav;òrd‹rS (9)rdkiftuGm cdkifurf;ta&muf csif;rsdK;cspfrsm;u
csKHckdwdkufcdkuf&m a&Shajy;wyfcGJ Akdvfyg;vfrm;ESifhtwl ppfom; (4)OD;usqkH;a=umif;/ 1889 ckESpf ZEM0g&Dv (27)
&ufae‹wGif trSwf (42) a*:&cg;wyf&if;/ wyf&if;rSL; AdkvfrSL;}uD;puif;OD;pD;aomppfa=umif; csDwufvmpOf
ajreDawmifcHwyfrS csif;rsKd;cspfrsm;u wdkufckdufa=umif;/ 1889ckESpf arv(4)&ufae‹wGif trSwf(2)aemfazmh
a=u;pm;wyf tiftm;(65)a,muf/ trSwf(42)a*:&cg;wyf&if; tiftm;(65)a,mufygppfa=umif;tm;
&S,fvkHcHwyfrS csif;rsKd;cspfrsm;u wdkufcdkufa=umif;/ ,if;wdkufyJGwGif Adkvf}uD;rdef;ESifh t=uyf/ wyfom; (23) OD;
usqkH;a=umif;/ 'kAdkvfrdkufu,fESifh q&m0efvDcGit
f jyif wyfom;(13)OD; jyif;xefpGm'%f&m&a=umif;/
csif;rsKd;cspfrsm;zufY &Jabmf&Jar(27)OD;usqkH;I (2)OD;omtouf&SifvGwfajrmufa=umif;/ 1890 ckESpf ZEM0g&Dv
(2) &ufae‹wGif qwfom;&GmcHwyfrS e,fcsJha=u;pm;trSwf(24)a*:&cg;wyf&if; tiftm;(135)OD;wdk‹ twif;
0ifa&muf wdkufcdkufr_udk [m;cg;csif;rsKd;cspfwdk‹u ckcHwdkufcdkuf&m wyfpkrSL; Adkvf*sdrf;ESifh wyfom; (3)OD;
usqkH;a=umif;/ 1892 ckESpf rwfv(20)&ufae‹wGif [mcg;e,f ql&fcGm;&Gm OD;refukef;tdrfY &kd;&myGJusif;ypOf
jAdwdo#a=u;pm;wyf EkdifiHa&;t&m&dS rpPwmwyfESifh Adkvfygpdef[efOD;pD;aom trSwf(2)Armhaoewfudkif
wyf&if;rS tiftm;(80)cef‹u 0dkif;Iwdkufcdkufa=umif;/ csif;rsKd;cspf(35) OD;usqkH;I (20)ausmf'%f&m&a=umif;/
OD;refukef;. aetdrfrD;avmifa=umif; OD;refukef;tm; yckuULtxd zrf;qD;ac:aqmifI aoewf(55)vufjzifh
jyefa&G;apcJha=umif;/ 1892ckESpf rwfv(29)&ufae‹wGif xefwvefudkjzwfI oDtkd,dkbuf csDwufvmaom
tiftm;(100)ausmf&Sdonfh trSwf(39)*g0gvDwyf&if;ppfa=umif;tm; [m;cg;csif;rsKd;cspfrsm;u vmtdkAm
acsmif;wGif 0ifa&mufwdkufcdkuf&m e,fcsJhwyfom;(2)OD;usqkH;I Akdvfazghtygt0if (13)OD;'%f&m&a=umif;/
wlyDacsif;wGif xyfrHwdkufcdkuf&m e,fcsJhwyfom;(3)OD;xyfrHusqkH;a=umif;/ &Gmom;rsm;xGufajy;ykef;atmif;
ae=u&ojzifh tcktcHr&Sdaom xefwvef&Gmtm; e,fcsJhwdk‹u rD;&_d‹zsufqD;a=umif;/ zdk‹wf0_dufrS pwifcsDwuf
vmaomppfa=umif;ESifh [m;cg;rScsDwufvmaomppfa=umif;wdk‹ 1890ckESpf rwfvwGifqHkjyD; zvrf;udk
0dkif;wdkuf&m 1890ckESpf rwfv(14)&ufae‹wGif zvrf;udkodrf;ydkufa=umif;/ e,fcsJhawmfvSefa&;ordkif;pOfY
awG‹&Sd&ayonf?
csif;awmif;wef; a,ma'o. e,fcsJhawmfvSefa&;jzpfpOfwGif 1886ESpfOD;rSpwifI yk*Hta&;ydkif
uy`wdef*sDtufpfat&mu a,ma'o odrf;ydkufa&;óud;yrf;a=umif;/ 1886ckESpf ZEM0g&DvwGif a,ma'o
t}uD;tuJrsm;xHodk‹ jAdwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;udk tomw=unfvufcH=ua&; aqG;aEG;nd‡Ed_if;&efESifh ,if;wdk‹qENrsm;
6

pkHprf;&ef vufzwifeifatyDavmfwifESifhtzGJ‹udk apv$wfa=umif;/ a,m/ aqm/ avmif;&Snf/ awmifa,mwdk‹u
vufcHI xD;vif;/ *ef‹a*g/ ajrmufa,mwdk‹u vufrcHa=umif;/ atyDavmfwifESifhtzGJ‹onf wdwfwqdwf
rif;wyftxd a&muf&SdcJh=ua=umif;/ a,ma'owdkufcdkufodrf;ydkufa&;ppfa=umif; 1886ckESpf 'DZifbmvqef;
wGif yk*Hwzufurf;/ jrpfajcrSpwifcsDwufvma=umif;/ a,mòrd‹ol}uD; OD;&muGwfu vrf;rSqD;I ckcHaomfvnf;
ta&;edrfha=umif;/ 1886ckESpf 'DZifbmv (8) &ufae‹wGif aygufòrd‹udk e,fcsJhwdk‹odrf;ydkufa=umif;/ aygufòrd‹wGif
a,ma'ot}uD;tuJrsm;ESifh uy`wdefat&mwdk‹awG‹qkHa=umif;/ aygufrSwqifh ajrmufa,ma'oodrf;ydkuf
a&;twGuf qufvufcsDwufa=umif;/ v,fOD;ol}uD; aq*g (iq*g) qD;IckcHaomfvnf; ta&;edrfha=umif;/
1886ckESpf 'DZifbmv(19)&ufae‹wGif ausm&Gm/ 1887ckESpf ZEM0g&Dv(9)&ufae‹wGif xD;vif;/ 1887ckESpf
azaz:0g&Dv(12)&ufae‹wGif rif;&Gm/ 1887ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(14)&ufae‹wGif *ef‹a*gwdk‹tm; e,fcsJhrSodrf;ydkuf
EkdifcJha=umif; awG‹&Sd&ayonf?
awmifydkif;csif;awmif rif;wyf/ uefyufvufa'o. e,fcsJhawmfvSefa&; ordkif;pOfwGif 1886ckESpf
azaz:0g&Ddv(21)&ufae‹wGif vufzwifeifatyDavmfwifESifh *sr'grmruftvDwdk‹ acgif;aqmifonfh a&S‹ajy;
olv#dKwyf(75)OD; ,ckrif;wyfòrd‹wnf&Sdrnfhae&modk‹ yxrOD;qkH;a&muf&Sda=umif;/ wpfnwnf;aeI jyefxGuf
oGm;=ua=umif; 1887wGif ykHawmifykHnmcHwyfrS qD;IckcHa=umif;/ 1888wGif a,myqkyf ajymif;IckcH&m
ar*smtJ,m;tygt0if e,fcsJhwyfom;(300)ausmf usqkH;a=umif;/ ,if;rS vkwfwufpcef;odk‹ ajymif;vJckcH&m
qifxm;onfh ausmufarmif;rdI uy`wdef&,feDtygt0if (30)usqkH;a=umif;/ ,if;1888wGif ,ckrif;wyfòrd‹
wnf&Sdrnfhae&modk‹ t*Fvdyfrsm; wyfpGJoGm;jzpfa=umif;/ 1890wGif rif;wyfteD;tem;&Gmrsm; vlpkI
awmfvSefwdkufyGJqif=ua=umif;/ 1891-92rsm;wGif csDacsmif;e,f/ armif;acsif;e,f csif;rsKd;cspfrsm; pkaygif;I
awmfvSefwdkufyGJqifEGJ=ua=umif;/ 1895wGif rkef;acsmif;e,f qm'l;/ rcsKH/ &kd;azmife,frsm;uyg vma&muf
wdkufcdkuf=ua=umif;/ 1896wGif rcsKH&Gmtm; t*FvdyfppfwyfrS 0ifa&mufwdkufcdkufrD;&_d‹a=umif;/ 1897 wGif
rif;wyfe,f 'D;wGDpcef;rS [Davmif;&Gm/ ,if;rSwqifh ,ckuefyufvufòrd‹a[mif;ae&modk‹ t*Fvdyfppfwyfrsm;
ajymif;a&$‹a=umif;/ 1901 ckESpfwGif uefyufvufòrd‹udk pwifwnfaxmifa=umif;/ 1908 rS 1911 txd
opfawmrsm;udk óud;0dkif;a=umif;/ csDacsmif;zsm;/ a,macsmif;zsm;a'orsm;. awmfvSefr_wdkufyGJrsm;onf
1918-19 ESpfrsm;wdkif tqufrjywfa=umif;/ pkpnf;r_r&Sd acwfrSDvufeufrr#I atmifjrifr_r&a=umif;
awG‹&Sd&ayonf?
e,fcsJhwdk‹onf csif;awmiftm; jAdwdo#tifyg,m. tpdwftydkif;tjzpf odrf;ydkufjyD;jzpfa=umif;/
1895ckESpf pufwifbmv(6)&ufae‹wGif a=ujimaomfvnf; trSefpifppf csif;awmifa'otm;vHk;udk odrf;ydkuf
Edkifjcif;r&Sdyg?
vli,frsm;acgif;aqmifr_jzifh awmfvSefa&; yDjyifvmjcif;/
csif;trsKd;om;rsm;. e,fcsJhawmfvSefa&;ordkif;pOfudk jyefvnfokH;oyfyguvnf; acwfynmtajccH
&Sdaomvli,frsm; OD;aqmifvmonfhaemufydkif;wGif ta&;ygt&ma&mufaom awmfvSefa&;tjzpf yDjyifvm
a=umif; awG‹&Sd&ayonf? ,if;vli,frsm;wGif csif;trsKd;om;acgif;aqmif}uD; OD;0rRol;armif; tygt0ifjzpf
onf?
e,fcsJhtkyfcsKyfr_twef=umvmonfESifhtr# acwfynmtawmftoifh&Sdaom vli,ftcsKd‹onfvnf;
jAdwdo#tpdk;&tr_xrf; jzpfvm=uonf? t*Fvdyfppfwyfonf te,fe,ft&yf&yfrS csif;trsKd;om; nDtpfudk

7

rsm;. qkHqnf;&yfozG,f jzpfvmonf? acwfynmwwfa&;onf t"du vdktyfcsufjzpfa=umif; od&Sdvm
=uonf? r=umc% nSdEd_if;r_rsm;&SdvmcJhonf?
odk‹jzihf csif;trsKd;om;rsm;. yxrOD;qkH;aom vlr_a&;tzGJ‹tpnf;jzpfonfh “csif;trsKd;om;rsm;
ynma&; jr‡ifhwifa&;tzGJ‹”udk aròrd‹/ rEWav;t*FvdyfppfwyfwGif tr_xrf;=uaom csif;trsKd;om;rsm;u 1918
ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹wGif zGJ‹pnf;cJh=uonf? OuUX-Adkvf}uD;tGrfydkif;/ 'kOuUX- 0rRol;armif;/
twGif;a&;rSL;- &ufavmif;vdef;ESifh tzGJ‹0ifvla&S/ t&d_/ awmifydkif; ajrmufydkif; csif;trsKd;om;rsm; yg0ifonf?
,if;.tusKd;qufrSm csif;awmifwGif 1918Y ynma&;awmfvSefr_jzpfay:jyD; 1927wGif bmoma&;
awmfvSr_ ay:aygufcJhonf? EkdifiHa&;awmfvSefr_rsm;udkrl 1935wGifpwifI tqufrjywf qifE$J=ua=umif;
awG‹&Sd&ayonf?
csif;trsKd;om;ae‹ay:aygufvm&jcif; aemufcHordkif; (tusOf;) 'kwd,ydkif;
-EkdifiHa&; tzGJ‹tpnf; ay:aygufvmjcif;
-csif;awmifnDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹
-csif;trsKd;om;rsm;nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹
-t*Fvdyfodk‹ &mZoH (9)csuf

EdkifiHa&;tzGJ‹tpnf; ay:aygufvmjcif;
1924ckESpfwGif OD;0rRol;armif;onf t*FvdyfppfwyfrS E_wfxGufjyD; rdrdZmwd 0rRol;&GmY pmoif
ausmif;zGifhvSpf udk,fwdkifausmif;q&mvkyfum vli,fynmwwfrsm;arG;xkwf&ef pwifóud;yrf;cJhonf? 1927
bmoma&;awmfvSefr_tjyD; EkdifiHa&;awmfvSefr_rsm;udk xda&mufpGmqifE$JEdkif&ef EkdifiHa&;tzGJ‹tpnf; wpf&yf
wduscdkifrmpGm zGJ‹pnf;xlaxmifI wpnf;wvkH;wnf; nDnGwfpGmawmfvSefa&;qifE$JrSom atmifjrifrnf
jzpfa=umif; acwfynmtajccH&Sdaom csif;trsKd;om; vli,frsm;tm; OD;0rRol;armif; pnf;&kH;cJhonf?
csif;awmifnDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹
tqdkygvli,fxk. tajr‡mftjrifESifhpkpnf;r_a=umifh csif;trsKd;om;rsm;. yxrOD;qkH;aom EkdifiHa&;
tzGJ‹tpnf;jzpfonfh“ csif;awmifnDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹” udk 1928ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv (20) &ufae‹wGif rif;wyfe,f
vSd&kH;aus;&GmY y%mr zGJ‹pnf;xlaxmifcJh=uonf? ,if;tzGJ‹. OD;pD;acgif;aqmifrsm;rSm OuUX-vSd&kH;ol}uD;
[mxef;tGrf/ 'kOuUX-0rRol;armif;/ twGif;a&;rSL;-0&Javm[m/ b¾ma&;rSL;-uD;azvdef; (aemifocif
atmifrif;)/ jyef=um;a&;rSL;-rokHEl;uD;rmefwdk‹tygt0if tzGJ‹0if(12)OD; yg0ifcJhonf? ,if;zGJ‹pnf;aom
ae‹&ufY acgif;aqmifrsm; omreftqifhtwef;jzifh tvGwfoabm vsdK‹0SufqkHawG‹ zGJ‹pnf;cJh=uonf r[kwfyg?
ol}uD;[mxef;tGrfrS "avhxkH;pHESifhtnD EGm;aemuf(10)aumifjynfhjzifh vkH,l;(Armtac: acgifyGJ) usif;yI
,if;acgif;aqmifrsm;tm; zdwf=um;OD;aqmifjyD; opPm&nfaomuf zGJ‹pnf;cJh=ujcif; jzpfonf?
,if;tcsdefonf 4if;zGifhvSpfaom 0rRol;ausmif; pmoifausmif;aqmifudk om;em;useatmif
aqmufvkyf&ef OD;0rRol;armif; vkH;yrf;aeaom tcsdefvnf; jzpfonf? aqmufvkyfaom ausmif;aqmifzGihfyGJ
tjzpf csif;"avhxkH;pHESifhtnD 1929ckESpf arv(31)&ufae‹Y vkH,l;yGJusif;yjyD; tqdkygvSd&kH;ol}uD;[mxef;tGrf
tygt0if tzGJ‹acgif;aqmiftm;vkH;tjyif acgif;aqmifopfrsm;udkyg zdwf=um;jyD; awmfvSefa&;tpDtpOfrsm;udk
tao;pdwf n‡dEd_if;cJh=uonf?
8

tqdkygn‡dE_dif;r_rS csrSwfonfh a&S‹vkyfief;pOft& csif;awmifnDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹. vlxknDvmcHudk 1932
ckESpf pufwifbmv(29)&ufae‹wGif 0&J&GmY usif;yjyD; csif;trsKd;om;vlxktwGif; ynm/ usef;rm tp&Sdonfh
vlr_a&;tygt0if pD;yGg;a&;u¾tm;vkH; yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf&ef/ jynfrESifhtjcm;wdkif;&if;om;nDtudk aoG;&if;
om;&if;rsm;ESifh qufoG,f&ef/ e,fcsJhtpdk;&udk taES;ESifhtjref awmfvSefwdkufcdkuf&ef qkH;jzwfcsufrsm;
csrSwfcJh=uonf? (xdkpOfu jynfra'oESifh awmifwef;a'o ul;vl;qufqHcGifhudk t*Fvdyftpdk;&u ydwfyif
xm;onf? )
,if;qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;t& jynfr&SdEkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;ESifhqufoG,f&ef OD;0rRol;armif;/ OD;uD;azvdef; (c)
ocifatmifrif;/ xm;avmif;tGrfedef;(c) ocifatmifnGef‹/ roHkEl;uD;rmefwdk‹udk &efukefodk‹apv$wfcJh=uonf?
csif;awmifnDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹. óud;yrf;tm;xkwf qufoG,fr_onf jynfr&Sd “'kd‹Arm tpnf;t&kH;” tp&Sdaom
EkdifiHa&;tzGJ‹tpnf;rsm;udk rsm;pGmwuf=uGEdk;=um;apcJhonf? csif;awmifnDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹ESifh 'dk‹Armtpnf;
t&kH;wdk‹. yl;aygif;r_onf vGwv
f yfa&;wdkufyGJtm; t&Sdeft[kef rsm;pGm jr‡ifhwifEkdifcJhonf?
csif;trsKd;om;rsm; nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹
csif;awmifnDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹. vlxknDvmcHudk 1933ckESpf rwfv(24-25)&ufae‹rsm;wGif rif;wyfe,f
roHkEl;aus;&GmY xyfrHusif;yI tzGJ‹.trnfudk jyefvnfoHk;oyfjyifqifr_ESifh tzGJ‹tpnf;udkvnf;
us,fjyef‹cdkifrmpGm wdk;csJhjyifqifr_òyvkyfcJhonf? tzGJ‹. trnfudk jyefvnfoHk;oyf&mY rdrdwdk‹u csif;awmif[k
&nfn$ef;onfrSm csif;trsKd;om;xkwpf&yfvkH;udk udk,fpm;òyxm;aomfvnf; t*Fvdyftpdk;&rS vla&Sawmif
wef;/ em*awmifwef;/ csif;awmifwef; pojzifh cJGjcm;ac:a0:r_rsm; &SdaejyDjzpf&m csif;awmiftpm; csif;trsKd;
om;[k ac:wGif&ef/ csif;trsKd;om;e,fajrtm;vkH;yg0ifaom pkpnf;r_jzpfa&; OD;wnfóud;yrf;&ef aqG;aEG;nd‡Ed_if;
jyD; atmufyg qkH;jzwfcsufrsm; csrSwfcJh=uonf?
qHk;jzwftwnfðycsufrsm;
tzGJ‹.trnf - “csif;trsKd;om;rsm; nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹ ( crnz )” [kac:wGif&ef/
xm;&Sd&rnfh0g' - 'Drdkua&pD0g'/
&nf&G,fcsuf - (1) rdrdwdk‹=urRmudk rdrw
d dk‹omv#if zefwD;EkdifcGifh &Sdap&ef/
(2) vufawG‹aqmif&Guf&mwGif e,fcsJhvufatmufcH wdkif;jynfEkdifiH/ vlrsKd;tm;vkH;wdk‹ESifh
vufwGJvsuf yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf&ef/
zGJ‹pnf;ykH (1) A[dkOD;pD;tzGJ‹ (odk‹) A[dktvkyftr_aqmiftzGJ‹/
(2) wdkufe,frsm; (odk‹) òrd‹e,ftr_aqmif/
(3) aus;&Gm tr_aqmiftzGJ‹/
(4) pnf;&kH;a&;wm0efcHrsm;/
(5) trsKd;oRD;rsm;tzGJ‹/
A[dktvkyftr_aqmiftzGJ‹
(1) OuUX
(2) 'kOuUX
(3) twGif;a&;rSL;
(4) 'ktwGif;a&;rSL;
(5) wGJbuftwGif;a&;rSL;

- OD; 0rRol;armif;
- OD; 0&Javm[m
- OD; uD;azvdef;
- OD; tGrfedef;
- OD; bluD;[kef;

0rRol;&Gm
0&J&Gm
awmifukef;&Gm
xm;avmif;&Gm
pyfaumuf&Gm
9

(6) tr_aqmif
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)

?
?
?
?
?
?

wdkufe,ftr_aqmifrsm;
(1) aESmfacsmif;wdkuf (2) awmif;ukef;wdkuf(3) a,macsmif;wdkuf (4) armif;acsmif;wdkuf (5) csDacsmif;wdkuf (6) ta&S‹&if'l;wdkuf (7) usifa'G;wdkuf (8) taemuf&if'l;wdkuf (9) qm'l;wdkuf (10) vSdrRqefwdkuf (11) cifazmifwdkuf (12) csefjyef;wdkuf (13) rcsKH&kdwdkuf (14) a&mif0gwdkuf -

- OD; xef;abG
- OD; xef;&Sdef;
- OD; vdef;a*
- OD; a,mvdef;
- OD; xef;[m
- OD; 0rRol;idkif;
- OD; tGrf[m

cGD&def&Gm
ydkif;wDG&Gm
ydkif;wDG&Gm
yef;avmif;&Gm
abmif&Gm
0rRol;&Gm
wDG&def&Gm

OD; avm[mvdef;/ OD; avmtGrf[m/ OD; edefbluD;?
OD; tGrfedef?
OD; [kef;edef;vdef;/ OD; idkif;edefcDG&Sdef;/ OD; a*vdef;?
OD; avmuD;[m/ OD; a'guf'GJxef;Edkif;/ OD; rif;Ekdif;xef;avm?
OD; rmefvdef;/ OD; =umefedef?
OD; Ekdif;vdef;om/ OD; xef;xGef;?
OD; vkH;/ OD; =u,f}uD;?
OD; xef;Edkif;/ OD; rfem;Edkif;?
OD; rfem;uD;/ OD; [ma*/ OD; [midkif;?
OD; [kef;rem;/ OD; r'grem;xef;/ OD; uD;ydkif;?
OD; udrfvdef/ OD; [mEl?
OD; bef;r/ OD;oef;at/ OD; rfvkHvSL;?
OD; tGrfavG/ OD; &kdvduD;/ OD; wDG'defidkif;avGxef;?
OD; vGJuD;vif/ OD;&Spf0gEl;edefuD;avm/ OD;&mwdef;/ OD; uef&m;?

aus;&Gmtr_aqmiftzGJ‹
aus;&Gmtvdkuf rdrdwdk‹tpDtpOfjzifh udk,fpDzGJ‹pnf;&ef/
pnf;&kH;a&;wm0efcHrsm;
(1) OD;vdef;avmuD; cufavmif;&Gm/
(2) OD;edef;xef; xm;0g&Gm/
(3) OD;idkif;[m oDGyef;&Gm/
(4) OD;uD;idkif; wDG&def&Gm/
(5) OD;uD;a* wDG&def&Gm/
(6) OD;vDa*&Sdef; cufavmif;&Gm/
(7) OD;avmuD;vdef; pGefawmif&Gm/
(8) OD;cDG&defidkif; cDG&def&Gm/
(9) OD;atmifvdef; xm;avmif;&Gm/
(10) OD;tGrfwrf xm;avmif;&Gm/
(11) OD;idkif;Ekdif; abmif&Gm/
(12) OD;vdef;El wDG'def&Gm/
(13) OD;idkif;avGxef; rcsKH&Gm/

10

trsKdoRD;rsm;tzGJ‹
(1) OuUX
- a':c,favmxHk
vSd&kH;&Gm/
(2) twGif;a&;rSL;
- a':tGrf&def
awmifukef;&Gm/
(3) wGJbuftwGif;a&;rSL; - a':xefrH
awmifukef;&Gm/
(4)
tr_aqmif
- a':vdef;&S,fa&mif
0rRol;&Gm/
(5)
?
- a':a*wD;
0rRol;&Gm/
(6)
?
- a':[ma&mif
0rRol;&Gm/
(7)
?
- a':xef;&$D
xm;avmif;&Gm/
(8)
?
- a':uD;vdkif;
cDG&def&Gm/
(9)
?
- a':rmefxef;ydkif
0&J&Gm/
(10)
?
- a':aAGydkif
vSda,m&Gm?
¡csif;awmifnDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹udk OD;aqmifzGJ‹pnf;cJhaom OD;[mxef;tGrf uG,fvGefoGm;I csif;trsKd;om;
rsm; nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹Y ryg0ifawmhay?¢
t*Fvdyftpdk;&odk‹ &mZoH (9) csuf
csif;trsKd;om;rsm; nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹. 'kwd,t}udrf nDvmcHudk rif;wyfe,f 0&J&GmY 1934 ckESpf
pufwifbmv (29) &ufae‹wGif usif;ycJhonf? ,if;nDvmcHrS e,fcsJht*Fvdyftpdk;&odk‹ atmufygtcsuf (9)
csufudk &J&ifhjywfom;pGm awmif;qkdcJhonf?
(1) csif;awmifwef;a'o tkyfcsKyfa&;udk jynfrESifh wef;wltcGifhta&;ay;&ef/
(2) csif;awmif tkyfcsKyfa&;wGif csif;trsKd;om; udk,fpm;vS,frsm; yg0ifa&;qGJaom Oya'om usifhoHk;&ef/
(3) ynma&;/ usef;rma&;paom vlr_a&;ESifh pD;yGg;a&; wkd;wufzGifhòzd;a&;twGuf ðyjyifaqmif&Gufay;&ef/
(4) csif;awmifynma&;pepfudk tjrefqHk;ðyjyifaqmif&Gufay;&ef(t*Fvdyfpmtjyif jrefrmpmudkyg oif=um;cGifhðy&ef)/
(5) bmoma&; vGwfvyfcGifhay;&ef/
(6) csif;awmif vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&; aumif;rGefatmif tjrefqkH; azgufvkyfay;&ef/
(7) jynfrESifh csif;awmifwef;a'o vGwfvyfpGm ul;vl;qufqHcGifhðy&ef/
(8) csif;vlrsKd;wdk‹tm; rnfonfhvlrsKd;ESifhrqdk wef;wl&nfwl qufqHcGifhðy&ef/
(9) jrefrmEkdifiHudk vGwfvyfa&;ay;aomtcg csif;awmifudkyg wygwnf; vGwfvyfa&; ay;&ef?
txufyg awmif;qdkcsuf (9) &yfESifh ywfoufI t*Fvdyftpdk;&u 1937 ckESpf 'DZifbmv (17) &uf
ae‹pGJygpmjzifh 1938ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹wGif uefyufvufòrd‹Y awG‹qkHaqG;aEG;&ef csif;trsKd;om;rsm;
nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹odk‹ ta=umif; =um;cJhonf?
csif;trsKd;om;ae‹ ay:aygufvmykH aemufcHorkdif; (tusOf;) wwd,ydkif;
· uefyufvuf awmfvSefa&; oydwf/
· awmifwef;om;rsm; pnf;vkH;nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹/
· csif;awmfvSefa&; acgif;aqmifrsm; tzrf;cH&jcif;/
· awmfvSefa&;tp csif;awmifu/
· wpfAdkvfus wpfAdkvfwuf/ 'l;raxmuf vufrajr‡muf/
· *syefr[mrdwfppfESifh csif;awmiftkyfcsKyfa&;/
· AdkvfcsKyfESifh OD;0rRol;armif;/
· csif;awmfvSefa&; wyfzGJ‹ESifh zufqpf*syef awmfvSefa&;/

