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Mechanical Design

Presentation Reference Number Here


Pipeline Design
• Code compliance
• Design to resist internal pressure
• Longitudinal, bending & combined stresses
• Design to resist external pressure
• Buckling
• Fittings
Riser Design
• Types of riser
• Pipeline to riser tie-ins
• Riser and expansion spool modelling
• Load conditions & combinations
• Fatigue
• Riser supports

Code Compliance
• DnV OS F101: Rules for Submarine Pipelines
• AS 2885 : Pipelines - Gas and Liquid Petroleum
• ANSI/ASME B31.4 : ASME Code for Pressure
Piping Systems (Liquid Petroleum Transportation)
• ANSI/ASME B31.8 : ASME Code for Pressure
Piping Systems (Gas Transmission & Distribution)
• BS 8010 : Code of Practice for Pipelines Part 3
• API RP1111 : Recommended Practice for Design,
Construction, Operation & Maintenance of Offshore
Hydrocarbon Pipelines

internal and external pressure.g. invariant loads. dropped objects.g. pipelay stresses.Types of Loads • functional loads (actions resulting from the operation of the pipeline).g. e. hydrodynamic forces from currents and waves – variable forces.g. • installation loads (actions incurred during construction of the pipeline). . e. • environmental loads (normal actions from the natural environment). e. e. • accidental loads (infrequent actions due to natural hazards or third party influence). fishing interaction.

and ability of pipeline to resist those loads without failing and factor.ASD vs LRFD • • ASD = Allowable Stress Design – generally based on limiting stresses in a pipeline to less than a prescribed limit. . Factors dependant on risk and confidence of load / resistance prediction. LRFD = Load and Resistance Factor Design – determine loads on pipeline and factor.

. or loss of. weight coating. Ultimate Limit State • bursting limit state • ovalisation/ratcheting limit state (if causing total failure) • local buckling limit state (pipe wall buckling limit state) • global buckling limit state (normally for load-controlled condition) Fatigue • unstable fracture and plastic collapse limit state Accidental • Impact.Limit States • • • • Serviceability Limit State • ovalisation/ ratcheting limit state • accumulated plastic strain and strain ageing • large displacements • damage due to.

Risk Approach – OS F101 .

Pressure Containment • In essence. all variations on Barlow’s formula • • • • Diameter based on hydraulic analysis Minimum external pressure Safety factor based on code Maximum internal pressure .

Pressure Containment Additional Considerations • Material grade • Wall thickness tolerance • corrosion allowance • temperature derating factors .

Pipeline Stress – Simple Approach Pipeline stress considered biaxial • hoop stress around circumference (as used for wall thickness sizing • longitudinal stress along axis Longitudinal Pipeline Stresses • • • • Pressure Temperature Bending Residual tension (difficult to quantify and often ignored) .

Longitudinal Stress • Pressure Stress • Two effects dependent on pipeline axial restraint • Full axial restraint gives poissons effect of hoop stress • Completely unrestrained gives “end cap” effect • Poissons effect • Hoop stress creates circumferential (lateral) strain • Poissons ratio = lateral strain/longitudinal strain = 0.tensile stress developed • Poissons longitudinal stress = 0.3 x Hoop Stress .3 for steel • lf restrained pipe cannot contract .

Pressure Stress Endcap Pressure Stress • unrestrained (near expansion spool) • pressure differential acting over internal CSA or equivalent pipe end (hence “end cap”) • longitudinal tensile stress = 0.5 x Hoop Stress .

fully restrained • unrestrained .no stress due to temperature • partially restrained .equilibrium between expansion and friction restraint (section of pipe which expands) • fully restrained when friction force = fully restrained force ie no movement . partially restrained.Temperature Stress • Dependent upon axial pipeline restraint • Stresses developed when expansion or contraction are prevented • 3 cases : unrestrained.

g 6-inch x 14.3mm wt 60 degrees above ambient results in a stress of 145 N/mm2 • full restraint force = 1017 kN or 100 tonnes • to prevent expansion this restraining force would be required • Generally better to avoid restraining pipe if possible .Temperature Stress • Longitudinal stress is as follows : • e.

