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GKz‡ki KweZv I Mvb iwdKzj Bmjvg

evqvbœ mv‡ji GKz‡k †deªæqvwi evOvwj gvZ…fvlvi Rb¨ i³ †`q, †mB Agi
GKz‡k wb‡q Avgv‡`i †`‡k h‡Zv KweZv †jLv n‡q‡Q, gyw³hy× Qvov Avi
†Kv‡bv GKK NUbv wb‡q Z‡Zv KweZv iwPZ nqwb| GKz‡k †deªæqvwi h‡Zv
Mfxifv‡e Avgv‡`i KweZv‡K Av‡jvwoZ K‡i‡Q, gyw³hy× Qvov Avi †Kv‡bv welq
Zv Ki‡Z cv‡iwb| GKz‡ki i³v³ ¯§„wZ KweZvq ZvrÿwYK Ges my`~icÖmvix
cÖwZwµqv I Aby‡cÖiYvi mÂvi K‡i‡Q| GKz‡k N‡UwQj XvKvq A_P KweZvi †ÿ‡Î
me©v‡MÖ Zvi AbyiYb D‡VwQj PÆMÖv‡g| †mB w`bB iwPZ n‡qwQj gvneye-
Dj-Avjg †PŠayixi `xN© KweZv ÔKuv`‡Z Avwmwb duvwmi `vwe wb‡q
G‡mwQÕ| KweZvwU `ªæZ iwPZ n‡qwQj, cÖKvwkZ I cÖPvwiZ n‡qwQj mgvb
MwZ‡Z Avi wbwl× nIqvi †MŠieI jvf K‡iwQj m‡½ m‡½| KweZvwU `xN©w`b
cÖKvwkZ nqwb, Z‡e cybtcÖKv‡ki c~‡e© Kwei ¯§„wZ †_‡K h‡ZvUzKz D×vi
Kiv wM‡qwQj Zvi wKQzUvÑ
GLv‡b hviv cÖvY w`‡q‡Q
igbvi EaŸ©gyLx K…òP‚ovi wb‡P
†hLv‡b Av¸‡bi dzjKxi g‡Zv
GLv‡b-ILv‡b R¡j‡Q i‡³i Avjcbv,
†mLv‡b Avwg Kuv`‡Z Avwmwb|
AvR Avwg †kv‡K wenŸj bB,
AvR Avwg †µv‡a Db¥Ë bB,
Avwg AvR i‡³i †MŠi‡e Awfwl³|...
†h wkï Avi †Kv‡bv w`b Zvi wcZvi †Kv‡j Suvwc‡q covi
my‡hvM cv‡e bv,
†h M„nea~ Avi †Kv‡bvw`b Zvi ¯^vgxi cÖZxÿvq AuvP‡j cÖ`xc
†X‡K `yqv‡i Avi `uvwo‡q _vK‡e bv,
†h Rbbx †LvKv G‡m‡Q e‡j DÏvg Avb‡›` mšÍvb‡K Avi
Rwo‡q ai‡Z cv‡e bv,
†h ZiæY gvwU‡Z jywU‡q covi Av‡M evievi GKwU wcÖqZgvi
Qwe †Pv‡L Avb‡Z †Póv K‡iwQj,
Zv‡`i mevi bv‡g kvw¯Í `vwe Ki‡Z G‡mwQ
GB wek¦we`¨vj‡qi Db¥y³ cÖv½‡Y Avwg Zv‡`i duvwmi `vwe
wb‡q G‡mwQ
hviv Avgvi AmsL¨ fvB‡evb‡K nZ¨v K‡i‡Q,
hviv Avgvi nvRvi eQ‡ii HwZn¨gq fvlvq Af¨¯Í
gvZ… m‡¤^vab‡K †K‡o wb‡Z wM‡q
Avgvi GB me fvB‡evb‡`i nZ¨v K‡i‡Q
Avwg Zv‡`i duvwmi `vwe wb‡q G‡mwQ...|
GKz‡ki NUbvejxi ZvrÿwYK cÖwZwµqv †µv‡ai, †ÿv‡fi, N„Yvi, cÖwZ‡kv‡ai|
NUbvi AvKw¯§KZv, AgvbywlKZv †mw`b gvbyl‡K Kx Zxeªfv‡e Av‡›`vwjZ
K‡iwQj, GKz‡ki NUbvi m‡½ m‡½ PÆMÖv‡g iwPZ gvneye-Dj-Avjg †PŠayixi
m‡Zi c„ôv `xN© KweZvq Zv aiv c‡owQj wek¦¯Ífv‡e| DׄZ wew”Qbœ
wewÿß cO&w³ wb‡q †h `vwe †mv”Pvi Zv wQj †mw`bKvi †`kevmxi mevi, hv
KL‡bv c~iY nqwb| †`‡k †`‡k hy‡M hy‡M †h `vwe I‡V, hv KL‡bv c~iY nq bv|
†h `vwe c~i‡Yi Rb¨ Av‡iv A‡bK i³ S‡i| GKz‡k‡Z Avgv‡`i i³ Si‡Z ïiæ K‡iwQj,
ZvB Avgiv Zvi AvKw¯§KZvq wenŸj n‡q c‡owQjvg| mw¤^Z wd‡i †c‡Z wej¤^
nqwb, Zvici Avgiv †`‡LwQ GKz‡k‡Z BwZnv‡mi GK gnZx AwfhvÎvi ïiæ|
wVK ZvrÿwYK bv n‡jI GKz‡ki cÖ_g eQ‡ii g‡a¨B †h K‡qKwU KweZv iwPZ
n‡qwQj, A_©vr NUbvi DËvc wbe©vwcZ nIqvi c~‡e©B Av‡iv †hme Av‡eM
KweZvq wea„Z n‡qwQj, nvmvb nvwdRyi ingv‡bi ÔGKz‡k †deªæqvwiÕ
m¼j‡b Zv MÖw_Z n‡q‡Q| G m¼jbwUI wbwl× nIqvi †MŠie †_‡K ewÂZ nqwb,
Z‡e †mŠfvM¨µ‡g Zv cybtcybt cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q|
GKz‡ki NUbv GKRb Kwe‡K Kxfv‡e Av‡jvwoZ K‡iwQj GKz‡k wb‡q hviv
KweZv wj‡L‡Qb, †m K_v Zviv †j‡Lbwb, Zv AvR ¯§„wZ| wKš‘ †m Av‡eM †h
K‡Zv Zxeª, weaŸ¯Í I DËß wQj, Zv Abyfe Ki‡Z cvwi hLb kvgmyi ivngv‡bi
KweZv cvV KwiÑ
Avi †hb bv †`wL KvwZ©‡Ki Puv` wKsev
c„w_exi †Kv‡bv nxivi mKvj,
†Kv‡bvw`b Avi †hb Avgvi †Pv‡Li wKbv‡i
AvKv‡ki cÖwZfv, mܨvb`xi AwfÁvb Avi
ivwÎ in‡m¨i Mvp fvlv †Ku‡c bv I‡V,
†Ku‡c bv I‡V c„w_exi `xßgvb w`M‡šÍi Zviv|
GB my›`i c„w_exi wbm‡M©i iƒc †_‡K Kwe wb‡R‡K ewÂZ Ki‡Z †P‡q‡Qb|
NUbvi cvkweKZvq e¨vKzj, wenŸj, †kvKvZzi Kwe cÖK…wZi †gvn †_‡K
wb‡R‡K Avovj Ki‡Z †P‡q‡Qb| DׄZ cO&w³¸‡jvq †h Kvgbv cÖKvwkZ, Zv
Av‡e‡Mi †Kvb ¯Íi †_‡K DrmvwiZ Zv Av‡iv ¯úó nq Kwe hLb fq¼i wKQzi Rb¨
Abybq K‡ibÑ
Av¸bZuvZv muvovwk w`‡q †Zvgiv Dc‡o †d‡jv Avgvi `ywU †PvL
†mB `ywU †PvL, hv‡`i cÖvÁ `xwßi g„Zz¨nxb, we‡`ªvnx R¡vjvq
†`‡LwQ wbg©g AvKv‡ki wb‡P gvbweK g„Zz¨i Zzwnb-¯‘äZv|
kvgmyi ivngv‡bi Av‡e`bÑ
UzK‡iv UzK‡iv K‡i †K‡U †d‡jv m~‡h©i g‡Zv ürwcÐ...