11

uefyufvuf awmfvSefa&;oydwf
,if; 1938ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹ uefyufvufòrd‹/ t*Fvdyftpdk;&ESifh csif;trsKd;om;rsm;
nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹ awG‹qkHaqG;aEG;yGJY t*Fvdyftpdk;&udk,fpm;vS,frsm;tjzpf rauG;wdkif; 0ef&Sifawmfrif;}uD; MR.
MECRAKEN zvrf;c&kdif0ef MR. NILA uefyufvuf e,fydkif0efaxmuf J. PHOONYO wdk‹OD;aqmifaom ykvdyfESifh
tr_xrf; (300)ausmf wufa&muf=uonf? ,if;tpnf;ta0;Y wdkif;rif;}uD;rS awmif;qkdcsuf (9)&yfpvkH;udk
t*Fvdyftpdk;&u wpfckr# rvdkufavsmEkdifa=umif; a=ujimonfhtjyif csif;acgif;aqmifrsm;tm; EkdifiHa&;rvkyf/
twdkuftcHrvkyfbJ tpdk;&ay;aom&mxl;rsm;udk vufcH=u&ef/ tpdk;&udkqef‹usifygu zrf;qD;axmifcsjcif;
cH&rnf[kcsdrf;ajcmuf&m oHk;axmifausmf&Sdaom csif;vlxky&dwfowfrsm; rcHr&yfEdkif jzpfvm=ujyD; “e,fcsJh
tpdk;& tvdkr&Sd/ xGufoGm;”[k vufoD;vufarmif;wef;um csufjcif;a=uG;a=umf oydwfarSmuf qENjy=u
onf? t*Fvdyftpdk;&cef‹xm;aom wdkufol}uD;(36)OD;wdk‹uvnf; ,if;wdk‹cef‹pmrsm; jyefvnfay;tyfI
&mxl;rS E_wfxGuf qENjy=uonf? ,if;t*Fvdyftpdk;& udk,fpm;vS,frsm; nwGif;csif; aqmòrd‹odk‹ jyefvnf
xGufajy;=uonf? awG‹qHkyGJtwGuf &ufcsdef;pmxGufuwnf;u csif;vlxktm;vkH; pdwf0ifpm;jyD; te,fe,f
t&yf&yfrS rdrdtpDtpOfjzifh 4if;&uftrSD a&muf&Sdae=uojzifh y&dwfowf tiftm;rsm;jym;aejcif;udkvnf;
t*Fvdyftpdk;& udk,fpm;vS,frsm; rsm;pGmtHhtm;oifhcJh=uonf[k qdkonf?
awmifwef;om;rsm; pnf;vkH;nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹
,if;uefyufvuf awG‹qkHyGJtjyD; 1938ckESpf rwfv(18) &ufae‹ &Srf;jynf anmifa&$òrdY usif;yaom
&Srf;/ csif;/ ucsif/ u&if/ u,m; awmifwef;om;rsm; tpnf;ta0;odk‹ csif;trsKd;om;rsm; nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹ESifh
csif;trsKd;om;tm;vkH;udk,fpm; OD;0rRol;armif; wufa&mufcJhonf? ,if;tpnf;ta0;rS “awmifwef;om;rsm;
pnf;vkH;nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹”udk zGJ‹pnf;cJhonf? awmifwef;a'oESifh jynfra'o yl;aygif;I vGwfvyfa&;udk
t&,l&ef/ vGwfvyfa&;&&Sdu jynfaxmifpktjzpf yl;aygif;&ef aqG;aEG;qkH;jzwfcJh=uonf?
csif;awmfvSefa&; acgif;aqmifrsm; tzrf;cH&jcif;
uefyufvuf ta&;tcif;ESifhywfoufI t*Fvdyftpdk;&onf wpfESpfwmeD;yg; tcsdef,lI tpDtpOf
rsm;ðyvkyfjyD; 1939ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹wGifzvrf;c&kdif0efrS csif;trsKd;om;rsm;nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹udk
rw&m;toif;a=ujimI csif;acgif;aqmifrsm;tm; emrnfysufa=ujimaomtrdef‹xkwfjyefum vdkufvH
zrf;qD;cJhonf?
yxrtokwf zrf;qD;cH&aom acgif;aqmifrsm;rSm - OD;0rRol;armif;/ OD;0&Javm[m/ OD;uD;azvdef;
(c) ocifatmifrif;/ OD;tGrfedef; (c) ocifatmifnGef‹/ OD;atmifvdef; (c) ocifatmifZH/ OD;tGrfwrf (c)
ocifbwif/ OD;0rRol;idkif;/ OD;uD;rmef/ OD;vdef;a* pkpkaygif; (9) OD; jzpfonf?
(,if;ae‹wGif vSd,Hk;&GmrS a':c,favmxHk/ awmifukef;&GmrS a':idkif;tGrf&def/ a':[m xef;rH/ a':idkif;a*vSL;
trsdK;orD; (4)OD;udkvnf; t*Fvdyftpdk;&u zrf;qD;ppfaq;cJhonf? bkef;=uD;OD;wdou EdkifiHa&;ESifh
rygwfoufa=umif; ajz=um;=u&ef ñudwifoifay;xm;ojzifh tajzaumif;I jyefvGwf=uonf[k qdkonf)?
'kwd,tokwf 1939 ckESpf ZGefv (15) &ufae‹ tzrf;cH&olrsm;rSm - OD;avmvdef; (yef;avmif;)/
OD;uD;a*&Sdef; (vGJyef;)/ OD;idkif;cGsrf (vGJyef;)/ OD;vdef;c,f (0&J)/ OD;tGrfydkif; (cGJvkH)/ OD;cGD&defidkif; (cGD&def)/ OD;xef;abG
12

(cGD&def)/ OD;uD;a* (wDG&def)/ OD;uD;idkif; (wGD&def)/ OD;tGrf[m (wDG&def)/ OD;vdef;avmuD; (cufavmif;)/ OD;xef;avm
(abmif)/ OD;xef;[m (abmif)/ OD;bluD;[kef; (pyfaumuf)/ OD;vDa*&Sdef; (cufavmif;) pkpkaygif; (15) OD;
jzpfonf?
wwd,tokwf zrf;qD;cH&olrsm;rSm - OD;avm[m (abmif)/ OD;xef;abG (abmif)/ OD;vdef;xef;
(abmif)/ OD;xef;avm (abmif)/ OD;xef;a*idkif; (abmif)/ OD;a,mvifidkif; (vSdrRqef)/ OD;avm[mxef;
(vSdrRqef)/ OD;vdef;avG (odef;)/ OD;tGrfvdef;a&$ (odef;)/ OD;uD;tGrfom (odef;)/ OD;idkif;avG (qm'l;)/ OD;uD;Ed_uf
(qm'l;)/ OD;xifavSmfvdef; (qm'l;)/ OD;vdef;xef; (&Suf)/ OD;,Grf;wrfvdef; (cswf)/ OD;uD;&Sdef;a* (wkHvdkif)/
OD;rfem;vdef; (vJom)/ OD;&kdavG (vJom) pkpkaygif; (18)OD; jzpfonf?
pwkwˆtokwf zrf;qD;cH&olrsm;rSm - OD;[mxef; (abmif)/ OD;uD;a,m (òyH;)/ OD;atmifedef;
(awmifukef;)/ OD;avmarmif; (awmifukef;)/ OD;idkif;edef; (rol;)/ OD;avm[mtGrf (wGDyvef;)/ OD;cGsrfuD;tGrf
(yef;yg)/ OD;idkif;uD; (oDGyef;)/ OD;idkif;[m (oDGyef;)/ OD;[kef;edef;xef; (xm;0g)/ OD;a*vdef; (cGD&def;) pkpkaygif;
(11)OD;jzpfonf?
1940 ckESpf arv (21) &ufae‹ zrf;qD;aom yOPrESifh aemufqkH;tokwf zrf;qD;cH&olrsm;rSm- OD;
avmuD;a*armif; (awmifukef;)/ OD;ikdif;a* (awmifukef;)/ OD;a,mvdef;xef; (yef;avmif;)/ OD;a,mvdef;wyf
(yef;avmif;)/ OD;xef;&Sdef;armif; (vGJyef;)/ OD;vGJ[kef; (&kd)/ OD;csKdiftGrf (&kd)/OD;avmEkdif;ar(&kd)/ OD;[mvdef;Ekdif; (&kd)/
OD;abGxef;vdef; (&kd)/ OD;vdef;[m (&kd)/ OD;vdkufEkdif;xef; (&kd)/ OD;uD;avG (&dk)/ OD; uD;wrfxkef (&kd)/ OD;rfem;Ekdif;armif;
(&kd)/ OD;a,muD;tGrf (&dk)/ OD;vdef;Ekdif;xkef (&kd))/ OD;vGJuD;vif; (&dk)/ OD;arvdef;(&dk)/ OD;Ekdif;idkif;[kef;(&dk)/
OD;vdef;tGrfrem;(&dk)/ OD;xef;Ekdif;(&kd)/ OD;a*idkif;uD;(&dk)/ OD;xef;abG(&dk)/ OD;&kdEdkif;a,m(&dk)/ pkpkaygif; (16)OD;&Sdonf?
txufyg yxrrSyOProkwftxd zrf;qD;xm;aom(79)OD;udk zvrf;/ [m;cg;/ wD;wdef/ yckuUL/ jrif;jcH/
rEWav;/ uomaxmifrsm;odk‹ cGJa0I4if;/ axmifrsm;wckjyD;wpfck ajymif;ajymif;I4if; csKyfaESmifcJhonf?
,if;(79)OD;tjyif uefyufvuftcsKyfY wpfESpfcsKyfaESmifjyD; ulvDtjzpf qufvufcdkif;apcH&aomolrsm;rSmOD;uD;tGrfidkif;/ OD;Ekdif;atmifxef;/ OD;uD;tGrf;/ OD;tGrfavG/ OD;xef;vdef;ikdif;/ OD;arvifuD;/ OD;xef;&$Dvdef;/
OD;Ekdif;a,m/ OD;abGuD;tGrf/ OD;xkefxef;tGrf/ OD;vD&S,fuD;/ OD;EkdiftGrf/ OD;Ekdif;xGef;/ OD;uD;cGDtGrf/ OD;vdef;tGrf/
OD;abGa*/ OD;xef;cGDtGrf/ OD;uD;atmifxef;/ OD;uD;omxef;/ OD;xkefxefxGef;/ OD;a*armif;vdef;/ OD;tGrf[mwyf/
OD;idkif;uD;Ekdif;/ OD;armif;idkif;uD;/ OD;xefvdef;/ OD;uD;tGrfarmif;/ OD;Ekdif;armif;Edkif;/ OD;vdef;omxef;/ OD;Ekdif;tGrfarmif;/
OD;Ekdif;xef;/ OD;[kef;idkif;/ OD;uD;tGrf/ OD;tGrf/ OD;idkif;cGDtGrf/ OD;rdefxkefuD;/ OD;wdarmif;/ OD;uD;xef;cGDtGrf/ OD;vdef;abG/
OD;Ekdif;vdef;ar/ OD;uD;xef;vif/ OD;Ekdif;a*/ OD;tGrfuD;/ OD;[mvdef;abG/ OD;cDGatmifxef/ OD;a*armif;/ OD;vdef;bG,f/
OD;uD;tGrfxGef;/ OD;rdefxkefEdkif;/ OD;abGxef; pkpkaygif; (49)OD; &Sdonf?
OD;0rRol;armif; tygt0if yxrtokwf tzrf;cH&aomacgif;aqmif(9)OD; uomaxmifY tcsKyf
aESmifcH&pOf 1942ckESpf *syefrsm;AkH;}uJI axmifaygufojzifh toufrao jyefvnfvGwfajrmufvm=uaomf
vnf; axmif'%f/ AkH;'%fa=umifh OD;0&Javm[mrSm xm0& &l;oGyfoGm;cJhonf?
awmfvSefa&;tp csif;awmifu
csif;awmfvSefa&;acgif;aqmifrsm; tokwfvkduf tokwfvdkuf tzrf;qD;cH axmifwGif;a&mufae=upOf
'kd‹Armtpnf;t&kH; [oFmwnDvmcHusif;yI tjyef ZvGefa'gif=uD;tpnf;t&kH;. zdwfac:csuft& - 1940
ckESpf ZGefv(2)&ufae‹ ta&;ay:tpnf;ta0;Y ocifatmifqef;rS vlenf;pkjzpfaom csif;acgif;aqmif
13

rsm;yifv#if Tr#axmifuswdkufydwfcHI udk,fusKd;pGef‹tepfemcHjyD; vGwfvyfa&;óud;yrf;ae=ujyDjzpfa=umif;/
vlrsm;pkjzpfaomArmrsm; awGa0rdef;armrae=u&efESifh ,if;odk‹ axmifwGif;a&mufaeaom csif;acgif;aqmif
rsm;tm;vnf; wwfEkdifor# tultnDrsm;ay;=u&efa[majymojzifh y&dwfowfrsm; rsm;pGmwuf=uGEkd;=um;
cJhonf? ,if;tpnf;ta0;wGif csif;acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh csif;awmfvSefa&;ta=umif; a[majym&efarhaecJh
aomfvnf;/ ,if;ta=umif;ra[majym&ef e,fajrykvdyft&m&Sd rpPwmaZAD;,m;. Edk‹wpf&ojzifh 0rf;om
tm;& a[majymcJh&a=umif; ocifatmifqef;rS qdkygonf?
,if;ESifhywfoufI rpPwmaZAD;,m;rS ocifatmifqef;tm; ig;usyfwef 0&rf;xkwfum zrf;qD;
apcJhonf? ocifatmifqef;rS tzrf;qD;cHaxmifuscHv#if csif;acgif;aqmifrsm;enf;wl ta&;}uD;aom tcsdef
rsm; tv[\ tcsnf;tESD; jzpfvdrfhrnf[k a&Smifwdrf;&ef &kwfw&uf pDpOfcJh&onf? odk‹jzifh 1940 jynfh
ZGefv(5)&ufwGif jynfyodk‹ xGufcgG oGm;cJhonf? qkdAD,uf&k&Sm;odk‹ OD;wnfaomfvnf; &kwfw&uf
tpDtpOfvnf;jzpf/ wifóudqufoG,fr_vnf;r&Sdojzifh w&kwfjynf uGefjrLepfygwD. yl;aygif;r_ESifh tultnD
&vdk&jim; w&kwfjynftrGdKifòrd‹wGif aomifwifcJh&onf? ,if;odk‹ w&kwfjynfuGefjrLepfygwDESifhvnf; tquf
toG,fr& aomifwifaepOf *syefrsm;ESifh qufoG,fr_&jyD; *syefjynfodk‹a&muf&SdoGm;cJhonf?
*syefjynfY *syefrsm;. tultnDjzifh ppfynmESifh tkyfcsKyfa&;twwfynmrsm;oif,l&ef pDpOfcJhjyD;
ocifatmifqef;udk,fwdkif Armjynfodk‹ wpfacgufjyefvnf0ifa&mufum ocifvli,ftcsKdhudk *syefjynfodk‹
ac:aqmifoGm;cJhonf? ,if;odk‹ ocifatmifqef;tygt0if ac:aqmifoGm;aomocifvli,frsm;tzGJ‹/ &Jabmf
oHk;usdyfwdk‹ *syefjynfYppfynmoif=um;=ujyD; ,if;&JabmfoHk;usdyf Armjynfodk‹jyeft0ifwGif Armhwyfrawmf.
tcef;u¾ pwifvmcJhonf? EdkifiHa&;/ ppfa&;awmfvSefr_rsm; t&Sdeft[kefydkI jrifhrm;vmjyD; vGwfvyfa&;
óud;yrf;r_ ydkrdkyDjyifvmcJhonf? awmfvSefa&;tp csif;awmifu[k tqdk&SdcJhonf?
(csif;awmfvSefa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh csif;awmifawmfvSefa&;rS wyfrawmftm; arG;zGm;ay;cJhjcif;jzpfonf[kqdkEdkifygonf)

wpfAdkvfus wpfAdkvfwuf/ 'l;raxmuf/ vufrajr‡muf
txufuqdkcJhonfhtwdkif; e,fcsJht*Fvdyftpdk;&rS csif;awmif. awmfvSefa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;tm;
tokwfvdkuftokwfvdkuf vdkufvHzrf;qD; axmifcsaeaomfvnf; awmfvSefa&;udkr_ wAdkvfus wpfAdkvfwuf
tqufrjywf qifE$JcJh=uonf? OD;rmefuif (c) OD;atmifcifonf ausmif;q&mtvkyfrSxGufI csif;trsKd;
om;rsm; nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹ESifh csif;awmfvSefa&;wyfzGJ‹rsm;udk uGyfuJacgif;aqmifcJhonf?
1941ckESpf 'DZifbmv(8)&ufae‹wGif *syefrSppfa=ujimojzifh *syefESifhr[mrdwfwdk‹ ppfjzpf=uonf?
1942 *syeft0ifjAdwdo#wdk‹qkwfcGgcsdefY OD;rmefuifonf csif;awmif,m,D tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ‹udk zGJ‹pnf;cJhonf?
,if;tzGJ‹wGif OD;rmefuif-OuUX/ OD;vdef;tGrf/ OD;atmifom[kef;/ OD;uD;avm/ OD;xef;armif; (c) OD;bcspf/
OD;tdrfaumom&S,f/ OD;xef;cGD&Sdef;/ OD;atmifacga*/ OD;xef;&Sdef;/ OD;vdef;avGwdk‹ tzGJ‹0if jzpf=uonf?
1942ckESpf {jyDv(2)&ufae‹wGif uefyufvufe,fudk jAdwdo#t*FvdyfvufrS tjyD;tydkif jyefvnf
odrf;ydkufa=umif; a=ujimjyD; 0rRol;udk XmecsKyfr¾dKifxm;I aysmufusm;toGifrS w&m;0ifawmfvSefa&;wyf
tjzpfajymif;vJ zGJ‹pnf;cJhonf? wyfzGJ‹rsm;acgif;aqmif OD;rmefuifESifh vufaxmufacgif;aqmifrsm;rSm
OD;vdef;tGrf/ OD;xef;cDG&Sdef;/ OD;uD;avm/ OD;tdrfaumom&S,f wdk‹jzpfonf? wyfzGJ‹tiftm; wpfaxmif

14

ausmf&Sdonf? ,if;wyfzGJ‹rsm;udk 1942ckESpf {jyDv(9)&ufae‹wGif rif;wyfòrd‹odk‹4if;/ 1942ckESpf {jyDv (16)
&ufae‹wGif uefyufvufòrd‹odk‹4if; cJGa0 wm0efcsxm;cJhonf?
*syefr[mrdwfppfyGJESifh csif;awmiftkyfcsKyfa&;
OD;0rRol;armif;ESifhtzGJ‹ axmifrSvGwfI 1942ckESpf arv(8)&ufae‹wGif jyefvnfa&muf&Sdvm
=uonf? OD;0rRol;armif;tm; acgif;aqmifjyefvnfwifajr‡mufI OD;rmefuiftm; 'kwd,acgif;aqmif
jyefvnfwifajr‡muf=uonf? OD;0rRol;armif;rS csif;trsKd;om;rsm; nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹. awmfvSefa&;wyfzGJ‹udk
atmufygtwdkif; Xme (3)cktjzpf cef‹cJGI wm0efcJGa0cJhonf?
tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ‹wGif OD;vdef;tGrf/ OD;tGrfedef (c) ocifatmifn$ef‹/ OD;uD;azvdef; (c) ocif
atmifrif;wdk‹ OD;aqmifaom A[dkaumfrdwD0if (15)OD;ESifh wdkufe,ftkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ‹toD;oD; zGJ‹pnf; wm0ef
ay;tyfcJhonf?
jidrf;csrf;a&;tzGJ‹udk &JtoGifzGJ‹pnf;vsuf OD;xef;cDG&Sdef;/ OD;[efbkHxef;/ OD;atmifacga* wdk‹tm;
OD;pD;apcJhonf? wyfzGJ‹tiftm;(1000) zGJpnf;ay;cJhonf? ,if; jidrf;csrf;a&;tzGJ‹rS &JtkyfcsKyfa&; tawG‹tóuH
&ap&ef OD;rmefuiftm;acgif;aqmifapI OD;[ef;bkHxef;/ OD;xef;cDG&Sdef;wdk‹tm; jynfrodk‹ avhvma&; apv$wf
cJhonf?
awmfvSefa&;tzGJ‹udk wyfrawmftoGifzGJ‹pnf;cJhonf? wyfzGJ‹zGJ‹pnf;yHkrSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfonf?
(1)
XmecsKyf 0rRol;
wm0efcH Adkvf&S,fuD;
'k wm0efcH - armifi,f (c) vdef;idkif;
&duQgrSL; &S,fa&mif/ [ma&mif/ vdef;ydkif;/ vdef;wD;
wyfom; 500
(2) awmifukef;wyfcGJ
wm0efcH Adkvfuifarmif;
'k wm0efcH - rfem;a,mxef;
&Jabmf 500
wyfxdef; tGrfedef;/ a*xef;/ xef;abG/ azvdef;
(3)
vkHcg;&JabmfXme
wm0efcH Adkvf&Sdef;xef;
'kwm0efcH rfem;a,mxef;
wyfom; 500
&duQgrSL; xef;tdrem;/ avGvdef;&Sdwf
wyfom;opf - 1500
&Jarrsm;
(1)
0rRol;&JarXme
wm0efcH rodef;&if (c) vSdef;yGef
&duQgrSL; xef;ayG/ [a&mif
&Jartiftm; - 500
15

(2)

(1)

awmifukef;&JarXme
wm0efcH rodef;vS (c) edef&
tiftm; 500
1947 - wGifxyfrHzGJ‹pnf;
usifa'G;wyf
wyfzGJ‹acgif;aqmif armifydkif
'kwyfzGJ‹acgif;aqmif armifxGef;
&Jabmf –
500

tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@ XmecsKyfuGyfuJr_atmufY jyef=um;a&;ESifhynma&;wm0efcHtjzpf ausmif;q&m
OD;uD;avmtm;4if;/ aiGpm&if;ESifhb%ma&;XmecsKyf &kH;tzGJ‹rSL;tjzpf OD;tGrfom[kef;tm;4if;/ aq;0g;ESifh
usef;rma&;vkyfief;udk umodkvdyfomoemòyrsm;tm;4if;/ toD;oD; wm0efcJGa0csxm; ay;cJhonf? jynfr
awmfvSefa&;wyfodk‹ tiftm;(370)udk yckuUL/ jrif;jcHrSwqifh jrpfomodk‹ apv$wfjznfhwif;ay;cJhonf?
jAdwdo#wdk‹qkwfcGgjyD; *syefwyfrsm; 1942ckESpf Ekd0ifbmv(2)&ufae‹wGif csif;awmifodk‹ a&muf&Sd=u
aomfvnf;/ 1942ckESpf {jyDv(2)&ufae‹a=ujimcsufudk vGwfvyfa&;a=ujimcsufESifhrjcm; todtrSwfðyI
csif;awmiftkyfcsKyfa&;wGif *syefrsm; 0ifa&mufpGufzufr_r&SdcJhay? odk‹jzpfI csif;trsKd;om;rsm;nDnGwfa&;
tzGJ‹onf 1942 {jyDv rS 1945 azaz:0g&Dvtxd csif;awmifudk w&m;0if tkyfcsKyfcJhonf?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh OD;0rRol;armif;
1943ckESpf =o*kwfv(1)&ufae‹wGif *syefrS vGwfvyfa&;a=ujimcJhonf? ,if;ESpfwGif AdkvfcsKyfatmif
qef;onf jrpfom;odk‹ wyftiftm;(370) apv$$wfjznfhwif;cJhaomtzGJ‹rS AdkvfausmfOD;(c) atmifavm[mESifh
&JabmfESpfOD;udk apv$wfIwpf}udrf/ Adkvfvif;(c)edefvdef;/ &Jabmf[ke;f avmtGrf/ &Jabmf avm[kef;wdk‹udk
apv$$wfIwpf}udrf OD;0rRol;armif;tm; awG‹qkHvkda=umif; zdwfac:cJhonf? awmfvSefa&;twGuf tvkyf
rsm;jym;vGef;aeojzifh oGm;a&mufrawG‹qkHjzpfcJh? 'kwd,t}udrf apv$wfaomtzGJ‹tm; wwd,t}udrfajrmuf
jyefvnfapv$wf zdwfac:aomt}udrfwGifom ocifatmifnGef‹/ 0rRol;[kef;cGD&Sdef;/ &JabmfwpfOD; ac:aqmifI
jyvdk‹wdkif; (7)XmecsKyfwGif oGm;a&mufawG‹qkHjzpfcJhonf? 1944 ESpfukefydkif;wGifjzpfonf?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;rS csif;awmifawmfvSefa&; tjyD;wdkif a&mufra&muf ar;&m OD;0rRol;armif;rS
vGwfvyfa&;r&ao;or# tjyD;wdkifra&mufao;a=umif; ajz=um;cJhonf? AdkvfcsKyfrS tjrifcsif;/ &nf&G,fcsuf
csif; tm;vkH;wlnDa=umif;/ 0rf;omtm;&a=umif; ajymqdkcJhonf? awmfvSefa&; óud;yrf;r_ESifhwuG awmfvSefa&;
jyD;qkH;atmifjrifonfh tajctaewpfcktwGuf jynfr.oabmxm;udk OD;0rRol;armif;u ar;jref;&mvkyfief;pOf/ &nf&G,fcsufcsif; wlr#aeaom awmfveS fa&;orm; (0g) tzGJ‹tpnf;[lor# wef;wltcGifhta&;
csnf;omjzpfygrnf/ a&S‹vmvwWH‹aom vkyfief;rsm;twGuf yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufjcif;onf ydkrdkc&D;a&mufrnf
jzpfa=umif;-AdkvfcsKyfrS ajz=um;&mwGif ESpfOD;ESpfzuf pnf;rsOf;a&;qGJa&;rludk oabmwl=u onf? awmfvSefa&;
vufawG‹aqmif&Gufaeolrsm; epfemcsufESifh ygwfoufI awmifwef;om; tm;vkH;teuf csif;awmifrSmom
&Sda=umif; odjyD;jzpfojzifh aemiftxl;pOf;pm;rnf[k AdkvfcsKyfuqkdygonf?

