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S.No

CONTENT

.

  • (i) ABSTRACT

    • 1. INTRODUCTION

      • 1.1 PROJECT TITLE

      • 1.2 PROJECT DESCRIPTION

      • 1.3 BLOCK DIAGRAM

      • 1.4 APPLICATION AREA

      • 1.5 RESOURCES REQUIRED

  • 2. HARDWARE

    • 2.1 CIRCUICT DIAGRAM AND

  • DESCRIPTION

    • 2.2 BILL OF MATERIAL

    • 3. CIRCUIT FABRICATION

      • 3.1 HARDWARE INTEGRATION AND TESTING

        • 3.2 ENGINEERING DESIGN

    • 4. PROJECT EVALUATION

      • 4.1 RESULT AND CONCLUSION

      • 4.2 FAILURE ANALYSIS

  • 5. ANNEXUTURE

    • 5.1 DATA SHEET

    • 5.2 REFERENCES

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    1. INTROD

    UCTION

    1.1 PROJECT TITLE:-

    SPEED CONTROL OF AC APPLIANCES USING REMOTE CONTROL

    1.2 PROJECT DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATION AREA:-

    1.2.1 Description

    A circuit that allows total control over your equipments without having to move around is a revolutionary concept. Total control over the speed of the fan is a boon to many. This product brings to you this very concept. Remote control facilitates the operation of fan regulators around the home or office from a distance. It provides a system that is simple to understand and also to operate, a system that would be cheap and affordable, a reliable and easy to maintain system of remote control and durable system irrespective of usage. It adds more comfort to everyday living by removing the inconvenience of having to move around to operate a fan regulator. The system seeks to develop a system that is cost effective while not undermining the need for efficient working. The first remote control, called “lazy bones” was developed in 1950 by Zenith Electronics Corporation (then known as Zenith Radio Corporation). The device was developed quickly, and it was called “Zenith space command”, the remote went into production in the fall of 1956, becoming the first practical wireless remote control device. Today, remote control is a standard on electronic products, including VCRs, cable and satellite boxes,digital video disc players and home audio players. In the year 2000, more than 99 percent of all TV set and 100 percent of all VCR and DVD players sold are equipped with remote controls. The average individual these days probably picks up a remote control at least once or twice a day. Basically, a remote control works in the following manner. A button is pressed. This completes a specific connection which produces a Morse code line signal specific to that button. The transistor amplifies the signal and sends it to the LED which translates the signal into infrared light. The sensor on the appliance detects the infrared light and reacts appropriately. The remote control’s function is to wait for the user to press a key and then translate that into infrared light signals that are received by the receiving appliance. The carrier frequency of such infrared signals is typically around 36kHz. The aim of this work is to design and construct a remote control for a fan regulator. The remote control device sends an infra-red beam, which is received by the infra-red sensor on the regulator and the speed of the fan is increased. One of the primary objectives of an engineer is to endeavor to deliver the best product or the most efficient services at the lowest cost to the end user. The system was found to meet the expected results.

    1.2.2 Block Diagram:-

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    INFRARED RADIATIONS RECEIVER MONOSTABLE MULTIVINRATOR AC SUPP LY TRANSFORME R COUNTER MONOSTABLE MULTIVINRATOR OPTO OPTO ISOLATO
    INFRARED RADIATIONS RECEIVER MONOSTABLE MULTIVINRATOR
    INFRARED
    RADIATIONS
    RECEIVER
    MONOSTABLE
    MULTIVINRATOR
    AC SUPP LY
    AC
    SUPP
    LY

    TRANSFORME

    R

    COUNTER
    COUNTER

    MONOSTABLE

     

    MULTIVINRATOR

    OPTO

    OPTO

    OPTO

     