wKš‘ †kv‡bv, GK †duvUv i³I †hb c‡o bv gvwU‡Z,
†Kbbv Avgvi i‡³i KYvq KYvq D¾¡j †mªv‡Zi g‡Zv
e‡q P‡j‡Q gbmy‡ii we‡`ªvnx i‡³i AwfÁvb|
†Zvgiv KzwU KzwU K‡i wQu‡o †d‡jv Avgvi ürwcÐÑ
†h ürwc‡Ð Nb Nb ¯úw›`Z n‡”Q Avgvi †`‡ki Mvp fv‡jvevmv,
Kwei ürwc‡Ði Nb Nb ¯úw›`Z ÔAvgvi †`‡ki Mvp fv‡jvevmvÕ, Kwei ü`‡qi G
†`k †Kvb †`k? †m †`‡ki cwiPq Kx? †m †`‡ki mxgvbv Kx? Kwei Ae‡PZbvq wK
†`k Z_v ¯^‡`‡ki Avengvb wPišÍb cÖwZkÖæwZ D™¢vwmZ? Zvic‡i Kwei
†PZbvq BwZnv‡mi K‡qKwU Aa¨vq D‡b¥vwPZ n‡q‡QÑ
†`vnvB †Pw½‡mi Dj½ Zievwi wnsmªZvi,
†`vnvB d¨vivI‡bi gwgMwÜ exfrmZvi,
†`vnvB ˆZgy‡ii ˆckvwPK i³-†bkvi
†Zvgiv wbwðý K‡i `vI Avgvi Aw¯ÍZ¡,
c„w_ex n‡Z wPiw`‡bi R‡b¨ wbwðý K‡i `vI
DËivKv‡ki Zvivi g‡Zv Avgvi fv¯^i Aw¯ÍZ¡
wbwðý K‡i `vI, wbwðý K‡i `vI|
DׄZ ¯Íe‡K †Pw½‡mi Dj½ Zievwii wnsmªZvi, d¨vivI‡bi gwgMwÜ exfrmZvi,
ˆZgy‡ii ˆckvwPK i³-†bkvi D‡jøL cÖwZc‡ÿi ¯§viK| wKš‘ †h Aw¯ÍZ¡ fv¯^i Zv‡K
wbwðý Kivi kw³ Kvi? KweZvi cwimgvw߇Z DËivKv‡ki Zvivi g‡Zv fv¯^i
Aw¯ÍZ¡‡K wbwðý Kivi †h AvnŸvb Zv e¯‘Z †Pw½m, d¨vivI, ˆZgy‡ii
DËim~wi‡`i cÖwZ P¨v‡jÄ, †m Aw¯Í‡Z¡i †eva Kwe‡K †kv‡Ki ¯ÍäZv †_‡K
we‡`ªvnx‡Z iƒcvšÍwiZ K‡i|
GKz‡ki knx‡`i bvg cÖ_g KweZvq D”PviY K‡ib nvmvb nvwdRyi ingvb, †h
KweZvq †m bvg¸‡jv D”PvwiZ †m KweZvi ïiæ‡Z i‡q‡Q gvZ… m‡¤^vab|
KweZvwU Avi¤¢ n‡q‡Q ÔAv¤§v Zvi bvgwU GKeviI WvK‡e bv Z‡e Avi?Õ G
cÖ‡kœi DËi cieZ©x cO&w³¸‡jv‡Z wbtm„Z n‡q Avevi wRÁvmvi iƒc wb‡q‡Q,
N~wY©S‡oi g‡Zv †mB bvg Db¥w_Z g‡bi cÖvšÍ‡i
Ny‡i Ny‡i RvM‡e WvK‡e,
`yÕwU †Vuv‡Ui †fZi †_‡K gy‡³vi g‡Zv Mwo‡q G‡m
GKeviI D¾¡j n‡q DV‡e bv, mvivwU Rxe‡bI bv?
wK K‡i GB ¸iæfvi mB‡e Zzwg, K‡Zvw`b?
Zvici knx‡`i bvg D”PvwiZ n‡q‡Q, Zvi ˆ`wnK MVb I wek¦we`¨vj‡qi ¯§„wZ‡K
gw_Z K‡i, G knx` A‡Pbv ARvbv `~‡ii gvbyl wQj bv, cwiwPZ PZ¡‡iB wQj Zvi
Avbv‡Mvbv| nvmvb nvwdRyi ingv‡bi KweZvq †m cwiP‡qi AšÍi½ QvcÑ
Aveyj eiKZ †bB; †mB A¯^vfvweK †e‡o IVv
wekvj kixi evjK, gayi ÷‡ji Qv` Quy‡q nuvU‡Zv †h
Zv‡K †W‡Kv bv;
H KweZvq knx‡`i bv‡gi cwiPh©v Kiv n‡q‡Q †e`bv Avi ggZv w`‡q, m‡½ hy³
n‡q‡Q GKUv †MŠie GKUv An¼vi,
mvjvg, iwdKDwÏb, ReŸviÑ wK welYœ †_vKv †_vKv bvg;
GB GK mvix bvg ek©vi Zxÿè djvi g‡Zv GLb ü`q‡K nv‡b;
GKwU we‡kl w`‡b, we‡kl mg‡q GKwU NUbv‡K †K›`ª K‡i K‡qKwU g„Zz¨,
hviv Gi bvqK Zviv G c„w_ex †_‡K we`vq wb‡q †Mj, wKš‘ †m KqwU bvg gy‡Q
bv wM‡q Kx K‡i wPišÍb n‡q †Mj, Kx K‡i GKUv Rb‡Mvôxi we¯§„Z ¯^‡`k‡K
bZzb K‡i m„wó K‡i w`‡q †Mj, Kwei †PZbvq Zv Abyf‚Z n‡q‡QÑ
hv‡`i nvivjvg Zviv Avgv‡`i‡K we¯Í…Z K‡i w`‡q †Mj
†`‡ki G cÖvšÍ †_‡K I cÖv‡šÍ,
KYv KYv K‡i cÖv‡Y `xwß Qwo‡q w`‡q †Mj
†`‡ki cÖv‡Yi `xwßi †fZi g„Zz¨i AÜKv‡i Wz‡e †h‡Z †h‡Z
Aveyj eiKZ; mvjvg, iwdKDwÏb, ReŸvi
wK Avðh©, wK welYœ bvg! GK mvi R¡jšÍ bvg|
†_vKv †_vKv GK mvi welYœ bv‡gi GK mvi R¡jšÍ bv‡g iƒcvqY Ges †`‡ki G
cÖvšÍ †_‡K I cÖvšÍ KYv KYv K‡i cÖv‡Y `xwß Qwo‡q †`qv| nvmvb nvwdRyi
ingv‡bi G †`k wK kvgmyi ivngv‡bi †`k †_‡K Avjv`v? wbðqB bq? nvmv‡bi
KweZvi m‡½ m‡½ †`‡ki gvby‡li K_v G‡m‡Q, Kwe wek¦vm †i‡L‡Qb RbZvi
Mfx‡i,
K…lvY †hgb el©vi cwjwm³ gv‡V †ivqv av‡bi Pviv¸‡jv
†i‡L Av‡m †mvbvjx k‡m¨i R‡b¥i AvKv•ÿvq
†Zgwb miæ miæ Abyf‚wZ¸‡jv RbZvi Mfx‡i
ey‡b G‡mwQ|
GKz‡ki Zvrch© †`k I †`‡ki gvby‡li Ici Av¯’v I wek¦vm Ac©Y; †`k‡K Avcb
Rvbv †_‡K †`kvZ¥‡ev‡ai m„wó nq, †mw`b gvbyl GKwU †`‡ki K_v Rvb‡Z
†c‡iwQj, hv Zvi wb‡Ri †`k| ¯^‡`‡ki Abyf‚wZ‡Z †mw`b hviv Mfxifv‡e mœvZ
n‡qwQj Zv‡`i Av‡eM G KweZvq aiv c‡o‡Q,
†`k Avgvi, BwZnv‡mi aviv †h Ávb Avgv‡K w`‡q‡Q, ZviB
cweÎ mšÍvb GKwU w`‡b †Zvgvi ü`‡qi we`xY© Avfv‡K
†`wL‡qQÑ we`xY© Avfvq R¡‡jwQj;
mgKvjxb gvby‡li †PZbvq ¯^‡`k †mw`b mnmv mPwKZ n‡q D‡VwQj, †`k
wQj, wQj gvbyl| wQj bv ¯^‡`k Avi Zvi mšÍvb| GKz‡k †`k‡K ¯^‡`k K‡i‡Q,
†`‡ki gvbyl‡K †`‡ki mšÍvb K‡i‡Q, †`k n‡q D‡V‡Q †`kgvZ…Kv| GKwU w`b wK
Avðh©RbKfv‡e me weåvwšÍi Aemvb NwU‡q GKwU RvwZ‡K Zvi gvZ…f‚wg
w`‡q †Mj,
†`k Avgvi †Zvgvi cÖv‡Yi Mfxi R¡‡j mœvb K‡i Gevi Gjvg...
GKevi †Zvgvi MÖvg hgybvi †Nvjv †mªv‡Z`„wó‡K Wzwe‡q wb‡q
jÿ jÿ Pviv av‡bi g‡Zv Avw`MšÍ cÖv‡Yi meyR
wkLv¸‡jv †`wL,
wK Avðh© cÖvY Qwo‡q‡QÑ GKwU w`b Av‡MI Zv eyS‡Z cvwiwb,
wK Avðh© `xw߇Z †Zvgvi †KvwU mšÍv‡bi cÖev‡n cÖev‡n
msµwgZ n‡q‡QÑ
GKwU w`b Av‡MI †Zv eyS‡Z cvwiwb †`k Avgvi|
Ô†`k AvgviÕ evK¨wUi c~e©kZ© †`k‡K GKvšÍ Avcbvi Abyf‚Z nIqv, G †ÿ‡Î Zv
N‡UwQj| ivóª Avi †`k †h GKv_© ev Awfbœ wQj bv, †m †ev‡aiI m„wó GKz‡k
†_‡K, Avevi †h †eva †_‡K ¯^‡`k †PZbvi m„wó, G †eva I †PZbvi Z_v ¯^‡`‡ki
kÎæi †gvKv‡ejvi Rb¨ Kwe‡K ¯^vfvweKfv‡eB g‡š¿i mvabv Ki‡Z n‡q‡QÑ
†n Avgvi Ávb GKwU gvÎ D”Pvi‡Yi wel Avgv‡K `vI
hv ü`q †_‡K ü`‡q Qovq,
Ilwa R‡b¥i g‡Zv GKevi ¯úw›`Z n‡q †h N„Yv Avi
KL‡bv g„Zz¨‡K Rv‡b bv, †n Avgvi Ávb|
G Ávb gvZ…fvlvi gš¿, GKz‡ki m‡½ gvZv, gvZ…fvlv I gvZ…f‚wgi †PZbv
A½vw½fv‡e RwoZ| †h gvZ…fvlvq,
Avqyi cÖ_g ü`qgw_Z kã,
gbyl¨‡Z¡i cÖ_g `xÿv †h D”Pvi‡Y
†mB gvZ…fvlvi m¤§v‡bi R‡b¨ hviv h~_e× n‡q `uvwo‡qwQj, Rxe‡bi kÎæ
kqZvbiv †mB cweÎ †`n¸‡jv wQwb‡q wb‡q †M‡Q| wKš‘ Zv‡`i Agi AvZ¥v
wQwb‡q wb‡Z cv‡iwb, Zv AvR ¯^‡`k Avi ¯^‡`kevmxi ü`‡q m¤úÖmvwiZÑ
Avi Avgiv †mB Agi knx`‡`i R‡b¨
Zv‡`i wcÖq gy‡Li fvlv evsjvi R‡b¨ GKPvc cv_‡ii g‡Zv
GK n‡q †MwQ
wngvj‡qi g‡Zv A‡f`¨ wekvj n‡q †MwQ|
†n Avgvi †`k eb¨vi g‡Zv
mg¯Í AwfÁZvi cwjgvwU‡K Mwo‡q G‡b GKwU †PZbv‡K De©i K‡iwQ:
GKwU †PZbv‡K mg¯Í AwfÁZv †mw`b De©i K‡iwQj, †mB †PZbv gvbyl‡K
GKvZ¥ K‡iwQj, ¯^‡`‡ki kÎæi m‡½ ˆØi‡_ †mw`b mevB GK n‡q wM‡qwQjÑ
GLv‡b i‡q‡Q gv Avi wcZv
fvB Avi †evb, ¯^Rb wea~i cwiRb
Avi Zzwg Avwg, †`k Avgvi!