16

csif;awmfvSefa&;wyfESifh zufqpf*syef awmfvSefa&;
OD;0rRol;armif; Xmaejyefra&mufrSD 1945 ckEpS f azaz:0g&Dv (5) &ufae‹wGif t*Fvdyfppfwyf
ar*smtdkZif;ESifhtzGJ‹ awmifukef;&Gmodk‹ jyefvnfa&muf&Sd=uonf? csif;awmiftkyfcsKyfa&;tm%mudk jyefvnf
odrf;,lonf[k qdkonf? ,if;tcsdefY zufqpf*syefrsm;onf jynfra'oYom v$rf;rdk;r_&Sdaeojzifh OD;0rRol;
armif;ESifh csif;awmfvSefa&;wyfzGJ‹rsm;onf wdkif; 5/ 6/ 7/ rsm;ESifh wGJbufI zufqpfawmfvSefa&;udk
jynfrYomqifE$J=uonf? OD;0rRol;armif;rSm jyvdk‹wdkif;(7) urRe,fppfOD;pD;XmecsKyfwGif wm0efxrf;aqmif
onf?
1945 ckESpf=o*kwfv (19) &ufae‹wGif zufqpfawmfvSefa&;atmifyGJudk aeol&def Zwf&kHwGif
usif;ycJhonf? zufqpfawmfvSefa&;tjyD; &efukef avmif;0pPvrf; jynfol‹&JabmfXmecsKyfwGif OD;0rRol;armif;
wm0efxrf;aqmifaepOf t*Fvdyfu 4if;. 0rRol;aetdrfudk rD;&_d‹zsufqD;cJhonf?
AdkvfcsKyfESifh OD;0rRol;armif;wdk‹ nd‡E_dif;csufrSm t*Fvdyfudk EkdifiHa&;enf;vrf;jzifh aphpyfnd‡Ed_if;Ir&ygu
ppfa&;enf;vufeufjzifhawmfvSef&ef/ 1947 ESpfopfrul;rSD AdkvfcsKyfrS t*Fvefodk‹ vGwfvyfa&;ta&;qdk&ef/
,if;ratmifjrifygu 1947 ZEM0g&Dv (7) &ufae‹wGif csif;awmfvSefa&;wyfzGJ‹rsm;udk tajcðyI vufeufjzifh
pwifawmfvSef&ef vsdK‹0Sufcsdef;qdkcJh=uonf? odk‹jzpfI tqdkygzGJ‹pnf;cJhaom csif;awmfvSefa&;wyftiftm;udk
1945/ 1946/ 1947 ESpfrsm;wav#muf toifhjyif qifxm;cJhonf?
csif;trsKd;om;ae‹ ay:aygufvmykH aemufcHorkdif; (tusOf;) pwkwˆydkif;
· qif;rvm;puULjzLpDrHudef;/
· awmifwef;om;rsm; AdkvfcsKyfESifh yxryifvHk/
· awmifwef;om;rsm;ESifhzqyv/
· 'kwd,yifvHkESifh yifvHkpmcsKyf/
· csif;/ jrefrm cspf=unfa&; nDvmcH/
· awmifwef;om;rsm; 'kwd,t=udrf nDvmcH/
· awmifwef;a'o pHkprf;a&; aumfr&Sif/
· vGwfvyfa&;ESifh 47 Oya'/
· csif;awmif tkyfcsKyfa&;pepf csrSwfa&;/
· csif;trsdK;om;ae‹ owfrSwfjcif;/

qif;rvm;puULjzLpDrHudef;
'kwd,urBmppf=uD;tjyD; 1946ESpfOD;wGif t*Fvdfyftpdk;& jyefvnf0ifa&mufjyD; jrefrmEdkifiHtkyfcsKyfa&;
twGuf toifha&;qGJjyD; pDrHudef;wpfck ygvmcJh=uonf? ,if;pDrHudef;rSmawmifwef;e,frsm;rygonfh
Armjynfudk tcsKyftjcmrydkifonfh vGwfvyfa&;/ 'dkrDeD,H DOMINION tqifhay;&ef/ ,if;xufydkI ay;ygu
vnf; tjrifhqHk; jAdwdo#"eo[m,toif;0if COMMON WEALTH tqihfYom xm;&Sd&efjzpfonf? ,if;wdk‹.
tqdkrSm jcGif;csef{&d,mac: awmifwef;a'orsm;udkrl ,if;e,fajrcH wdkif;&if;om;vlxkudk,fwdkif oD;oD;
oef‹oef‹ vGwfvyfa&;rawmif;qdkor# bk&ifcHvufatmuf txl;pDrHcef‹cGJ tkyfcsKyf&efjzpfonf?
jAdwdo#wdk‹. tqdkrSm Armrsm;ESifh "avhp&dkufrwlnDaom usefwdkif;&if;om;rsm;. e,fajrudk
ArmjynfESifh roufqdkifapyJ oD;jcm;vGwfvyfa&;ay;&ef &nf&G,fonf[k qdkygonf? csif;awmif/ ucsifawmif
qdkv#if zGH‹ðzd;a&;bmwpfckr# vkyfray;&ao;/ Armrsm;ESifh vGwfvyfa&;twl,l=uv#if rif;wdk‹tay: Adkvfus
pdk;rdk;=uvdrfhrnf[k qdk=uonf?
17

awmifwef;om;rsm; AdkvfcsKyfESifh yxryifvHk
,if;ESihfygwfoufI awmifwef;a'orsm;rygonfh vGwfvyfa&;onf ta&;ygt&ma&mufaom
vGwfvyfa&;rsdK;rjzpfEdkif[k AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;rS twdtvif;0efcHonf? 1946ck ZEM0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹ a&$wd*Hk
tv,fypP,HwGifusif;yaom zqyv yxrt=udrfnDvmcHwGif OD;bab. vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;tqdkudk
awmifwef;e,f tm;vHk;udk,fpm; OD;0rRol;armif;rS awmifwef;jynfrtm;vHk; vHk;0vGwfvyfa&; wpfcsdefwnf;
ay;&ef axmufcHaqG;aEG;onf?
1946ckESpf rwfvwGif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh csif;/ ucsif/ &Srf;acgif;aqmifrsm; yifvHkwGif
yxrOD;qHk;t=udrfawG‹qHknSdEd_if;cJh=uonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;OD;aqmifonfh zqyvtzGJ‹csKyfESifh wdkif;&if;om;
acgif;aqmiftaygif;wdk‹onf jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;tm;vHk; wpfpnf;w&Hk;wnf; pnf;vHk;ap&ef rem;rae
jyif;jyif;xefxef vufwGJóud;yrf;=uonf?
awmifwef;om;rsm;ESifhzqyv
zqyvtzGJ‹csKyfrS udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk vlpkcGJI a'ocHudk,fpm;vS,frsm;ESihfvufwGJjyD; awmifwef;
a'o toD;oD;odk‹ apv$wfcJhonf? ucsifArm cspf=unfa&;acgif;aqmif Adkvfcifarmifuav;/ &Srf;Arm
cspf=unfa&;acgif;aqmif AdkvfrSL;atmif/ u&ifArmcspf=unfa&;acgif;aqmif ref;bcdkif/ bdwfxm;0,f
cspf=unfa&;acgif;aqmif OD;baqGwdk‹jzpfum csif;Armcspf=unfa&;twGuf OD;0rRol;armif;/ OD;bqdkif/
OD;armifuav;/ &JabmfpHxGef;/ OD;atmifrif;/ &S,fuD;(c) OD;armif=uD;wdk‹ csif;awmifwef;wcGif tzGJ‹ESpfzGJ‹cGJI
1947 ZEM0g&DvwGif pnf;&Hk;a&;a[majymcJhonf?
rlv t*Fvdyfjyef0ifuwnf;uygvmaom BLACK LIST pm&if;wGif t&Sifwpfaxmif/ tao ig;&m [k
0&rf;yg&Sdaom OD;0rRol;armif;tm; csif;jrefrmcspf=unfa&; pnf;&Hk;a[majyma&; c&D;pOfwGif acgif;aqmif&ef
t*Fvdyftpdk;&rS uef‹uGufcJhonf? AdkvfcsKyfrS cifAsm;wdk‹tóudufv$wfzdk‹ r[kwfbl;/ usKyfwdk‹tóudufv$wfr,f[k
twdkuftcHvkyfcJh&onf[k qdkonf?
t*Fvdyftpdk;&. zdwfac:csuft& AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESihftzGJ‹ bdvyfodk‹ vGwfvyfa&;twGuf
oGm;a&mufta&;qdk&m 1947ckESpf ZEM0g&Dv (27)&ufae‹wGif atmifqef;tufwvDpmcsKyfudk csKyfqdkonf?
bdvyfrS tjyef AdkvfcsKyfrS owif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJwpf&yfusif;ycJhonf?
jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEdkifiHvGwfvyfa&;twGuf jAdwdo#tpdk;&ESihf EdkifiHawmfacgif;aqmif=uD; AdkvfcsKyf
atmifqef; aqG;aEG;oabmwlnDcsuf/ (1947ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(3)&uf nae(3)em&D zqyvtzGJ‹csKyfcef;r
aqmifwGif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk,fwdkif owif;pmq&mrsm;tm; &Sif;vif;ajymjycsuf) –
bdvyfjrefrmaqG;aEG;yGJoabmwlnDcsuft& puULjzLpepfrsm; vHk;vHk;ysufygw,f? odk‹aomf vGwfvyf
a&;wdkufyGJrSm rjyD;qHk;ao;/ ckoabmwlwJhtwdkif; tppt&m&m a&Sma&Sm&_&_ jyD;ajrmufygu at;csrf;aom
enf;jzifh ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;&bdk‹&Sdygw,f?
&cJhaomtm%mrsm; -

18

bdvyfodk‹oGm;pOfu zqyvu n$ef=um;vdkufonfhtwdkif;/ wkdif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmf wdkuf&dkuf
a&G;aumufyGJðyvkyf&efESifh =um;jzwftpdk;&tm%mrsm;vJ &&SdcJhw,f? =um;jzwftpdk;&tm%mtwGuf
Oya'udkjyifqifaev#if =umaernfudkp;dk I Oya't& wefcdk;tm%mr&aomfvnf; CONVENTION ac:
xHk;wrf;pOfvmtm;jzifh qdkygrl 'dkrDeD,Htpdk;&rsm; &&Sdaom tcGifhtm%mrsm;udk&ygw,f?
oHwrmefv$wfa&;udpP EdkifiHjcm;a&;udpPtwGufqdkv#ifvnf; jynfaxmifjcif; oHwrmeftvJtvS,fvkyfbdk‹ olwdk‹ (jAdwdo#
tpdk;&) vkyfay;ygr,fvdk‹ajymygw,f? urBmhukvor*~wGifyg0ifEdkifbdk‹vJ axmufcHr,fvdk‹ajymygw,f?
oHwrmefudpPudk &k&Sm;oHtrwfESifhvJ awG‹qHkajymcJhygao;w,f?
jrefrmjynfavwyf jrefrmjynfavwyfumuG,fa&;twGuf avwyfxm;&efudpPudk jAdwdo#ava=umif;AdkvfcsKyfESifh
awG‹qHkjyD; ajymcJhygw,f? r=umrSDav,OfysHarmif;wwfjyD;aomolrsm;ESifh pwifzGJ‹pnf;bdk‹ pDpOfygr,f?
ppfwyf&kwfodrf;a&; Armjynf&Sd EdkifiHjcm;ppfwyfrsm;&kwfodrf;&efqdkonfhtcsufESifh ygwfoufI wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmfu
&kwfodrf;ay;ygvdk‹ qHk;jzwfcJhv#if olwdk‹&kwfodrf;ay;ygr,fvdk‹ajymygw,f?
awmifwef;e,fudpP awmifwef;e,fudpPESifhygwfoufvdk‹awmh olwdk‹oabmwlw,fqdk&if vGwfvyfa&;ay;&r,fvdk‹
awmif;wmyJ/ 'gayr,fholwdk‹udk,fpm;vS,fr[kwfawmh udk,fpm;vS,fvdk‹vJ rajym&J/ 'Dvdkqdkv#ifjzifh olwdk‹
oabmwlygvdrfhr,fvdk‹ajym&wmyJ?
t*Fvdyftapmifhta&SmufESifh awmifwef;a'orsm;udk jAdwdo#tpdk;&u tapmifhta&Smuf TRUSTEE
SHIP ,lbdk‹ tcGifhta&;r&Sd/ u|efawmfwdk‹uvJr,l/ olwdk‹jynfwGif;tkyfcsKyfa&;udkvnf; =um;jzwftpdk;&vnf;
0ifrpGufzdk‹ ajymcJhwJhtcg bdvyftpdk;&u aumif;jyD olwdk‹udkar;=unhfr,f/ olwdk‹oabmwlv#ifvkyfrSmyJ
vdk‹ajymygw,f?
tm%mydkiftcGifhta&; wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmfESifhygwfoufI tm%mydkiftcGifhta&;twGufawmh odyfjyD;twdkuftcHrajym
yg/ toifhtwifhavmufawmhajymygw,f/ onfjy\emudkzdjyD; rajym&efvnf; zqyvtvkyftr_aqmif
tzGJ‹u n$ef=um;vdkufygw,f? onftwdkif;qdkv#if wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmfa&G;aumufyGJudk {jyDvtwGif;rSm
usif;yEdkifygr,f/ arv(odk‹r[kwf) ZGefvavmufrSm wdkifðyjynfðyv$wfawmfu Armjynf jAdwdo#jynfaxmifpk
twGif; aeraeqHk;jzwfbdk‹ygyJ?
a&S‹vkyf&rnfhtvkyfrsm; jAdwdo#jynfaxmifpktwGif;aernfqdkv#if tkyfcsKyfa&;pnf;rsOf;rsm;udk bdvyfygvDrmefu twnf
ðybdk‹ wifjy&ygr,f/ odk‹r[kwf jyifyrSmaecsifw,fqdkv#if tm%mv$Jajymif;a&;pmcsKyfðyvkyf&vdrfhrnf?
tJ'DhtcgrSm tcsdefaESmifhaES;atmif vkyfcsifvkyf=uvdrfhrnf? odk‹aomf wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmfu Armjynf
vGwfvyfa&;a=unm&eftwGuf tcsdefuef‹owf&rSmyJ/ tJonfhta&;[m vlxkqHk;jzwfcsuftay: rlwnfyg
w,f?

19

vGwfvyfa&;trSef&r,f –
trSefuawmh vGwfvyfa&;[m &rSmyJ/ tcsdefuef‹owfvdk‹ b,favmufjrefjref&Edkifw,fqdkwm
tm%mv$Jajymif;&eftwGuf pmcsKyfcsKyfwJhtcgrSm ta&;=uD;ygw,f? ArmjynfESifh jAdwdo#tpdk;&wdk‹ pmcsKyf
tay;t,loifhjrwfbdk‹vdkovdk/ &bdk‹rSm aemufuaxmufcHtm;ay;wJh vlxktiftm;&SdrS u|efawmfwdk‹
vGwfvyfa&;udk&rSm/ wdkufyGJrjyD;ao;bl;/ 'ga=umifhrdk‹ vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJ[mrjyD;ao;bl;/ odk‹aomf wkdufyGJ
tajctae wpfrsdK;ajymif;oGm;w,f/ onftwdkif;tajctae wdk;wufaumif;rGefoGm;r,fqdk&if {csrf;om,m
wJhenf;eJ‹ ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&; &EdkifbG,fenf;&Sdw,f?
tm;vHk;toifhjyifxm;=uyg owif;pmq&mrsm;u tu,fIom tm%mv$Jajymif;a&;twGuf pmcsKyfcsKyfqdk&mwGif jAdwdo#
tpdk;&u wrsdK;wrnfðyvkyfvdkygu rnfodk‹vkyf&ygrnfenf;[k ar;jref;&m AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;u 'ga=umifhrdk‹
vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJ[m rjyD;ao;bl;vdk‹ u|efawmfajymwmaygh/ u|Ekfyfwdk‹tm;vHk; toifhjyifxm; =u&r,f?
tJonfhtcgusawmholwdk‹ jyifbdk‹ tawmfcufygvdrfhrnf?
tdENd,xufomr,f =um;jzwftpdk;&&Sdrnfhtm%mrSm tdENd,tpdk;&xufomv#ifomr,f/ ravsmhbl;qdkwmudk tdENd,
jynfudka&mufvmwJhtwGuf &J&J0Hh0Hh ajymEdkifw,f?
puUjzLpepfysufjyD ,QKoabmwlnDcsuft& puULjzLpepfysufygonf? puULjzLpepft&rSm bmrS r&cJha=umif;/ Armjynf
ppfwyfqdkif&mwGif wdkif;&if;om;ppfwyf/ Armjynfa&wyfponfwdk‹rSm Armjynf=um;jzwftpdk;&vufatmuf
a&mufrnfhtjyif/ ppfwyftopfrsm;udk xlaxmifEdkif&eftcGifhta&;rsm;vnf; &&Sdrnfjzpfa=umif;/
(txufyg owif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJaz:jycsufrsm;udk OD;0rRol;armif;. udk,fwdkifa&;rSwfwrf; pmom;rsm;twdkif;
az:jyjcif;jzpfygonf? ,if;owif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJrSwfwrf;rsm;. atmufY OD;0rRol;armif;rS- TwGif ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;
twGuf awmifwef;a'orsm;ESifhpyfvsOf;I ta&;=uD;onfh tcsuftvufrsm; yg0ifEdkifI rdwWLtrSeful;xm;jcif;jzpfonf
[krSwfcsufaz:jyxm;ygonf?)

zqyvowif;pOftxl;xkwfYvnf; 1947ckESpf ZEM0g&Dv - awmifwef;e,frsm;twGuf Armjynf
vlxkudk,fpm; zqyva=unmcsufudk atmufygtwdkif;xkwfjyefxm;onf?
vGwfvyfbdk‹omtvdk&Sdonf - u|Efkyfwdk‹onf awmifwef;e,frsm;udk u|Efkyfwdk‹ESifh twif;yl;aygif;jcif;
udk tvdkr&Sd/ awmifwef;e,frsm;u rdrdwdk‹tvdktavsmufyl;aygif;csifrS yl;aygif;jcif;udkomtvdk&Sdonf?
awmifwef;e,frsm;udk ArmjynfESihfyl;aygif;onfjzpfap/ ryl;aygif;onfjzpfap/ u|Efkyfwdk‹. t=uD;qHk;aom
vdkvm;csufonf xdkawmifwef;e,frsm;. vHk;0vGwfvyfcGifhudk t*Fvdyfwdk‹u csufjcif;todtrSwfðy&ef
yifjzpfonf? tD*spf/ tdENd,/ tif'dkcsdKif;em;tp&Sdaom vufatmufcHEdkifiHrsm; vGwfvyf=ubdouJhodk‹/
u|Efkyfwdk‹. aoG;csif;om;csif;jzpf=uaom csif;/ *sdef;azg/ u&ifeDwdkif;&if;om;rsm;onfvnf; tv#iftjref
vGwfvyf=u&ef u|Efkyfwdk‹jyif;jypGm tvdk&Sdonf?
e,fcsJ‹pepfaysmufawmhrnf - aoG;pnf;=uavmh/ urBm=uD;onf ,cktxd txl;ajymif;vJv#uf
&Sdav.? tjcm;EdkifiHrsm;udk oGm;a&muftkyfcsKyfaeaom e,fcsJ‹pepf=uD;onf ðydysufv#uf&SdayjyD/ vufatmuf
cH EdkifiHolEdkifiHom;wdk‹ pnf;vHk;nDnGwfrdonfESifhwðydifeuf xdke,fcsJ‹pepf=uD;onf TurBm=uD;rS wcgwnf;
20

aysmufuG,foGm;&ayvdrfhrnf? xdk‹a=umifh vufatmufcHwdkif;&if;olwdkif;&if;om;tcsif;csif; aoG;pnf;=u
avmh/ t*Fvdyfwdk‹. aoG;cGJpepftdk;=uD; 0dkif;Izsuf=uavmh/
zqyvtzGJ‹csKyf=uD;. oabmxm;- ArmjynfwGif tiftm;t=uD;rm;qHk;jzpfaom zqyvtzGJ‹csKyf
=uD;onf awmifwef;e,frsm;ESifhygwfoufI atmufygtwdkif;pnf;rsOf;a&;qGJxm;avonf?
zqyv tzGJ‹csKyfpnf;rsOf;Oya'tc%f;(1)tykd'f(3)
&nf&G,fcsufrsm;
(u) vlrsdK;wpfrsdK;onf rdrdwdk‹.=urRmudk rdrdwdk‹omv#if zefwD;EdkifcGifh&Sdonfhtm;avsmfpGm trsdK;om;tm;vHk;.
vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;&&Sd&eftvdk‹iSm ArmEdkifiHtwGif;&Sd wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;tm;vHk;/ 4if;wdk‹rS oufqif;aygufzGm;
olrsm;/ wkdif;&if;om;tjzpfcH,l&&Sdoltaygif;udk nDnGwfpnf;&Hk;ap&ef/
(c ) Armjynfudk Armjynf&Sd wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;toD;oD;wdk‹ tm;vHk;oabmwlvGwfvyfpGm zGJ‹pnf;aom
wdkif;jynf=uD;xlaxmif&ef/
(* ) ArmEdkifiHudk wkdif;oljynfom;vltrsm;. qENtwdkif;jyefvnfxlaxmif&ef/
T&nf&G,fcsuftwdkif; zqyvu atmufygtwdkif;aqmif&Gufrnf?
1? (u) ArmjynfudkvHk;0vGwfvyfa&;ay;onfESifhwðydkifeufwnf;wGif &Srf;/ csif;/ *sdef;azg/ em*e,frsm;udk
vHk;0vGwfvyfcGifhay;&ef/
(c) 4if;jyif puULay:wGifom vGwfvyfaom u&ifeDjynfe,fudkvnf; vHk;0vGwfvyfcGifh wcsdefwnf;
ay;&ef/
2? &Sif;/ u&if/ *sdef;azg/ csif;/ Armpaom wdkif;&if;om;tm;vHk;yg0ifonfh ArmjynfaxmifpkEdkifiH
wnfaxmifEdkif&eftwGuf rnfuJhodk‹wnfaxmifrnfudk vGwfvyfaom Armjynfr. acgif;aqmifrsm;ESihf
vGwfvyfaomawmifwef;e,frS acgif;aqmifrsm;wdk‹ aqG;aEG;aphpyfrnf/ zqyvtzGJ‹csKyf=uD;. oabmrSm
vlrsdK;OD;a&oef;aygif;av;&mausmfpD&Sdonfh w&kwfjynf=uD;ESifhukvm;jynf=uD;=um;wGifnyfaeaom vlOD;a&
(17)oef;om&Sdonfh Armjynfonf tpdwfpdwftr$mr$mrjzpfyJ tiftm;awmifhwif;aom wdkif;&if;om;pHk
ygonfh jynfaxmifpkEdkifiH/ Armjynfjzpfonfudk vdkvm;onf? odk‹rSomv#if EGm;uGJusm;udkufrjzpfyJ &Srf;/ u&if/
csif;/ *sdef;azg/ Arm tp&Sdonfh wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd ;wdkif;/ tnDtnGwf =uD;yGm;wdk;wufrnf? urBmwGif
tjcm;vGwfvyfaom EdkifiHrsm;ESifh *k%f&nfwlqufoG,f,SOfðydkifEdkifrnf?
TvGwfvyfaom ArmjynfaxmifpkwGif awmifwef;e,frsm;uygrnfqdkv#if atmufygtcGifhta&;
rsm;udk awmifwef;rsm;udkay;&rnf?
(1) u&ifeDjynf/ &Srf;/ csif;/ *sdef;azg/ em*e,frsm;udk rdrdwdk‹. jynfe,ftwdkif; rdrdwdk‹vlrsdK;tcsif;csif;/
udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh&Sd&rnf? umuG,fa&;/ EkdifiHjcm;a&; vrf;yrf;qufoG,fa&;tp&Sdaom A[dktpdk;&rS
udkifxm;aomXmersm;rSvGJI usefXmersm;wGif toD;oD;u udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh&Sd&rnf? A[dktpdk;&qdkonfrSm
tjcm;r[kwf/ ArmjynfaxmifpktwGif;&Sd wdkif;&if;om;tm;vHk;u a&G;aumufwifajrSmufxm;aom
tpdk;&tzGJ‹yifjzpfonf? tkyfcskKyfa&;t=uD;tuJonfvnf;aumif;/ tr_xrf; t&mxrf;rsm;onfvnf;aumif;/
rdrdwdk‹wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;csnfhjzpf&rnf?
(2) wdkif;&if;om;wdk‹. ,Ofaus;r_udk tm;ay;&rnf? pmayudkjrSifhwif&rnf? &Srf;/ u&if/ csif;/ *sdef;azg/ em*e,f
rsm;udk pmoifausmif;rsm;zGifhay;&rnf?
(3) rdrdwdk‹ udk;uG,fvdkaom bmomudk vGwfvyfpGm udkf;uG,fEdkif&rnf/ odk‹aomf awmifwef;e,frsm;onf
ArmjynfrESifhaygif;I jynfaxmifpktpdk;& wnfaxmifoifhroifh[laom jy\emudk awmifwef;e,fol

21

awmifwef;e,fom;rsm;uom qHk;jzwf=u&efjzpfonf? rdrdwdk‹oabm qENtavsmuf ArmjynfrESifh raygif;vdk
rwGJvdkyJ oD;oef‹cGJxGufvdkv#ifvnf; Armjynfru rnfuJhodk‹r# wm;rnfr[kwf/
,ckvufiif; zqyvu ðyvkyfay;rnfhtcsufrsm;1? Armjynfr=uD;onfvnf;aumif;/ awmifwef;e,frsm;onfvnf;aumif;/ vGwfvyfaomjynf wnfaxmif
&eftwGuf wkdif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmfac:qdkEdkifaomtcsdef ra&mufrSDtwGif; awmifwef;e,f&Sdwdkif;&if;om;
wdk‹onf t*FvdyfrsufESmjzLtpdk;& t&m&Sdrsm;atmufwGif rusa&mufyJ rdrdwdk‹e,fudk tkyfcsKyfEdkif&eftwGuf
vnf;aumif;/ ArmvlrsdK;rsm;ESifh awmifwef;e,f&Sd wdkif;&if;om;wdk‹ wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; ydkrdk&if;ESD;Edkifap&ef
twGufvnf;aumif;/ awmifwef;e,frS yk*~dKvfwpfOD;udk bk&ifcHtwkdifyifcH 0ef=uD;wpfOD;tjzpfvnf;aumif;/
cef‹xm;I awmifwef;e,frsm;udk tkyfcsKyfap&ef/ tjcm;oifhawmfaom yk*~dKvfoHk;OD;av;OD;udkvnf;
'kwd,0ef=uD;tjzpf cef‹xm;&ef/ t*Fvdyftpdk;&tm; awmif;qdkaeonf? bdvyfwGifvnf; Armudk,fpm;vS,f
rsm;u tjyif;txefqufvufawmif;qdkaeonf?
2? wESpfv#if &Srf;e,f/ u&ifeD/ csif;/ *sdef;azg/ em*e,frsm;rS ausmif;om;rsm; (1000)xufrenf; tpdk;&
pm;&dwfESifh &efukef/ rEWav;ðrdŒrsm;&Sd ausmif;=uD;rsm;odk‹ ynmoifv$wfay;&ef/ oifhawmfaom ausmif;om;
rsm;udk t*Fvdyf/ tar&duef/ Oa&mywdkufodk‹ ynmoifv$wfay;&ef/ tpdk;&tm;awmif;qdkrnf/ xdke,frsm;wGif
tpdk;&pmoifausmif;rsm; tjrefzGifhay;&ef tpdk;&tm;awmif;qdkrnf?
3? vrf;rsm;azgufay;&efESifh aq;&Hkrsm;tESH‹tjym;zGifhvSpfay;&eftpdk;&tm; awmif;qdkrnf?
4? ,ckvuf&Sde,fjcm;t&m&Sdrsm;ae&mwGif awmifwef;om;/ ynmwwfrsm;tjym;cef‹ay;xm;&ef awmif;qdk
rnf?
(zqyva=unmcsufudk OD;0rRol;armif;. rSwfwrf;pmom;twdkif;az:jyygonf? txufygpmrlrSm zqyvyHkESdyfwdkufwGif
armifapmarmifu &dkufESdyfI OD;wifarmifu xkwfa0onf[k OD;0rRol;armif;rS rSwfcsuf az:jyxm;ygonf?)

'kwd,yifvHkESifhyifvHkpmcsKyf
tqdkygumvtxd tajctaerSm awmifwef;jynfrtm;vHk; tcsKyftjcmtm%mydkif vHk;0vGwf
vyfa&;&&Sd&eftwGuf vHk;0O\HkjyD;jynfhpHkI vHkavmufpdwfcs&aomtqifhodk‹ &mE_ef;jynfha&muf&Sdjcif;um;
r&Sdao;acs? ta=umif;rlum; awmifwef;om;rsm;. oabmwlnDcsuf pmcsKyfwpf&yf&SdrSomv#if awmifwef;
jynfrtm;vHk;yg0ifaom tcsKyftjcmtm%mydkif vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;udk &&Sdrnfjzpfonf? odk‹jzpfI 1947ckESpf
azaz:0g&Dv(7)&ufae‹wGifpwifI t*Fvdyfudk,fpm;vS,frsm; csif;/ ucsif/ &Srf;udk,fpm;vS,frsm;ESifh AdkvfcsKyf
atmifqef;wdk‹ yifvHkwGif'kwd,t=udrf jyefvnfawG‹qHkaqG;aEG;cJh=ujyefonf? ,if;1947ckESpf azaz: 0g&Dv
(7)&ufae‹tpnf;ta0; qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;rSm1? Armrsm;ESifhyl;aygif;aqmif&Gufjcif;tm;jzifh &Srf;/ csif;/ ucsiftrsdK;om;wdk‹. vGwfvyfa&;onf ydkrdkI
v#ifjrefpGm &&Sdvdrfhrnf[k ,Hk=unfa=umif;/
2? 'Drkdua&pDpepft& ArmvlrsdK;wdk‹&&Sdaeonfh tqifhtwef;/ tcGifhta&;ESifh tusdK;pD;yGm;rsm;uJhodk‹ &Srf;/ csif;/
ucsifwdk‹vnf; &&SdcHpm;&efvdkvm;a=umif;/
3? &Srf;/ csif;/ ucsif tr_aqmif0ef=uD;rsm;onf rdrdwdk‹ESifhoufqkdif&mjynfwGif;a&;udpPt00wdk‹wGif
rdrdwdk‹omv#if wm0efcHI trsm;ESifhoufqdkif&mudpPrsm; (umuG,fa&;/ EdkifiHjcm;qufoG,fa&;/ rD;&xm;/
qdyfurf;cGef) ponfwdk‹udk Armrsm;ESihfyl;aygif;wm0efcHvdka=umif; [lIjzpfonf?
tpnf;ta0;udk 1947ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(12)&ufae‹txd usif;yonf? ,if;ae‹wGif pmcsKyfwpf&yf
udkvnf; csKyfqdkjzpf=uonf? yifvHkpmcsKyf[kac:onf? txdrf;trSwfausmufwdkifudkvnf; pdkufxl=uonf?
22

yifvHkausmufwdkif[kac:wGifonf? ,if;1947ckESpfazaz:0g&Dv
atmifqef;ajym=um;aom rdef‹cGef;rSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfonf?