    ISOLATO

    ISOLATO
    INFRARED RADIATIONS RECEIVER MONOSTABLE MULTIVINRATOR AC SUPP LY TRANSFORME R COUNTER MONOSTABLE MULTIVINRATOR OPTO OPTO ISOLATO
    INFRARED RADIATIONS RECEIVER MONOSTABLE MULTIVINRATOR AC SUPP LY TRANSFORME R COUNTER MONOSTABLE MULTIVINRATOR OPTO OPTO ISOLATO
    REGULATOR
    REGULATOR
    COUPLER
    COUPLER
    FAN TRIAC
    FAN
    TRIAC
    INFRARED RADIATIONS RECEIVER MONOSTABLE MULTIVINRATOR AC SUPP LY TRANSFORME R COUNTER MONOSTABLE MULTIVINRATOR OPTO OPTO ISOLATO

    1.2.3 Project Description:-

    Sensing unit: -

    We are using one sensor which is used to sense the signal from the IR remote and generates a signal and send to the decoder unit. When sensor receives a signal then it provide a

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    particular speed to the load. If it again receives a signal then it increases speed of the load after five pulses it will be OFF the load.

    particular speed to the load. If it again receives a signal then it increases speed of
    particular speed to the load. If it again receives a signal then it increases speed of

    Decoder unit :-

    MONOSTABLE CIRCUIT

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    We are using one decoder IC 4017 which has 10 outputs but here we are using only five outputs. According each output speed of the load will vary. It receives the signal from the sensor .In between

    the five outputs, one is reset the load.
    the
    five
    outputs,
    one
    is
    reset
    the
    load.

    It

    is

    used

    for

    controlling

    the

    speed

    of

    the

    fan.

    Isolator unit:-

    It is used for driving the triac. this is MOC 3021(opto isolator).it isolate the signal from monostable multivibrator to triac.

    We are using one decoder IC 4017 which has 10 outputs but here we are using
    We are using one decoder IC 4017 which has 10 outputs but here we are using
    • 1.3 Application areas:-

      • 1. Remote controlled Fan Regulator is used to control the speed of fan from our bed or couch.

      • 2. The same circuit finds its use to control the Intensity of light at various levels.

      • 3. This circuit also finds it use for switching ON and OFF any electronic circuit.

        • 1.4 INPUT REQUIRED:-

          • 1. Power supply required for every project

          • 2. Soldering iron and soldering wire.

          • 3. Nose plier and cutter.

    2. HARDWARE

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    2.1 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM AND DESCRIPTION:-

    2.1 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM AND DESCRIPTION:- Fig 2(a) Circuit diagram WORKING:- The 230 V from AC mains

    Fig 2(a) Circuit diagram

    WORKING:-

    The 230 V from AC mains is stepped down to 12V and Regulated by IC7809, capacitor and Diodes to 9V. This filtered 9V is used for providing supply to the entire circuit. Any button of remote control can

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    be used to control the speed of the fan. The remote control produces infrared rays which is received by the TSOP infrared receives module. The TSOP used here is TSOP 1738. It is capable for receiving signals up to 38 KHZ. The infrared rays are received by the TSOP sensor and its output is given as a trigger to the first monostable multivibrator NE 555 through a LED and Resistor R4. This NE555 which is wired as Monostable multivibrator is used to delay the clock to decade counter CD 4017. We can directly give the output of TSOP to decade counter, but while doing so all the small pulse or noises may also act as clock to counter and counter starts counting.

    The decade counter has ten outputs from Q0 to Q9. But here we are using only Q0 to Q4. Q5 is not used and Q6 is used to reset the counter. The output of decade counter is taken through Resistors R5 to R9. The resistor R5 to R9 and capacitor C5 controls the pulse width which is actually determining the speed of the fan. If the Q0 output is high the capacitor C5 is charged through R5, if Q1 is high capacitor C5 is charged through R6 and so on, thereby controlling the speed of the fan accordingly. Here we are controlling the speed of the fan in five levels that is why we are taking five outputs (A0 to Q4).