GLv‡b Avgiv d¨vivD‡bi Avqyi †kl KwU eQ‡ii JׇZ¨i gy‡LvgywL,
GLv‡b Avgiv c„w_exi †kl ˆØi‡_ `uvwo‡q,
†`k Avgvi, ¯Íä A_ev KjKÉ GB ؇›Øi mxgv‡šÍ G‡m gv‡qi †mœ‡ni
cÿ †_‡K †KvwU KÉ †PŠwPi K‡i w`‡q‡Q
Gevi Avgiv †Zvgvi|
¯^‡`‡ki kÎæ †gvKv‡ejvq †mw`b gvby‡l gvby‡l e¨eavb Ny‡PwQj, `~i n‡qwQj
gv Avi gvZ…f‚wgi e¨eavb| gv Z_v gvZ…f‚wgi R‡b¨ gvbyl wb‡e`b K‡iwQj
wb‡R‡K| gvbyl †mw`b knx` fvB‡qi g„Zz¨‡kvK we¯§„Z n‡Z †c‡iwQj| gv Z_v
gvZ…f‚wg‡K Luy‡R †c‡q| gv‡qi AvKv•ÿv Dcjwäi ga¨ w`‡q nvmvb nvwdRyi
ingv‡bi KweZvwUi mgvwß| †m AvKv•ÿv Kwei g‡Zv meviB Rvbv| evqvbœi
GKz‡ki ci GKz‡ki cÖ_g knx‡`i i³ †hLv‡b S‡iwQj, †mLv‡b gvbyl GKwU
¯§„wZ¯Í¤¢ wbg©vY K‡iwQj, gvÎ GKwU iv‡Zi g‡a¨ AmsL¨ nvZ knx`‡`i
¯§„wZ‡Z H cÖZxKwU ¯’vcb K‡iwQj, ciw`b †mwU n‡q D‡VwQj Zx_©‡ÿÎ, wKš‘
cÖwZwµqvi n¯Í IB cÖZxKwU wbwðý K‡i w`‡Z wej¤^ K‡iwb| wKš‘ IB GKwU
gvÎ w`‡bi NUbv, cÖ_g knx` wgbv‡i cy‡®úi ¯ÍeK †mw`b gvby‡li Rb¨ wQj GK
Af‚Zc~e© AwfÁZv| †mB ¯§„wZi wgbvi hLb P‚Y©-wePzY© I a~wjKYvmn
Acm„Z n‡jv ZviI GKwU ZvrÿwYK cÖwZwµqv mgKvjxb Kwei KweZvq aiv
c‡owQj| AvjvDwÏb Avj AvRv‡`i fvlvq,
¯§„wZi wgbvi †f‡O‡Q †Zvgvi? fq wK eÜz Avgiv GL‡bv
Pvi †KvwU cwievi
Lvov i‡qwQ †Zv|...
B‡Ui wgbvi
†f‡O‡Q fvOzK| fq wK eÜz, †`k GKevi Avgiv RvMix
Pvi †KvwU cwievi|
ïay knx` wgbvi bq, hv‡`i ¯§„wZ‡Z †mB wgbvi, Zv‡`i g„Zz¨‡K gwngvgq
K‡i‡Qb AvRv`| †h g„Zz¨‡Z ¯§„wZ¯Í¤¢ M‡o I‡V, iwPZ nq KweZv, euvav nq
Mvb, †m g„Zz¨ AgiZvi Aci bvg, Zvi cÖwZwµqvI wfbœ,
G †Kvb g„Zz¨? †KD wK †`‡L‡Q g„Zz¨ Ggb,
wkq‡i hvnvi I‡V bv Kvbœv, S‡i bv AkÖæ?
wngvjq †_‡K mvMi Aewa mnmv eis
mKj †e`bv n‡q I‡V GK cZvKvi is
G †Kvb g„Zz¨? †KD wK †`‡L‡Q g„Zz¨ Ggb,
wei‡n †hLv‡b †bB nvnvKvi?
GB Rbc‡`i BwZnv‡m gvbyl Gi Av‡M †Kv‡bv g„Zz¨‡K G‡Zv gwngv Av‡ivc
K‡iwb, K‡qKwU mvaviY gvbyl g„Zz¨i Kvi‡Y G‡Zv AmvaviYZ¡ jvf K‡iwb, Zviv
ïay knx` e‡j cwiMwYZ nqwb, Zviv wKse`wšÍi bvq‡K cwiYZ n‡q‡Q| Avgv‡`i
†h cyivY wQj bv GKz‡k †m cyiv‡Yi Afve c~iY K‡i‡Q| wmKvb&`vi Avey Rvd‡ii
KweZvq GKz‡ki †m gwngv KxwZ©Z,
†`‡ki gvbyl GKwU `‡Ð
GKvZ¥ n‡qwQj, mœvqy-MÖwš’‡Z cuvR‡i-†ckx‡Z,
†g‡L w`‡qwQj GKwU A½xKviÑ
†mw`b cÖ_g|
Ges cÖ_g bZzb w`M¦j‡q
mÂvigvb G †`‡ki BwZe„Ë|
GKz‡k †deªæqvwi ïay wKse`wšÍ, †Kej HwZn¨ ev wbQK cyivY bq, GKz‡k
AvaywbK cyivY| ZvB GKz‡k G †`‡ki BwZe„ˇK bZzb w`M¦j‡q mÂvigvb
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GKz‡k †deªæqvwi GKz‡k †deªæqvwi!!
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ey‡K wb‡q Av‡Qv m‡MŠi‡e gnxqmx|
†m dz‡ji GKwU cvcwoI wQbœ n‡j Avgvi mËvi w`‡K
K‡Zv †bvsiv nv‡Zi wnsmªZv †a‡q Av‡m|
GLb †Zvgv‡K wb‡q †LOivi †bvsivwg|
GLb †Zvgv‡K wN‡i wLw¯Í-†LD‡ii †cŠl gvm!
†Zvgvi gy‡Li w`‡K AvR Avi hvq bv ZvKv‡bv,
eY©gvjv, Avgvi `ytwLbx eY©gvjv!!
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kvgmyi ivngv‡bi Ô†deªæqvwi 1969Õ KweZv‡Z Ô†deªæqvwi 1952Õ wd‡i
Av‡m be‡MŠi‡e| GKz‡ki knx`iv weMZ eQi¸‡jv‡Z KweZv I Mv‡b †hfv‡e
D”PvwiZ n‡qwQj Zv‡Z GKUv GK‡N‡qwg, GKUv MZvbyMwZKZv G‡m
wM‡qwQj| Ebmˇii MYAfz¨Ìv‡b Zviv Avevi bZzb K‡i m„wó n‡jv, kvgmyi
ivngv‡bi fvlvqÑ
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mvjv‡gi †PvL AvR Av‡jvwKZ XvKv,
mvjv‡gi gyL AvR ZiæY k¨vgj c~e© evsjv|
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ˆbivk¨ †_‡K gyw³ jvf K‡i ej‡Qb,
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S‡i Awfbvkx eY©gvjv
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†ewk gyw`ªZ n‡q‡Q KweZv| GKz‡ki Z_v evsjv fvlvi knx`‡`i Rb¨ G †`‡ki
gvby‡li AK…wÎg Av‡e‡Mi cÖKvk N‡U‡Q IBme KweZvq| GKz‡k †deªæqvwi ev
GKz‡ki knx`‡`i wb‡q h‡Zv KweZv †jLv n‡q‡Q Zvi meB Kv‡jvËxY© nqwb,
wKš‘ GKz‡k wb‡q hviv KweZv iPbv K‡i‡Qb Zv‡`i Av‡eM wQj AK…wÎg|
1953 mv‡ji GKz‡k †deªæqvwi cÖ_g knx` w`e‡m cÖfvZ‡dwi‡Z MvIqv
n‡qwQj MvRxDj nK iwPZ Ôfzj‡ev bv fzj‡ev bv GKz‡k †deªæqvwi fzj‡ev bvÕ|
†mw`b mܨvq XvKv K‡j‡Ri Qv·`i D‡`¨v‡M cëb gq`v‡b Aew¯’Z †mKv‡ji
e„Uvwbqv wm‡bgv nj g‡Â cÖ_g MvIqv n‡qwQj Ave`yj jwZ‡di my‡i Ave`yj
Mvd&dvi †PŠayixi ÔAvgvi fvB‡qi i‡³ ivOv‡bv GKz‡k †deªæqvwiÕ| GKz‡ki
cÖ_g m¼jb nvmvb nvwdRyi ingvb m¤úvw`Z ÔGKz‡k †deªæqvwiÕ (gvP©
1953)-†Z †Zvdv¾j †nv‡m‡bi GKwU Mvb i‡q‡Q, Ôi³ kc‡_ Avgiv AvwR‡K
†Zvgv‡i ¯§iY KwiÕ| Z‡e GKz‡ki i³v³ NUbvi cÖwZwµqvq ZvrÿwYKfv‡e GKz‡ki
Mvb Aek¨ cÖ_g iwPZ n‡qwQj Lyjbvq gkviid DwÏb Avng` iwPZ Ôg„Zz¨‡K hviv
Zz”Q Kwij fvlv euvPvevi Z‡iÕ| Aci GKwU Mvb kvgmyÏxb Avng` iwPZ †mwU
n‡jv, Ôivóªfvlv Av‡›`vjb Kwiwj‡i evOvwj XvKvi kni i‡³ fvmvBwjÕ| Ave`yj
jwZ‡di weL¨vZ Mvb ÔIiv Avgvi gy‡Li fvlv KvBov wb‡Z PvqÕ iwPZ I MxZ
n‡qwQj cÖ_g 1954 mv‡ji GKz‡k †deªæqvwi| GKz‡ki cÖ_g `ywU Mv‡b A_©vr
Ôg„Zz¨‡K hviv Zz”Q Kwij fvlv euvPvevi Z‡iÕ Ges Ôivóªfvlv Av‡›`vjb Kwiwj‡i
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Avwg wK fzwj‡Z cvwiÕ Mv‡b cybivq myiv‡ivc K‡i Agi n‡q wM‡qwQ‡jb
AvjZvd gvngy`| evsjv fvlvi knx`‡`i wb‡q iwPZ Mv‡b myiv‡ivc Ges lv‡Ui `k‡K
IBme Mvb‡K RbwcÖq K‡i †Zvjvi Aciv‡aB 1971 mv‡j gyw³hy× PjvKv‡j
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Zviv n‡jb KÉwkíx AvjZvd gvngy` Ges eskxev`K I¯Ív` axi Avwj wgqv| Kx
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gyw³evwnbxi A¯¿fvÐvi ivLv hvq, Zv mn‡RB Aby‡gq| Ave`yj Mvd&dvi
†PŠayixi ÔAvgvi fvB‡qi i‡³ ivOv‡bv GKz‡k †deªæqvwiÕ Mv‡bi cÖ_g myiKvi
Ave`yj jwZd 1954 mv‡ji GKz‡k †deªæqvwi Dcj‡ÿ iPbv K‡iwQ‡jb `xN©
m½xZ ÔIiv Avgvi gy‡Li fvlv/K_v KvBiv wb‡Z Pvq, Iiv K_vq K_vq wkKj civq
Avgvi nv‡Z cvqÕ| evsjv †jvKMv_vi Av`‡j †jvK my‡i Rvwi Mv‡bi Avw½‡K