(12)&ufae‹tpnf;ta0;wGif

AdkvfcsKyf

yifvHktpnf;ta0;odk‹ta=umif;ESpfrsdK;a=umifhvma&muf&a=umif;/ yxrrSm jrefrmjynfvlrsdK;rsm;
nDnGwfa&;twGufjzpfI tjcm;ta=umif;rSm vef'efaqG;aEG;yGJY awmifwef;a'oESifhygwfoufI rnfodk‹
aqmif&GufvkyfudkifcJhonfudk ajymqdk&Sif;vif;jy&efjzpfa=umif;/
ArmhvGwfvyfa&;&jyD - urBmhEdkifiHa&;t& jrefrmjynf&SdvlrsdK;tm;vHk;rSm nDnGwf&efvdktyfa=umif;/
wenf;tm;jzifhqdkv#if ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;rSm &jyD[k qdkEdkifa=umif;/ ,ckusef&Sdaeaom jy\emrSm awmif
wef;e,f udpPyifjzpfa=umif;/
udk,fhe,fudk,ftkyfcsKyf - bdvyfaqG;aEG;yGJY jrefrmudk,fpm;vS,frsm;u awmifwef;e,fvGwfvyfa&;
udk wcsdefwnf;ray;cJhv#if jrefrmjynfvGwfvyfa&;rSmvnf; wu,fhvGwfvyfa&; rjzpfEdkif[kajymqdkcJha=umif;/
awmifwef;e,fudk jAdwdo#wdk‹u wkduf&dkuftkyfcsKyfjcif;udk jrefrmvlrsdK;rsm;u róudufa=umif;/ awmifwef;
e,fudk awmifwef;vlrsdK;rsm;om tkyfcsKyfpdk;rdk;jcif;udk jrefrmrsm;u óudufa=umif;/
wef;wlapvdkI - jAdwdo#wdk‹u awmifwef;vlrsdK;rsm;onf atmufusaemufusaeao;ojzihf
vGwfvyfa&;ESifh rwef[k xifa=umif;/ xdkodk‹xifjrifcsufudk jrefrmrsm; oabmrwla=umif;/ jrefrmjynf
vGwfvyfa&;&onfESifhwðydifeuf awmifwef;e,f vGwfvyfa&;&&rnf[k jrefrmrsm;u xifjrifa=umif;/
jrefrmrsm;onf awmifwef;a'otwGufajymqdkjcif;rSm tkycf sKyfpdk;rdk;vdkIr[kwf/ odk‹&mwGif awmifwef;e,f
rsm;onf jrefrmjynfESifh wef;wltcGifhta&; tqifhtwef;&apvdka=umif;omjzpfa=umif;/ jrefrmrsm;onf
jAdwdo#u|ef rjzpfvdka=umif;/ xdkenf;wlpGm awmifwef;vlrsdK;rsm;vnf; jAdwdo#u|efrsm;tjzpf ra&mufapvdk
a=umif;/ xdk‹jyif awmifwef;vlrsdK;rsm;onf jrefrmu|ef rjzpfapvdka=umif;/
awmifwef;pDrHtkyfcsKyfa&; - awmifwef;e,fpDrHtkyfcsKyfa&;rSm aumifpD.vufxJwGif &Sdvdrfhrnf
jzpfa=umif;/ xdkaumifpDtzGJ‹xJY awmifwef;e,frS udk,fpm;vS,fwpfa,muf&Sdvdrfhrnfjzpf&m 4if;.vufxJrSm
om xdktkyfcsKyfa&;&Sdrnfjzpfa=umif;/
ArmjynfudkpGef‹cGm&awmhrnf - jAdwdefrSm ArmjynfY =um&SnfpGmtkyfpdk;&ef tcGifhtcgr&Sdawmh
a=umif;/ apmapm(odk‹r[kwf) tenf;i,f=umv#if 4if;wdk‹onf jrefrmjynfudkpGef‹v$wf&awmhrnfjzpfa=umif;/
xdk‹a=umifh u|Efkyfwdk‹onf tqifoifh&Sd&rnfhtjyif u|Efkyfwdk‹udk,fudk tm;udk;tm;xm;vkyf&rnfjzpfa=umif;
xkdae&mY nDnGwfa&;rSm vGefpGmyifvdktyfa=umif;/ vGwfvyfa&;&jyD;aomtcgrSyif/ tqifhtwef;
jrifhEdkifa=umif; vGwfvyfa&;r&v#if vuf&Sdatmufusaemufusjzpfaeaom tqifhtwef;udk jrSihfwif&ef
rjzpfEdkifa=umif;/
acsmufv#ifra=umufygESifh - vljzLjzpfap/vlrJjzpfap rnfol‹udkrqdkra=umufESifh 4if;wdk‹u awmif
wef;vlrsdK;rsm;udkar;cJhv#if awmifwef;vlrsdK;rsm;u vGwfvyfa&;udkvdkcsifw,f[k ajym&rnfjzpfa=umif;/
acsmufv#ifra=umuf=uESifh/ acsmhv#ifvnf;raysmh=uESifh/ awmifwef;vlrsdK;rsm;onf jrefrmjynfuJhodk‹
wlnDaomtqifhtwef;udk vdkcsifonf[kajym&rnfjzpfa=umif;/ 'gudk,ae‹ajymvdkufv#if eufjzeftaqGwdk‹
vGwfvyfa&;&rnfjzpfa=umif;/
Tum; Armvlxkudk,fpm; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u awmifwef;om;wdk‹tm; uwdðyay;jcif;yifjzpf
onf? urBmhEdkifiHa&;t&[laom AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. rdef‹cGef;rSm 'kwd,urBmppf=uD;wGif urBmhukvor*~
taumiftxnfjyefxkwfaz:&m twWvEWdwfcsmwm/ qefz&efppPudk/ wefygweftkyf/ a&mfwmuGefz&ifhrsm;Y
vlrsdK; wpfrsdK;onf tjcm;vlrsdK;udkvnf;aumif;/ wdkif;jynfwpfckonf tjcm;wdkif;jynfwpfcktm;vnf;aumif;/
v$rf;rdk;csKyfcs,ftkyfcsKyfjcif;a=umifh urBmppfrD;jzpf&onf? vlrsm;aoa=uysufpD;qHk;&H_;&onf/ odk‹jzpfaom
a=umifh T'kwd,urBmppf=uD;jyD;onfESihftr#/ vlrsdK;wdkif;aph vlwdkif;aph. vGwfvyfcGifh&Sdap&ygrnf? odk‹jzpf
23

aoma=umifh T 'kwd,urBmppf=uD;onf wdkif;jynfwdkif;/vlrsdK;wdkif;wdk‹u rdrdwdk‹tou tou/ vGwfvyfa&;
twGufwdkufaom wdkufyGJjzpfap&rnf[laom a=unmcsufudkrSD;I a[majymyHk&onf[k ,lqbG,fjzpfonf
[k OD;0rRol;armif;rS 4if;udk,fwdkifa&;rSwfwrf;wGif rSwfcsufðyxm;onf?
1947ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(12)&ufae‹ csKyfqdkaom yifvHkpmcsKyf. az:jycsufrSm atmufygtwdkif;
jzpfonf?
jrefrmbk&ifcH. tr_aqmifaumifpDrS tzGJ‹0iftcsdK‹ESifh p0fzrsm;tm;vHk;wdk‹tjyif &Srf;jynfe,f/
ucsifESifh csif;awmifwef;a'owdk‹rS udk,fpm;vS,frsm;wufa&mufaom/ yifvHkðrd‹wGifusif;yonfh tpnf;
ta0;=uD;w&yfwGif =um;jzwftpdk;&ESihf csufjcif;yl;aygif;jcif;tm;jzifh &Srf;jynf/ ucsifESifhcsif;wdk‹onf
vGwfvyfa&;udk ydkrdkv#ifjrefpGm&&Sdvdrfhrnf[k tpnf;ta0;wufa&mufoltzGJ‹0ifwdk‹u ,Hk=unf=uonfh
twdkif; tpnf;ta0;wufa&mufoltzGJ‹0ifwdk‹onf uef‹uGufolr&SdyJ atmufygtwdkif;oabmwl=uonf?
1? awmifwef;om;rsm;pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹ (wpnz)óud;udkiftzGJ‹udk,fpm;vS,frsm;. axmufcHcsuft&/
awmifwef;om;rsm;. udk,fpm;vS,fwpfOD;udk bk&iffcHua&G;cs,fI awmifwef;a'oudpPrsm; aqmif&Guf&ef
twGuf bk&ifcH. twdkifyifcyH k*~dKvftjzpfcef‹xm;&rnf?
2? TtwdkifyifcHyk*~dKvfudk bk&ifcH. tr_aqmifaumifpDwGif Xmevufudkifr&Sd aumifpD0ifwpfOD;tjzpf
cef‹xm;I awmifwef;a'oumuG,fa&;/ jynfyqufqHa&;udpP&yfrsm;udk/ bk&ifcHtpdk;&wGifxm;&rnf?
twdkifyifcHyk*~dKvftm; tkyfcsKyfa&;tm%mudkay;&rnf?
3? awmifwef;a'otwdkifyifcHyk*~dKvfudk 4if;ESifhvlrsdK;csif;rwlaom 'kwd,twdkifyifcHyk*~dKvfESpfOD;u ulnD
ap&rnf? 'kwd,twdkifyifcHyk*~dKvfESpfOD;onf 4if;wdk‹toD;oD;oufqdkifonfhe,frsm;. udpP&yfrsm;udk aqmif
&Guf&efjzpfI twkdifyifcHyk*~dKvfonf e,fpyfa'otm;vHk;.udpP&yfrsm;udk aqmif&Guf&efjzpfonf? odk‹aomf
oHk;OD;om;onf yl;wGJwm0ef,l&rnf?
4? tpdk;&tzGJ‹wGif aumifpDvl=uD;wpfOD;wnf;om awmifwef;a'oudk,fpm;vS,ftjzpf yg0ifaomfvnf;
awmifwef;a'ota&;udk aqG;aEG;onfhtpnf;ta0;wGif 'kwd,aumifpDvl=uD;ESpfOD;tm; wufa&mufcGifh
&Sdap&rnf?
5? ,if;odk‹oabmwl=uaomfvnf; a'oqdkif&me,fy,f&Sifwdk‹. udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&;tm%mudk rnfonfh
enf;ESihfrqdk wpHkw&mvufvGwfap&ef tqdkygaumifpDu ðyvkyfjcif;r&Sdap&/ awmifwef;a'orsm; tkyfcsKyfa&;
wGif udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&;&mE_ef;tjynfh&Sd&rnf[laom rludkoabmwl=uonf?
6? oD;oef‹ucsifjynfe,fxlaxmifa&;rSm wdkif;jynfðyv$wfawmfuom qHk;jzwfcGifh&Sdaom jy\emjzpfaomf
vnf; ,if;odk‹aom jynfe,fwpfck&Sdoifhonf[k tnDtnGwfoabmwl=uonf?
7? 'Drkdua&pDenf;pepft& cHpm;xdkufaomtqifhtwef;/ tcGifhta&;rsm;ESihf tusdK;pD;yGm;rsm;udk awmifwef;
om;wdk‹tm;cHpm;cGifh&Sdap&rnf?
8? jrefrmEdkifiHawmfvHk;0vGwfvyfa&;&&Sda&;twGuf ArmjynfrESifh awmifwef;a'otm;vHk; yl;aygif;
aqmif&Guf&efESifhtcsKyftjcmtm%mydkifvGwfvyfaomEdkifiHawmfrjzpfrjcif; óud;pm;aqmif&Guf=u&rnf?
9? jrefrmEdkifiHawmfonf tcsKyftjcmtm%mydkif vHk;0vGwfvyfaom EkdifiHawmftjzpfodk‹ a&muf&Sdvm
aomtcg jrefrmEdkifiHawmfom; tm;vHk;wdk‹onf w&m;r#wjcif;/ vGwfvyfjcif;/ nDr#jcif; wnf;[laom
avmuygvw&m;rsm;udk tajcðyaom tcGifhta&;[lor#wdk‹udk nDwlnDr#cHpm;/ pHpm; =u&rnf?
10? jynfe,fom;rsm;onf rdrdwdk‹. jynfe,fa'orsm;udk udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&;rsm;&&Sdap&rnf? jynfe,f
tcsif;csif;wdk‹onf a'oqdkif&m/ wjynfe,fESifhwjynfe,f zufpGufyg0ifjcif;r&Sdap&/ odk‹&mwGif jynfe,f
toD;oD;pkaygif;I jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmftjzpf zGJ‹pnf;wnfaxmif=u&rnf?
11? jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmf zGJ‹pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHenf;Oya' a&;qGJ&mwGif EdkifiHawmfom;tvm;vHk;
yg0ifvmonfESifhtnD EdkifiHawmfom;[lor#wdk‹onf rnfonfhtcGihfta&;wGifrqdk nDwlnDr#&Sdap&rnf?
24

12? rnfonfhtcsdeftcgrsdK;wGifrqdk jrefrmEdkifiHawmf. wkdif;&if;ol wkdif;&if;om;tm;vHk;wdk‹. cspf=unfa&;ESifh
pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&;rsm;udk tpGrf;ukefOD;pm;ay;I aqmif&Guf=u&rnf?
13? TpmcsKyfygtcsufrsm;udk azgufzsufolwdk‹tm; opPmwnf&Sd=uaom vlrsdK;/jynfe,frsm;rS aumif;rGef
ajyvnfatmif 0dkif;0ef;ajz&Sif;=u&rnf?
14? rdrdvlrsdK;/ jynfe,ftzGJ‹tpnf;ESifhom jynfaxmifpktwGif;odk‹ 0ifa&mufyg0ifI jynfaxmifpk=uD;tm;
xdrf;odrf;umuG,f=u&rnf[laom pmcsKyfrsm;udk 1947ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(12)&ufeHeuf(10)em&DtcsdefwGif
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;OD;pD;acgif;aqmifI jynfrESifhawmifwef;e,fudk,fpm;vS,f yk*~dKvf(23)OD;wdk‹onf jrefrm
jynfwckvHk;/ vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;&&Sd=ua&;twGuf ArmjynfESifhawmifwef;e,f yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;/ yifvHk
pmcsKyf=uD;udk atmufaz:jyyg vlxkudk,fpm;vS,rf sm;rS toD;oD; pdwfygudk,fyg oabmwlvufrSwf
a&;xdk;=uygonf?
1? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; - jrefrmudk,fpm;vS,f
2? p0fcGefyef;qdkif
- vlxkudk,fpm;vS,f/ awmifydkif;apmfyGm;/ &Srf;
3? p0fa&$odkuf
- anmifa&$apmfyGm;
4? p0f[kefz
- odEMDapmfyGm;
5? p0feef;
- vJjcm;apmfyGm;
6? p0fxGef;at;
- omrcrf;apmfyGm;
7? OD;cGefyef;
- vlxkudk,fpm;vS,f
8? OD;wifat;
- vlxkudk,fpm;vS,f/awmif=uD;
9? OD;xGef;jrifh
- jynfol‹udk,fpm;vS,f/ armufr,f
10? OD;=umyk
- jynfol‹udk,fpm;vS,f/ oDayg
11? p0f,Zfz
- jynfol‹udk,fpm;vS,f/ oDayg
12? qrm;'l;0g;qif0gaemif - ucsifudk,fpm;vS,f/ jrpf=uD;em;
13? OD;wdef&wef
- ucsifudk,fpm;vS,f/ Aef;armf
14? OD;aZmfv
- ucsifudk,fpm;vS,f/ Aef;armf
15? 'l;0g;aZmf&pf
- ucsifudk,fpm;vS,f/ jrpf=uD;em;
16? 'l;0g;aZmfvGef;
- ucsifudk,fpm;vS,f/ Aef;armf
17? OD;vAef*a&mif;
- ucsifudk,fpm;vS,f/ Aef;armf
18? OD;v$mrkef;
- csif;udk,fpm;vS,f/ zvrf;
19? OD;axmifZckyf
- csif;udk,fpm;vS,f/ wD;wdef
20? OD;uD;,dkref;
- csif;udk,fpm;vS,f/ [m;cg;
21? OD;cGefxD;
- jynfol‹udk,fpm;vS,f/ yifvHk
22? OD;cGefapm
- jynfol‹udk,fpm;vS,f/ yif;’,
23? OD;jzL
- usdKif;wHkapmfyGm;/ jynfol‹udk,fpm;vS,f
24? p0fpHxGef;
- rdk;yGefapmfyGm;/ jynfol‹udk,fpm;vS,f
csif;jrefrmcspf=unfa&; nDvmcH
tqdkygyifvHkuGefz&ifhwGif OD;0rRol;armif; ryg0ifyg? csif;jrefrm cspf=unfa&;nDvmcHusif;ya&;twGuf
vHk;yef;ae&aom tcsdefjzpfygonf? BLACK LIST a=umifh t*Fvdyf. uef‹uGufcsufonfvnf; pnf;&Hk;

25

a[majyma&;c&D;pwifrnfhtcsdefwGifyif taESmuft,SufjzpfcJhao;onf? odk‹jzpfaomfvnf; csif;jrefrm
cspf=unfa&;vkyfief;udk jyD;pD;atmifjrifatmif aqmif&GufcJhonf?
1947ckESpf rwfv 4/ 5/ 6 &ufae‹rsm;wGif csif;jrefrmcspf=unfa&;nDvmcHudk OD;0rRol;armif;ESifh
'D'kwfOD;bcsdKwdk‹ OD;pD;I xD;vif;ðrdŒY usif;ycJh=uonf? csif;jrefrmcspf=unfa&; nDvmcHY pmcsKyfcsKyfqdkjcif;
r&Sdaomfvnf; 'D;'kwfOD;bcsdKrS atmufygtcsufrsm;yg0ifaom rdef‹cGef;udk jrGuf=um;cJhonf?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;/ zqyvtzGJ‹csKyfESifh Armrsm;udk,fpm; nDvmcHodk‹wufa&mufa=umif;/
vlxky&domwfaxmifausmfI/ Tr#rsm;jym;aomvlxkwufa&mufojzifh aoG;cGJpepf tajcysufaejyD jzpf
a=umif;udk awG‹&Sd&a=umif;/ ArmjynfESifhtwl vGwfvyfa&;&apvdka=umif;/ OD;0rRol;armif;. acgif;aqmifr_/
óud;yrf;r_jzifh r=umrSD&=urnf[k ,Hk=unfa=umif;/ vGwfvyfvmonfESihftr#/ csif;vGwfvyfa&;udk Armu
rnfodk‹r# xdcdkufrnfr[kwfa=umif;/ b¾ma&;rStp vdktyfonfhtultnDrSefor# jynfrrS vdkavao;r&Sd/
ulnDrnfjzpfa=umif;/
(AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifhOD;0rRol;armif;wdk‹ &efukefrStwlxGufvm=ujyD; AdkvfcsKyfu yifvHkodk‹wufoGm;I yifvkHnDvmcHudk
atmifjrifatmifusif;ycJhjyD; OD;0rRol;armif;u csif;awmifodk‹jyefwufoGm;jyD; csif;jrefrmcspf=unfa&;nDvmcHudk atmifjrif
atmif usif;ycJhonf)

awmifwef;om;rsm; 'kwd,t=udrfnDvmcH
1947 ckESpf rwfv 18/ 19/ 20 &ufrsm;wGifawmifwef;om;rsm;omyg0ifonfh nDvmcHwpf&yfudk
awmifwef;om;rsm;pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹ óud;udkifaumfrDwD SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE UNITED HILLS
PEOPLE (SCOUHP)rS =uD;rSL;I anmifa&$ðrd‹/ anmifa&$apmfyGm; p0fa&$odkuf. a[mfeef;crf;rtwGif;
'kwd,t=udrf jyefvnfusif;ycJhonf?
,if;nDvmcHodk‹ OD;0rRol;armif;ESifhajrmufydkif;csif;awmifudk,fpm;vS,frsm; wufa&mufcJh=uonf?
,if;nDvmcHY yifvHkoabmwlpmcsKyftwdkif; jrefrmEdkifiHawmfonf tcsKyftjcmtm%mydkif vHk;0vGwfvyf
aom EdkifiHawmftjzpf a&muf&Sdvmonfhtcg jynfaxmifpktjzpfyl;aygif;&ef atmufygtcsufrsm;yg&Sdaom
jynfaxmifpkrludk csrSwfcJh=uonf?
,if;wdk‹rSm
1? wef;wla&;
2? udk,fydkifjyXmef;cGifh&a&;
3? cGJxGufvdku cGJxGufEdkifa&; ponfwdk‹jzpfonf?
(txufygrloHk;&yfwGif wef;wla&;ESifh udk,fydkifjyXmef;cGifh&a&;wdk‹onf jynfaxmifpktjzpfyl;aygif;ygu zuf'
&,fjynfe,fwGif tcsKyftjcmtm%moHk;&yfydkifqdkifrnfjzpfojzifh/ tvdktavsmuf&&SdjyD;jzpfrnf jzpfaomf
vnf;/ xm0pOf wnfwHhcdkifjrJa&;twGuf cGJxGufvdku cGJxGufEdkifa&;udkvnf; tem*gwfjrefrmEdkifiH. zGJ‹pnf;
tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'wGif xnfhoGif;a&;qGJ&efvdka=umif;/ vlrsdK;wpfrsdK;/ jynfe,fwpfjynfe,f. cGJxGufa&;/
rcGJxGufa&;rSm usefvlrsdK;/ jynfe,frsm;. aumif;jcif;/ raumif;jcif;tay: rlwnfa=umif;/ tar#mftjrif
=uD;rm;pGm xnfhoGif;csrSwfcJh=uonf?)
awmifwef;a'o pHkprf;a&;aumfr&Sif
26

1947ckESpf {jyDvwGif t*FvdyfjrefrmoabmwlncD suft& awmifwef;om;rsm;/ Armrsm;ESifhtwl
vGwfvyfa&;trSef&,lvdkjcif;[kwfr[kwf awmifwef;a'opHkprf;a&;aumfr&SifzGJ‹jyD;/ arðrdŒwGif wdkif;&if;om;
udk,fpm;vS,ftoD;oD;tm; ppfaq;I vlxkqENudk xkwfaz:apcJhonf? &D;pf0DvsHaumfr&Sif[kac:onf?
ppfaq;r_rsm; {jyDvqef;rSpI (27)&ufae‹wGifjyD;qHk;onf? wdkif;&if;om; vlrsdK;udk,fpm;vS,ftm;vHk;u
ArmESifhtwl vGwfvyfa&;t&,ljyD; jynfaxmifpktjzpf yl;aygif;rnfjzpfa=umif; wnDwnGwfwnf; xGufqdk
=uonf?
vGwfvyfa&;ESihf 47 Oya'
jrefrmEdkifiHvGwfvyfa&;&&Sd&efaojcmaejyDjzpf&m 1947ckESpf {jyDv(7)&ufae‹wGif wdkif;ðyjynfðy
vGwfawmftrwfrsm;udk 1935ckESpf jrefrmEdkifiHpD&iftkyfcsKyfa&; tufOya't& a&G;aumufcJhonf? ,if;wdkif;ðy
jynfðyvGwfawmfodk‹ awmifwef;e,fudk,fpm;vS,f (45)OD;apv$wfcGifh&I ,if;wGif csif;udk,fpm;vS,f (6)OD;
yg&SdcJhonf?
1947ckESpf arv(23)&ufae‹wGif *sLAvDcef;rY zqyv yrm%jyifqifr_ nDvmcHusif;yI atmufyg
tcsuf(14)csufygtqdkwifoGif;qHk;jzwffr_ðyvkyfjyD; zGJ‹pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHkrl=urf;a&;qGJ&ef pwif &kyfvHk;az:cJh=uonf?
1? jrefrmEdkifiHawmfudk vGwfvyfaomtcsKyftjcmtm%mydkiforRwEdkifiHtjzpfjzifha=ujim&ef Ty%mr
jyifqifr_nDvmcHobifu av;eufcdkifrmpGmjyXmef;vdkufonf?
2? wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmfua&;qGJtyfaom EdkifiHawmfzGJpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'wGif tqdkyg vGwfvyf
aomtcsKyftjcmtm%mydkif-oRrwEdkifiHawmfonf
(u) ,cktxdjAdwdo#jrefrmjynftwGif;wGifyg0ifaeaom
1? jrefrmjynf0ef=uD;tzGJ‹utkyfcsKyfaeaom jrefrmjynfr
2? [krRvif;c&dkifcGJ
3? qifuvdkifcrf;wD;
4? aomif'Gwf
5? aqmr&e,fy,f
6? em*awmifwef;rsm;
&? oHvGifc&dkif
8? uefyufvufc&dkifcGJ
9? &cdkifawmifwef;e,fy,frsm;[lI ac:a0:aoma'orsm;
(c) udk;crf;ESifharmif;ydkifwdk‹tygt0ifjzpfaom &Srf;jynfaxmifpk
(*) u&ifeDjynfe,frsm;
(C) ucsifawmifwef;rsm;
(i) uefyufvufc&dkifcGJrygaom csif;awmifwef;c&dkifodk‹yg0ifaom jynfaxmifpkEdkifiHawmf jzpf&rnf?
3? (1) atmufyg*k%ft*Fgtm;vHk;ESifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ tcsdK‹ESifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ jynfhpHkI (c) (*) (C)
(i)wdk‹Yazmfjyxm;aoma'orsm;onf Twdkif;jynfðyv$wfawmfujyXmef;I aemiftcg zGJ‹pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk
tajccHOya'ESifh ‘jynfaxmifpkjynfe,f’tqifhtwef;udkjzpfap/ ‘udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyf&jynfe,f’ tqifhtwef;
udkjzpfap/ ‘vlrsdK;pkjynfe,f’ tqifhtwef;udkjzpfap &&Sd&rnf? xdka'orsm;onf rdrdwdk‹tm;tyfESif;I
aomfvnf;aumif;/ v$Jajymif;Iaomfvnf;aumif;/ &&Sdaomtm%mESifh wm0efrsm;udk oHk;pGJaqmif&Guf&rnf?
*k%ft*Fgrsm;um;
27