Bending Stress • • • • Lay radius curvature Resting on irregular seabed Spanning (includes environmental loads) Bending within elastic range. formulae as follows : • Bending is tensile and compressive about neutral axis .important to remember when calculating combined stress ie 2 possible values of longitudinal stress .

96 for functional and environmental loads • Von Mises Stress.Combined Stresses • Von Mises ( maximum distortion energy theory) • design factor for combined equivalent pipeline stress can be as high as 0. given by: .

cantilever. .g.LC and DC Conditions • • Load controlled . pipe on a reel.additional load results in additional displacement – e. Considers non-linear material properties. Displacement controlled – curvature is imposed on the pipe rather than a load – e.g.

. Alternatives for load and displacement controlled conditions. strains in excess of yield may be demonstrated to be acceptable in displacement controlled situations. Alternatives also for internal or external overpressure.Local Buckling • • • • • • LRFD equivalent to combined stress limit approach. For thick wall pipes. Highly dependant on bending load. More likely during installation when no internal pressure.

• propagation .Collapse and Propagation Two other buckling scenarios to consider : • collapse . Collapse pressure (pressure required to collapse a pipeline) Is greater than Initiation pressure (pressure required to start a propagating buckle from a given buckle) Is greater than Propagating pressure (pressure required to continue a propagating buckle). .water depth where a previously initiated buckle would propagate to.g.water depth where collapse can occur with negligible bending load. 200m). • Buckle propagation can be prevented by buckle arrestors (thicker section of pipe) at regular spacing (e. • Pipelines always sized for collapse (Bluestream).

Buckling & Collapse .

Pipeline Fittings Typical pipe fittings : • • • • Flanges Bends Tees Wye piece .

Often need to go up a class to cater for moments.if leakage occurs very expensive to rectify Code does not allow for external moment loads ie if design pressure = flange allowable pressure no moment capacity exists. . Many compact flange and other connector designs available.5 Wellhead equipment use standard API For subsea use swivel ring and possibly misalignment flanges required Subsea flanges are critical link .Flanges • • • • • • • • Subsea use high integrity ring type joints (RTJ) Pipelines usually use standard ASME/ANSI B16.too little and leakage may occur too much and flange overstress/distortion problems. Bolt load critical . Bolting normally performed using accurate hydraulic tensioning tool.

Cont .Flanges.

& wt and bend radius .ANSI B31.can be very significant .curved pipe is more flexible & has higher bending stresses • Addressed by flexibility & stress intensification factors (SIF) .3 • Flexibility and SIF depends on pipe id.Bends • • • • Elbows generally to ANSI/ASME 16.9 Pipelines usually require pigging .elbows not suitable Bend radius = 3D or 5D Utilise bends at expansion loops between pipeline and facility • Ability to deform and flatten .

Tees Tees • Standard branch tees to ANSI B16.3) . • CAPEX implications may be high for hot-tap tees reduced if installed in the mainline during pipelay .can have high stress at branch connections • Not suitable for inspection pigs • increase flowline flexibility (future tie-ins) • Valve skid & protection structure required etc.9 • Barred tees for pigging implications • Flexibility and SIF implications as per bends (ANSI B31.

correct geometry is critical • Typically a symmetrical branch arrangement with 30 degrees between branches • Large radius of curvature (greater than 3D) between branch and main line • Non standard items ie no standard specifications • Complex 3D geometry .Wye Pieces Wye Pieces • Allows pigging of mainline and branch .pipe codes not applicable • Design to pressure vessel code using 3 dimensional solid model finite element techniques .

Wye Pieces Wyes • • • • Design in accordance with pressure vessel code Typically BS 5500 or ANSI/ASME VIII Complexity due to code break at interface with pipe Pressure vessel codes deal with discontinuity's and stress concentrations . .pipeline codes inadequate in this respect.

say 0. .3.Pipeline Expansion Analysis Expansion Governed by • • • • Temperature Pressure Pipe weight Friction (coefficient assumed conservatively low. in analysis) Expansion loops generally provided at hot end of pipeline to allow for expansion.