iwPZ GB MvbwU‡Z Avengvb evsjv I evOvwji gy‡Li fvlv I K‡Éi Mv‡bi HwZn¨
g~Z© n‡q D‡V‡Q| Ave`yj jwZd GKvˇii bq gvm Zvi MÖv‡gi evwo‡Z
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†_‡K Anin Zvi iwPZ I myiv‡ivwcZ †`kvZ¥‡evaK Mvb cÖPvwiZ n‡q‡Q| Ave`yj
jwZ‡di Ae`vb Avgv‡`i gyw³msMÖv‡g AZ¨šÍ ewjô Avi Zvi ¯^xK…wZI wZwb
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jyrdi ingvb hvi myiv‡ivwcZ ewjô MYm½xZ¸‡jv fvlv, ¯^vwaKvi, Ebmˇii
MYAv‡›`vjb, GKvˇii Amn‡hvM Av‡›`vjb Ges gyw³hy‡× evievi MxZ n‡q‡Q|
cÖm½µ‡g wmKvb&`vi Avey Rvdi iwPZ †kL jyrdi ingvb myiv‡ivwcZ ÔRbZvi
msMÖvg Pj‡eB, Avgv‡`i msMÖvg Pj‡eB RbZvi msMÖvg Pj‡eBÕ MvbwU
D`vniY h‡_ó| Avgiv kvgmyÏxb Avng` iwPZ Ôivóªfvlv Av‡›`vjb Kwiwj‡iÕ
MvbwU DׄZ KiwQÑ
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(†Zviv) XvKvi kni i‡³ fvmvBwj|
I evOvwj...|
gv-I Kv‡›` evc-I Kv‡›` †Rv‡oi fvB
eÜz evÜe KvB›`v Kq nvq‡i †Ljvi mv_x bvB
†i evOvwj...|
Bs‡iR hy‡M nuvUzi wb‡P PvjvB‡Zv ¸wj
¯^vaxb †`‡k fvB‡q fvB‡q, Dovq gv_vi Lywj
†i evOvwj...|
¸wj LvIqv Qv‡ÎiB jvk Ki‡e bv †`q
†mB jv‡ki Dci †cUªj w`qv nvq‡i Av¸‡b †cvovq
†i evOvwj...|
¸wj LvIqv evOvwji iæû KvB›`v KvB›`v Kq
†Zvgiv evOvwj gv WvwK‡qv Avgvi
Rbg `ytLx gvq‡i| (†kl)

xgšwd I eÞjÖx£ß xmqwt gwvlw hwnwk gøgpwk


Aik GK×Ëm 2010
W. Gi miËmk Awly

eÙxagyk og ÌbËmB RygËdk og ZuekZwËK iwZÚhwnwk iwcøËi eÞKwm Kkw


pt„ Gog ZuekZw owixMÞKhwËg xdYêt KËk Ìbm†Ëlwk KÚxÄ I ohøZw„ xgšwd
I eÞjÖx£ß xmqw Ggv MËgnYw iwdg RygËdk GKUw †kØZòeÔYê
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GKxU ÑgšwxdK mwËþèk jLd PPêw I eÞËtwM pt ZLd ÑgšwxdK exkhwnw
Awedw AwexdB PËl AwËo„ AwiwËbk ÌbËm Awikw gwvlw hwnwt xgšwd I
eÞjÖx£ßk PPêw I MËgnYw jxb KkËZ PwB, ZwpËl eÞaËi jw KkËZ pËg Zw
pËlw xgšwd xmqw, xgšwd PPêw I MËgnYwk iw¢w gwrwËdw„ AwiwËbk
KÚxnËZ, AwiwËbk xPxKuowt, AwgpwItw I exkËgm BZøwxbËZ Ìjog oioøwt
Awikw hÖMxQ Zwk oiwcwd jxb AwiwËbk xdRþñ ÑgšwxdK MËgnYw ÌaËK
D¨ÔZ pËZw ZËg Awikw xdËRkwB AËdK m² oÙxÄ KkËZ
ewkZwi„ ebwaêxgbøwt Awikw Ìj ‘ÌKwtwKê (quark)-Gk Kaw Âxd Zw pËlw
ebwËaêk q×bÛZi KYw jwËbk oiìñËt Adøwdø KYw Ìjid xdDUÛd, ÌeÞwUd
BZøwxb MxVZ„ G ÌKwtwKê m²xU 1960 owËlk AwËM gøgpÕZ ptxd„ xjxd
ÌKwtwËKêk cwkYwk eÞgZêd KËkd xZxd G q×bÛZi KYw†ËlwËK ‘ÌKwtwKê’
dwËi AxhxpZ KËkd„ ÌZixdhwËgB Fermion m²xU ebwaêxgb Enrico Fermi-Gk
dwiwdÖowËk Ggv XwKw xgmðxgbøwlËtk KwRêd pËl MËgnYwkZ oËZød
ÌgwËok dwiwdÖowËk Boson m²xU PwlÖ pt„ xKQÖ xKQÖ KYwËK Fermion
ÌMw¢yt Ggv xKQÖ xKQÖ KYwËK Boson ÌMw¢yt glw pt„ xi. Ìgwo jxb xdËR
MËgnYw dw KkËZd ZwpËl Boson m²xU PwlÖ pËZw dw„ oÖZkwv ÌbLw
jwËâQ, gÉ MËgnK jxb AËdK xbd cËk MËgnYw KËkd ÌoUwB pËâQ exkhwnw
ÑZxkk GK AeÔgê oÖËjwM„ xgšwd xmqw I xgšwd MËgnYw KkËZ pËg GUwB
pËâQ Awol Kaw„ bÖ:LRdK pËlI GUw oZø Ìj eÙxagyk Adø¢ jLd ÌbËmk GNP-
Gk 1-3 mZwvm gøt pËâQ ÑgšwxdK MËgnYwt ZLd AwiwËbk ÌbËm G GKB
LwËZ gøt pËâQ GNP-Gk iw¢ 0.2 mZwvm„ G gøt gwxrËt jxb GKUw quantum
jump Ìbtw pt Ggv AwiwËbk ÌQËlËiËtkw jxb xgšwd I eÞjÖx£ßk xgKwËm Ggv
eÞËtwËM ZwËbk ÌicwËK jawjahwËg eÞËtwM KkËZ ewËk ZLdB ÌKgl Awikw
xgšwËdk GK GKxU Ìq¢ kPdw Kkg Ggv Ìoog ÌqË¢k Kaw gwvlwt ÌgwSwËdwk
ÌqË¢I DejÖ£ß hwnwk oÙxÄ pËg„
GLd eÞmí DVËZ ewËk jZqY ejêìæ Awikw xgšwd xmqw I MËgnYw Kiê
exúPiwËbk iËZw bqhwËg Awt£ dw Kkg ZZ xbd ejêìæ xK Awikw pwZ †xUËt
gËo awKg? gwvlw hwnwk eÞËtwM NUwg dw? þñhwgZB GLwËd exkhwnwk
eÞmíxU GËo eËr Ggv AËdËKB iËd KËkd Ìj Awikw Æ×l, KËlR, xgmðxgbøwlËt
xgšwËdk Ìjog mwLwt ewVbwd Kxk ÌoLwËd jxb Awikw jawja exkhwnw
gøgpwk KkËZ ewxk ZwpËl G KwRxU opRZk pËg„ G cwkYw Ìj GËKgwËk
AËj#x£ßK Zw dt Ggv xKQÖ xKQÖ exkhwnw Ìj ÑZxk Kkw ptxd Zw-I dt„ ZËg
eÞmí pËâQ exkhwnw eÞËtwM KËk xg¦ gwvlwt ewVbwd AËdK oit opRZk
dw-I pËZ ewËk„ iËd kwLËZ pËg xgËmðk ÑgšwxdK Ìj šwdËKwn xdxiêZ
pËtËQ Zwk AËdKLwxdB eÞKwxmZ pËtËQ I pËâQ BvËkxR hwnwt eÖþæK I
Rwdêwl xpËoËg„ gwvlwt erwËZ pËl gw MËgnYw KkËZ pËl G eÖþæK I
RwdêwËlk gøgpwk dw KËk ewkg dw Ggv G†ËlwËZ Ìj šwËdk Kaw glw pËtËQ
Zw jxb Awikw Qw¢Ëbk owiËd Z×Ël ckËZ PwB ZwpËl AdÖgwËbk eÞoŠ GËo
eËr Awk owËa owËa exkhwnwk eÞoŠxUI GËo jwt„ xgšwd xmqwk ÌqË¢
AdÖgwb GKxU eÞËtwRdyt gøgþÿw Zw iËd kwLËZ pËg„ xKìç G KawI iËd
kwLw eÞËtwRd Ìj AdÖgwËbk iwcøËi Awikw og oit Awol hwg dw-I f×xUËt
Z×lËZ ewxk„ The horse is a noble animal-GB eÞgwbxU ogwB RwËdd Ggv
AËmðk nobility I Ìj xK Zw-I ogwB Delx³ KËkd„ xKìç Awikw jLd G eÞgwbxU
gwvlwt eÞKwm Kxk GhwËg Ìj, Amð GKxU Dbwk eÞwYy ZLd Jbwjê m²xU
nobility m²xUk Aaê gpd KËk dw„ Jbwjê gwb xbËt jxb Adø ÌKwËdw m²
gøgpwk Kxk ZwpËlI xKìç Zw nobility-k Aaê eÞKwm KËk dw„ G GK A¨ÖZ
gøwewk; nobility Awk xKQÖ dt, nobility Qwrw„
xgšwËdk AËdK mwËþè Gid AËdK m² AwËQ, jw xgšwËdk phenomenon Z×Ël
cËk„ Gixd GKxU m² pËlw polarization„ jxbI KÄ KËk polarization-Gk GKxU
gwvlw exkhwnw ÌKD LÖ^ËR ewt, xKìç depolarization-Gk exkhwnw Ky KËk
ewËg? IB exkhwnwk AwËM ‘A’ gw ‘d’ gxoËt? dw, ZwËZ LÖg GKUw KwR
pËg dw„ G Kaw†Ëlwk iwËd GB dt Ìj, exkhwnwk KwRUwËK LwËUw KËk
ÌbLwk AgKwm AwËQ„ jZ bÔk oºg AdÖgwb KkËZ pËg Ggv oxVKhwËg
exkhwnwI KkËZ pËg„ xKìç og xRxdo AdÖgwËbk bkKwk AwËQ xK? GLd
globalization gw xgmðwtËdk jÖËM eÙxagyk og Axcgwoy GKB m² §wkw
GKB oiËt GKB gþçËK ÌgwSwËZ Pwt„ Ìjid CD CD (compact disk), cassette
BZøwxb, Gog m² gw Adøwdø ÑgšwxdK m² Ìjid television, X-ray,
ultrasonograph, G†Ëlwk gŠwdÖgwb gw electron, positron, hydrogen,
oxygen G†Ëlwk gŠwdÖgwb Kkwk oxZøB ÌKwËdw bkKwk AwËQ xK?