1? yx0Dtaetxm;t& e,fedrdwftxift&Sm;&Sdjcif;
2? jrefrmpum;Esifhrwlaom bmompum;wrsdK;wnf;&Sdjcif;
3? ,Ofaus;r_wrsdK;wnf;&Sdjcif;
4? &mZ0iftpOftvmwrsdK;wnf;&Sdaom vlpk&Sdjcif;
5? pD;yGg;a&;qdkif&mtusdK;aus;Zl;ESifh pD;yGg;a&;vHkavmufr_wdk‹&Sdaom vlpk&Sdjcif;
6? vlOD;a&tawmftwef&Sdjcif;
7? jynfaxmifpktzGJ‹0ifoD;jcm;a'owcktjzpfjzifh rdrd.udk,fydkifxif&Sm;csuftwdkif; aexdkifaomqEN
&Sdjcif;wdk‹ jzpfavonf?
3? (2) xdktm%mrsm;ESifhwm0efrsm;onf y%mrjyifqifr_nDvmcHobifu cef‹aomaumfrdwDtzGJ‹ .
aphpyfcsufjzifh ESpfOD;EspfbufoabmwlnDcsufudk&jyD;rS pOf;pm;qHk;jzwf&rnfh tm%mESifhwm0efrsm; jzpfonf?
qdkcJhjyD;aomaumfrdwDtzGJ‹. aphpyfcsufjzifh&&Sdaom wlnDcsufonf zqyvtr_aqmiftzGJ‹. twnfðycsuf
udk&&Sd&rnf?
4? (Tae&mrSpIvmrnfhtydk'frsm;wGif ‘jynfaxmifpOk ya'ðytzGJ‹’[kac:qdktyfaom) A[dkOya'ðytzGJ‹.
tm%mydkifeufonf jynfaxmifpkEdkifiHw0Srf;vHk;jzpf&rnf?‘jynfaxmifpkjynfe,f’odk‹r[kwf ‘udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyf
&jynfe,f’ odk‹r[kwf ‘vlrsdK;pkjynfe,f’wdk‹.Oya'ðytzGJ‹rsm;odk‹ oD;jcm;v$Jajymif;ay;onfh udpPtrsdK;tpm;
xJwGifryg0ifaomudpPcyfodrf;wdk‹ESifhpyfvsOf;I EdkifiHzGJ‹pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'Y rnfodk‹yifqdkxm;onf
jzpfap jynfaxmifpkOya'ðytzGJ‹onf atmufYpDpOfazmfjyxm;aom udpPtrsdK;tpm;wGifyg0ifonfh udpP
tm;vHk;wdk‹tay:Y Oya'ðytm%m&Sd&rnf?
1? jynfaxmifpktpdk&Xmersm;
2? jynfe,fcsif;csif;udpPrsm;
3? (xdkvkyfief;-2-rsdK;rSty) usefudpPrsm;
4? jynfaxmifpkwckvHk;Esifhoufqdkifaom pD;yGg;a&;wdk;wufr_udpPrsm;
5? ‘jynfaxmifpkjynfe,f’ ‘udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyf&jynfe,f’ ‘vlrsdK;pkjynfe,f’wdk‹rSvGJI usefa'orsm;
ESifhpyfvsOf;aomudpPrsm;
rSwfcsuf?
? (txufygtydk'f=uD;-4? Tydk'fcGJ(5)wGifqdkxm;aom usefa'orsm;twGuf
Oya'ðytzGJ‹rsm; oyfoyfxm;&Sdrnfr[kwfacs)?
5? TvGwfvyfaomtcsKyftjcmtm%mydkiforRwjrefrmEdkifiHonf4if;/ xdkEdkifiHtzGJ‹0ifjynfe,fa'o rsm;onf
4if;/ xdkEdkifiH.tpdk;&Xmersm;onf4if;/ toD;oD;wdk‹onf rdrdwdk‹.wefcdk;awZmESifh tm%mtm;vHk;wdk‹udk
wdkif;oljynfom;wdk‹xHrS xkwf,loHk;pGJ&rnf?
6? vlr_qufqHa&;w&m;r#wr_/ pD;ygG;a&;w&m;r#wr_/ EdkifiHa&;w&m;r#wr_/ tqifhtwef;wlnDr_/ tcGifhtvrf;
wlnDr_/ w&m;Oya't&wlnDr_wdk‹tjyif w&m;Oya'ESifhvnf;aumif;/ avmu0wW&m; wdk‹ESifhvnf;aumif;/
oifhjrwfavsmfuefap&rnfjzpfaom vGwfvyfpGmawG;=uHEdkifr_/ vGwfvyfpGmzGifh[ a&;om;azmfjyEdkifr_/ vGwfvyf
pGm,Hk=unfEdkifr_/ vGwfvyfpGmudk;uG,fEdkifr_/ vGwfvyfpGm bk&m;ausmif;uef oGm;cGifh ðyEdkifr_/ vGwfvyfpGm
y&da,oe&SmrSD;Edkifr_/ vGwfvyfpGmpnf;&Hk;Edkifr_/ vGwfvyfpGmaqmif&GufEdkifr_wdk‹udk jynfoljynfom;tm;vHk;wdk‹
&&SdcHpm;Edkifatmif 0efcHcsuf&Sd&rnf?
7? (1) ‘wdkif;&if;om;vlenf;pkrsm;’.tcGifhta&;rsm;jzpfaom
1? vlwdk‹.tcGifhta&;
2? vlrsdK;ESifh,Ofaus;r_tcGifhta&;
3? ,Ofaus;r_wGif rdrdwdk‹p&dkuft& jyXmef;EdkifcGifhESifhwuG vGwfvyfpGmaygif;oif;qufqHEdkif
aom tcGifhta&;
4? Oya'ðytzGJ‹wGif xdkufoifhaomudk,fpm;vS,fOD;a& yg0ifEdkifa&;
28

xdktcGifhta&;wdk‹udk vlrsm;pkESifh vlrsdK;tm;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ bmompum;tm;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ ,Ofaus;r_
tm;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ &mZ0ifpOfvmtm;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ uGJjym;aomolrsm;vnf;jzpfI oufqdkif&m
tzGJ‹0ifa'owGif vlOD;a& (10)yHk(1)yHkxufrenf;&Sdonfholrsm;vnf;jzpfaom jynfolwpkonf cHpm;Edkif
ygonf[k cH0efcsuf&Sd&rnf?
7? (2) u&iftrsdK;om;wdk‹ESifhoufqdkifaomudpPrsm;wGif jynfaxmifpltpdk;&tm;ulnDt=uHay;&ef ‘u&if
a&;&mtzGJ‹’wpkudkzGJ‹pnf;&rnf?
8? ‘jynfaxmifpkjynfe,f’ ‘udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyf&jynfe,f’ ‘vlrsdK;pkjynfe,f’wk‹dtm; ydkif;jcm;owfrSwf tyfESif;
v$Jajymif;xm;aom tm%mrsm;rSwyg; vGwfvyaomtcsKyftjcmtm%mydkif orRwjrefrm EdkifiHawmf.
Oya'ðytm%m/ tkyfcsKyfr_tm%m/ w&m;pD&ifr_tm%mwdk‹onf jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHY&SdI xdktm%m
wdk‹udk EdkifiHzGJ‹pnf;yHktajccHOya'uwnfaxmifxm;aom jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmftpdk;& Xmersm;uaomf
4if;/ xdkXmersm;.trdef‹t&aomfvnf;aumif;/ oHk;pGJEdkif&rnf?
9? jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmftwGif;&Sd jynfoltm;vHk;wdk‹.txGwftjrwfjzpfxdkufaom EdkifiHawmf.
t=uD;trSL;jzpfonfh orRwESifhwuG jynfol‹v$wfawmf vlrsdK;pkv$wfawmfESpf&yfyg0ifaom jynfaxmifpk
r[mv$wfawmfwdk‹wGif jynfaxmifpkOya'ðytm%mudk tyfESif;xm;&Sdap&rnf? orRwtm; jynfaxmifpk
r[mv$wfaawmfu a&G;aumufwifajrSmuf&rnf? jynfol‹v$wfawmftrwfrsm;udk v#dK‹0SufaomrJqEN
ay;pepft& t&G,fa&mufolwdkif;u a&G;aumufwifajrSmuf&rnf? vlrsdK;pkv$wfawmfwGif ‘jynfaxmifpk
jynfe,f’rSvnf;aumif;/ ‘udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyf&jynfe,f’rSvnf;aumif;/ ‘vlrsdK;pkjynfe,f’rS vnf;aumif;/
‘wdkif;&if;om;vlenf;pk’rSvnf;aumif;/ tzGJ‹a'owcktjzpfjzifh pk&Hk;zGJ‹pnf;tyfaom usefa'orsm;rSvnf;
aumif; udk,fpm;vS,ftrwfrsm;yg0ifap&rnf?
10? w&m;Oya'ESifh TedkifiHzGJ‹pnf;yHktajccHOya'wdk‹ujyXmef;rnfh pnf;urf;csufrsm;udkaxmufI jynfolwdk‹
wGif rdrdwdk‹a&G;cs,fwifajrSmufvdkufaom udk,fpm;vS,ftrwfudk E_wfy,fac:,lEdkifaom tcGifhta&;
&Sdap&rnf?
11? jynfaxmifpktpdk;&[kac:qdktyfonfh jynfaxmifpkEdkifiHawmf. tcsKyftjcmtkyfcsKyfr_tm%m wnf&Sd&m
jzpfaom tpdk;&tzGJ‹onf jynfol‹v$wfawmftm;wm0efcH&rnf?
12? EdkifiHzGJ‹pnf;yHktajccHOya'uaomfvnf;aumif;/ w&m;Oya'uaomfvnf;aumif;/ wnfaxmif
xm;aomw&m;&Hk;awmfrsm;onf w&m;pD&ifjcif;udkðy&rnf? xdkw&m;&Hk;rsm;u r[mw&m;&Hk;awmfESifh wuG
xdkw&m;&Hk;awmf. vufatmufcHw&m;&Hk;rsm;jzpfonf? w&m;ol=uD;rsm;onf EdkifiHzGJ‹pnf;yHk tajccHOya'ESifh
w&m;Oya'wdk‹udkomaxmufI vGwfvyfpGmw&m;pD&if&rnf? r[mw&m;&kH;awmf. w&m;0ef=uD;rsm;udk
‘jynfaxmifpkr[mv$wfawmf’u a&G;aumufwifajrSmuf&rnf?
13? vGGwfvyfaomtcsKyftjcmtm%mydkif orRwjrefrmEdkifiH. E,fajrwdk‹waygif;wpnf;wnf; wnf&Sdae
onf[laom *k%foduQmonfvnf;aumif;/ EdkifiHawmf.=unf;/ a&/ avwdk‹udk tcsKyftjcm pdk;rdk; tkyfcsKyfEdkif
aomtcGifhta&;rsm;onfvnf;aumif;/ xdk%foduQmrsm;onfw&m;r#wr_ESifhvnf;aumif;/ wdkif;=uD;jynf=uD;
wdk‹.Oya'ESifhvnf;aumif;/ avsmfnDpGmwnfwHhcdkifjrJae&rnf?
14? uGsEkyfwdk‹cspfjrwfEdk;aomEdkifiHawmfonf urBmay:wGif w&m;ojzifh&oifh&xdkufonfvnf;jzpfI *k%f
usufoa&ESifhvnf;jynfhpHkaomtqifhtwef;udk&&SdI vlowW0gcyfodrf;wdk‹.tuskdK;pD;ygG;udk wdk;wufap&ef
rdrdYwm0ef&Sdonfhtavsmuf tpGrf;ukeftm;xkwfaqmif&GufjyD;v#if jynfaxmifpktcsif;csif;/ w&m;r#wr_ESifh
avmu0wW&m;wdk‹udkaxmufcH/ tEdkifEdkifiHwdk‹Esifhcspf=unf&if;ESD;pGm yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufrnf[k cdkifjrJaom
t"dXmefudk ðyxm;avonf?
(txufazmfjyygzqyvy%mrjyifqifr_nDvmcHobifYwifoGif;&ef tqdk(14)csufonf zqyvy%mrjyifqifr_
nDvmcHobifYwifoGif;Edkif&efjyifqifxm;aomtqdkr#omjzpfonf[k cGefrmudkbef;u 4if;.‘yifvHkpdwf"gwf &Sifoef

29

azmfaqmifa&;rS ppfrSefaom'Drdkua&pDzuf'&,fjynfaxmifpkEdkifiHawmfopfwnfaqmufa&;odk‹’pmtkyfwGif a&;om;
xm;onf)?

jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHwkdif;jynfðyv$wfawmf. yxrnDvmcHudk 1947ckESpf ZGefv(4)&ufae‹wGif
pwifusif;ycJhonf? nDvmcHudk,fpm;vS,frsm;wGif csif;trsdK;om;udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ‹acgif;aqmiftjzpf
OD;vD[mavm(c) ocifbatmifyg0ifcJhonf? ,if;nDvmcHrS zGJ‹pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya'a&;rl=urf; a&;qGJ
a&; aumfrDwDwckcef‹xm;cJhonf? 1947ckESpf Zlvdkifv (19)&ufae‹wGif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESihfwuG acgif;
aqmif=uD;rsm; vkyf=uHcHcJh&onf? 1947ckESpf Zlvdkifv (29)&ufae‹wGif wdkif;jynfðyv$wfawmf 'kwd,t=udrf
nDvmcH jyefvnfusif;yjyD; 1947ckESpf Zlvdkifv(31)&ufae‹wGif zGJ‹pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya' a&;qGJa&;
tacsmudkifaumfrDwDudk cef‹tyfI tjyD;tydkif wm0efv$JtyfcJh=uonf? ,if;aumfrDwDrS a&;qGJaom Oya'udk
1947ckESpf pufwifbmv(15)&ufae‹wGif pwifusif;yaom wkdif;jynfðyv$wfawmf wwd,t=udrf nDvmcHrS
1947ckESpfpufwifbmv(24)&ufae‹wGif twnfðycJhonf?
,if;Oya't& Oya'tydkif; (5) csif;0daoowdkif; tc%f;/ yk'fr(196/ 197/ 198)wdk‹t&
csif;0daoowdkif; csif;a&;&maumifpD/ csif;a&;&mXme/ csif;a&;&m0ef=uD; ponfwdk‹ay:aygufcJhonf?
txufyg 1947ckESpf zGJ‹pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya'ESifhygwfoufI AkdvfcsKyfESihfwuG acgif;aqmif=uD;
rsm; vkyf=uHcH&jyD; a&;qGJaomOya'onf awmifwef;om; wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK; acgif;aqmifrsm; ESifh Arm
acgif;aqmifrsm; rlvoabmwlxm;aom jynfaxmifpkrludk tajcrcHyJ jynfaxmifpkpk twkta,mif
wjynfaxmifzGJ‹pnf;yHkpepfjzifh a&;qGJxm;aom Oya'jzpfaeojzifh wkdif;&if;om;acgif;aqmifrsm; rsm;pGm
uoduatmufjzpfcJh&onf? yl;aygi;f aqmif&Guf/ yl;aygif;cHpm;&ef MUTUAL CO.OPERATION AND MUTUAL
BENEFIT rdom;pkuJhodk‹ FRATERNAL BOND aygif;pnf;xm;onf[k vdrfnmI wef;wl&nfwl tcGifhta&;
PRINCIPLE OF EQUALITY r&Sdonfh vlrsdK;=uD;tajccH0g' NATIONAL CHAUVINISM jzifha&;qGJxm;aom
wpfjynfaxmif UNITARY Oya'jzpfonf?
ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm awmifhwvmcJhaom vGwfvyfa&;udk zGJ‹pnf;yHkta&;ESifh twdkuftcHjzpfaecJhv#if
qifajymif=uD;tjrD;usrSwpfaernfudkvnf;aumif;/ vGwfvyfa&;ESihf zGJ‹pnf;yHkta&;wdk‹rSm “pm;&rSmvnf;
oJESifhw&Syf&Syf/ ypf&rSmvnf; tqDESifhw0if;0if;” jzpfaecJh&onf? vGwfvyfa&;udk rnfolr# vufv$wfcHrnf
r[kwf[k tcGifhaumif;,lI Oya'a&;qGJa&;aumfrDwDrS a&;qGJaom ,if;1947ckESpf Oya't& csif;/ ucsif/
&Srf;/ u&if/ u,m;/ rGef/ &cdkifwkdif;&if;om;rsm;onf t*FvdyfvufatmufcHb0rS ArmudkvdkeDb0odk‹
tvdktavsmuf oufqif;cJh&jyefonf? wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd ;acgif;aqmifrsm;tm; jynfaxmifpktjzpf yl;aygif;
ygrnf[k tmrcHxm;aom AdkvfcsKyfESifhwuG acgif;aqmif=uD;rsm; vkyf=uHcH&tjyD; 4if;wdk‹tvdkus Oya'jyXmef;
um wkdif;&if;om; vlrsdK;(7)rsdK;wdk‹tm; ArmvlrsdK;wpfpku u|efðytkyfcsKyfEkdifcJh=uonf?
rnfodk‹yifjzpfap vGwfvyfa&;onfyxr/ vGwv
f yfa&;onf'kwd,/ vGwfvyfa&;onf wwd, [k
vGwfvyfa&;&&Sd&ef toufaoG; ac|;ajrmufrsm;pGmudk tpaw;cHI vGwfvyfa&;óud;yrf;cJhaom u|Efkyfwdk‹.
rsdK;cspfacgif;aqmiftaygif; tjynfht0wm0efausyGef=uygonf? jynfaxmifpkta&;/ zGJ‹pnf;yHkta&;onf
ouf&Sdxif&Sm;&Sdaom aemifvmaemifom;rsm;. wm0efjzpfayonf?

30

Todk‹jzifh jynfaxmifpktrnfcH jrefrmEdkifiHonf 1948ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv(4)&ufae‹wGif vGwfvyfa&;
udk ausnmI ArmtcsKyftjcmtm%mydkif ozef;oD;EdkifiHtjzpf urBmtv,fwGif ay:xGef;vmcJhonf?
csif;awmiftkyfcsKyfa&;pepfcsrSwfa&;
jrefrmEdkifiHvGwfvyfa&;&onftxd rqkwfrepfaom ZGJvHk‹vjzifh wpnf;wvHk;wnf; ñud;yrf;tm;
xkwfcJh=uaom csif;trsdK;om;xkudk OD;pD;em,uðyvmcJhonfh/ csif;trsdK;om;acgif;aqmif=uD; OD;0rRol;armif;
onf yxrOD;qHk; csif;a&;&m0ef=uD;jzpfvmcJhonf? tajrSmftjrif=uD;rm;cJhaom OD;0rRol;armif; onf
jAdwdo#wdk‹zefwD;cJhonfh jAL&dkua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&; ,EW&m;udk tpm;xdk;&ef/ jAdwdo#bk&ifcHrif;=uD;rSpI
wkdufol=uD;rsm;txd tqifhqifh tm%mqif;oufvmaom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk ajymif;jyefvSefI vlxkrS
jrefrmEdkifiHtpdk;&wdkifatmif/ tm%mtqifhqifhwufvmonfh 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk xnfhoGif;tpm;
xdk;&eftwGuf/ vlxkqEN,l&ef/ csif;a&;&mXme. yxrOD;qHk; vkyfief;tjzpfcsrSwfv#uf tjyif;txef óud;pm;
aqmif&GufcJhonf?
'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfESifhygwfoufI csif;trsdK;om;xk. qENudk pHkprf;az:xkwf&ef/ csif;awmif
pHkprf;ppfaq;a&;aumfr&Sifwpf&yfudk zGJ‹pnf;ay;ygrnfhta=umif; 1948ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹wGif
csif;a&;&mXmerS jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiH 0ef=uD;rsm;tzGJ‹odk‹ wifoGif;cJhonf? 1948ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv
(28)&ufae‹ owWrt=udrfajrmuf usif;yonfh 0ef=uD;rsm;tzGJ‹ tpnf;ta0;rS tpDtpOf(5) wGif
xnfhoGif;aqG;aEG;jyD; “csif;awmifpHkprf;a&;aumfr&SiftzGJ‹” zGJ‹pnf;&ef oabmwlqHk;jzwfcJh=uonf? wzef
csif;a&;&mXmerS csif;awmifpHkprf;a&;aumfr&SiftzGJ‹ zGJ‹pnf;&ef jyXmef;csufudk 1948ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(5)&uf
ae‹pGJjzifh xkwfjyefausnmcJhonf? ,if;tzGJ‹wGif -obmywd OD;0rRol;armif;/ twGif;a&;rSL;- wdkif;rif;=uD;
pnfol OD;odrf;armif(atwDtrf)/ tzGJ‹0iftrsdK;om; ynm0efa[mif; OD;pdk;0if;wdk‹ yg0ifonf?
aumfr&SifrS e,ftoD;oD;&Sd vlxkudk,fpm;vS,frsm;/ wdkuftkyf/ acsmif;tkyf/ ol=uD;rsm;wdk‹. qENudk
ppfaq;Edkif&efESifh csif;trsdK;om;tm;vHk; r[kwfapumrl,ckcsif;0daoowdkif;tjzpf ydkif;jcm;ay;xm; e,fajr
twGif;&Sd csif;trsdK;om;udk,fpm;vS,frsm;tm;vHk; vGwv
f Gwfvyfvyf wufa&mufawG‹qHkEdkifrnfh csif;0daoo
wkdif;vHk;qdkif&m nDvmcHobifudk usif;y&efwdk‹udk OD;0rRol;armif;rS wðydifeufxJ pDpOfcJhonf?
aumfr&SifrS e,ftoD;oD;. vlxu
k dk,fpm;vS,f/ wkduftkyf/ acsmif;tkyf/ol=uD;wdk‹. vlxkqENudk
1948ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(12)rS (26)&ufxd ppfaq;cJhjyD; csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&m nDvmcHobifudkvnf;
1948ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(19)&ufrS (22)&ufae‹txd zvrf;ðrdŒwGif usif;ycJhonf? ,if;nDvmcHobifodk‹
EdkifiHawmf orw=uD; p0fa&$odkuf udk,fwdkifwufa&mufcJhonf? nDvmcHodk‹ te,fe,ft&yf&yfrS vlxk
udk,fpm;vS,frsm;/ wdkuftkyf/ acsmif;tkyf/ ol=uD;rsm;ESihf vlxky&domwf (5000)ausmf wufa&mufcJh=uonf?
,if;tcsdef csif;awmifY jzpfay:aeaom jy\emrSm tcsdK‹wdkufol=uD;ESifh &Gmol=uD;rsm;. 1? tm%mESihf tcGifhta&;udk tvGJoHk;pm;ðyI jynfolvlxktay:Y nOf;yrf;ESdyfpufr_rsm; ðyvkyf=ujcif;/
2? vufatmufcH jynfolvlxk. tusdK;udko,fydk;aqmif&Guf&ef pdwfqENenf;yg;jyD; qufqHa&; rajyjypf
=ujcif;/
3? wdk;wufaom acwfY &ifabmifwef;vdkufEdkifaom vlr_qufqHa&; t=um;tjrifA[kokwr&Sd=ujcif;/
4? 0efaxmufrsm;uay;xm;aom tm%mudk t&rf;rJh oHk;pGJ=ujcif;/

31

5? tpdk;&csrSwfaom rl0g'ESifh rnDnGwf rqDavsmf=ujcif;paom e,fcsJ‹wdk‹zefwD;cJhaom tkyfcsKyfolESifh
tkyfcsKyfcH vlwef;pm;wdk‹ jy\emyifjzpfonf?
aumfr&Sifonf 1948ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(12)&ufae‹wGif wD;wdefðrdŒY urfawm/ pkwWwJ/ pD,if e,fajrrS
vlxkudk,fpm;vS,f/ wdkuftkyf/ acsmif;tkyf/ ol=uD;rsm;ESifhawG‹qHkaqG;aEG;jyD; 4if;wdk‹qENudk pHkprf;cJhonf?
1948ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(16)&ufae‹wGif zvrf;ðrdŒY [m;cg;e,fvlxkudk,fpm;vS,frsm;ESifh awG‹qHkaqG;aEG;jyD;
4if;wdk‹. qENudk pHkprf;ppfaq;cJhonf?
1948ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(17)&ufae‹wGif zvrf;ðrdŒY &mawmuf/ abmfvuGm/ vGefbef/ ig;rGwf/ uefyufvuf/
[m;cg;e,frsm;rS vlxkudk,fpm;vS,frsm;/ wkduftkyf/ acsmif;tkyf/ol=uD;rsm;udk awG‹qHkaqG;aEG;jyD; 4if;wdk‹.
qENrsm;udk ppfaq;cJhonf?
1948ckESpfazaz:0g&Dv(18)&ufae‹wGif zvrf;ðrdŒY xkwfvd_ifESihf uGmZyfe,frsm;rS vlxkudk,fpm;vS,frsm;/
wkduftkyf/acsmif;tkyfol=uD;rsm;ESihfawG‹qHkaqG;aEG;jyD; 4if;wdk‹. qENrsm;udk pHkprf;ppfaq;cJhonf?
1948ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(19)&ufae‹rS (22)&ufae‹txd zvrf;ðrdŒY csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&m nDvmcH
usif;ycJhonf? ,if;nDvmcH. tqdkESifh qHk;jzwfcsufajrmufrsm;pGmteuf 1948ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹
wGif wifoGif;aom tqdktrSwf(4)udkwifoGif;qHk;jzwf=ujcif;onf csif;trsdK;om;ae‹ ay:ayguf&aom t"du
yifrr¾dKifta=umif;&if; jzpfvmcJhonf? tqdkwifoGif;olrSm axmifZudkif;(wD;wdef)jzpfjyD;/ axmufcHolrsm;rSm
pGefref;(zvrf;)/ xef;armif; (uefyufvuf)wdk‹jzpfonf? ,if;tqdkrSm “vlxkqENt& 'Drkdua&pDpepfESifh
tkyfcsKyfonfh pepfzGJ‹pnf;&ef” [laom tqdkjzpfonf? az:jycsufrSm- e,fcsJ‹t*Fvdyftvdkus cef‹xm;aom
wdkufol=uD;rsm;tm; ðzwfcs&ef vdka=umif;/ ,if;wdkufol=uD;rsm;onf aumufyJoD;ESH/ vlcGef/ trJcGefponfh
ajrmufrsm;vSpGmaomtcGefrsm;udk rdrdwdk‹ tvdkqENjzifh r#wr_r&SdpGm tm%moHk;I rw&m;aumufcHae=u
a=umif;/ ,if;wdk‹udkðzwfcsI vlxkqENjzifh a&G;aumufwifajrSmufaom vlxkudk,fpm;vS,frsm;yg0ifonfh
aumifpDjzifh tkyfcsKyfoifha=umif;/ tm%m&Sif pepfzsufodrf;jyD; 'Drkdua&pDpepfxlaxmif&ef wifoGif;onfh
tqdkjzpfygonf? ,if;tqdkudk obmywd OD;0rRol;armif;rS rJcGJqHk;jzwfap&m axmufcHolig;axmifausmf&SdjyD;/
uef‹uGufrJ(17)rJ&SdonfhtwGuf twnfðycJhonf?
nDvmcHjyD;qHk;onfhae‹ 1948ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(22)&ufae‹wGif zvrf;ðrdŒY yvuf0e,frS vlxkudk,fpm;
vS,fwdk‹ESifh awG‹qHkaqG;aEG;jyD; 4if;wdk‹. qENudk pHkprf;ppfaq;cJhonf?
1948ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(23)&ufae‹wGif zvrf;ðrdŒY wD;wdefrS v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f r[moa&pnfol
uy`wdef refwHk;EHk;tm; awG‹qHkaqG;aEG;I 4if;. qENudk pHkprf;ppfaq;cJhonf?
1948ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(26)&ufae‹wGif zvrf;ðrdŒY
awG‹qHkaqG;aEG;jyD; 4if;wdk‹. qENudkpHkprf;ppfaq;cJhonf?

csif;0daoowdkif;twGif;&Sd

e,ft&m&Sdrsm;ESifh

1948ckESpf rwfv(10)&ufae‹wGif &efukefðrdŒwGif aumfr&Sif tzGJ‹0ifrsm; tpnf;ta0;ðyvkyfI wkdufol=uD;
rsm;tm; ðzwfjyD; 4if;wdk‹tm; tvkyfoufwef;tr_xrf;&&SdcJhaom tcGeftcponfwdk‹udk wGufcsufI
tcsdK;vdkufa0yHkusaiGtm;jzifh avsmfa=u;ay;&ef rl=urf;aqG;aEG;=uonf?
32

