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A Basic Modern Russian Grammar

A Basic Modern Russian Grammar

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Modern Russian Grammar
Modern Russian Grammar

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Îí íå ïðèåõàë.

He did not come.

ß íå åäó â Ëîíäîí.

I am not going to London.

ß åäó íå â Ëîíäîí, à â Ïàðèæ.

I am not going to London, but I am going to Paris.

Ýòî íå ìîÿ ìàøèíà.

It`s not my car.

Ýòî íå íîâàÿ ìàøèíà.

It`s not a new car.

Ñåãîäíÿ íå õîëîäíî.

It`s not cold today.

Here is the summary table of the use of the Simple Negative in Russian:

ÿ íå äåëàþ

òû íå äåëàåøü

etc.

ÿ íå äåëàë/à

òû íå äåëàë/à

etc.

ÿ íå áóäó äåëàòü

òû íå áóäåøü äåëàòü

etc.

íå

ÿ íå õî÷ó äåëàòü

òû íå õî÷åøü äåëàòü

etc.

ÿ íå ìîãó äåëàòü

òû íå ìîæåøü äåëàòü

etc.

ÿ íå äîëæåí äåëàòü

òû íå äîëæíà äåëàòü

etc.

A Basic Modern Russian Grammar

Part 11

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THE COMPOUND NEGATIVE

A lot of Russian negative sentences can have the following pattern:

«íè» words can be :

Prepositions are inserted between íè and the pronoun,

for example:

íèêåì íè ñ êåì

Negative pronouns

and their case forms

based on êòî/÷òî:

Negative adverbs:

Negative adjectival

pronouns:

N. íèêòî/íè÷òî

G. íè ó êîãî/íè÷åãî

D. íèêîìó/íè÷åìó

A. íèêîãî/íè÷åãî

I. íèêåì/íè÷åì

íè ñ êåì/ íè ñ ÷åì

P. íè î êîì/íè î ÷¸ì

íè â êîì/íè â ÷¸ì

íèêîãäà - never

íèãäå - nowhere

íèêóäà - nowhere (direction)

íèñêîëüêî - not at all

íèêàê - in no way

íè ðàçó - not once

íèîòêóäà - from nowhere

íèêàêîé

íèêàêàÿ

íèêàêîå

íèêàêèå

and their case forms.

Notice!

h

«íå» verbs + «íè» words

This pattern is called the Compound Negative, for example:

Russian: «íè» word «íå» verb

ß íè÷åãî íå çíàþ.

English: «not» verb «any» word

I do not know anything.

or Russian: «íè» word «íå» verb

Íèêòî íå ïðèø¸ë.

English: «no» word verb

Nobody came.

A Basic Modern Russian Grammar

Part 11

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The use of the Negative pronouns

íèêòî and its case forms - no one, nobody, anybody

Nom.

Íèêòî íå ïðèø¸ë.

Nobody came.

Gen.

Îí íè ó êîãî íå ñïðîñèë.

He did not ask anybody.

Dat.

Îí íèêîìó íè÷åãî íå ñêàçàë.

He did not tell anything to anybody.

Acc.

ß íèêîãî òóò íå çíàþ.

I don`t know anybody here.

Instr.

ß íè ñ êåì íå ãîâîðèë îá ýòîì.

I didn`t speak to anybody about that.

Prep.Îí íè â ÷¸ì íå âèíîâàò.

He is not guilty in anything.

Nom.

Åãî íè÷òî íå èíòåðåñóåò.

Nothing interests him.

Gen.

Ó ìåíÿ íè÷åãî íåò.

I don not have anything.

Dat.

ß íè÷åìó íå âåðþ.

I don not believe anything.

Acc.

ß íè÷åãî íå çíàþ.

I don not know anything.

Instr.

Îí íè÷åì íå èíòåðåñóåòñÿ.

He is not interested in anything.

Prep.Îí íè â ÷¸ì íå óâåðåí.

He is not sure in anything.

íè÷òî and its case forms - nothing, anything

A Basic Modern Russian Grammar

Part 11

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The use of the Negative adverbs

Îí íèêîãäà íå áûë â Àíãëèè.

Îíà íèãäå íå ðàáîòàåò.

He has never been to England.

She does not work anywhere.

Îí íèêóäà íå åçäèë.

ß íèñêîëüêî íå óñòàëà.

He did not go anywhere.

I am not tired at all.

Îí íèîòêóäà íå ïîëó÷àåò ïèñåì.

He does not get letters from anywhere.

Some other negative adverbs include:

åù¸ íå + verb - not yet

Îíà åù¸ íå ïðèøëà. She has not come yet.

åù¸ íåò - not yet

- Îí ïðèø¸ë? Has he arrived?

- Åù¸ íåò. Not yet.

Åù¸ íåò is used when the verb is omitted.

Îí çäåñü óæå íå æèâ¸ò.

Îí çäåñü áîëüøå íå æèâ¸ò.

He does not live here any more.

óæå íå

+ verb

áîëüøå íå + verb

no longer, not any more

óæå íåò

óæå íåò replaces óæå íå when the verb is omitted:

- Îí åù¸ â Ìîñêâå?

Is he still in Moscow?

- Óæå íåò. Îí óåõàë â Ëîíäîí.

Not any more. He has left for London.

A Basic Modern Russian Grammar

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rasovaThe Negative constructions denoting non-existence or non-availiablity

These constructions are always impersonal.

Åãî íå áûëî äîìà.

He was not at home.

Åãî íåò äîìà.

He is not at home.

Åãî íå áóäåò äîìà.

He will not be at home.

Ó ìåíÿ íåò âðåìåíè.

I have no time.

Ó ìåíÿ íå áóäåò âðåìåíè.

I will not have time.

Ó ìåíÿ íå áûëî âðåìåíè.

I did not have time.

The Negative sentences denoting unadvisable actions or prohibition.

These sentences are used with the following words:

íå íàäî - you should not, do not

Íå íàäî òóäà åçäèòü.You should not go there.

íå íóæíî - you should not, it`s not necessary

Íå íóæíî ýòîãî äåëàòü.

You should not do it.

It`s not necessary to do it.

íå äîëæåí - should not

Âû íå äîëæíû îïàçäûâàòü.You should not come late.

íåëüçÿ - you can not, it`s forbidden, you should not

Òåáå íåëüçÿ òàê ìíîãî êóðèòü.

You should not smoke so much.

Present

Past

Future

Present

Past

Future

A Basic Modern Russian Grammar

Part 12

Im

person

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s

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By «impersonal constructions» the Russians understand the sentences

without any subject or without a subject expressed by the Nominative.

The impersonal constructions are used quite a lot in Modern Russian.

The impersonal constructions reflect the old thinking of the Russian folk

who considered themselves to be a part of a collective or an object affected

by fate, pagan gods or an external force. With time the group of affecting

factors also included «the authorities».

The impersonal constructions present an important, vast and productive

type of Russian grammatical constructions. They are used quite a lot in

Russian literature, particularly poetry and songs.

The impersonal constructions may deal both with people and with

natural phenomena.

The Dative of Person is used in constructions denoting age:

Ìíå 20 ëåò. I am 20 years old.

lit. To me 20 years were given.

The Detailed Description of the Impersonal Constructions with the

Dative of Person.

In these constructions a person (people) may be presented by

one of the three forms:

by the Dative

by the Accusative

by the Genitive

THE IMPERSONAL CONSTRUCTIONS INVOLVING PEOPLE

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