G ÌqË¢ GKxU xgKùe cwkwk gøgþÿw MÞpY Kkw ÌjËZ ewËk„ Awxi xdËR G
xgKùe cwkwxU gøgpwk KËkxQ Ggv oÖfl ÌeËtxQ„ G QwrwI G xgKùe cwkwk
oiaêd Awxi W. K×bkwZ-B-LÖbw I W. oËZød ÌgwËok Ryg¥mwt ZwËbk KwQ
ÌaËK lwh KËkxQ„ xgKùe cwkwxU pËlw Ìj, dwigwPK ÑgšwxdK m²†Ëlw Ìj†Ëlw
xgmðgøwey eÞPxlZ pËt ÌMËQ Ìo†Ëlwk BvËkxR kÕe xVK ÌkËLB x¢ßtwgwPK
m²†Ëlw jxb AwiwËbk iwZÚhwnw gwvlwhwnwk iwcøËi Kxk ZwpËl ewVbwËd
ÌKwËdw oioøw pt dw„ gøwewkUw GKU× xL^P×xr ÌMwËQk pËZ ewËk xKìç
G xL^P×xr LÖgB DewËbt pËZ ewËk„ DbwpkYþñkÕe AwYxgK xgšwd
erwËdwk oit jxb glw pt, GKxU BËlKUÛd jxb DâP ÌZRwgþÿwk GKxU Kqea
ÌaËK xdØ ÌZRwgþÿwk GKxU KqeËa lwf Ìbt ZwpËl GKxU ray gw kxmô xdMêZ
pt Ggv ÌoB kxmôk ÌZR G bÖB ÌZRwgþÿwk gøgcwËdk oiwd pt, ZwpËl atomic
transition-Gk gøwewkxU Qw¢Ëbk gÖSËZ ÌKwËdw AoÖxgcw pt dw„ GidxK
Kq KawxU dw gËl ‘AkxgU’ KawxU glËlI ÌKwËdw AoÖxgcw pt dw„ xgšwd
xmqwk ÌqË¢ G ckËdk GKxU approach jxb Awikw AwËM ÌaËKB xdZwi Zw pËl
G ÌqË¢ Awikw BËZwiËcøB AËdKUw AMÞMxZ lwh KkZwi„
G eÞoËŠ Awiwk GKUw iRwk Mùe iËd erËQ„ Ìgm xKQÖ xbd AwËM KlKwZwt
science writing gw xgšwd ÌlLwk Iek GKxU oËóild AdÖxÅZ pËtxQl Ggv
gwvlwËbm ÌaËK W. AwgbÖlöwp Awl-iÖZy mkf×x¥d, W. Awly AwoMk, W.
mpybÖl Bolwi xMËtxQËld IB oËóilËd„ AwxiI xQlwi„ GËoxQËld Ìbm ex¢Kwk
oóewbK owMkit ÌNwn„ owMkit ÌNwn pVwu Awl-iÖZy mkf×x¥dËK glËld
‘Awedwkw Ìj GZ exkhwnwk Kaw glËQd, glÖdËZw depolarization-Gk gwvlw
Ky KkËgd?’ mkf×x¥d owËpg xVK G eÞmíxUk Rdø eÞþçZ xQËld dw„ ZwB
GKU× aZiZ ÌLËt xKQÖ glËZ ÌPÄw KkËld„ owMkit ÌNwn Ggwk AwiwËK eÞmí
KkËld ‘Awexd Ky gËld?’ Awxi gllwi GxU GK Kawt dw gËl AËdK m² gøgpwk
KËk NUdwxU hwOP×k KËk glwB ÌmÛt„ ZLd G ckËdk ‘NUdwËK’ glw jwt
depolarization„ Awxi G eÞoËŠ exkhwnw oóeËKê Awiwk iZwiZ eÞKwm
Kklwi„ owMkit ÌNwnËK lq KËkB gllwi ‘ckØd Awexd ÌP#kŠyËK (KlKwZwk
GKxU gøþæZi I RdwKyYê þÿwd) Mwxr PwxlËt jwËâQd„ pVwu Awedwk
MwxrUwËK UÛwxfK lwBËU awiwËZ pËlw xKìç eËk Mwxr Awk start pËâQ
dw„ WÛwBhwk ÌPÄw KËkB jwËâQ, xKìç start pËâQ dw„ Awexd ZLd
WÛwBhwkËK glËld, ÌdËi ÌbL dw xK pËtËQ? WÛwBhwk gËdU LÖËl og xKQÖ
ekyqw KËk GËo gll oøwk, ‘gøwUwxk WwDd’„ GLd WÛwBhwk G bÖËUw m²
gËl jw ÌgwSwËZ PwBl Awexd xVK ÌoUwB gÖSËld„ GLwËd xK ‘xgbÖøuËKwn
mx£ßxgpyd’ glwk ÌKwËdw xgËmn eÞËtwRd AwËQ? Awiwk GKaw ÂËd ogwB
Ìpw Ìpw KËk ÌpËo ÌflËld„
exkËmËn Ìj KawxU glËZ PwB Zw pËlw GB, GKRd xmqK gw MËgnK jxb Zwk
xgntËK LÖg hwËlwhwËg gÖËS awËKd ÌKgl ZLdB xZxd iwZÚhwnwk iwcøËi
Zwk xgntxU AËdøk owiËd Z×Ël ckËZ ewËkd„ xmqËKk ÌgwcMiøZwk IeËkB
QwË¢k ÌgwcMiøZw AËdKLwxd xdhêk KËk„ ZwB scientific concept †Ëlw Ìj
xmqËKk KwËQ SKSËK ZKZËK pËZ pËg Zw glwBgwÉlø„ Awk exkhwnwk
MÞpYËjwMøZw pËlw Gk PËlk Iek QrwËZ QrwËZ Ìjid ‘Qrw’ xVK ÌZixd PlËZ
PlËZ ‘Pl’„ Awikw jxb xgšwd xmqw I MËgnYwt AxcKZk gÛZy pB, Awikw jxb
xdËRkwB dZ×d MËgnYwk exaKÚu pB Ggv xgšwd xgntwxb oóeËKê
AwiwËbk cøwd-cwkYw jxb AZøìæ þeÄ pt ÌKgl ZLdB Awikw xgmðgøwey
eÞPxlZ ÑgšwxdK m²†Ëlw gøgpwk KËk AwiwËbk oiÙ¦ gwvlw hwnwt xgšwd I
eÞjÖx£ß xgnËt eÞwYgìæ ewVbwd KkËZ ewkg„

GK×Ëm ÌfgÛØtwxk Ggv Awikw

AwLzZwkz-Dlz-Awli
MZKwl (gÙpþexZgwk) xgËKl eÞwt 4Uw XwKw ÌixWKøwl KËlR ÌpwËýUl
eÞwŠËY kwÄÛhwnw gwvlwk bwxgËZ xgËqwhkZ Qw¢Ëbk Iek eÖxlËmk †xl
PwlwËdwk fËl XwKw xgmðxgbøwlËtk Gi G KõwËok Qw¢ Ìiwpwóib
owlwpD¥yd (26) NUdwþÿËl xdpZ Ggv gÉ ovLøK Qw¢ I eaPwky AwpZ
pd„ AwpZËbk iËcø 20 RdËK pwoewZwËl hxZê Kkw pt„ kwZ 8Uwk ek
AwpZËbk iËcø XwKw xgmðxgbøwlËtk Qw¢ AwgbÖl Rgµwk (30), AwgÖl
gkKZ (25) I gwbwiZly Kiwxmêtwl ÌeÞËok iwxlËKk eÖ¢ kxfK×x¥Ëdk (27)
iÙZ×ø pt„ AwpZËbk iËcø e^wPRËdk Agþÿw Awm‰wRdK gxltw Rwdw
xMtwËQ„
GxU pËâQ 1952 owËlk 22 ÌfgÛØtwxk ÑbxdK AwRwËbk eÞai Lgk„ dIËglwl
dwiK GKxU ex¢Kw 23 ÌfgÛØtwxk 1952 ZwxkËL Ìj xgËmn ovLøwxU eÞKwm
KËkxQl Zwk eÞai eÙÅwt xmËkwdwËik iËcø xQl : ‘XwKw mpËkk xgxhdí
þÿwËd eÖxlm I xixlUwxkk †xlgnêY kwRcwdyk iwxUËZ Qw¢-xm I
xKËmwkËbk ÌmwxYZ-ewZ mpybËbk þôÙxZk eÞxZ mÛ¦w šwedwaê
mwioÖx¥Ëdk ebZøwM„’
hwnw AwËëbwlËdk eÞai mpyb Ìiwpwóib owlwpD¥yËdk dwi AwR AËdËK
hÖËl ÌMËQd„ mwioÖx¥Ëdk KawI„ Bxd pËâQd Zbwdyìæd eÞwËbxmK
exknËbk oboø, ÑbxdK AwRwb ex¢Kwk oóewbK AwgÖl Kwlwi
mwioÖx¥d„ hÖËl jwItwB þñwhwxgK„ Awikw Kawt Kawt mpyËbk kË£ßk
eÞxZ mÛ¦w šweËdk Kaw gxl„ mpyËbk k£ß gÙaw ÌjËZ Ìbtw pËg dw gËl
ÌþöwMwd Z×xl„ ogêþæËkk gwvlw hwnw eÞxZÅw Kkwk owËa owËa
mpyËbk k裧 AxRêZ þñwcydZwËK Aaêgp Kkwk AwItwR DVwB„ xKìç
xgþôÙZ Ìiwpwóib owlwpD¥yËdk Kaw jLd iËd pt Ggv ÌPwËLk owiËd jLd ÌbxL
lq ÌKwxU gxéZ lwx˜Z iwdÖËnk ÌgbdwZê iÖLâQxg, ZLd ÌhËg ewB dw Awikw
