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Coal Fired Thermal Power Plant

Coal Fired Thermal Power Plant

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Published by: florece on Feb 26, 2010
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08/06/2013

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PART 1

UNDERSTANDING COAL-FIRED THERMAL POWER PLANTS

COAL THE SOLID FOSSIL FUEL

THE BASICS OF COAL-FIRED THERMAL POWER PLANTS

COAL-FIRED THERMAL POWER PLANT

CALACA

CALACA

COAL-FIRED THERMAL POWER PLANT

Plant Name: BATANGAS Coal Fired Thermal Power Plant Location: SAN RAFAEL, CALACA, BATANGAS

CALACA

COAL-FIRED THERMAL POWER PLANT
PLANT GENERAL Type of Plant Unit System (one Boiler to one Turbine) Unit Output 300MW Condenser Cooling System Seawater Auxiliary Steam System Taken from another unit/from own boiler Electricity for start-up Taken from Transmission Line via Station Transformer

CALACA

COAL-FIRED THERMAL POWER PLANT
Turbine Plant Type of Turbine Maximum Continuous Rating Rated Speed of Turbine Reheat Condensing Turbine 300 MW 3600 RPM Steam Conditions Pressure at MSV inlet flange Temperature at MSV inlet Flange Temperature at Reheats Stop Valve inlet flange 170 ATG 538ºC 538ºC

CALACA

COAL-FIRED THERMAL POWER PLANT
FLOW CONDITIONS AT 300 MW Main Steam Reheat Steam Feed Water 923 T/H 768 T/H 923 T/H

PART 2

C HEMICAL E NERGY
HEAT ENERGY

The Coal Handling
System
1.UNLOADING EQUIPMENT transfers coal from vessel to RECEIVING CONVEYOR SYSTEM 2. RECEIVING CONVEYOR SYSTEM transports coal to STOCKYARD VIA ITS STACKER 3. STOCKYARD is where the coal is temporarily stored and sprayed with water to avoid spontaneous combustion when necessary 4.RECLAIMER transfers coal from Stockyard to DISCHARGING CONVEYOR SYSTEM 6.DISCHARGING CONVEYOR SYSTEM transports coal to the COAL BUNKER/SILO 8.COAL BUNKER/SILO to COAL FEEDER, then to MILL or COAL PULVERIZER 7. COAL PULVERIZER to FUEL BURNER

oad by 65,000-tonner (PANAMAX-size) ocean-going vessel that dock

UNLOADING EQUIPMENT RECLAIMER
RECEIVING CONVEYOR PULVERIZER COAL SYSTEM COAL FUEL

S FEEDER BUNKER BURNER

FUNCTION: Where the actual burning of the coal takes

FURNACE SYSTEM

place.

Pulverized burning is the method used of Firing or Coal Burning, wherein, coal is first pulverized then blown into the furnace and actual burning takes place in mid-air of a STEEL BOX. The System consists of these equipments: 1. MILL is a machine used for grinding the coal to proper size 2. EXHUASTER is a fan that blows the coal into the Furnace 3. BURNERS are openings in the steel box where the coal enters the Furnace

Forced Draft Fan

ounts of air. An AIR COMBUSTION is supplied by FORCED DRAFT F DAMPERS ( controlled openings).

AIR PREHEATER Gas or Oil Torch

of the heat going to waste up the stack to heat the secondary air befo

brings the temperature in the Furnace up to the ignition temperature o

Induced Draft Fan ASH HANDLING
EQUIPMENT
Precipitator
removes the fly ash from the flue gas by electrostatic means (polarization plates/stages).

ON: Installed just before the STACK to draw the flue gas out of the FU

Fly Ash Silo
where fine ashes from the KOPPERS of ECONOMIZER. AIR HEATER and ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR (ESP) extracted by vacuum pump are collected. From there the moistened ash is transported to the ash Pond by trucks. Fly ash can be recycled in the manufacturing of cement.

Clinker Hopper
inverted cone-shaped BOTTOM ASH COLLECTOR. From there the moistened ash is transported to the ASH POND by trucks.

Ash Tank/Bin Ash Pond

with conveyor collects slag or bottom ash from the FURNACE proper.

outdoor disposal area where the fly and bottom ashes are transported and collected. It consists of perimeter embankment with drainage facilities, regulating reservoir, sedimentation basin and neutralization pit (where waste water is collected and neutralized before discharge into the sea.

H EAT
E NERGY

STEAM ENERGY

Boiler
S team D r um
a.To receive the water and start the circulation by admitting the water to the tubes. b. Supply water surface for steam separation as the mixture of water and stream arise from the tubes and collecting space for steam above the water level . c. to provide an outlet for the steam on its way to the turbine. d. To provide the water column connecting to determine water level and a place to install a boiler pressure safety valve.

by a number of steel tubes and placed in the furnace so that the hot gases have to

Generating Tubes
placed directly in the path of the hot flue gases leaving the furnace ,these tubes receive the water from the drum and discharge the mixture of steam and water into the steam drum. In advanced designs, water walls have taken the place of generating tubes.

Water Walls
characteristic feature of modern furnace design wherein the generating tubes are utilized not only as walls protecting the furnace walls but serve as important part of the boiler heating surface.

Water Circulation Pumps
to force water to circulate in a boiler in order to avoid ‘’hot spot’’ problems .

Mud Drum
where boiler impurities are collected and drained through valves.

Super Heater

where the steams after it leaves the drum is further heated to a tempe

S TEAM E NERGY
MECHANICAL ENERGY

Turbine
1.First Stage/High Pressure Stage
Steam issuing from the nozzle pushes against the blades and causes the shaft to turn. The steam gives up some of its energy in turning the blades and leaves the first stage at lower pressure and temperature .

windmill, it consists of stationary and rotating blades mounted on a co

2. Second stage /Intermediate Pressure Stage activated by the same steam and gives up some
more energy in turning the blades here.

3. Third Stage/Low Pressure stage

the same steams enters this stage at a lower temperature and pressure .1/3 of steam energy is given up in the three stages and leaves the third stage as Exhaust Steam .

GOVERNING SYSTEM MAIN STOP VALVE REHEATERS

eed of the turbine or generating unit by either closing or opening the governing valves autom

NCTION: Function is to close in case of emergency to cut the supply of steam into the turbin

n through the high pressure turbine and before it passes through the rest of the turbine .Part

CONDENSER
A large hallow box attached to the exhaust opening of the turbine .In this box are installed rows of small tubes though which cooling Water is circulating causing the conversion of the exhaust Steam back into water for reuse in the boiler (cold reheat ).In the process a vacuum is created which will make the turbine operate more efficiently by providing less resistance to the exhaust steam in its way out. 1.Cooling Water –treated sea water use to condense steam .Slightly heated after performing its work ,this water is then returned to the sea through an open discharge channel. 2.Evactor -pump use for removing excess air leakage from Condenser .Air in the condenser can cause a loss of vacuum (air occupies space ) and use decrease the cooling of the exhaust steam (air will blanket some of the tubes and not allow steam to contact the tubing).

Schematic Diagram

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