1948ckESpf pufwifbmv(18)&ufae‹wGif &efukefðrdŒY aumfr&SiftzGJ‹0ifrsm; tpnf;ta0;xyfrHðyvkyf=uI
wdkufol=uD;rsm;tm; ay;&efjzpfaom avsmfa=u;aiGudpPudk jyifqifwGufcsufjyD; pHkprf;a&;aumfr&Sif twGif;a&;
rSL;u wifoGif;onfh tpD&ifcHpmudk tao;pdwfaqG;aEG;=uonf?
1948ckESpf pufwifbmv(22)&ufae‹wGif &efukefðrdŒY aumfr&SiftzGJ‹0ifrsm;. aemufqHk;tpnf;t a0;
usif;yonf/ ,if;tpnf;ta0;Y tpD&ifcHpmudk tjyD;owfaqG;aEG;I tacsmudkifjyD; jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiH
awmftpdk;& 0ef=uD;rsm;tzGJ‹tpnf;ta0;odk‹ aqG;aEG;qHk;jzwf&ef wifoGif;cJh onf?
ppfaq;a&;aumfr&Sif.pHkprf;ppfaq;csufrsm;rS xGuf&Sdonfh tESpfcsKyftajzrSm1? wdkufol=uD;rsm;tm; ðzwfcs&efqEN&Sda=umif;/ wnDwnGwfwnf; xGufqdk=uonf?
2? wdkufol=uD;rsm;u tkyfcsKyfcJhonfh pepfa[mif;tpm;/ vlxkqENt&a&G;cs,fwifajrSmufaom vlxk
udk,fpm;vS,frsm;u 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&; pepfopf wDxGiftpm;xdk;tkyfcsKyf&ef wnDwnGwfwnf; xGufqdk
=uonf?
odk‹jzpfI csif;a&;&mXmeonf wdkufol=uD;rsm;tm;ðzwfcs&efjzpfaomfvnf;/ 'Drkdua&pD0g't& 4if;wdk‹
repfemap&eff xdkufoifhonfhtm;avsmfpGm yifpifaxmufyHha=u;aiGudk wcsdK;vdkufa0yHkusay;&efESifh acwf
a[mif;jAL&dkua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;,EW&m;udk acwfrS'Drkdua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&; ,EW&m;tpm;xdk; wyfqifEdkifrnfh
tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfopfa&;qGJ zefwD;cGifhðy&ef jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmf 0ef=uD;rsm;tzGJ‹odk‹ aqG;aEG;qHk;jzwf&ef
1948ckESpf pufwifbmv(30)&ufae‹wGif tpD&ifcHpm wifoGif;cJhonf?
,if;wGif 'Drkdua&pD0g't& wnfaqmufaom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfopfudkwnfxGif&ef udpPwGif
0ef=uD;rsm;tzGJ‹rS rvdkufavsmEdkifojzifh tcuftcJrsm;ESifh&ifqdkifcJh&onf? odk‹aomfvnf; oHCmtm;
bk&m;aomfrS rvGefqefEdkifqdkaomyrm uHaumif;axmufrI atmifjrifcJhygonf[k OD;0rRol;armif;rS 4if;.
rSwfwrf;wGif az:jyxm;ygonf?
txufaz:jyygtcuftcJrsm;t=um; csif;0daoowdkif;twGif; vlxkqENt& 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;
pepfopfjzifh tkyfcsKyf&eftwGuf csif;a&;&maumifpDonf 1948ckESpf wpfESpfygwfvHk; vdkvdk tkyfcsKyfa&;
pnf;rsOf;rsm;udk rem;raea&;qGJcJhojzifh t*Fvdyfvufxuf 1896 CHIN HILLS REGULATION ACT csif;awmif
tufOya'ysufys,fjyD;/ 1948ckESpf csif;0daoowdkif; tufOya'ESifh 1948ckESpf csif;0daoowdkif; (Oya'rsm;
oufqdkifapjcif;) tufOya'udk 1948ckESpf atmufwdkbmv(12)&ufae‹wGif usif;yaom wdkif;jynfðy
v$wfawmf(ygvDref) qXrnDvmcHrS uef‹uGufolr&Sd twnfðyI tufOya'tjzpf jyXmef;EdkifcJhonf?
,if;Oya't& csif;0daoowdkif;wGif aus;&Gm/ wdkufe,faumifpDrsm;zGJ‹pnf;a&;/ vlxkqENt&
udk,fpm;vS,frsm;a&G;aumufwifajrSmufa&;/ aumifpDvmrsm;vdkufem&ef taxGaxGenf;Oya'rsm;udk wquf
wnf; jyXmef;owfrSwfcJhonf?
,if;Oya't&/ vlxkqENjzifha&G;cs,fwifajrSmufaom udk,fpm;vS,frsm;u/ a'oEW& tkyfcsKyfa&;udk
'Drkdua&pDpepft& tkyfcsKyfvsuf&Sd=ujyD; csif;a&;&mXme. rl0g'udkvnf;
1? 'Drkdua&pDxGef;um;a&;
2? wdk;wufzGH‹ðzd;a&;
3? wnfwHhcdkifjrJjidrf;csrf;a&; [lI csrSwfcJh=uonf?
33

u|Efkyfwdk‹csif;trsdK;om;rsm;onf xdkpOftcsdefu jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmf. wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;
tm;vHk;xJwGif vlr_a&;/ pD;yGm;a&;u¾rsm;Y tppt&m&m atmuftusqHk;jzpfaomfvnf;/ EdkifiHa&;u¾
wGif 'Drdkua&pDpepfjzifh a'oEW&tkyfcsKyfa&;pepf pwifzGJ‹pnf;&mY a&S;OD;tusqHk;jzpfcJhonf?
csif;trsdK;om;ae‹owfrSwfjcif;
T'Drdkua&pDpepft& vlxkrS a&G;cs,faom udk,fpm;vS,frsm;yg0ifonfh csif;a&;&m aumifpDonf/
1950jynfhESpf atmufwdkbmv(9)&ufae‹wGif “csif;trsdK;om;ae‹”owfrSwfa&; tpnf;ta0;udk &efukefðrd‹Y
usif;ycJhonf?
,if;tpnf;ta0;rS e,fcsJ‹awmfvSefa&;ordkif;pOfwavsmuf xl;jcm;wdkufqdkifr_ t=udrf=udrf&SdcJhaom
azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹udk a&G;cs,f&efESifh yxrOD;qHk; t=udrfcsif;trsdK;om;nDtpfudkrsm; vGwfvGwfvyfvyf
awG‹qHk&onfhnDvmcHudkusif;yjyD; 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;tkwfjrpf jyefvnfcsrSwfEdkifcJhaom tqdktrSwf(4)
wifoGif;qHk;jzwf=uonfhae‹ 1948ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20) &ufae‹udk “csif;trsdK;om;ae‹” owfrSwf&ef wnD
wnGwfwnf; qHk;jzwf=uonf?
,if;qHk;jzwfcsuftwdkif;/ owfrSwfI csif;trsdK;om;ae‹ atmifyGJ obiftcrf;tem;udk 1951 ckESpf
azaz:0g&Dv (20)&ufae‹wGif awmifydkif;csif;awmifc&dkif/ rif;wyfðrdŒwGif yxrOD;qHk;t=udrfusif;ycJhonf?
,if;tcrf;tem;odk‹ EdkifiHawmf0ef=uD;csKyf OD;Ekwufa&mufcJhonf?
Tae‹onf t*Fvdyfe,fcsJ‹awmfvSefa&;/ vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJtm; tjyD;owfatmifjrifonfhae‹/
e,fcsJ‹jAL&dkua&pD tm%m&Sifpepfzsufodrf;jyD; rlv&S&d if;pGJ 'Drdkua&pDpepf jyefvnfcsrSwfEkdifonfhae‹/
vGwfvyfa&;ESifh 'Drkdua&pDjyefvnf&&SdonfhatmifyGJae‹ wae‹tjzpf owfrSwf=uygonf?
pifppf- csif;trsdK;om;ae‹onf csif;trsdK;om;rsm;. 'Drdkua&pDae‹yifjzpfayonfwum;?

?

ed*Hk;
csif;trsdK;om;ae‹onf rawmfwqay:aygufvmjcif; r[kwfa=umif;/ ta=umif;rJhowfrSwfjcif;
r[kwfa=umif;/ ,cka&;om;azmfjycsufrsm;onfyifv#if csif;trsdK;omae‹ ay:aygufvmykHordkif; tusOf;r#om
jzpfa=umif;/ csif;trsdK;om;ae‹ ay:aygufvm&jcif;ta=umif;&if;ESifh ywfoufqufEG,fonfh ta=umif;&yf
rsm;pGmwdk‹teuf vufvSrf;rSD&m tenf;tusOf;r#udkom pkpnf;aomrSwfwrf; jzpfa=umif; azmfjytyfygonf?
ol‹u|efb0wGif Tr#&Snfvsm;vSonfh ESpfy&dap>'twGif; rdrdwdk‹vdkvm;awmifhw/ ESpfouftyfaom
yef;wdkifodk‹ tcuftcJ/ taESmuft,Suf/ twm;tqD;rsdK;pkHudk ausmfvGefEdkifatmif rqkwfrepf/ ZGJvHk‹vjzifh
rem;raevkH;yef;=ujyD;/ pnf;vkH;nD!GwfpGm yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufaoma=umifh aumif;pGmatmifjrifjcif;.
om"utjzpf/ aemifurBmwnfoa&G‹ csif;trsdK;om;xkwpf&yfvkH; wpnf;wvkH;wnf; pnf;vkH;nD!GwfpGm
wnf&Sd apjcif;iSm csif;trsdK;om;ae‹ay:aygufvmcJhonf?

34

csif;trsdK;om;ae‹. av;eufaomt"dy`g,f&Sdr/_ jynfh0aomtESpfom&/ us,f 0ef;euf&d_if;aom
ordkif;aemufcH/ cdkifvkHaomordkif;armfuGef;taxmuftxm;/ aemiftpOfxm0&O'gef;wGif&pfrnfh csif;trsdK;
om;ae‹/ ae‹xl;ae‹jrwfudk jrwfEdk;xdef;odrf;rnfh csif;trsdK;om;rsm;. pnf;vkH;nD!Gwfr_tpOftvmudk r&_pdrfh
vdkolrsm;. zsufqD;aESmuf,Suf wdkufcdkufr_trsdK;rsdK;udk csif;trsdK;om;wdkif; tpOfxm0& owdcsyfaeoifhonf?
csif;trsdK;om;ae‹xdef;odrf;a&;ESifhywfoufItrsdK;om;acgif;aqmif}uD; OD;0rRol;armif;rS 1952 ckESpf
azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹wD;wdefòrd‹Yusif;yaom 'kwd,t}udrfajrmuf csif;trsdK;om;ae‹tcrf;tem;rdef‹cGef;Y
atmufazmfjyygtwdkif;xnfhoGif; rdef‹rSmcJhonf?
“csif;0daoowdkif;&J‹tkyfcsKyfa&;pepf[mtm;vkH;od&Sd=ujyD;wJhtwdkif; 'Drdkua&pDpepf(0g) vlxkqENt&
aumifpDrsm;zJG‹jyD; vlxkudk,fpm;vS,frsm;u tpdk;&ESifhyl;aygif;umtkyfcsKyfv#uf&Sdygw,f? ,ckvkd tkyfcsKyfa&;
pepf ajymif;vJatmif 1948 ckESpfazaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹u zvrf;òrd‹rSmusif;ywJh csif;0daoowdkif;vkH;qdkif&m
vlxknDvmcH}uD;u wcJeufqkH;jzwfcsufcsjyD; twnfðyvdkufwJhtwGuf tJ'Dv tJ'Dae‹udk csif;trsdK;om;
ae‹tjzpf owfrSwf&ef 1950jynfhESpfatmufwdkbmv(9)&ufae‹u usif;ywJh csif;a&;&maumifpD tpnf;t
a0;wGif trsm;oabmwlqkH;jzwf=uygw,f?
'ga=umifhcsif;trsdK;om;}uD;i,frSefor# Tr#ta&;}uD;jyD; armfuGef;wifavmufwJh azaz:0g&D(20)&uf
csif;trsdK;om;ae‹udk om;pOfajr;qufwdkifatmif rarh=ubdk‹tjyif/ &jyD;jzpfwJhtcGifhta&;awGudk rqkH;&H_;&
atmif toufay;I xdef;odrf;oGm;=u&ef av;eufpGmowday;IEd_;aqmfygonf”?
1956-57-58 ckESpfrsm;wGifygvDrefrS csif;trsdK;om;ae‹usif;ya&;udk ydwfyifwm;jrpfI y,fzsuf&ef
}udK;yrf;cJhbl;onf? 1966 ckESpfrif;wyfòrd‹wGifusif;yonfh (18)ESpfajrmuf csif;trsdK;om;ae‹udk csif;0daoo
wdkif;ae‹tjzpfusif;y&ef wdkif;cJG(3)OuUX AdkvfrSL;jrifhodef;rS pDpOfcJhonf? 1976 ckESpf zvrf;òrd‹wGifusif;yaom
(28)Espfajrmuf csif;trsdK;om;ae‹tcrf;tem;rStpðyI 1980 ckESpftxd csif;jynfe,fae‹ESifh wpfxyfwnf;
usif;y&efA[dkOD;pD; pepft& jrefrmhqdk&S,fvpfvrf;pOfygwD A[dkaumfrdwD.!$ef=um;csufjzifh a'oygwD
aumfrdwDrS pDpOfcJhonf? 1981 ckESpfwGifpwifI rqvygwD zsufodrf;onfh1988txd csif;trsdK;om;ae‹
[laom pmwrf;yif vkH;0uG,faysmufI jyuQ'def/ ydk‹pu'fESifh tcrf;tem;ezl;pnf;pmwrf;rsm;wGif csif;jynfe,f
ae‹[lI xGufay:vmcJhonf?
urBmhvlrsdK;tm;vkH;wGif rdrdwdk‹trsdK;om;ae‹(odk‹) trsdK;om;ae‹ESifhxyfwlðytyfaom trsdK;om;a&;ESifh
qufpyfoufqdkifonfh ae‹xl;ae‹jrwftoD;oD; &Sd=uygonf? rnfonfhvlrsdK;rqdk rdrdwdk‹.trsdK;om;ae‹udk
jrwfEdk;xdef;odrf;=ujrJjzpfonf? rdrdtrsdK;om;ae‹twGuf *k%f,l=upjrJjzpfonf? u|Efkyfwdk‹ csif;trsdK;om;wdk‹.
&dk;om;jcif;/ &J&ifhjcif;/ nD!Gwfjcif;[laomaumif;jrwfonfhtpOftvmrsm;jzifh csif;trsdK;om;ae‹udk xdef;odrf;
tyfonfhenf;wl u|Efkyfwdk‹acgif;aqmif}uD;rsm; yckH;ajymif;wm0efv$JtyfcJhaom &nfrSef;csufrsm;;udk rsufjcnf
rjywf qufvuftaumiftxnfazmfa&;rSm u|Efkyfwdk‹. ordkif;ay;vufiif;wm0efjzpfa=umif; cH,loifh=u
ayonf? ,if;vufiif; wm0efrsm;um;-vGwfvyfa&;/ 'Drdkua&pDa&;/ jynfaxmifpka&;wdk‹yif jzpfayonf?
vGwfvyfa&;
vGwfvyfa&;[lonfarG;uwnf;uygvmmaomvl.rlvtcGifhta&;jzpfonf/ vlwpfOD;csif;/ vlrsdK;
wpfrsdK;csif;/ vGwfvyfpGm&yfwnfcGifh/ rdrd=urRmudk rdrzd mom vGwfvyfpGmzefwD;ydkifcGifh&Sdonf? EkdifiHa&;vGwf

35

vyfcGifh/ pD;yGm;a&; vGwfvyfcGifh/ vlr_a&;vGwfvyfcGifhrsm; tjynfht0&SdrSomv#if vGwfvyfa&; trSef&&Sdjcif;
jzpfonf?
vlrsdK;jcm;wdkif;wyg;utkyfcsKyfrSom vGwfvyfa&;qkH;&H_;jcif;&Sdonf r[kwfyg? rdrdvlrsdK;/ rdrdwdkif;jynf
jzpfapumrl tcsKyftjcmtm%monf jynfolvxktwGif;Yr&SdbJ vlwpfOD;wpfa,muf/ vlwpfpkwpfzJG‹.
vufwGif;Yom&SdaeI tm%m&Sifpepf usifhokH;aeygu vGwfvyfa&;qkH;&H_;onf? ? odk‹jzpfI tpdk;&[lonf
jynfolvlxkrSa&G;cs,fwifajrmufaom udk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzifh zJG‹pnf;xm;aom tpdk;&r[kwfygu todtrSwf
rðyoifh? vufeuftm;udk;jzifh wpfOD;wpfa,muf/ wpfpkwpfzJGrS tm%modrf;jcif;rsdK; r&Sdap&efudkvnf;
zJG‹pnf;ykHtajccHOya'jzifh umuG,foifhonf? ,ckjrefrmEdkifiH. jynfra'o[kac:wGifonfh Armjynfudk
vGwfvyfa&;ESifh ,SOfwJGokH;oyfygu a&S;ya'o&mZfacwfrSpI ,ae‹wdkifvGwfvyfa&; trSefr&&Sdao;a=umif;
awG‹&Sd&ayonf? ya'o&mZfacwfwav#muf wdkif;oljynfom;tm;vkH;.touf/ tdk;tdrf/ pnf;Zdrfcsrf;om
[lor#udk oufOD;qHydkifjzpfaom bk&ifuom ydkifqdkio
f nf? t*Fvdyfvuf atmufu|efb0Y e,fcsJ‹AsL&dk
ua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;atmuf vGwfvyfcGifhudkpGef‹v$wf=u&onf? ygvDrefacwf/ rqvacwf/ e0wacwfrsm;
wav#muf ppftm%m&SifpepfatmufwGif vGwfvyfcGifhydwfyifcH=u&onf? odk‹jzpfI rvGwfvyfao;onfh
Armjynftjzpfom ,ae‹wdkif&Sdaeygao;onf?
csif;/ ucsif/ &Srf;/ u&if/ u,m;/ rGef/ &cdkifpaom wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;rSmrl t*Fvdyfe,fcsJ‹vuf
atmuf rusa&mufrDSumvtxd vGwfvyfpGmaexdkifcJh=uolrsm; jzpfonf? e,fcsJ‹vufatmuf u|efb0
usa&mufonfrStpðyI ,ae‹wdkifatmif vGwfvyfcGifhydwfyifcH&olrsm; jzpfonf? vlrsdK;wpfrsdK;. vGwfvyf
cGifh tcGifhta&;udk rqdkxm;bd/ vlenf;pktcGifhta&;r#avmufudkyif r&&Sdaom udkvdkeDe,fom;b0 tqifhY
om &Sdae=uonf? odk‹jzpfI wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;ESifh ,if;wdk‹e,fajrrsm;.taetxm;rSm vGwfvyfa&;
qkH;&H_;aom EdkifiHrsm;omjzpfaeayonf?
'Drdkua&pDa&;
jynfolvlxk.qENjzifha&G;cs,fwifajrmufaom jynfol‹udk,fpm;vS,frsm;rS jynfolvlxkjyXmef;aom
Oya't& tkyfcsKyfaompepfonf 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&; pepfjzpfa=umif; jynfoltrsm;oabmayguf
em;vnf=uygonf? vkdvm;awmifhw=uygonf? 'Drdkua&pD. tajccHrSmvGwfvyfcGifhESifh vl‹tcGifhta&; jzpf
onf? vGwfvyfcGifhESifhvl‹tcGifhta&;qkH;&H_;jcif;onf 'Drdkua&;pDqdwfokOf;jcif;yifjzpfonf? avmuygVw&m;
r&Sdu jA[Rpdk&fw&m;xGef;um;rnfr[kwfay? 'Drkdua&pDqdwfokOf;aomt&yfYvljzpf&jcif;onf wd&dp>mefb0
xuf omvGefqdk;0g;onf? vGwfvyfa&;/ nDr#a&;/ wef;wla&;/ cspf=unfa&;/ nD!Gwfa&;/ jidrf;csrf;a&;/
wnfjrJa&;wkd‹onf wpfckESifhwpfckqufEG,faeaom 'Drdkua&pD.tESpfom&rsm;jzpfonf?
1948 ckESpfazaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹wGif jyefvnftw
k fjrpfcscJhaom csif;awmif.'Drdkua&pD a'oEW&
tkyfcsKkyfa&;pepfonfyif 1958 ckESpftdrfapmifhtpdk;&vufxufrSpI jyefvnfuG,faysmufcJh&onf?
jynfaxmifpka&;
jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;tm;vkH;. t"du&nfrSef;csufyef;wdkifonf jynfaxmifpktppftrSef
ay:xGef;a&; yifjzpfonf? vlwpfOD;csif;/ vlrsdKl;wpfrsdK;csif;/ vGwfvyfpGm&yfwnfI jidrf;csrf;pGmyl;aygif;onhf
jynfaxmifpkudk tvdk&Sd=uonf? wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;aygif;pkHaexdkifaom wdkif;jynfY zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk
pepfjzifh jynfaxmifpktppftrSefudk wnfaqmufrSomv#If vlwpfOD;csif;/ vlrsdK;wpfrsdK;csif;/ vGwfvyfpGm
&yfwnfEdkifI udk,fh=urRmudk,fzefwD;cGifhESifhtwl 'Drdkua&pDxGef;um;a&;/ wdk;wufzHG‹òzd;a&;/ wnfwHhcdkifjrJ/
jidrf;csrf;a&;twGuf tmrcHcsuf&Sdrnfjzpfonf? vlrsdK;}uD;0g'/ tm%m&Sipf epfwdk‹udk umuG,fEdkifrnfjzpfonf?
36

jrefrmEdkifiHwGifEdkifiHawmftm%mudk vuf0g;}uD;tkyfqkyfudkifaeolwpfpkonf jynfaxmifpk FEDERAL
rludkcJG xGufa&;rl[korkwf=uonf? cJGxGufa&;[laom t*Fvdyfpum;vkH;rSm SECESSION omjzpfonf?
Federal ESifh Secession [laompum;ESpfvkH;udk jynfolvlxkrScJGjcm;em;vnfrnfr[kwf[laom txifjzifh
vGJrSm;pGm 0g'jzef‹I jynfol vlxktm; vSnfhjzm;=uonf?
ESifhywfoufI When a number of states previously Independent tpuwnf;u
tpOftvmt& vGwfvyfonfhe,fajr (jynfe,f odk‹r[kwf EdkifiH) rsm;jzpfcJhonf/ jzpfonf? United together
Federal

and they form a central government for political administration of something common affairs, while
retaining independent of action in other metters they are said to form a faderation ,if;jynfe,frsm;

pkaygif;jyD; A[kdtpdk;&zJG‹/ bkHtvkyfESifhbkHvkyfydkifcGifhA[kdtpdk;&odk‹tyf/ usefonfht%mrsm;udk jynfe,frsm;u
vGwfvGwfvyfvyfaqmif&Guf/ ,if;udk jynfaxmifpk zJG‹pnf;onf[kac:onf? The state is to have of Federal
type of government, when it territory is con form of a number of administrative units its of way is giving
definite stirring activity binding of constitution. Federal tpdk;&ykHpHqdkonfrSm tjcm;r[kwfr[kwfyg?

jynfe,frsm;udkpkaygif;/ ,if;odk‹aygif;pkxm;onfh jynfe,fwdkif;jynfe,fwdkif;rS oD;jcm;owf
rSwfxm;onfhtcGifhtm%mrsm;udk ay;&rnf? ,if;odk‹ay;xm;onfrSm binding constitution tajccHOya't&
oD;jcm;tyfESif;xm;onfhtwdkif;/ aemufwzef the local governments are independent of central control and
can freely excercise their function, so long as constitutional rule are bound naked. rlvzJG‹pnf;yHktajccH
Oya'udk qef‹usifjcif;r[kwfor#umvygwfvkH; ,if;wGifygonfh jynfe,fonfvGwfvyfpGm aqmif&GufEdkif
onf?
Administrative unit

udkxyfrH&Sif;jy&v#if Federation ESifh Confederation [lI&Sdygonf? Fedaration is a Union
State( United state) jynfe,frsm;pkaygif;xm;onfh jynfaxmifpkjzpfonf? while confederation action is union
of state. okd‹jzpfI Federation onf Union state, Confederation onf Union of state jzpfonf A federation of
there one is Union of State, while confederartion is Union of International Character qdkvdk&if;rSm Federation
rSm National character udktajccHI Confederation rSm Intetnational character jzifhzJG‹pnf;ojzifh Confederation
onfwxD;weef;qHaomEdkifiHi,frsm;udkpkaygif;xm;aoma=umifh International character udkaqmifonf?
Federal

jrefrmEdkifiHwGif Fedearation jzifhpkaygif;onfjzpfap Confederation tjzpfpkaygif;onf jzpfap/ tajccH
ta=umif; tcsufrsm;jynfhpkH tusKH;0ifjyD;om;jzpfa=umif; awG‹&ygrnf? t"duvdktyfonfrSmThe question of
National Sovereignty trsdK;om;tcsKyftjcmtm%mtoD;oD;udk rnfodk‹ydkifqdkifI rnfodk‹yl;aygif;=urnfenf;
[laom jy\emyifjzpfonf?
k kH;ESifh qdkifaomvkyfydkif
odk‹jzpfI jynfe,fwpfckpDwpfckpDY SovereigntytyfESif;jyD; jynfaxmifpkwpfcv
cGifhudk jynfaxmif pktpdk;&(A[dktpdk;&)tm; tyfESHaomrludk Fedaral rl ppfppf[k u|Efkyfwdk‹ac:0gorkwf
a&G;cs,f=ujcif;jzpfonf? Secession qdkonf rSm jynfaxmifpkwpfckvkH;.tzJG‹0ifjynfe,frsm;. Agreement
odk‹r[kwf Constitution wGifrlwnfonf? jrefrmEdkifiHwGif Unitary tjynfaxmifpkpepfudkqufvuf usif;okH;I
rjzpfawmha=umif;/ roifhawmfawmha=umif; tawG‹tóuH&ifhusufvmae=ujyD;jzpfonf?
The indispenable quality of the federal state being a distribution of the power of the government between
the federal authority and the federal units. Federal is a device for bringing together and satisfying
deferent peoples and races of a country. When a number of states previously indepentent unit together and
form a central government for political administration of certain common affairs while retaining independent

37

of action in other matters they are said to form a federation. A federation is a union state while a
conderation, therefore, is a national union while a confederation is a union of an international character.
Conferation is an assembly of ambassadors of the various states of league. International sovereignty of
each remains quite unimpaired and its external sovereignty is limited only to a very small extent.

xdk‹tjyif 'kwd,urBmppftjyD; udk,fydkiftkyfcskKyfa&;ESifhygwfoufI ukvor8~.tpD&ifcHcsufwGif azmfjyxm;
onfrSm
Principle VI
A non-self governing territory can be said to have reach a measure of self government by
(a) Emergence as a sovereign independent states or
(b) Free association with an independent state or
(c) Integration with an independent state
Principle VII
(a) Free association should be the result of a free and voluntary choice by the people of the territory
concerned express through informed and democratic precess it should be one which respect the
individuality and the cultural characteristics of the territory and its peoples and retions for the
peoples of territory which is associated with an independent states of that territorty through the
expression of their will by democratic means and through constitutional processes.
(b) The associated territory should have the reight to determine its internal constitution without
interference, in accordance with due constitutional processes and freely expressed wishes of the
people. This does not preclude constitutions as approprite or necessary under the the terms of the
free association agreed upon.
Principle VIII
Integration with an independent state should be on the basic of complete equality between the peoples
of the state while non-self governing territory and those of the dependent country with wich it
integrated. The people of both territories should have equal status and rights of citizenship and
effective participation at all levels in the excutive legislative and judical organs of government

[lIjzpfonf?

odk‹jzpfI uGsEKyfwdk‹.acgif;aqmif=uD;rsm;onf vGwfvyfa&;r&rSDuwnf;u jynfaxmifpktjzpf
yl;aygif;&ef ta=umif;rJhvdkvm;=ujcif;r[kwfbJ jynfaxmifpktjzpfyl;aygif;&efrSwyg; wef;wlnDr#Edkifonfh
tjcm;enf;vrf;r&Sda=umif; od&SdoabmwlnD=ujcif;jzpfonf? ,if;odk‹r[kwfygu rlvt*Fvdyfrtkyfpdk;rSD
umvtwdkif; rdrdtrsdK;om; rdrdEdkifiHtoD;oD;tjzpf jyefvnf&yfwnf=u&efomjzpfonf?
uGsEkyfwdk‹ jynfaxmifpk/ jynfaxmifpk[k ajymajymae&aom jynfaxmifpkonf trnfcHtwk
ta,mifr[kwfbJ jynfaxmifpktppftrSefjzpfap&ef zGJ‹pnf;yHktajccHOya'onf t"duyifr ta&;
t=uD;qHk;jzpfonf? 1947 ckESpf zGJ‹pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'ESifh 1974 ckESpf zGJ‹pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'
[lI ESpf=udrfay:aygufcJhjyD;jzpfonf? ESpfckpvHk;onf jynfaxmifpktrnfcH wjynfaxmifzGJ‹pnf;yHkpepfjzifh
a&;qGJxm;aom Oya'rsm;jzpf&m Armr[kwfaomwdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;(7)rsdK;tm; Armwdkif;&if;om;
vlwpfrsdK;wnf;u udkvdkeDðy v$rf;rdk;tkyfpdk;EdkifcJhonf?
1947 Oya'wGif e,fajrtydkif;tjcm;rStp Armr[kwfaomwdkif;&if;om;e,fajrrsm;tm; Armwdkif;
&if;om;e,fajrtjzpf oGwfoGif;xm;onf? csif;jynftm; A[dktpdk;&taxmuftyH‹ txl;OD;pm;ay;ygrnf
[kvdrfnmI jynfe,ftqifhyifray;bJ ‘0daoo’[laompum;vHk;jzifhacGs;odyfjyD;‘wdkif;’tqifhY xm;cJh
onf? Tta=umif;t&mrsm;ESifhygwfoufI OD;0rRol;armif;rS 4if;.‘0ef=uD;jzpfpOftcuftcJtcsdK‹’
rSwfwrf;wGif (1)
qlr&m/ em*awmifwef;e,fudk csif;0daoowdkif;twGif; xnfhoGif;ay;oifha=umif;
4if;e,ftrsdK; om;acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh yl;aygif;awmif;qdkjcif;/

38

(2)
(3)

csif;0daoowdkif;twGuf b¾mawmfcGJa0ay;&ef vufawG‹vkyfief;pOfrsm;/ tcuftcJ
rsm; wifjyawmif;qdkcJhjcif;/
csif;jynfe,fowfrSwfay;a&;udk tjyif;txefawmif;qdkcJhjcif; - ponfwdk‹wGif 0ef=uD;
csKyfESifhtjcm;0ef=uD;rsm;oabmwlygvsuf b¾ma&;Xme0ef=uD; jrefrmhtvif;OD;wif/
0ef=uD;OD;ausmfjidrf;wdk‹uef‹uGufr_a=umifh tcuftcJESifh&ifqdkifcJh&onf/ TudpP/ Tt
a&;a=umifh 0ef=uD;&mxl;rSE_wfxGufvdka=umif; rlvvGwfvyfa&;r&rSD AdkvfcsKyfatmif
qef;.rl/ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifhcsif;udk,fpm;vS,frsm;aqG;aEG;c%f; a&pHkarsma=umif;
rsm;yg ajymqdk&onftxd jzpfcJh&onf – [lI azmfjyxm;onfudk awG‹&Sd&onf?