ÌK KwËK Ìc^wKw xbxâQ„ eÞai hwnwÐoxdK owlwpD¥yËdk dwËi XwKwk
GKxU orËKk dwiKkY Kkwk Rdø gQk KËtK cËk ÌPÄw PwxlËt jwxâQ„ XwKwk
Ìitk Kaw xbËtxQËld, xKìç IB ejêìæB„ owlwpD¥yËdk exkPt LÖ^ËR Ìgk Kkwk
Rdø MËgnKËbk AdÖËkwc KkxQ„ eÞxZgwËk etlw ÌfgÛØtwxk ÌaËK jwkw Ìj iZ I
eËak, Zwkw ÌoB iZ I eËak xhx£ËZB ‘GK×mËK’ KwËR lwMwgwk Rdø DËVeËr
lwËMd„ okKwxkhwËg ogêþæËk ÂcÖ gwvlw hwnw dt, gwvlw od-ZwxkLI
PwlÖ Kkwk xdËbêm Ìbtw pËtËQ„ ckw jwK, G ÌbËm AZ:ek ogêþæËk gwvlw
hwnw PwlÖ pËt ÌMËQ, KÄ KËk pËlI owËpg-oÖgwkw gwvlw oËdk xpowgUw
k® KËk xdËtËQd, kwRcwdyop ÌbËmk eÞxZxU ÌRlw-DeËRlwt Axfo-ovþÿw I
ÌbwKwdewËUk owBdËgwWê†Ëlw gwvlw pkËf xlxLZ pËtËQ mpyb xidwËk
ÌdZwËbk Qxg UwOwËdw xdËt ÌKwËdw Ñp-p›ËMwl, iwkwiwxk, LÖd-RLi pItwk
Awk ÌKwËdw AgKwm awKËQ dw„ xKìç Zwkek? Zwkek Ky pËg?
Zwkek Ky GK×Ëm ÌfgÛØtwxk dwxK 8 fwùMÖd xdËt gwbwdÖgwb gìc pËg?
ZwkekI xK gwvlwhwnwk exkhwnw xdËt ex¡ZdôdøËbk xgZKê xþæxiZ pËg?
ÌbËmk og ÌlwK Aqkšwdoóedí pËZ ewkËg? eÞwBiwxk Æ×l ÌaËK mZKkw 70-
80 hwËMk WÛeAwDU xþæxiZ pËt AwoËg? Qw¢ kwRdyxZk dwËi Awk
ÌKwËdw Qw¢Qw¢y lwm pËt NËk xfkËg dw? DâPxmqwk ewVøeÖþæËKk Rdø
xmqwaêyËbk xZd-Pwk †Y Ìgxm bwi xbËt exúPigËŠk ewVøeÖþæKeÞwx®k
pwxeËZøm awKËg dw? gwvlwt ÌlLw owxUêxfËKU BvËkxRKkËYk Rdø Awgwk
BZþæZ AdÖgwb Ìol ÌLwlwk bÙmø ÌPwËL erËg dw? BvËkxR xixWtwi
Æ×l†ËlwËZ ÌQËlËiËtËbk erwgwk Rdø AxhhwgKËbk Awk lwBd lwMwËZ pËg
dw? xgËbËm ÌQËlËiËtËbk erwËdwk Rdø G ÌbËmk bÔZwgwo†ËlwËZ lwBd
Ìbtw gìc pËg? Æ×l-KËlR hwxoêxUk Kõwo†Ëlw jawxdtËi jawoiËt ÂkØ I Ìmn
pËg? Ìomd RU gËl ÌKwËdw m² ex¢Kwk eÙÅw Klx‰Z KkËg dw? ekyqw
ÌeQwËdwk bwxg xKvgw ÌUýU ekyqw QwrwB fwBdwl ekyqw Ìbtwk AxcKwk
eÞbwËdk ÌoöwMwd Aagw dKl Kkwk bwxg xdËt Qw¢kw Awk xmqKËbk IeËk
PrwI pËg dw? Ìj xmqK dKËlk gøwewËk KËVwk ZwËK iwkck KËk
xixQlopKwËk ÌUÛËd xKvgw gwËo Z×Ël Ìbtwk Dlöwo xK gìc pËg? ‘gwvlw,
gwvlw’ KËk owcwkY iwdÖnËK AwËgMweöÖZ KËk ÌkËL ÌKD xK xdR
oìæwdËbk BvËkxR xmxLËt owcwkY iwdÖËnk iwawk IeËk Qxr NÖkwËdwk
þñeí ÌbLËg dw? ogËPËt gr Kaw, Zwk eËkI xK iw-ÌgwËdkw xdhêËt mpyb
xidwËk ÌjËZ ewkËg GK×Ëm ÌfgÛØtwxk DelËq?
kwÄÛhwnw gdwi exkhwnw
Gog eÞmí Z×lxQ RdwxìæËK„ Gog eÞËmík RgwgbwËdk bwxtZòI GKKhwËg
ÌKwËdw ipËlk, Ìo Kaw xgmðwo Kxk dw„ ZËg iËd-eÞwËYB xgmðwo Kxk, GZ
xbd cËk Awikw jZB gwvlwhwnwËK kwÄÛhwnw Kkwk Rdø pBPB KkxQ
gwvlwhwnw ZZB ¢ßiwìñËt ‘exkhwnw’ pËZ pËZ AxhcwËdk hwnwt ejêgxmZ
pËâQ„ AaP G jwgu gwvlwËbm ÌaËK Gid GKLwxd gwvlw Axhcwd eÞKwm
Kkw pËlw dw Ìj AxhcwdxU G ÌbËmk GZ xbËdk owxpËZø gøgpÕZ hwnwk
m²oºwkËK cwkY KËk Awed ixpiwt oiÖŒòl awKwk bwxgbwk pËg„
RwdËZ ÌeËkxQ, Kxg ipwËbg owpw PlxìæKw, ovob BZøwxb xWKmdwxk
LÖ^ËR LÖ^ËR ÌeËkmwd„ dw, ‘xgkwd’ m²xU xZxd ÌKwawtI ÌeËld dw„ G
ckËdk gÉ m² Awikw pkbi ÌlLwk Kawt gøgpwk KkxQ„ AaP Ìo†Ëlw gwvlw
AxhcwËd ÌdB„ G xbËK eÞPxlZ eÞxZxU AxhcwËd mZ mZ m² Aaêop þÿwd
ÌeËtËQ Ìj†Ëlwk AwËb# ÌKwËdw eÞPld ÌdB dw owxpËZø dw ovgwbeË¢
„ BË£fwËK gwdWwxo m² eÞai gøgpwk KkËZ xMËt hynY ÌgKwtbwt erËZ
pËtxQl„ ‘KoÖk’ m²xU KlwËi ÌKd xlËLxQ Ìo Rdø ‘oóewbËKk’ AËdK Kaw ÂdËZ
pËtËQ„ ogËPËt iRwk gøwewk iÖoxli eÞcwd gwvlwËbËmk ÌlLK- oóewbK
owvgwxbKkw Ìjog m² iÖoliwxd gËl gwb xbËâQd, KlKwZwk ÑbxdK-
ow®wxpK-iwxoK ex¢Kw†Ëlw Ìoog m² gøgpwk KkËQ Ìbbwk„ ÌoLwdKwk
ÌkxWI xUxhk gwvlwhwnwt Zwkw owcwkËYø eÞPxlZ Awkxg, fwkxo, DbÖê,
BvËkxR m² gøgpwk KkËQ Gìæwk Awk Awikw? og ÌqË¢ ojËZí eÞPxlZ IB og
m² exkpwk KËk gøgpwk KkxQ iÙZhwnw ovÆÚËZk m²KùebÛØËik
m²iwlw„ oóeÞxZ GKRd oÖËlLK Ìgm xKQÖ DbwpkYop kowËlw KËk xgntUw
AwËlwPdw KËkËQd„ Ìo AwËlwPdwk xKQÖ Avm Z×Ël ckwk Ìlwh owilwËZ
ewklwi dw„ Ìjid :
‘AwiwËbk ÌbËm exkhwnw xdËt Koku ÌbËL iËd pt gøwewkUw LÖgB bÖkÕp
GKxU xKQÖ„ G eÞoËŠ AxhcwËdk ‘ÌUKxdKøwl ItwWê’ m² bÖ’xU
þôZêgø„ ÌoLwËd eÞËtwRËd Axhcwd eÞËYZwkw Aaê eÞw™l Kkwk Rdø
BvËkxR m² gøgpwk KkËZ x§cw KËkdxd„ xKìç AwiwËbk ex¡Zkw BlÖxiËdmd
m˲k Aaê KËkËQd AwËlwKoŒw dt, D¨wod eÞwLjê„ ZwËbk KwËQ gøwvK
iwËd AxcËKwn„ xpxëb exkhwnwxgbkw AwËkw AËdK bÔk AMÞok pËtËQd,
‘UtËlU fk ÌlxWo’-Gk exkhwnw Zwkw ÑZxk KËkËQd : ‘ÌbgyI xK pwMdK×xV„’
AwiwËbk AËdK exkhwnwxgb xpxëbItwlwËbk KwRKËiê eÞhwxgZ pËt Ìilw
SwËilw ÑZxk KËk PËlËQd„ xpxëb exkhwnwxgbMËYk lqø gwvlw hwnwËK
KZUw xpxëbk KwQwKwxQ Awdw jwt„ xKìç AwiwËbk ÌZw Ìo bwt ÌdB„ Awikw
ÌZw XwKw dMkyËK ÌKëbÛ KËk gwvlw hwnwËK þñwcydhwËg xgKxmZ KkËZ
ewxk„ ÌoLwËd exkhwnw xdËt GZ ÉŒZ ÌKd? Ìj m² RdËgwcø Ggv pwËZk
KwËQ DËV AwËo, Awikw iÖËL gxl, ZwB exkhwnw xpËoËg ¦„ ovob
AxhcwËd kwÄÛexZ m˲k Aaê BvËkxRËZ Ìbtw AwËQ ÌeÞxoËWëU„ GidB jLd
Agþÿw, ZLd bÖkÕp xpxëb, ovÆÚZ, Zuoi I Z¨g m˲k iËcø eÞZøwgZêËdk
ÌPÄw ÌKd?’