    Another NE 555 is used here which is also wired as monostable multivibrator. This monostable multivibrator is riggered by pulses from opto coupler MCT2E. It is wired as Zero crossing detector. The output from decade counter is given to NE555 and this is given to the transistor BC548. It is given to the Opto isolator MOC 3021. It is used for driving the Triac BT136. Triac is a type of thyristor. Here the resistor R13 (470hm) and capacitor C7 (0.01μF) combination is used as snubber network for the Triac. The Resistors R5 to R9 and capacitor C5 are used to control the pulse width. When Q0 output is high the pulse width is maximum, when Q1 output is high pulse width is decreased slightly. As the pulse width decreases firing angle of the triac increases and speed of the fan also increases. By using remote control we are actually controlling pulse width, which in turn varies the firing angle of triac, and there by varying the speed of the fan.

    2.2 BILL OF MATERIAL:-

    Bill of materials (BOM) is the term used to describe the raw materials, sub-assemblies, intermediate assemblies, sub-components, components, parts and the quantities of each needed to

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    manufacture a final product. It may be used for communication between manufacturing partners, or confined to a single manufacturing plant.

    2.2.1 Component:-

    S.No.

    Component

    Value

    Specification

    Quantity

    • 1. IC

     

    555

    DIP

    1

     
    • 2. Transistor

    BC148

    -

    5

     

    Voltage

    regulator

    9V

    7809

    1

    IC

    • 3. IC

     

    CD4017

     

    1

     
    • 4. IR Sensor

    TSOP1738

    38KHZ

    1

    • 5. LED

     

    -

    Red

    1

    • 6. triac

       

    BT136

    1

     
    • 7. Transformer

    12 -0 -12

    -

    1

     
    • 8. Rectifier

    -

    Bridge

    1

     
    • 9. Resistor

    1K

    ¼ w,10%

    2

    33K

    ¼ w,10%

    1

    27K

    ¼ w,10%

    1

    20K

    ¼ w,10%

    1

    12K

    ¼ w,10%

    1

    3.3K

    ¼ w,10%

    1

    100k

    ¼ w,10%

    1

    10K

    ¼ w,10%

    1

    5.6K

    ¼ w,10%

    1

    47ohm

    ¼ w,10%

    3

    4700 ohm

    ¼ w,10%

    1

    47K

    ¼ w,5%

    1

    330ohms

    ¼ w,10%

    1

    10.

    Zener diode

    5.1V

     

    1

    8

     
    • 11. Diode

     

    1N4007

    5

     
    • 12. Diode

     

    1N4148

    5

     
    • 13. Capacitor

    .01uf

    Ceramic

    3

    10uf

    16V,electrolyte

    1

    .1uf

    Ceramic

    2

    4.7uf

    16V,electrolyte

    1

    .22uf

    Ceramic

    1

    470uf

    50V electrolytic

    1

     
    • 14. Optoisolator

     

    MOC3021

    1

     
    • 15. Optocoupler

     

    MCT2E

    1

     
    • 16. Power Cable

    Two Pin

    230v,50HZ

    1

    2.2.2 Mechanical subassemblies:-

    11. Diode 1N4007 5 12. Diode 1N4148 5 13. Capacitor .01uf Ceramic 3 10uf 16V,electrolyte 1

    3.CIRCUIT FABRICATION

    3.1 HARDWARE INTEGRATION & TESTING :–

    Integration of circuit is basically mounting of component on the PCB and solders it. We have used a zero base PCB and all the component are soldered on it and connected through jumper wires.

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    The whole circuit has been divided into two segments:

    • 1. Power supply circuit

    • 2. Transmitter & receiver circuit

    3.1.1 Power supply circuit:-

    The whole circuit has been divided into two segments: 1. Power supply circuit 2. Transmitter &

    Fig 3.1.1.1 regulated power supply (+9V)

    All these components except transformers are connected through the jumper wires. Transformer is connected to this circuit through the male and female connector.