tvm;wlpGmyif 1974 Oya'onfvnf; xlrjcm;em;cJh? csif;0daoowdkif;rS csif;jynfe,f
trnfodk‹ ajymif;vJjcif;wckomv#if&Sdonf? Armr[kwfaom csif;/ ucsif/ &Srf;/ u&if/ u,m;/ rGef/
&cdkif wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;(7)rsdK;wdk‹. ‘jynfe,f(7)jynfe,f’ESifh Armwdkif;&if;om;ydkif ‘wdkif;(7)wdkif;’
xm;&Sd um jynfe,fESifhwdkif;udk tqifhtwef; twlxm;&Sdonf?
uGsEkyfwdk‹trsdK;om;acgif;aqmif=uD;rsm;ar#mfrSef;cJhonfh jynfaxmifpkyHkpHrSm –
(1) wjynfaxmifpepfrSm yx0Dt&e,fajrpdwfydkif;I tcsKyftjcmtm%mudk A[dkrScsKyfudkif
tkyfcsKyf&aompepfjzpfojzifh vlrsdK;wrsdK;wnf;/ bmompum;/ ,Ofaus;r_/ "avhxHk;pH
tppt&m&mwckwnf;jzpfaomwdkif;jynfwGifom oifhawmfonf? jrefrmEdkifiHESifh vHk;0
rtyfpyf? jynfaxmifpkqdkonfhtwdkif; jynfaxmifrsm;pkaygif;aom jynfaxmifpkudkom
tvdk&Sdonf? ppfrSef aom jynfaxmifpkonf atmufygt*Fg&yfrsm;ESifhjynfhpHk&rnf?
(2) jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHwGif csif;/ ucsif/ &Sr;f / u&if/ u,m;/ rGef/ &cdkif/ Arm[lI vlrsdK;
(*)rsdK;&SdonfESifhtnD trsdK;om;jynfe,f(*)jynfe,fudk zGJ‹pnf;&rnf?
(3) jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmfwGif vlrsdK;pktrsdK;om;v$wfawmf(txufv$wfawmf)ESifh jynf
ol‹v$wfawmf(atmufv$wfawmf) ESpf&yfxm;&Sd&rnf?
(4) vlrsdK;pktrdsK;om;v$wfawmf(txufv$wfawmf)udk jynfe,frsm;rS OD;a&tnDtr#pDap
v$wfxm;aom v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzifhzGJ‹pnf;I jynfol‹v$wfawmf(txuf
v$wfawmf)udk jynfe,frsm;rS vlOD;a&tcsdK;tpm;tvdkufapv$wfxm;aom v$wf
awmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzifhzGJ‹pnf;&rnf?
(5) jynfaxmifpktzGJ‹0if trsdK;om;jynfe,frsm;u wEdkifiHvHk;twdkif;twmjzifhaqmif&Guf
&ef jynfaxmifpk=uD;udkay;xm;aom EdkifiHawmfumuG,fa&;/ EdkifiHjcm;qufoG,fa&;/
aiGpuUL/ aiG'*Fg;xkwfa0a&;ESifh ,m,DvJ$tyfxm;aom vkyfydkifcGifhtm%mrsm;udk
tyfESif;xm;onfh jynfaxmifpktpdk;&udkzGJ‹pnf;&rnf?
(6) jynfaxmifpkppfppfrlt& Oya'ðytm%m/ tkyfcsKyfa&;tm%m/ w&m;pD&ifa&;tm%m
wnf;[laom tcsKyftjcmtm%moHk;&yfpvHk;ydkifqdkifonfh EdkifiHa&;tm%mtjynfht0
&Sdaom jynfaxmif(jynfe,f)tpdk;&rsm;udk zGJ‹pnf;&rnf? wEdkifiHvHk;twdkif;twmjzifh
aqmif&Guf&ef jynfaxmifpktpdk;&od‹kay;tyfxm;aom vkyfydkifcGifhtm%mrsm;rSty
usefvkyfydkifcGifhtm%m Residurary Power rsm;udk jynfaxmif(jynfe,f)tpdk;&odk‹
tjynfht0ay;tyfxm;&rnf?
TonfrSm ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepf. tacgiftcsKyfjzpfonf? jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;
tm;vHk; wef;wl&nfwlyl;aygif;Edkifaom jynfaxmifpkppfppfrl. tESpfom&jzpfonf?
39

Tpmwrf;onf –
(1) 1998-ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv (20)&ufae‹usa&mufaom tESpfig;q,fjynfh csif;trsdK;om;ae‹
a&$&wkobiftxdrf;trSwf *k%fðypmapmiftjzpf a&;om;xm;aom pmwrf;jzpfonf?
(2) OD;0rRol;armif;. vufa&;rlrSww
f rf;ESifh 1951-ckESpf yxrOD;qHk;t=udrf usif;yaom “csif;trsdK;
om;ae‹ atmifyGJobiftcrf;tem;ESifh csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&m nDvmcHobif”rSwfwrf;rS
OD;0rRol;armif;.rdef‹cGef;udk t"dujyefvnfazmfjyaom rSwfwrf;jzpfygonf? 4if;tjyif
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

1982 – wuUodkvfrsm;/ &efukef/ cp,ESpfvnfr*~Zif;/ qvdkif;vsefr_ef;.aqmif;yg;
1972 – jynfwGif;nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹/ (33)OD;aumfrdwDodk‹ csif;vli,frsm;t=uHðycsuf
rif;wyfbledef –csif;awmifordkif;
usifa'G;barmif. aqmif;yg;rsm;
wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;ta&;ESifh 1947 zGJ‹pnf;yHktajccHOya'
1990 – jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ‹csKyf xkwfjyefa=ujimcsufrsm; ponf
wdk‹rS tcsuftvufrsm;vnf; yg0ifonf? 4if;tjyif
(7) cGefrmudkbef; - yifvHkpdwf"gwf &Sifoefazmfaqmifa&;rS ppfrSefaom'Drdkua&pD zuf'&,fjynf
axmifpk EdkifiHawmfopfwnfaqmufa&;odk‹ pmtkyfrS tcsuftvufrsm;jzifh jyefvnf jznfhpGuf
xm;ygonf?
qvdkif;uD;vJatmrf;
aemufqufwGJ

ouU&mZf 2003-ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv (18) &ufae‹ e,l;a'vDðrd‹wGif Chin Forum
OD;pD;usif;yonfh csif;trsdK;om;ae‹tñuda[majymyGJY qvdkif;uD;vJatmrf;.
csif;trsdK;om;ae‹ay:aygufvmyHkordkif; a[majymcsuf
csif;trsdK;om;nDaemiftaygif;wdk‹cifAsm
csif;trsdK;om;ae‹[m vGwfvyfa&;eJ‹ 'Drdkua&pDudk tajccHjyD;
ay:aygufvmwJhtwGuf ajymrukefatmif &Snfvsm;eufeJwJh
ordkif; a=umif;jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh onfuae‹tbdk‹&mawmh
onf csif; trsdK;om;ae‹udk bmjzpfvdk‹ azaz:0g&Dv (20)&ufae‹
owfrSwf &ovJqdkwJh xl;jcm;wJhta=umif;t&m tcsufawG
avmufudkbJ twdkcsHK;wifjy aqG;aEG;rSmjzpfygw,f?

40

yxrOD;qHk;rSwfwdkifuawmh 1918 ckESpfazaz:0g&Dv(20)&uf jzpfygw,f? arðrd‹/ t*FvdyfppfwyftwGif;rSm
&SdwJhcsif;trsdK;om;rsm;zGJ‹pnf;wJh csif;trsdK;om;rsm;&J‹ yxrOD;qHk; aom vlr_a&;tzJG‹tpnf;jzpfwJh “csif;trsdK;
om;ynma&;jrSifhwifa&;tzGJ‹”ay:aygufwJhae‹ jzpfygw,f?
'kwd,rSwfwdkifuawmh 1928 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufjzpfygw,f? rif;wyfe,f/vSd,kH;&GmrSm csif;trsdK;om;
rsm;&J‹ yxrOD;qHk;aomEdkifiHa&;tzGJ‹tpnf;jzpfwJh “csif;awmifnDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹”ay:ygufwJhae‹ jzpfygw,f?
1933ckESpf rwfv(24-25)&uf/ roHkEl;&Gm(rif;wyfe,f) nDvmcHuae “csif;trsdK;om;nDnGwfa&; tzGJ‹”vdk‹
trnfjyifqif cJhygw,f? tJ'D csif;trsdK;om;nDnGwaf &;tzGJ‹(crnz)&J‹ 1934ckESpfpufwifbmv (29)&uf/
0&J&Gm(rif;wyfe,f) nDvmcHuae t*Fvdyftpdk;&udk &mZoH (9) csufay;xm; ygw,f?
wwd,rSwfwdkifuawmh 1938 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufjzpfygw,f? tJ'D crnz&J‹ awmif;qdkcsuf(9)&yfeJ‹
ygwfoufjyD; t*Fvdyftpdk;&udk,fpm;vS,frsm;eJ‹ crnzOD;pD;wJh csif;vlxkoHk;axmifausmfwdk‹/ awmifydkif;
csif;jynf/ uefyufvufðrd‹rSm awG‹qHkyGJusif;ywJhae‹/ awmif;qdkcsuf(9)&yfudk t*Fvdyftpdk;&u wckr# rvdkuf
avsmEdkifa=umif; a=ujimwmeJ‹ csif;vlxku csufjcif; oydwfarSmufarmif;xkwfwJhae‹ jzpfygw,f? t*Fvdyf
udk,fpm;vS,frsm; nwGif;csif; aqmðrd‹(rauG;wdkif;)udk xGufajy;=u&w,f?
pwkwˆrSwfwdkifuawmh 1939 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&uf jzpfygw,f? t*Fvdyftpdk;&u crnztzGJ‹udk
rw&m;toif;a=ujimjyD; OD;0rRol;armif;tygt0if crnzacgif;aqmif(9)OD; pwifzrf;qD;wJhae‹jzpfw,f?
uefyufvufrSm t*Fvdyftpdk;&udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk oydwfarSmufarmif;xkwfwJhudpPeJ‹ygwfoufjyD; t*Fvdyf
tpdk;&u ‘wESpf’tcsdef,ljyifqifjyD; zrf;qD;axmifcswmjzpfw,f? tokwf(5)okwf/ vlaygif;(79)OD; EdkifiHa&;t
usOf;om; tjzpf zrf;qD;axmifcscH&ygw,f?
yOPreJ‹aemufqHk;rSwfwdkifuawmh 1948 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufjzpfygw,f? ajrmufydkif;csif;awmif/ zvrf;ðrd‹
rSm 1948 azaz:0g&D (19-22)usif;ywJh csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&mnDvmcHrSm “wdkufol=uD;rsm; ðzwfcsjyD;
vlxka&G;cs,fonfhudk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzifhtkyfcsKyf&ef”qdkwJh tqdktrSwf(4)wifoGif;/ axmufcHwJhae‹ jzpfyg
w,f? axmifZudkif;(wD;wdef)u wifoGif;jyD; qGefref;(zvrf;)eJ‹xef;armif;(uefyufvuf)wdk‹u axmufcH=u
ygw,f? rJcGJqHk;jzwf&mrSm axmufcHrJ ig;axmifausmfeJ‹ uef‹uGufrJ(17)rJ &Sdygw,f?
csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&mnDvmvmcHusif;y&jcif;ta=umif;eJ‹ 1948 azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹udk csif;trsdK;
om;ae‹owfrSwf&wJhta=umif; qufvufwifjyvdkygw,f? jrefrmEdkifiH[m 1948ckESpf Zefem0g&Dv(4)&ufrSm
vGwfvyfa&;udka=ujimw,f? 1947 zGJ‹pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'tydkif;(5) csif;0daoowdkif;tc%f;/ yk'fr
(196/ 197/ 198 )wdk‹t& csif;0daoowdkif;/ csif;a&;&maumifpD/ csif;a&;&mXme/ csif;a&;&m0ef=uD; qdkwmawG
ay:aygufvmygw,f? OD;0rRol;armif;u yxrOD;qHk; csif;a&;&m0ef=uD; jzpfvmjyD; csif;awmiftkyfcsKyfa&;pepf
twGuf vlxkudkqENcH,lbdk‹udk yxrOD;qHk;aomvkyfief;tjzpf csrSwfaqmif&GufcJhygw,f? csif;trsdK;om;xk
&J‹qENudk pHkprf;az: xkwfEdkifbdk‹ “csif;awmifpHkprf;ppfaq;a&;aumfr&Sif”w&yfzGJ‹pnf;ay;ygrnfhta=umif; 1948
Zefem0g&D(22)rSm jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiH 0ef=uD;rsm;tzGJ‹udkwifoGif;ygw,f? 1948 Zefem0g&D(28) &ufae‹
0ef=uD;rsm;tzGJ‹ owWrtpnf;ta0;/ tpDtpOf (5) oabmwlqHk;jzwfcsuft& csif;awmifpHkprf;ppfaq;a&;
aumfr&Sif[m 1948 azaz:0g&D (5)&ufrSm ay:aygufvmygw,f? obmywdu OD;0rRol;armif;/ twGif;a&;rSL;
u wdkif;rif;=uD;pnfolOD;odrf;armif (at wDtrf)/ tzGJ‹0ifu OD;pdk;0if;(trsdK;om;ynm0efa[mif;)wdk‹jzpfw,f?

41

aumfr&Sifu e,ftoDoD;uvlvkudk,fpm;vS,f/ wdkuftkyf/ acsmif;tkyf/ ol=uD;rsm;&J‹ vlxkqENudk 1948ckESpf
azaz:0g&D(12)&ufuae(26)&uftxd ppfaq;cJhygw,f? tJ'pD pfaq;ae&if;rSmbJ csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&m
nDvmcHudkvJ zvrf;ðrd‹rSm 1948 azaz: (19)uae(22)&uftxd wðydifxJusif;ycJhyg w,f?
aumfr&Sif&J‹ppfaq;csufuawmh (12/ 02/ 48) wD;wdefðrd‹rSm urfawm/pkwWJ/pD;,if;e,f/ (16/ 02/ 48) zvrf;ðrd‹
rSm [m;cg;e,f/ (17/ 02/ 48) zvrf;ðrd‹rSm&mawmuf/ abmfvuGm/ vGefbef/ ig;rGwf/uefyufvuf/[m;cg;e,f/
(18/ 02/ 48) zvrf;ðrd‹rSm xkwfv_dif/ uGmZyfe,f ppfaq;ygw,f? (19/ 02/ 48) uae (22/ 02/ 48) txd
zvrf;ðrd‹rSm csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&mnDvmcHusif;yjyD; vlxkqENkudk =um;emw,f? nDvmcHjyD;qHk;wJh aemuf
qHk;ae‹ (22/ 02/ 48) rSm zvrf;ðrd‹rSmyvuf0e,f/ (23/ 02/ 48) zvrf;rSm wD;wdefuv$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,f
refwHk;ekef;/ 26/ 02/ 48 zvrf;ðrd‹rSm csif;0daoowdkif;twGif;&Sd e,ft&m&Sdrsm;qENudk ppfaq; ygw,f?
vlxkwifjywJh pepfa[mif;wdkufol=uD;tkyfcsKyfa&;csdK‹,Gif;tm;enf;csufrsm;uawmh
(1) tm%mESifhtcGihfta&;tvGJoHk;pm;ðyI vlxktay:nSOf;yrf;EdSyfpuf=ujcif;/
(2) jynfolvlxktusdK;o,fydk;&efpdwfqENenf;yg;=ujyD; qufqHa&;rajyjypf=ujcif;/
(3) wdk;wufaomacwfudk&ifabmifwef;vdkufEdkifaom vlr_qufqHa&;t=um;tjrif/ A[kokwr&Sd=ujcif;/
(4) 0efaxmufrsm;ay;aomtm%mudk t&rf;rJhoHk;pGJ=ujcif;/
(5) EdkifiHawmftpdk;&csrSwfaomrl0g'ESifh rnDnGwfrqDavsmf=ujcif;
aumfr&Sifu vlxkqENppfaq;csufudk tESpfcsKyfvdkufawmh
(1) wdkufol=uD;rsm;ðzwfcs&efqEN&Sda=umif; wnDwnGwfwnf;xGufqdk=ua=umif;/
(2) wdkufol=uD;tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfa[mif;tpm; vlxkqENeJ‹a&G;cs,fwifajrSmufwJh udk,fpm;vS,frsm; tkyf
csKyfwJh 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfopf wDxGiftpm;xdk;tkyfcsKyf&ef wnDwnGwfwnf; xGufqdk=u
a=umif; awG‹&Sdyg w,f?
aumfr&Sifu &efukefðrd‹rSm (10/ 03/ 48) tpnf;ta0;usif;yjyD; wdkufol=ud;rsm;udk 4if;wdk‹ tr_xrf;oufwef;
tavsmuf xdkufoifhwJhyifpif/avsmfa=u;ay;bdk‹ aqG;aEG;ygw,f? aumfr&Sif&J‹ (18/ 09/ 48)ae‹ &efukefðrd‹
tpnf;ta0;rSm aumfr&SiftwGif;a&;rSL;&J‹ avsmfa=u;tao;pdwfwGufcsufr_ tpD&ifcHpmudk aqG;aEG;=u
ygw,f? aumfr&Sifu (22/ 09/ 48)tpnf;ta0;rSm tjyD;owfaqG;aEG;r_/ tacsmudkifr_awGðyvkyfjyD;
EdkifiHawmftpdk; &0ef=uD;rsm;tzGJ‹tpnf;ta0;udkwifjybdk‹ qHk;jzwfygw,f? jyD;awmh 0ef=uD;rsm;tpnf;ta0;udk
(30/ 09/ 48 )rSm wifoGif;ygw,f? twdkcskyfajym&&if 0ef=uD;rsm;tpnf;ta0;u oabmwlnDcsuf
&&SdoGm;jyD;wJhaemuf Oya'a&;qGJwJh[mudk wESpfvHk;vdkvdk vHk;yrf;=ujyefw,f? tJ'ga=umifh ‘1896 Chin Hills
Regulation Act’ ysufjy,fjyD; ‘1948 csif;0daoowdkif;tufOya'’eJ‹ ‘csif;0daoowdkif;tufOa' (Oya'rsm;
ESifhoufqdkifapjcif;)’ Oya'rsm;udk jyXmef;edkifcJhygw,f? jrefrmEdkifiHrSm 'Drdkua&pDpepfeJ‹ a'oEW& tkyfcsKyfa&;udk
tOD;qHk; azmfaqmifEdkif cJhwm[m *k%f,lp&mjzpfygw,f?
csif;trsdK;om;ae‹owfrSwfa&;tpnf;ta0;udk 1950jynfhESpf atmufwdkbmv (9)&ufae‹/ &efukefðrd‹rSm
csif;a&;&maumifpDu usif;yygw,f? txufuwifjycJhwJhordkif;aemufcHawG&SdwJh azazmf0&Dv (20)&ufae‹udk
a&G;cs,f=ujyD; 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfcsrSwf&efqdkwJh tqdktrSwf(4)wifoGif;/ axmufcH/ qHk;jzwfwJhae‹
1948ckESpf azazmf0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹udkowfrSwfbdk‹ wnDwnGwfwnf; qHk;jzwf=uygw,f? csif;trsdK;om;ae‹
tcrf;tem;udk 1951ckESpfazazmf0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹/ awmifydkif;csif;awmifc&dkif/ rif;wyfðrd‹rSm yxrOD;qHk;
t=udrf usif;yygw,f? zvrf;rSmusif;ywJh csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&mnDvmcHudk edkifiHawmforwp0fa&$odkuf
wufa&mufjyD; rif;wyfrSmusif;ywJh yxrOD;qHk;aom csif;trsdK;om;ae‹tcrf;tem;udk EdkifiHawmf0ef=uD;csKyfOD;Ek
wufa&mufcJh ygw,f? yxrOD;qHk;aomcsif;a&;&m0ef=uD; OD;0rRol;armif;vufxufrSmawmh ‘csif;trsdK;om;ae@

42

atmifyGJobif tcrf;tem;ESifh csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&mnDvmcHobif’qdkjyD;
awG@&ygw,fqdkwJh ta=umif; ajymjy&if;eJ‹bJed*Hk;csKyftyfygw,f?

wGJbufusif;ywmudk

ouU&mZf 2004-ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv (18) &ufae‹ e,l;a'vDðrd‹wGif Chin Forum
OD;pD;usif;yonfh csif;trsdK;om;ae‹tñuda[majymyGJY qvdkif;uD;vJatmrf;.
csif;trsdK;om;ae‹ay:aygufvmyHkordkif; a[majymcsuf
obmywd=uD;eJ‹wuG=uGa&mufvm=uwJh csi;f trsdK;om;nDaemiftaygif;wdk‹cifAsm
csif;trsdK;om;ae‹[m vGwfvyfa&;eJ‹ 'Drdkua&pDudktajccHjyD;ay:aygufvmwJhtwGuf ajymrukef
atmif &Snfvsm;eufeJ wJh ordkif;a=umif;jzpfygw,f? twdkqHk;ajym&&ifawmh csif;a&;&maumifpDu 1950jynfh
ESpf atmufwdkbmv (9)&ufae‹ &efukefðrd‹rSm csif;trsdK;om;ae‹ owfrSwfa&;tpnf;ta0; usif;yðyvkyfjyD;
atmufazmfjyyg xl;jcm;csufordkif;rSwfwdkifrsm;udk tajcðyjyD; csif;trsdK;om;ae‹udk azaz:0g&Dv (20)&uf ae‹
owfrSwfygw,f?
xl;jcm;csufrsm;uawmh - yxrrSwfwdkif 1918 azaz: (20)&uf csif;trsdK;om;ynma&;jrSifhwifa&;tzGJ‹zGJ‹pnf;onfhae‹
- 'kwd,rSwfwdkif 1928 azaz: (20)&uf csif;awmifnDnGwfa&;tzGGJ‹ zGJ‹pnf;onfhae‹
- wwd,rSwfwdkif 1938 azaz: (20)&uf uefyufvufwGif t*FvdyfudkoydwfarSmuf armif;xkwf
onfhae‹
- pwkwWrSwfwdkif 1939 aaz: (20)&uf csif;acgif;aqmifrsm; EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;tjzpf pwif
zrf;qD;onfhae‹
- yOPrrSwfwdkif 1948 azaz: (20)&uf zvrf;nDvmcHwGif 'Drdkua&pDtkwfjrpfcstqdkwifoGif;
axmufcHonfhae‹wdk‹ jzpfygw,f?
qufvufjyD; ordkif;rSwfwkdifwckcsif;&J ‹ta=umif;t&mawGudk twdkcsKH;&Sif;jy&r,f qdk&if yxrOD;qHk;rSwfwdkif 1918 ckESpfazaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufuawmh arðrd‹/ t*FvdyfppfwyftwGif;rSm&SdwJh
csif;trsdK;om;rsm; zGJ‹pnf;wJh csif;trsdK;om;rsm;&J‹ yxrOD;qHk;aomvlr_a&;tzJG‹tpnf;jzpfwJh “csif;trsdK;om;
ynma&;jrSifhwifa&;tzGJ‹” ay:aygufwJhae‹jzpfygw,f? OuUX OD;tGrfydkif; 'kOuUX OD;0rRol;armif; twGif;a&;rSL;
&ufavmif;vdef; vla&S/ t&_d awmifydkif;ajrmufydkif;csif;trsdK;om; tzGJ‹0ifrsm;eJ‹ zGJ‹pnf;=uygw,f? tJ'Dtcsdef
wHk;utajctaerSm t*Fvdyfppfwyf[m te,fe,f t&yf&yfu csif;trsdK;om;rsm;&J‹ pk&yf ozG,fjzpfygw,f?
csif;trsdK;om;rsm;twGuf ynma&;[m t"duvdktyfcsufjzpfw,fvdk‹ pkaygif; oHk;oyfjyD; 'DtzGJ‹udkzGJ‹pnf;=u
a=umif; od&Sd&ygw,f? tusdK;oufa&mufr_ awmfawmfrsm;rsm; &SdcJhygw,f? Oyrm OD;0rRol;armif;[m 1924
t*FvdyfppfwyfuxGufjyD; Zmwd0rRol;&GmrSm rlvwef;ausmif;zGifh udk,fwdkifausmif;q&mvkyf&if; EdkifiHa&;pnf;
&Hk;r_awGpwifðyvkyfcJhygw,f?
'kwd,rSwfwdkif 1928ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv (20)&ufuawmh rif;wyfe,f/vSd,kH;&GmrSm csif;trsdK;om;rsm;
&J‹ yxrOD;qHk;aomEdkifiHa&;tzGJ‹tpnf;jzpfwJh “csif;awmifnDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹” ay:aygufwJhae‹ jzpfygw,f? OuUX
OD;[mxef;tGrf 'kOuUX OD;0rRol;armif; twGif;a&;rSL; 0&Javm[m wdk‹tygt0if (12)OD; aumfrdwDeJ‹ pwifzGJ@
43

pnf;ygw,f? 'DtzGJ‹&J‹ 1933ckESpf rwfv(24-25)&uf/ roHkEl;&Gm(rif;wyfe,f) nDvmcHu ae “csif;trsdK;om;
nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹”vdk‹ trnfjyifqifcJhygw,f? jyifqif&wJhta=umif;uawmh csif;awmifwef;/ vla&Sawmifwef;
/ em*awmifwef; pojzifh t*FvdyfuuGJjym;pGmac:a0:aewJhtwGuf awmif ay:ajrjyeff‹ csif;trsdK;om;tm;vHk;
aoG;pnf;nDnGwfa&;udkOD;wnfjyD; jyefvnfjyifqifa=umif; od&Sd&ygw,f? tJ'D csif;trsdK;om;nDnGwfa&;tzGJ@
(crnz)&J‹ 1934ckESpfpufwifbmv (29)&uf/ 0&J&Gm (rif;wyfe,f)nDvmcHuae t*Fvdyf tpdk;&udk &mZoH
(9)csufay;xm; ygw,f? tJ'gawGuawmh
(1) csif;awmifa'otkyfcsKyfa&;udk jynfrESifhwef;wltcGifhta&;ay;&ef
(2) csif;awmiftkyfcsKyfa&;wGif csif;trsdK;om;udk,fpm;vS,frsm;yg0ifa&;qGJaom Oya'udkom
usifhoHk;&ef
(3) ynma&;/ usef;rma&;/ vlr_a&;/ pD;yGg;a&; wdk;wufzGH‹ðzd;a&;ðyjyifaqmif&Gufay;&ef
(4) csif;awmifynma&;pepf tjrefqHk;ðyjyifaqmif&Gufay;&ef (t*Fvdyfpmtjyif jrefrmpmudkyg
oif=um; cGifh ðy&ef)
(5) bmoma&;vGwfvyfcGifhay;&ef
(6) csif;awmifwef;vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;aumif;rGefatmiftjrefqHk;azmufvkyfay;&ef
(7) jynfrESifhcsif;awmifwef;a'o vGwfvyfpGmul;vl;qufqHcGifhay;&ef
(8) csif;vlrsdK;wdk‹tm; rnfonfhvlrsdK;ESifhrqdk wef;wl&nfwlqufqHcGifhay;&ef
(9) jrefrmEdkifiHudkvGwfvyfa&;ay;aomtcg csif;awmifudkygwygwnf;vGwfvyfa&;ay;&ef wdk‹ jzpfyg
w,f?
wwd,rSwfwdkif 1938 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufuawmh tJ'D crnz&J‹ awmif;qdkcsuf (9)&yfeJ‹ygwfoufjyD;
t*Fvdyftpdk;&udk,fpm;vS,frsm;eJ‹ crnzOD;pD;wJh csif;vlxk oHk;axmifausmfwdk‹/ awmifydkif;csif;jynf/ uefyuf
vufðrd‹rSm awG‹qHkyGJusif;ywJhae‹/ awmif;qdkcsuf(9)&yfudk t*Fvdyftpdk;&u wckr# rvdkufavsmEdkifa=umif;
a=ujimwmeJ‹ csif;vlxku csufjcif; oydwfarSmuf armif;xkwfwJhae‹ jzpfygw,f? t*Fvdyfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;
nwGif;csif; aqmðrd‹(rauG;wdkif;)udk xGufajy;=u&ygw,f? t*Fvdyfcef‹xm;wJhwdkufol=uD;(36)OD;uawmif
olwdk‹cef‹pmawGjyeftyfjyD; oydwfrSmyg0if=uw,fvdk‹ qdkygw,f?
pwkwˆrSwfwdkif 1939 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufuawmh t*Fvdyftpdk;&u crnztzGJ‹udk rw&m;toif;
a=ujimjyD; OD;0rRol;armif;tygt0if crnzacgif;aqmif(9)OD; pwifzrf;qD;wJah e‹ jzpfw,f? (tJ'Dae‹rSm
vSd,Hk;&Gmu a':c,favmxHk/ awmifukef;&Gmu a':idkif;tGrf&def/ a':[m xef;rH/ a':idkif;a*vSL; trsdK;orD;
(4)OD;vJ zrf;qD;ppfaq;cH&w,fvdk‹qdkw,f? bkef;=uD;OD;wdou EdkifiHa&;eJ‹rygwfoufa=umif;ajz=um;=ubdk‹
ñudwifoifay;xm;vdk‹ tajzaumif;wmeJh jyefvGwf=uw,fvdk‹ qdkw,f)? uefyufvufrSm t*Fvdyftpdk;&
udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk oydwfarSmufarmif;xkwfwJhudpPeJ‹ygwfoufjyD; t*Fvdyftpdk;&u wESpf tcsdef,ljyifqif
jyD; zrf;qD;axmifcswmjzpfw,f? tokwf(5)okwf/ vlaygif;(79)OD; EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;tjzpf zrf;qD;axmifcs
cH&ygw,f? 'Dta=umif;udk 1940ckESpfZeG fv(2)&ufae‹ ZvGefa'gifh=uD; vlvktpnf;ta0;rSm AdkvfcsKyfftmifqef;
u xkwfazmfajym=um;whJtwGuf ig;usyfwef0&rf;xkwfcH&jyD; jynfyudkxGuf oGm;&ygw,f
yOPreJ‹aemufqHk;rSwfwdkifuawmh 1948 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufjzpfygw,f? ajrmufydkif;csif; awmif/
zvrf;ðrd‹rSm 1948 azaz: (19-22)usif;ywJh csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&mnDvmcHrSm “wdkufol=uD;rsm;ðzwfcsjyD;
vlxka&G;cs,fonfh udk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzifh tkyfcsKyf&ef”qdkwJh tqdktrSwf (4) wifoGif;/ axmufcHwJhae‹