Ìemwt ÌjËpZ× owvgwxbK, ÌoËpZ× ZwËbk pËt jxb xKQÖ gxl Awmw Kxk ÌKD
iËd xKQÖ KkËgd dw„ ÌgPwkw RwdêwxlýUËbk ÌeËUk bwËtB icøkwËZk iËcøB
jwgZyt NUdw I šwd-xgšwËdk Lgk gwvlw hwnwt eÞKwm KkËZ pt ‘exkhwnw
eÞËYZwËbk Rdø AËeqw Kkwk oÖËjwM ZwËbk ÌdB’„ GUwB pËlw og Kawk
owk Kaw„ Agmø Gk ÌPËtI Ìgwc pt gr Kaw GKxU ÌaËK jwËâQ, Zw pËlw, Ìj
ÌbËmk mZKkw 75 ÌaËK 85 hwM ÌlwK ZwËbk xdRþñ DâPwkY I gwKhxŠËZ
gwvlw hwnw xbËtB xbd †Rkwd PwxlËt xdËâQd„ pwl ÌMkxþæ, gøgow-
ÌZRwkZ ÌaËK ÂkØ KËk ÌKwawtI ZwËbk AwUKwËâQ dw, ÌoLwËd mZKkw 20-
22 RËdk gwvlw kwÄÛhwnw dw exkhwnw Ìo iwilwUw AdwtwËoB iÖlZxg
kwLw ÌjËZ ewËk dwxK?
Deovpwk
GK×Ëm ÌfgÛØtwxk DelËq gÉgwk gÉhwËg jw glw pËtËQ DeovpwËk ÌoUwB
AwgwËkw DâPwkY KkËZ PwB„ ZwpËlw xmqw, xmqw Ggv xmqw„ ÌbËm
owgêRdyd xmqw Qwrw hwnwk ÌqË¢ jwB Kkw ÌpwK, xKQ×ËZB xKQÖ pËg
dw„ Awk ÌbËmk mZKkw 100 hwM ÌlwK xmxqZ pËl hwnw xKvgw exkhwnwk
RdøI xKQÖ AwUKwËg dw„ ÌKddw M^wËtk ÌaËK Awow xdkqk AxoiÖx¥
xKvgw ZxiRd ÌgItwk KwËQ BDxdhwxoêxUI jw, xgmðxgbøwltI ZwB : gwvlw
pkËfk owBd ÌgwWêI jw, BvËkxR pkËfk owBd ÌgwWêI ZwB og xKQÖB ZwËbk
KwËQ xMÞK„ oÖZkwv ÌbËmk Ìgxmk hwM iwdÖnËK Aš, AxmxqZ I xdkqk KËk
ÌkËL ogêþæËk gwvlw hwnwk eÞowk xKQÖËZB oºg pËg dw„ AwBd KËkI dw„
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XwKwt gwvlw owxpËZøk PPêw BvËkR Awil

W. ItwxKl Awpib
1757 owËl elwmyk eÞpodiÔlK jÖ˦ xokwRDË¥#lwk ekwRt I iÙZ×ø pËl
gwvlwk kwRdyxZËZ xgkwU exkgZêd oÔxPZ pt„ nrjËìèk dwtK iykRwfk Awly
Lwd iÖxmêbwgwËbk iodËb AxcxÅZ pËlI xZxd eÞKÚZeËq BýU Bx«tw
ÌKwóewxdk AcyËd ‘eÖZ×l dgwËg’ exkYZ pd„ 1765 owËl ÌbItwxd I 1772
owËl kwRÐdxZK qiZw lwh KËk ÌKwóewxd KlKwZwt kwRcwdy þÿwdwìæk
KËk„ XwKwk dwËtg-dwxRËik eb gpwl awKËlI ¢ßËi Zwkw qiZw pwxkËt
Dewxc-ogêþñ I AdÖbwdËhwMy dgwËg exkYZ pd„ BvËkRËK opwtZw bwËdk
eÖkÆwkþñkÕe RokZ Lwd 1765 owËl eÖdkwt XwKwk dwËtg-dwxRi eËb
xdjÖ£ß pd„ xZxd 1767 owËl ‘dgwg’ Dewxc lwh KËkd Ggv IB eb I Dewxc
gvmwdÖ¢ßËi ÌhwM Kkwk oÖxgcw ewd„ iÖpwóib ÌkRw LwËdk (1760-1765)
ek RokZ Lwd (1765-81) I Zwk gvmck jwkw dwËtg-dwxRi pd, Zwkw pËld
pwoiZ RŠ (1781-1787), dokZ RŠ (1787-1823), mwioDË¥#lw (1823-1831),
KikDË¥#lw (1831-1836) I MwRyD¥yd pwtbwk (1836-1843)„ MwRyD¥yd
xd:oìæwd pItwt IB eb I Dewxc xglÖ® pt„ 1857 owËl hwkËZ ‘xoewxp
xgËbÛwp’ pËl XwKwËZI Zwk ÌQ^wtw lwËM; BvËkR mwoK Ìbmy xoewxpËbk
ÌRl, f^wxo, byewìæk xbËt KËVwkpËþæ Zw bid KËk„ 1758 owËl ÌKwóewxdk
mwoËdk Agowd NËU, BvløwË«k ipwkwdy xh˃wxktw hwkËZk mwodhwk
MÞpY KkËl xgÛxUm mwodwil ÂkØ pt„ hwkZgwoy ipwkwdyk eÞRwhÖ£ß pt„
BvËkRkw xgÛËUdËK ‘iwZÚhÔxi’ (Home) Ggv hwkZËK ‘DexdËgm’ (Colony)
xpËoËg MYø KËk oóeÔYê xdËRËbk þñwËaêB mwodgøgþÿw eÞgZêd I
mwodKwjê exkPwldw KËk„ kwRÐdxZK I AaêÐdxZKhwËg ÌmwnY-eyrËdk
iwcøËi oóeb AwpkY pËlw JexdËgxmK mwodgøgþÿwk eÞcwd lqø„ Zwk ekI
glËZ pt, BvËkR eÞgxZêZ dZ×d mwoddyxZ, AaêdyxZ I xmqwgøgþÿwk fËl
gwvlwËbËm cyËk cyËk icøjÖMyt owiìæmwod I oiwRgøgþÿwk Agowd pt I
AwcÖxdK jÖËMk oÔ¢ewZ pt„ BvËkxR hwnw Ggv ewúPwZø šwdxgšwd
xmqwk fËl gwOwxlk Rygdcwkw, xPìæw I ÌPZdw, id I idËd exkgZêËdk
oÔPdw pt„ ZwËbk gøx£ßËZòk xgKwm NËU; Zwkw þñwcyd xPìæw, iÖ£ß
gÖx¦, jÖx£ßxgbøw, xgšwd, iwdxgK I ÑdxZK iÔløËgwc BZøwxb dgø šwd,
hwg I hwgdwk AxcKwky pt„ eÞcwdZ kwRcwdy mpk KlKwZwËK ÌKëbÛ KËk
Gog šwdxgšwd, xgbøw-gÖx¦k exkPjêw I KiêKw¡ exkPwxlZ pt„ G oit okKwxk
I ÌgokKwxk Axfo-AwbwlËZ PwKxk, ÌQwULwËUw gøgowt, xgxhdí Ìemw I
gÙx£Rygy iwdÖËnk oiìñËt mpËk GKxU Ìbmyt icøxg£ ÌmÛYyk D¨g pt„ Dxdm
mZËK AwcÖxdKZwk eÞxZÅwt I dgRwMkËYk oÙxÄËZ GkwB KwjêKk hÔxiKw
ewld KËk„
KlKwZwk dMkRygd I dgRwMkY gwvlwk ifþñl mpk†ËlwËZ ÌZid AwËlwrd oÙxÄ
KkËZ ewËkxd„ Dxdm mZËKk eÞwt icøhwM ejêìæ XwKw mpkgwoyk iËcø
AwcÖxdK xmqw I dgjÖËMk ÌKwËdw eÞËYwbdw RwËMxd„ XwKw I
iÖxmêbwgwËbk dgwg I AxhRwZ exkgwk†ËlwËZ Awkxg-fwkxok owËa
AxZxk£ß DbêÖ hwnw þÿwd KËk Ìdt„ gwvlw hwnwk owËa ZwËbk ÌKwËdw
ovxmöÄZw xQl dw„ BvËkRËbk owËa fwkxo hwnwt ZwËbk ÌjwMwËjwM
pËZw„ Gk Rdø xdËtwMeÞw® Ìbwhwny xQËld„ 1835 owl ejêìæ okKwxk
KwRKËiê fwkxo hwnw PwlÖ awKwt Zwkw i£ßg-iwbÛwowt IB hwnw xmqwk
eÞxZ AxcK AwMÞp eÞKwm KËkËQ„ AwcÖxdK xmqw xgþæwËkk owËa Æ×l-