    TESTING for power supply

    Every component is checked for short circuit through millimeters

    Power supply is given & the output of the various components is tested

    Output of the transformer-12.02 volt A.C

    Output of the rectifier:-

    volt D.C

    Output of the regulator:-9.05Volt D.C

    Output of the regulator with load:-8.80 Volt D.C

    • 3.1.2 TESTING FOR RECEIVER CIRCUIT:-

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    Receiving circuict is tested by the multimeter.we tested all the pins when load was connected.When the IR transmitter transmite 38KHz frequency

    Output voltage at the receiver :5.5V.

    Output current at the receiver: 5mA.

    3.1.3

    TESTING OF THE 555 TIMER CIRCUICT:-

    It is tested by the oscilloscope we connect both terminal of probe to the output pin and check the frequency generated by the 555 timer.

    Voltage at pin3 of 555 timer=3.49 Volt

    There is square wave.

    Ra=100K

    C1=1uf 16V

    C2=.01uf

    Vcc=9V

    3.2 Engineering Design:

    A good engineering design is what makes a project handy, portable & easy to use. It also provides an aesthetic look to the project & helps the developer to check the circuit easily during project failure.

    Thus, in our project, we have used connectors for different units to make the project easy to carry & easy to handle. As far as PCB is concerned, Zero PCB is used for designing of whole circuit & jumper wires are used only when they are required. So that the Circuit appears simple & neat for testing purpose. A wooden Control Box is used for placing the circuit safe & only user interface is provided to user.

    Model is designed according to the requirement and gives the look like actual parking lot.

    4.PROJECT EVALUATION

    4.1 RESULT:-

    The concept of speed control home appliances has been gives the functonal shape by this project. It control the speed of the load(fan).it makes the human life more easy because this project work by the remote.when user gives apulse through remote then it on the fan and in next pulse it change speed of the device.

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    CONCLUSION:-

    With the knowledge of new techniques in ‘Electronics’ we are able to make our life more comfortable. One such application of electronics is used in our project. The same circuit finds its use in many more applications. By this the intensity of light can be controlled using a remote. The intensity of light can be controlled in five levels from off position to maximum intensity possible. So it finds use as a night lamp by keeping the intensity of lamp in low level. The circuit also finds its use for switching ON and OFF any electronic circuitry. Our normal T.V remote can be used for all these purposes. So it is very useful or a real help to old age and sick people, since they can control the speed from the place where they are sitting. We feel that our product serves something good to this world and we like to present it before this prosperous world.

    4.2 FAILURE ANALYSIS:-

    Supply wire failure:-

    In the first when we gave power supply then we found that our project was not working then we checked the voltage at the regulator there was nothing .Then we tested the transformer and the supply wire and we get that supply wire was not working. Then we change the power supply and now that time we got 9.8V regulated DC supply.

    After giving the power supply there output does not stop in one position For reducing this problem I placed the transformer at sufficient distance from the receiver.

    SPEED SEQUENTIAL FAILURE:-

    Now output was coming but they are not come in order for reducing this problem I change the connection of the output from the variable resistor.

    5.1 DATA SHEET:-

    5.1.1 LED:-

    5.ANNEXTURE

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    VOLTAGE REGULATOR:- 13

    VOLTAGE REGULATOR:-

    13

    5.1.3 IR SENSOR :- 14

    5.1.3 IR SENSOR:-

    14

    15

    15

    16

    16

    17

    17

    18

    18

    19

    19

    5.1.4 BC 548 TRANSISTOR:-

    5.1.4 BC 548 TRANSISTOR:- 20

    20

    21

    21

    5.1.5 NE555 TIMER:-

    5.1.5 NE555 TIMER:- 22
    5.1.5 NE555 TIMER:- 22

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    5.1.6 DECADE COUNTER

    5.1.6 DECADE COUNTER 23

    23

    24

    24

    25

    25

    26

    26

    27

    27

    28

    28

    29

    29

    30

    30

    31

    31

    32

    32

    OPTO ISOLATOR

    OPTO ISOLATOR 33

    33

    34

    34

    35

    35

    36

    36

    37

    37

    OPTO COUPLER 38

    OPTO COUPLER

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    An Opto coupler is used to transmit either analog or digital information from one voltage potential

    An Opto coupler is used to transmit either analog or digital information from one voltage potential to another while maintaining isolation of potentials. It is used for low voltages.