Pipeline Expansion Movement .


• some smaller diameter flowlines use flexible pipe. Pipeline to riser tie-ins: • deal with pipeline expansion. . • allow practical pipeline approaches.Risers Risers connect topsides facility with pipeline expansion spool (where required). • Generally a rigid steel ‘L’ or ‘Z’ spool.

Analysis of Tie-in Spool & Riser • Computer model used for accurate assessment • Tie-in spool and riser should be modelled as one item from pipeline end to top of riser • Pipeline expansion applied to spoolpiece end • Dropped object protection may be required (concrete mattresses) consider in computer model .

Riser Design Major location requirements (Routing) • • • • • • • • pipeline approach topside layout minimise number of risers (weak link) locate for least exposure to potential damage (e.pre-installed or retrofitted .g. preferably inboard at water level and away from boat landing) locate as far as practical from living quarters provide access for inspection & maintenance gas risers have location preference over oil risers installation philosophy .

pigging.slugging.Specific Design Loading Conditions Basic Loads for load combinations • • • • • • • • • loads imposed on riser via supports from platform loads due to interaction with topsides piping loads due to interaction with pipeline loads due to weight and buoyancy effects loads due to environmental conditions loads due to pressure of contents loads due to thermal effects loads during transient operation . Loads from vortex shedding (fatigue) .

Typical Load Combinations • • • • Refer to codes for guidance Analysis performed using computer models LC1.functional loads only LC2. generally higher allowable stress) .accidental loading (may be in conjunction with other loads.maximum storm and functional loads as they occur during storm • LC3.wave loading for fatigue life evaluation may include vortex shedding induced vibrations • LC2 with loads during installation and/ or test • LC4.

3 times design life or. if inspection is not possible. 10 times design life .Riser Fatigue Riser should be analysed to determine fatigue life. Variations in stress level may occur due to : • • • • • load cycles wind & wave action platform movements vortex induced vibration fatigue life should be 3.

Riser Guide & Clamp Design • • • • • • • • provide support and transfer riser load to platform critical to the safe working of the system guides allow axial movement through the support clamps restrain laterally and axially deadload clamp used to support weight of riser dimensional control critical for retrofitted risers designed in accordance with structural codes similar load cases and combinations to risers .


Introduction • Spans arise from rough seabed or scour • Long lengths may cause unacceptable pipe loads at support locations. particularly for hard seabed conditions • Fatigue from movement under environmental and operating loads • Snagging by trawlers/anchors • Buckling from inline and pressure loads (can be beneficial if self limiting) .

Prediction of Spanning • From route survey .prediction of pipeline profile on seabed – Packages available to predict pipe loads • Span acceptance limits for VIV calculated separately • After installation / during operation – Surveys .

capping the height of sandwaves • use of hydraulic tools is effective • Blasting rock peaks • interbedded calcarenite is energy absorbent • difficult to shatter more than a few layers at a time • Pre-lay supports • Wide enough to allow for pipelay tolerance • Can provide issues following lay for trenching etc. .Route Preparation • Pre-sweeping .

Route Preparation cont. • Predumping of rock in rough areas • controlled rock dumping in rough areas • stability issue must still be addressed • Pretrenching .normally in shore approaches • cutter suction dredge or backhoe most common • weather sensitive and depth dependent .

Pre-sweeping .

long term performance .Span Rectification – Post-lay • Supports • Grout bag: should be tailor made. coat sack types tend not to last • Scour around grout bag type supports may undermine them • Adjustable mechanical: for rocky areas .

Span Rectification • Spans in sand waves can be remedied by fluidisation • Spans caused by scour • Best to jet or lower by some other means • Rock Dumping • Use graded rock to cover the span • May be necessary to support span first to reduce stresses .