44

jzpfygw,f? axmifZudkif;(wD;wdef)u wifoGif;jyD; qGefref;(zvrf;)eJ‹ xef;armif;(uefyufvuf)wdk‹u
axmufcH=uygw,f? rJcGJqHk;jzwf&mrSm axmufcHrJ ig;axmifausmfeJ‹ uef‹uGufrJ(17)rJ &Sdygw,f?
csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&mnDvmvmcHusif;y&jcif;ta=umif;eJ‹ 1948 azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹udk csif;trsdK;
om;ae‹ owfrSwf&wJhta=umif; qufvufwifjyvdkygw,f? jrefrmEdkifiH[m 1948ckESpf Zefem0g&Dv(4)&ufrSm
vGwfvyfa&;udk a=ujimygw,f? 1947 zGJ‹pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya' tydkif; (5) csi;f 0daoowdkif;tc%f;/ yk'fr
(196/ 197/ 198 )wdk‹t& csif;0daoowdkif;/ csif;a&;&maumifpD/ csif;a&;&mXme/ csif;a&;&m0ef=uD; qdkwmawG
ay:vmygw,f? OD;0rRol;armif;u yxrOD;qHk; csif;a&;&m0ef=uD; jzpfvmjyD; csif;awmiftkyfcsKyfa&;pepftwGuf
vlxkudkqENcH,lbdk‹ yxr OD;qHk;vkyfief;tjzpf csrSwfaqmif&GufcJhygw,f? csif;trsdK;om;xk&J‹qENudk pHkprf;
az:xkwfEdkifbdk‹ “csif;awmifpHkprf;ppfaq;a&;aumfr&Sif”w&yf zGJ‹pnf;ppfaq; &if; vlxknDvmcHudkvJ
wðydifxJusif;y bdk‹pDpOfcJhwmjzpfygw,f? csif;awmifpHkprf;ppfaq;a&; aumfr&Sif[m 1948 azaz:0g&Dv
(5)&ufrSm ay:aygufjyD; obmywduOD;0rRol;armif;/ twGif;a&;rSL;u wdkif;rif;=uD; pnfol OD;odrf;armif(at
wDtrf)/ tzGJ‹0ifuOD;pdk;0if;(trsdK;om;ynm0efa[mif;)wdk‹jzpfygw,f?
aumfr&Sifu e,ftoDoD;uvlvkudk,fpm;vS,f/ wdkuftkyf/ acsmif;tkyf/ ol=uD;rsm;&J‹ vlxkqENudk 1948ckESpf
azaz:0g&D(12)&ufuae(26)&uftxd ppfaq;cJhygw,f? tJ'pD pfaq;ae&if;rSmbJ csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&m
nDvmcHudkvJ zvrf;ðrd‹rSm 1948 azaz: (19)uae(22)&uftxd wðydifxJ usif;ycJhyg w,f?
aumfr&Sifu (12/ 02/ 48) wD;wdefðrd‹rSm urfawm/ pkwWJ/ pD;,if;e,f/ (16/ 02/ 48) zvrf;ðrd‹rSm [m;cg;e,f/
(17/ 02/ 48) zvrf;ðrd‹rSm&mawmuf/ abmfvuGm/ vGefbef/ ig;rGwf/ uefyufvuf/ [m;cg;e,f/ (18/ 02/ 48)
zvrf;ðrd‹rSm xkwfv_dif/ uGmZyfe,f ppfaq;ygw,f? (19/ 02/ 48) uae (22/ 02/ 48) txd zvrf;ðrd‹rSm
csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&m nDvmcHusif;yjyD; vlxkqENkudk =um;emw,f? nDvmcHjyD;qHk;wJh aemufqHk;ae‹ (22/
02/ 48) rSm zvrf;ðrd‹rSm yvuf0e,f/ (23/ 02/ 48) zvrf;rSm wD;wdefuv$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,f refwHk;ekef;/
26/ 02/ 48 zvrf;ðrd‹rSm csif;0daoowdkif;twGif;&Sd e,ft&m&Sdrsm;qENudk qufvufppfaq; ygw,f?
vlxkwifjywJh pepfa[mif;wdkufol=uD;tkyfcsKyfa&;csdK‹,Gif;tm;enf;csufrsm;uawmh
(6) tm%mESifhtcGihfta&;tvGJoHk;pm;ðyI vlxktay:nSOf;yrf;EdSyfpuf=ujcif;/
(7) jynfolvlxktusdK;o,fydk;&efpdwfqENenf;yg;=ujyD; qufqHa&;rajyjypf=ujcif;/
(8) wdk;wufaomacwfudk &ifabmifwef;vdkufEdkifaom vlr_qufqHa&;t=um;tjrif/ A[kokw r&Sd=u
jcif;/
(9) 0efaxmufrsm;ay;aomtm%mudk t&rf;rJhoHk;pGJ=ujcif;/
(10)
EdkifiHawmftpdk;&csrSwfaomrl0g'ESifh rnDnGwfrqDavsmf=ujcif;
aumfr&Sifu vlxkqENppfaq;csufudk tESpfcsKyfvdkufawmh
(3) wdkufol=uD;rsm;ðzwfcs&efqEN&Sda=umif; wnDwnGwfwnf;xGufqdk=ua=umif;/
(4) wdkufol=uD;tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfa[mif;tpm; vlxkqENeJ‹a&G;cs,fwifajrSmufwJh udk,fpm;vS,frsm; tkyf
csKyfwJh 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfopf wDxGiftpm;xdk;tkyfcsKyf&ef wnDwnGwfwnf; xGufqdk=u
a=umif; awG‹&Sdygw,f?
aumfrd&Sifppfaq;csuf/ nDvmcHqHk;jzwfcsufwxyfwnf;udkufnDwma=umifh aumfr&Sifu &efukefðrd‹rSm (10/
03/ 48) tpnf;ta0;usif;yjyD; wdkufol=ud;rsm;udk 4if;wdk‹tr_xrf;oufwef;tavsmuf xdkufoifhwJhyifpif/
45

avsmfa=u;ay;bdk‹ aqG;aEG;ygw,f? aumfr&Sif&J‹ (18/ 09/ 48) ae‹ &efukefðrd‹ tpnf;ta0;rSm aumfr&Sif
twGif;a&;rSL;&J‹ avsmfa=u;tao;pdwfwGufcsufr_ tpD&ifcHpmudk aqG;aEG;=uw,f? aumfr&Sifu (22/ 09/ 48)
tpnf;ta0;rSm tjyD;owfaqG;aEG;r_/ tacsmudkifr_awGðyvkyfjyD; EdkifiHawmftpdk;&0ef=uD;rsm;tzGJ‹ tpnf;ta0;
udkwifjybdk‹ qHk;jzwfygw,f? jyD;awmh 0ef=uD;rsm;tpnf;ta0;udk (30/ 09/ 48 )rSmwifoGif;ygw,f?
twdkcskyfajym&&if 0ef=uD;rsm;tpnf;ta0;u oabmwlnDcsuf&&SdoGm;jyD;wJhaemuf Oya'a&;qGJwJh[mudk
wESpfvHk;vdkvdk vHk;yrf;=ujyefw,f? tJ'ga=umifh ‘1896 Chin Hills Regulation Act’ ysufjy,fjyD; ‘1948
csif;0daoowdkif;tufOya'’eJ‹ ‘csif;0daoowdkif;tufOa' (Oya'rsm;ESifhoufqdkifapjcif;)’ Oya'rsm; udk
jyXmef;edkifcJhygw,f? 'DOya't& csif;0daoowdkif;twGif; 'Drdkua&pDpepfeJ‹ a'oEW&tkyfcsKyfa&; udk
jrefrmEdkifiHrSm tOD;qHk; azmfaqmifEdkifcJhygw,f?
1950jynfhESpf atmufwdkbmv (9)&ufae‹/ &efukefðrd‹rSm csif;a&;&maumifpDusif;ywJh csif;trsdK;om;ae‹
owfrSwfa&;tpnf;ta0;rSm txufuwifjycJhwJhordkif;aemufcHawG&SdwJh azazmf0&Dv (20) &ufae‹udk
a&G;cs,f=ujyD; 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfcsrSwf&efqdkwJh tqdktrSwf(4)wifoGif;/ axmufcH/ qHk;jzwfwJhae‹
1948ckESpf azazmf0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹udk owfrSwfbdk‹ wnDwnGwfwnf; qHk;jzwf=ujyD;wJhaemuf csif;trsdK;om;
ae‹ tcrf;tem;udk 1951ckESpfazazmf0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹/ awmifydkif;csif;awmifc&dkif/ rif;wyfðrd‹rSm yxrOD;qHk;
t=udrf usif;yygw,f? zvrf;rSm usif;ywJh csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&mnDvmcHudk edkifiHawmforwp0fa&$odkuf
wufa&mufjyD; rif;wyfrSmusif;ywJh yxrOD; qHk;aom csi;f trsdK;om;ae‹ tcrf;tem;udk EdkifiHawmf0ef=uD;csKyf
OD;Ek wufa&mufcJhygw,f? yxrOD;qHk;aomcsif;a&;&m0ef=uD; OD;0rRol;armif;vufxufrSmawmh ‘csif;trsdK;
om;ae@atmifyGJobif tcrf;tem;ESifh csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&m nDvmcHobif’qdkjyD; wGJbufusif;ywm
awG‹&yg w,f?
csif;trsdK;om;ae‹/ csif;0daoowdkif;ae‹/ csif;jynfe,fae‹ qdkwmawG rwluGJjym;a=umif;udkvJ qufvufwifjy
vdkygw,f? csif;trsdK;om;ae‹uawmh trsdK;om;a&;ñud;yrf;r_aemufcHordkif;rsm;eJ‹twl ay:aygufvmjyD;
azaz:0g&Dv (20)&uf jzpfygw,f? 1947ckESpf pufwifbm(24)&ufae‹ twnfðywJh zJG‹pnf;yHkt& csif;0dao
owdkif;jzpfvmwJhtwGuf csif;0daoowdkif;ae‹uawmh pufwifbmv(24)&uf jzpfygw,f? aemuf 1974ckESpf
Zefem0g&Dv(3)&ufae‹ twnfðywJh zGJ‹pnf;yHkt& csif;jynfe,fjzpfvmygw,f? 'g a=umifh csif;jynfe,fae‹
uawmh Zefem0g&Dv(3)&ufjzpfygw,f? trsdK;om;ae‹u trsdK;om;w&yfvHk;eJ‹oufqdkifjyD; 0daoowdkif;/
jynfe,fae‹awGqdkwmuawmh tJ'Dtwdkif;twm{&d,mtwGif; aexdkifwJhvlawGeJ‹qdkifygw,f?
aemufwckqufvufwifjyvdkwmu Armtpdk;&tqufqufvufxufrSm tpdk;&udk,fwdkif csif;trsdK;om;ae‹
udk ao;odrfyaysmufatmif/ OD;wnfcsufvrf;vGJatmif/ t"dyg,ftESpfom&ysufjy,fatmif ñud;yrf;csufawG
awG‹ñuH&ygw,f? 1956/ 1957/ 1958 umvrsm;rSm ygvDrefu y,fzsufbdk‹ ñudyrf;bl;ygw,f? 1966
awmfvSefa&;aumifpDqdkwJh tpdk;&vufxufrSm csif;0daoowdkif;ae‹vdk‹ tpdk;&uajymif;vJusif;ybdk‹ pDpOfcJh
ygw,f? OD;0rRol;armif;u ol‹&Gm0rRol;uae rif;wyfygwD,lepfudk vma&mufuef‹uGuf umuG,fw,f?
csif;trsd;om;ae‹tcrf;tem;tjyD; (23/ 02/ 66)ae‹&Gmtjyef um;arSmufaoqHk;cJhygw,f? csif;trsdK;om;ae‹&J‹
zcif=uD;udk,fwdkif csif;trsdK;om;ae‹udk toufeJ‹vJjyD; umuG,f&ygw,f? rqvtpdk;&u 1976 uae
1980txd csif;trsdK;om;ae‹ESifh csif;jynfe,fae‹qdkjyD; t"rRwGJbuf ezl;pnf;wyf usif;ycdkif;ygw,f? 1981
upjyD;awmh csif;jynfe,fae‹vdk‹ usif;ycdkif;ygw,f? 1988 aemufydkif; e0w/ etz ppftpdk;&vufxufqdk&if
usif;ycGifhudkawmifrSbJ ,ae‹txd ydwfyifxm;qJbJ &Sdaea=umif;wifjy&if; ed8Hk;csKyfygw,f?

46

(14/09/ 2005 rS 31/ 10/ 2005) e,l;a'vDwGif Chin Forum ðyvkyfaom
zGJ‹pnf;yHktajccHOya'a&;&moifwef;Y
qvdkif;uD;vJatmrf;. csif;trsdK;om;ae‹ESifh zGJ‹pnf;yHktajccHOya' ydk‹cscsuf
,ae‹ydk‹csrnfhacgif;pOfrSm uGsEkyfwdk‹. “csif;trsdK;om;ae‹”ay:aygufvmjcif;onfyifv#if zGJ‹pnf;yHkESifhygwfoufonfh ta=umif;
yif jzpfygonf? jrefrmEdkifiHonf 1948-ckESpfZefem0g&Dv(4)&ufae‹wiG f vGwfvyfa&;&&Sda=umif;/ vGwfvyfa&;&onfESifhwðydkif
euftokH;ðy&ef 1947-ckESpf –Oya'a&;qGJa=umif;rsm; ajymjycJhjyD; jzpfygonf? ,if;Oya'twGif;rSmyif 1948 –csif;0daoowdkif;
tufOya'udkjyXmef;jyD; a'oEW&tkyfcsKyfa&;udk 'Drdkua&pDepfjzifh taumiftxnfazmfEdkif&ef usGEkyfwdk‹acgif;aqmif=uD;rsm;
tajrSmftjrif=uD;rm;pGm vkyfaqmifcJh=uyHk/ csif;trsK;om;ae‹ay:ayguf vmyHkESifhvnf; qufEG,faea=umif;wdk‹udk ajymjyygrnf?

jrefrmEdkifiH[m 1948ckESpf Zefem0g&Dv(4)&ufrSm vGwfvyfa&;udk a=ujimygw,f? 1947 zGJ‹pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk
tajccHOya' tydkif; (5) csif;0daoowdkif;tc%f;/ yk'fr (196/ 197/ 198 )wdk‹t& csif;0daoowdkif;/
csif;a&;&maumifpD/ csif;a&;&mXme/ csif;a&;&m0ef=uD; qdkwmawG ay:vmygw,f? OD;0rRol;armif;u yxrOD;qHk;
csif;a&;&m0ef=uD; jzpfvmjyD; csif;awmiftkyfcsKyfa&;pepftwGuf vlxkudkqENcH,lbdk‹ yxr OD;qHk;vkyfief;tjzpf
csrSwfaqmif&GufcJhygw,f? csif;trsdK;om;xk&J‹qENudk pHkprf; az:xkwfEdkifbdk‹ “csif;awmifpHkprf;ppfaq;a&;
aumfr&Sif”w&yf zGJ‹pnf;ppfaq;&if; vlxknDvmcHudkvJ wðydifxJusif;ybdk‹ pDpOfcJhwmjzpfygw,f? csif;awmif
pHkprf;ppfaq;a&; aumfr&Sif[m 1948 azaz:0g&Dv (5)&ufrSm ay:aygufjyD; obmywduOD;0rRol;armif;/
twGif;a&;rSL;u wdkif;rif;=uD; pnfol OD;odrf;armif(at wDtrf)/ tzGJ‹0ifuOD;pdk;0if;(trsdK;om;ynm0ef
a[mif;)wdk‹ jzpfygw,f?
aumfr&Sifu e,ftoDoD;uvlvkudk,fpm;vS,f/ wdkuftkyf/ acsmif;tkyf/ ol=uD;rsm;&J‹ vlxkqENudk 1948ckESpf
azaz:0g&D(12)&ufuae(26)&uftxd ppfaq;cJhygw,f? tJ'pD pfaq;ae&if;rSmbJ csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&m
nDvmcHudkvJ zvrf;ðrd‹rSm 1948 azaz: (19)uae(22)&uftxd wðydifxJ usif;ycJhyg w,f?
aumfr&Sifu (12/ 02/ 48) wD;wdefðrd‹rSm urfawm/ pkwWJ/ pD;,if;e,f/ (16/ 02/ 48) zvrf;ðrd‹rSm [m;cg;e,f/
(17/ 02/ 48) zvrf;ðrd‹rSm&mawmuf/ abmfvuGm/ vGefbef/ ig;rGwf/ uefyufvuf/ [m;cg;e,f/ (18/ 02/ 48)
zvrf;ðrd‹rSm xkwfv_dif/ uGmZyfe,f ppfaq;ygw,f? (19/ 02/ 48) uae (22/ 02/ 48) txd zvrf;ðrd‹rSm
csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&m nDvmcHusif;yjyD; vlxkqENkudk =um;emw,f? nDvmcHjyD;qHk;wJh aemufqHk;ae‹ (22/
02/ 48) rSm zvrf;ðrd‹rSm yvuf0e,f/ (23/ 02/ 48) zvrf;rSm wD;wdefuv$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,f refwHk;ekef;/
26/ 02/ 48 zvrf;ðrd‹rSm csif;0daoowdkif;twGif;&Sd e,ft&m&Sdrsm;qENudk qufvufppfaq; ygw,f?
vlxkwifjywJh pepfa[mif;wdkufol=uD;tkyfcsKyfa&;csdK‹,Gif;tm;enf;csufrsm;uawmh
(11)
tm%mESifhtcGihfta&;tvGJoHk;pm;ðyI vlxktay:nSOf;yrf;EdSyfpuf=ujcif;/
(12)
jynfolvlxktusdK;o,fydk;&efpdwfqENenf;yg;=ujyD; qufqHa&;rajyjypf=ujcif;/
(13)
wdk;wufaomacwfudk &ifabmifwef;vdkufEdkifaom vlr_qufqHa&;t=um;tjrif/ A[kokw
r&Sd=u jcif;/
(14)
0efaxmufrsm;ay;aomtm%mudk t&rf;rJhoHk;pGJ=ujcif;/
(15)
EdkifiHawmftpdk;&csrSwfaomrl0g'ESifh rnDnGwfrqDavsmf=ujcif;
aumfr&Sifu vlxkqENppfaq;csufudk tESpfcsKyfvdkufawmh
(5) wdkufol=uD;rsm;ðzwfcs&efqEN&Sda=umif; wnDwnGwfwnf;xGufqdk=ua=umif;/
47

(6) wdkufol=uD;tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfa[mif;tpm; vlxkqENeJ‹a&G;cs,fwifajrSmufwJh udk,fpm;vS,frsm; tkyf
csKyfwJh 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfopf wDxGiftpm;xdk;tkyfcsKyf&ef wnDwnGwfwnf; xGufqdk=u
a=umif; awG‹&Sdygw,f?
aumfrd&Sifppfaq;csuf/ nDvmcHqHk;jzwfcsufwxyfwnf;udkufnDwma=umifh aumfr&Sifu &efukefðrd‹rSm (10/
03/ 48) tpnf;ta0;usif;yjyD; wdkufol=ud;rsm;udk 4if;wdk‹tr_xrf;oufwef;tavsmuf xdkufoifhwJhyifpif/
avsmfa=u;ay;bdk‹ aqG;aEG;ygw,f? aumfr&Sif&J‹ (18/ 09/ 48) ae‹ &efukefðrd‹ tpnf;ta0;rSm aumfr&Sif
twGif;a&;rSL;&J‹ avsmfa=u;tao;pdwfwGufcsufr_ tpD&ifcHpmudk aqG;aEG;=uw,f? aumfr&Sifu (22/ 09/ 48)
tpnf;ta0;rSm tjyD;owfaqG;aEG;r_/ tacsmudkifr_awGðyvkyfjyD; EdkifiHawmftpdk;&0ef=uD;rsm;tzGJ‹ tpnf;ta0;
udkwifjybdk‹ qHk;jzwfygw,f? jyD;awmh 0ef=uD;rsm;tpnf;ta0;udk (30/ 09/ 48 )rSmwifoGif;ygw,f?
twdkcskyfajym&&if 0ef=uD;rsm;tpnf;ta0;u oabmwlnDcsuf&&SdoGm;jyD;wJhaemuf Oya'a&;qGJwJh[mudk
wESpfvHk;vdkvdk vHk;yrf;=ujyefw,f? tJ'ga=umifh ‘1896 Chin Hills Regulation Act’ ysufjy,fjyD; ‘1948
csif;0daoowdkif; tufOya'’eJ‹ ‘csif;0daoowdkif;tufOa' (Oya'rsm;ESifhoufqdkifapjcif;)’ Oya'rsm;udk
jyXmef;edkifcJhygw,f? 'DOya't& csif;0daoowdkif;twGif; 'Drdkua&pDpepfeJ‹ a'oEW&tkyfcsKyfa&;udk jrefrmEdkifiH
rSm tOD;qHk; azmfaqmifEdkifcJhygw,f?
csif;trsdK;om;ae‹owfrSwfa&;tpnf;ta0;udk 1950jynfhESpf atmufwdkbmv (9)&ufae‹/ &efukefðrd‹rSm
csif;a&;&maumifpDu usif;yygw,f? atmufygordkif;aemufcHawG&SdwJh azazmf0&Dv (20)&ufae‹udk a&G;cs,f
=ujyD; 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfcsrSwf&efqdkwJh tqdktrSwf(4)wifoGif;/ axmufcH/ qHk;jzwfwJhae‹ 1948ckESpf
azazmf0g&Dv (20)&ufae‹udkowfrSwfbdk‹ wnDwnGwfwnf; qHk;jzwf=uygw,f? csif;trsdK;om;ae‹ tcrf;
tem;udk 1951ckESpf azazmf0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹/ awmifydkif;csif;awmifc&dkif/ rif;wyfðrd‹rSm yxrOD;qHk; t=udrf
usif;yygw,f? zvrf;rSm usif;ywJh csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&mnDvmcHudk edkifiHawmforwp0fa&$odkuf wuf
a&mufjyD; rif;wyfrSmusif;ywJh yxrOD;qHk;aom csif;trsdK;om;ae‹tcrf;tem;udk EdkifiHawmf0ef=uD;csKyfOD;Ek
wufa&mufcJhygw,f?
yxrOD;qHk;rSwfwdkifuawmh 1918 ckESpfazaz:0g&Dv(20)&uf jzpfygw,f? arðrd‹/ t*FvdyfppfwyftwGif;rSm&SdwJh
csif;trsdK;om;rsm;zGJ‹pnf;wJh csif;trsdK;om;rsm;&J‹ yxrOD;qHk;aom vlr_a&;tzJG‹tpnf;jzpfwJh “csif;trsdK;om;
ynma&;jrSifhwifa&;tzGJ‹”ay:aygufwJhae‹ jzpfygw,f?
'kwd,rSwfwdkifuawmh 1928 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufjzpfygw,f? rif;wyfe,f/vSd,kH;&GmrSm csif;trsdK;om;
rsm;&J‹ yxrOD;qHk;aomEdkifiHa&;tzGJ‹tpnf;jzpfwJh “csif;awmifnDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹”ay:ygufwJhae‹ jzpfygw,f?
1933ckESpf rwfv(24-25)&uf/ roHkEl;&Gm(rif;wyfe,f) nDvmcHuae “csif;trsdK;om;nDnGwfa&; tzGJ‹”vdk‹
trnfjyifqifcJhygw,f? tJ'D csif;trsdK;om;nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹(crnz)&J‹ 1934ckESpfpufwifbmv (29)&uf/
0&J&Gm(rif;wyfe,f) nDvmcHuae t*Fvdyftpdk;&udk &mZoH (9) csufay;xm; ygw,f?
wwd,rSwfwdkifuawmh 1938 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufjzpfygw,f? tJ'D crnz&J‹ awmif;qdkcsuf(9)&yfeJ‹
ygwfoufjyD; t*Fvdyftpdk;&udk,fpm;vS,frsm;eJ‹ crnzOD;pD;wJh csif;vlxkoHk;axmifausmfwdk‹/ awmifydkif;
csif;jynf/ uefyufvufðrd‹rSm awG‹qHkyGJusif;ywJhae‹/ awmif;qdkcsuf(9)&yfudk t*Fvdyftpdk;&u wckr#
rvdkufavsmEdkifa=umif; a=ujimwmeJ‹ csif;vlxku csufjcif; oydwfarSmufarmif;xkwfwJhae‹ jzpfygw,f?
t*Fvdyfudk,fpm;vS,frsm; nwGif;csif; aqmðrd‹(rauG;wdkif;)udk xGufajy;=u&w,f?

48

pwkwˆrSwfwdkifuawmh 1939 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&uf jzpfygw,f? t*Fvdyftpdk;&u crnztzGJ‹udk
rw&m;toif;a=ujimjyD; OD;0rRol;armif;tygt0if crnzacgif;aqmif(9)OD; pwifzrf;qD;wJhae‹jzpfw,f?
uefyufvufrSm t*Fvdyftpdk;&udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk oydwfarSmufarmif;xkwfwJhudpPeJ‹ygwfoufjyD; t*Fvdyf
tpdk;&u ‘wESpf’tcsdef,ljyifqifjyD; zrf;qD;axmifcswmjzpfw,f? tokwf(5)okwf/ vlaygif;(79)OD; EdkifiHa&;t
usOf;om; tjzpf zrf;qD;axmifcscH&ygw,f?
yOPreJ‹aemufqHk;rSwfwdkifuawmh 1948 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufjzpfygw,f? ajrmufydkif;csif;awmif/ zvrf;ðrd‹
rSm 1948 azaz:0g&D (19-22)usif;ywJh csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&mnDvmcHrSm “wdkufol=uD;rsm; ðzwfcsjyD;
vlxka&G;cs,fonfhudk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzifh tkyfcsKyf&ef”qdkwJh tqdktrSwf(4) wifoGif;/ axmufcHwJhae‹ jzpfyg
w,f? axmifZudkif;(wD;wdef)u wifoGif;jyD; qGefref;(zvrf;)eJ‹ xef;armif;(uefyufvuf)wdk‹u axmufcH
=uygw,f? rJcGJqHk;jzwf&mrSm axmufcHrJ ig;axmifausmfeJ‹ uef‹uGufrJ(17)rJ &Sdygw,f?
'DnDvmcHu csif;awmifpHkprf;ppfaq;a&;&J‹ tpDtpOfw&yfxJu jzpfay:vm&wJh ta=umif;&yfwckjzpfygw,f?
'ga=umifh csif;trsdK;om;ae‹onfyifv#if zGJ‹pnf;yHkESifhygwfoufaeygonf[k ajym&jcif;jzpfygonf?
odk‹jzpfI 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfqdkonfrSm 1948 uwnf;u usGEkyfwdk‹wnfaqmufcJhjyD;jzpfonf? ,ck
usGefyfwdk‹ wnfaqmuf&efrSm zuf'&,fpepf tvSnfhjzpfonf[k usGEkyfajym&jcif; jzpfygonf?
(zGJ‹pnf;yHktajccHOya'a&;&moifwef; - 21/ 09/ 2005 ydk‹cscsuf)
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