    MCT2E is the opto coupler used here. MCT2E is NPN silicon planar phototransistor optically coupled to a gallium arsenide infrared emitting diode. It is used to trigger the monostable multivibrator(IC3).

    The MCT2XXX series optoisolators consist of a gallium arsenide infrared emitting diode driving a silicon phototransistor in a 6-pin

    dual in-line package.

    Schematic diagram of optocoupler IC

    An Opto coupler is used to transmit either analog or digital information from one voltage potential

    APPLICATIONS

    Power supply regulators Digital logic inputs

    OPTO ISOLATOR

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    An Opto isolator is used to transmit either analog or digital information from one voltage potential

    An Opto isolator is used to transmit either analog or digital information from one voltage potential to another while maintaining isolation of the potentials. Its operating voltage is higher than that of an Opto coupler.

    Here, MOC3021 is used as opto isolator. It is used to drive the Triac BT136.

    Schematic Diagram of Opto isolator

    An Opto isolator is used to transmit either analog or digital information from one voltage potential

    The MOC302_ series are optically isolated triac driver devices.These devices contain a GaAs( Gallium Arsenide) infrared emitting diode coupled with a light activated silicon bilateral switch which functions like a triac mounted in a standard 6 pin dual-in-line package. This is designed for interfacing between electronic controls and power triacs to control resistive and inductive loads for 240 V AC operations.

    FEATURE

    High Isolation Voltage (5.3kVRMS ,7.5kVPK ) 400V Peak Blocking Voltage Excellent Stability

    APPLICATIONS

    CRTs

    Power Triac Driver

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    TRIAC BT 136

    TRIAC BT 136 A TRIAC, or TRIode for Alternating Current is an electronic component approximately equivalent

    A TRIAC, or TRIode for Alternating Current is an electronic component approximately equivalent to two silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCRs/thyristors) joined in inverse parallel (paralleled but with the polarity reversed) and with their gates connected together. The formal name for a TRIAC is bidirectional triode thyristor. This results in a bidirectional

    electronic switch which can conduct current in either direction when it is triggered (turned on) and thus doesn't have any polarity. It can be triggered by either a positive or a negative voltage being applied to its gate electrode (with respect to A1, otherwise known as MT1). Once triggered, the device continues to conduct until the current through it drops below a certain threshold value, the holding current, such as at the end of a half-cycle of alternating current (AC) mains power. In addition, applying a trigger pulse

    at a controllable point in an AC cycle allows one to control the percentage of current that flows through the TRIAC to the load (phase control).

    The triac used here is BT136. It is thyristor with a firing angle nearly 45 o . A snubber circuit consisting of a resistor and capacitor is used to control the firing angle of Triac. This firing angle determines the speed of the fan.

    Passivated triacs in a plastic envelope, intended for use in applications requiring high bidirectional transient and blocking voltage capability and high thermal cycling performance. Typical applications include motor control, industrial and domestic lighting, heating and static switching.

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    REFERENCES ∑ <a href=http://lejpt.academicdirect.org/A09/055_062.htm ∑ http://www.electronicsforu.com/EFYLinux/circuit/July2006/CI- 01_July06.pdfhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless www.epanorama.net discussion index ∑ http://freecircuitdiagram.com/2009/03/27/fan-control-circuit-using- lm56-ic/ 42 " id="pdf-obj-41-2" src="pdf-obj-41-2.jpg">

    REFERENCES

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless www.epanorama.net discussion index http://freecircuitdiagram.com/2009/03/27/fan-control-circuit-using-

    lm56-ic/

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