CHAPTER TWO

PERSONALITY

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Q: What is Personality? A: are all people the same?

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PERSONALITY-DEFINITION
a. Salvatore Maddi Personality is a stable set of characteristics and tendencies that determine those commonalties and differences in the psychological behaviour (thoughts, feelings and actions) of people that have continuity in time and that may not be easily understood as the sole result of the social and biological pressures of the moment.

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PERSONALITY-DEFINITION (Contd.)
b. Gordon Allport Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determines his unique adjustment to his environment.

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PERSONALITY-DEFINITION (Contd.)
c. R.T. Hogan Personality refers to the relatively stable pattern of behaviours and consistent internal states that explains a persons behavioural tendencies.

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PERSONALITY-DEFINITION (Contd.)
d. Stephen Robbins Personality is the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others.

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PERSONALITY DETERMINANTS
  

HEREDITY Vs. ENVIRONMENT NATURE Vs. NURTURE Also- SITUATION

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PERSONALITY AND OB

Personality and performance Personality and work behaviour

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

MAJOR PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES INFLUENCING OB Type A Behaviour
Authoritarianism Bureaucratic Machiavellianism Locus of control Goal orientation
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1. TYPE A BEHAVIOUR
     

Restless, Impatient, Does several things at once, Starts another before completing one, Schedules too many work in less time, Has no time to relax and enjoy Is stress prone

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2. AUTHORITARIANISM

 

 

Blind acceptance of authority Conservation, strong parental control Make good followers Dogmatic
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3. BUREAUCRATIC

 

Respect for authority not totally blind Rule bound; do not take risks Better supervisors in routine, repetitive, proceduralised work.

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4. MACHIAVELLIANISM

   

Cool, calculating Use others to serve their own goals Do not hesitate to lie Not swayed by friendship, trust, loyalty. Exploit vulnerable people
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5. LOCUS OF CONTROL

Extent to which individuals believe they control their own lives (internals) external factors control their lives(external)

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6. GOAL ORIENTATION
Goal orientation Predisposition to Learning -develop new skills and mastering new situations. Performance -demonstrate and validate competence by seeking favourable judgemet from others and avoiding negative judgements.

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PERSONALITY THEORIES 1. PSYCHO ANALYTICAL THEORY of Freud-unconscious nature
personality psycho analytical concepts: Id- reservoir of thoughts, biological pleasures Ego- conscious in nature Super ego- higher level of restraining force
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2. TRAIT THEORIES

Visualises personality as a reflection of certain traits of the individual Many traits are common to most people Some traits are unique to some people
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3. SELF CONCEPT THEORY

Personality and behaviour are largely determined by the individual himself. We act in ways consistent with our image

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4. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY

Personality more a result of social variables rather than biological drives. Motives can be traced to known and conscious needs rather than unconscious desires Learning by observation of others rather than interaction
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OTHER SIGNIFICANT PERSONALITY CONCEPTS
  

Risk taking propensity Self monitoring Self esteem

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PERSONALITY DIMENSIONSPERSONALITY TRAITS

  

Personality traits are enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behaviour. Early research identified- 17,953 traits R.B. Cattell reduced it to- 171 traits. He further reduced it to-16 primary traits

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Cattell 16 PF
1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

Reserved Vs. Outgoing Less intelligent Vs. More intelligent Affected by feeling Vs. Emotionally stable Submissive Vs. Dominant Serious Va. Happy go lucky Expedient vs. Conscientious
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Cattell 16 PF (Contd.)

7. Timid Vs Venturesome 8. Tough minded Vs. Sensitive 9. Trusting Vs Suspicious 10.Practical Vs Imaginative 11. Forthright Vs Shrewd

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Cattell 16 PF (Contd.)

12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Self assured Vs. Apprehensive Conservative Vs. Experimenting Group dependant Vs. Self sufficient Uncontrolled Vs. Controlled Relaxed Vs. Tense

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MYERS & BRIGS TYPE INDICATORS(MBIT)
1.

2. 3. 4.

E or I- Extroversion or Introversion S or N- Sensing or Intuitive T or F- Thinking or Feeling J or P- Judging or Perceiving
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    

ESTJ- Corporate executives, organizers ENTJ- Natural Leaders ISFJ- Have high sense of duty INTJ- Visionaries ENTP-Conceptualisers

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BIG FIVE PERSONALITY FACTORS- FACTOR 1
HIGH CONSCIENTIOUSNESS FOCUSSED BALANCED Stable, Confident, Careful, Organized, Dependable Persistent, Cautious, Stubborn. LOW FLEXIBLE

measures of Impulsive, reliability Irresponsible Distracted, Disorganized, Unreliable, Spontaneous, Fun loving, Experimental.

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FACTOR 2
HIGH EMOTIONAL STABILITY LOW RESILIENT (ADJUSTMENT) REACTIVE RESPONSIVE Relaxed, measures of persons Depressed, Secure, ability to with Anxious, Calm, stand stress Indecisive, Poised, Have mood swings, Unflappable, Insecure, Guilt free, Excitable, Worrying, High strung.
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FACTOR 3
HIGH Explorer OPENESS TO EXPERIENCE LOW MODERATE PRESERVER

Creative, measures anPractical, Curious, individuals range Conservative, Artistically of interests Efficient, sensitive, fascination to Expert, Broad interests, novelty Conventional, Impractical. Finds comfort in familiar.

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FACTOR 4
HIGH AGREEABLENESS LOW ADAPTER NEGOTIATOR CHALLENGER Courteous, measures Uncooperative, Good-natured, individuals Short tempered, Empathic, propensity to Irritable, Caring , defer to Cold, Warm, others Rude. Tactful, Considerate.

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FACTOR 5
HIGH SOCIABILITY LOW EXTROVERT AMBIVERT INTROVERT Assertive, measures Private, Sociable, one’s comfort Independent, Warm, level with Works alone, Optimistic, relationships Reserved, Talkative, Timid, Outgoing. Quiet, Hard to read.

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HOLLANDS TYPOLOGY OF PERSONALITY AND CONGRUENT OCCUPATIONS
TYPE PERSONALITY CONGRUENT (Prefers Activities) CHARACTERISTIC OCCUPATION
1. Realistic: Shy, genuine, stable Mechanic, Skill, Strength Persistent, confirming farmer, Drill Press & coordination. practical. operator, assembly line worker. 2. Investigative: Analytical, original Biologist, Economist, Thinking, organizing Curious, Mathematician, & understanding. independent. News Reporter. 3). Social: Sociable, friendly Social worker, Helping & developing cooperative, Teacher, Counsellor, Others. Understanding. Clinical psychologist.

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HOLLANDS TYPOLOGY (Contd.)
TYPE PERSONALITY CONGRUENT (Prefers Activities) CHARACTERISTIC OCCUPATION
4. Conventional: Conforming, efficient, Accountant rule regulated, Orderly practical, unimaginative, unambiguous. in flexible. , Bank Teller, File clerk. Corporate manager

5.Enterprising: self confident Lawyer, Real estate Opportunities to ambitious, energetic agent, Public relations Influence others & domineering. & specialist, And attain power small-business manager. 6. Artistic: Imaginative, Ambiguous& disorderly, Unsystematic that idealistic, allow creative emotional, expression. Impractical. Partner, Musician, Writer, Interior decorator.

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CONCLUSION

Personality and job, occupation and organization fit. Know your associates personality to function better. Know your personality for self development.
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