KËlËRk ewVøeÖþæK kPdw, e¢ex¢Kw eÞKwm, ohw-oxixZ MVd, ciê I oiwR
ovÆwk AwËëbwld BZøwxbk iwcøËi KlKwZwt gwvlw kPdwk Ìj oÔPdw
pËtxQl, XwKwt Ìoog KiêKw¡ ÂkØ pËZ AwËkw 50 gQk AxZ¢ßwìæ pËt jwt„ fËl
GLwËd gwvlw hwnw AwËMk iËZwB DËexqZ ÌaËK jwt„
XwKwk iÖK×Upyd dwËtg-dwxRËik eb xglÖ® pËl ZwËbk AgxmÄ ÌM#kg,
mwd-mIKwZ, HxZpøI AþæxiZ pt„ GLd BvËkRkwB ogêit qiZwk AxcKwky
pt„ xoewxp xgËbÛwËp BvËkRËK opËjwxMZw bwd KËk XwKwk DVxZ cxdK I
dgø Rxibwk exkgwËkk oboø AwgbÖl Mxd 1865 owËl ‘dgwg’ Dewxc lwh
KËkd, jw 1877 owËl gvmwdÖ¢ßËi gøgpwËkk oÖËjwM ewd„ G exkgwËkk
oìæwd dgwg oxliÖlöwp I dgwg Awpowd Dlöwp XwKwk AwcÖxdKwtd I
DdítËd †kØZòeÔYê hÔxiKw ewld KËkd„
XwKwt AwcÖxdK cwkwk xmqw LÖg cyk MxZËZ ÂkØ pt„ 1818 owËl XwKwt
eÞaËi gøwexUýU ximdwxkËbk owpwËjø BvËkxR Æ×l eÞxZxÅZ pt„ okKwxk
DËbøwËM eÞai Æ×l þÿwxeZ pt 1835 owËl, jw 1841 owËl XwKw KËlËR
kÕewìæxkZ pt„ 1874 owËl XwKw iwbÛwow þÿwxeZ pt, IgwtbÖlöwp Awl
Igwtby ÌowpkwItwbêy xQËld eÞai oÖewxkdËUË«ëU„ xZxd 1879 owËl ‘oiwR
oxóildy ohw’ Ggv XwKwk Qw¢kw 1883 owËl ‘XwKw iÖoliwd oÖpÕb oxóildy’
þÿwed KËk iÖoliwd oiwËR xmqw xgþæwËk opwtZw KËkd„ 1905 owËl gŠhŠ
pËl eÔgêgŠ I Awowi eÞËbËmk kwRcwdy mpk xpËoËg XwKwt dZ×d KËk
eÞwËYk oéwk pt, xKìç Zw xQl AZøìæ qYþÿwty, 1911 owËl gŠhŠ xgËkwcy
AwËëbwlËdk fËl Zw kxpZ Kkw pt„ 1906 owËl XwKwt ‘Al Bx«tw iÖoxli lyM’
MxVZ pËl XwKwt kwRÐdxZK oËPZdZw gÙx¦ ewt„ 1921 owËl ‘XwKw
xgmðxgbøwlt’ eÞxZxÅZ pËl G AéËlk xmqwRygËd dZ×d D¥yedwk oéwk pt„
XwKwk AwcÖxdK xmxqZ I Ìg#x¦K oiwR MVËd XwKw xgmðxgbøwlËtk
Agbwd ogËPËt Ìgxm„ gwvlwËbËmk kwRdyxZ, oiwRdyxZ, AaêdyxZ, xmqw,
xmùe-owxpZø Zaw ovÆÚxZ ogêËqË¢ xgmðxgbøwlËtk Agbwd AwRI
Z×ldwkxpZ„ 1926 owËl XwKw xgmðxgbøwlt I XwKw KËlËRk xmqK-QwË¢k
DËbøwËM þÿwxeZ iÖoxli owxpZø oiwËRk ‘gÖx¦k iÖx£ß AwËëbwld’ oiwRËK
dZ×d hwgdwt RwxMËt ÌZwËl„ hwkËZ xgÛxUmxgËkwcy AwËëbwld ¢ßËiB
ÌRwkbwk pt, eÞxZgwËbk mpk XwKwËZI Zwk eÞhwg eËr„ 1947 owËl hwkZ I
ewxKþæwd bÖ’xU eÙaK þñwcyd kwÄÛ MxVZ pËl XwKw eÔgê
ewxKþæwËdk eÞwËbxmK kwRcwdy pt„
GKxU qyY cwkwk dgøxmxqZ icøxg£ ÌmÛYy §wkw 1860 owËl ‘gwŠwlw jìè’
dwËi eÞai QwewLwdw þÿwxeZ pt, Awk ÌoLwd ÌaËK ‘KxgZwK×oÖiwgly’ dwËi
iwxoK ex¢Kw, ‘dylbeêY’ dwËi bydgìc× xiË¢k jÖMwìæKwky dwUK BZøwxb
Qwew pt„ dbytwk Axcgwoy bydgìc× xi¢ ZLd XwKw ÌRlwt WwK xghwËMk
KiêPwky xQËld„ 1861 owËl xgLøwZ ow®wxpK ‘XwKw eÞKwm’
AwZôeÞKwm KËk„ oóewbdwk KwËR KÙnäPëbÛ iRÖibwk (1834-1907) Ggv
eÞKwmdwk KwËR pxkmPëbÛ xi¢ RxrZ xQËld„ pxkmPëbÛ xi¢ (1834-1872)
XwKwk Axcgwoy xQËld„ xZxd Kxg I dwUøKwk xpËoËg gÉ MÞìÿ kPdw I
eÞKwm KËkd„ KÚnäPëbÛ iRÖibwk RwZ-oóewbK xQËld„ xZxd LÖldwk
Axcgwoy, xKìç byNêKwl XwKwt ÌaËK ex¢Kw oóewbdw I owxpZøKiê
exkPwldw KËkd„ GkekB hwB xMxkmPëbÛ Ìod (1835-1910) K×kAwd I
pwxbËok AdÖgwbop xgxgc MbøMÞìÿ kPdw KËkd„ xZxd XwKwk AbÔËk
e^wPËbwdw MÞwËi RdôMÞpY KËkd„ GLwËd GKUw xgnt DËlöLø, AwcÖxdK
owxpËZøk jw¢weËa XwKw KlKwZwk opjw¢y xQl; fËl owxpËZøk dZ×d eËa
PlËZ Ìgxm ÌgM ÌeËZ ptxd„ Zwk ekI iËd kwLw bkKwk, 1947 owl ejêìæ ÌbËmk
dgøxmxqZ gÖx¦Rygy ÌmÛYyk KwËQ ifþñl mpk XwKw AËeqw kwRcwdy mpk
KlKwZwk (1911 owl ejêìæ xgÛxUm hwkËZk kwRcwdy, eËk eÞwËbxmK
kwRcwdy pt) AwKnêY Ìgxm xQl„ eÔgêgËŠk Axcgwoy pËtI AËdK
owxpZøKiêy ZLd KlKwZwt Mid KËkd Ggv MÞìÿ-ex¢Kwxb eÞKwm-eÞPwËk
gÛZy pd„
Zwk ekI glËZ x§cw ÌdB, Ìbm-xghwËMk AwM ejêìæ jwkw XwKwt Agþÿwd
KËkd Ggv xmùe-owxpZø PPêwt xdËtwxRZ awËKd, ZwËbk owxpZøKiêËK
LwËUw KËk ÌbLw jwt dw„ XwKwk Ìg#x¦K oiwR I ÌlLK ÌMwÅy MÞìÿ kPdw, e
¢ex¢Kw eÞKwm I ohw-oxixZ MVd KËk AwcÖxdK gwvlw owxpZøPPêw I
eÞowËk AMÞYy hÔxiKw ewld KËkd„
1860 owËl ‘dylbeêY’ eÞKwm, iéwxhdt (1862), icÖoÔbd b£ KZêÙK AdÖgwb,
ewbxk lO KZêÙK iÖbÛY, lËOk xgPwk I Aaêb¡ BZøwxb NUdw Ìjd NÖiìæ
XwKwËK RwxMËt ÌZwËl„ eÞKÚZeËq IB gQk ÌaËKB XwKwt AwcÖxdK
owxpZøPPêw I MÞìÿ eÞKwm ÂkØ pt„ Dxdm mZK ejêìæ ÌlLK xpËoËg jwËbk
dwi Kkw jwt, Zwkw pËld KÚnäPëbÛ iRÖibwk (1834-1907), xMxkmPëbÛ Ìod
(1835-1910), pxkmPëbÛ xi¢ (1838-1872), pxkpk dëby, byddwa Ìod (1839-
1898), KwlyeÞodí ÌNwn (1843-1910), dgKwìæ PË›wewcøwt (1845-1904),
kRdyKwìæ †® (1849-1900), AwdëbPëbÛ xi¢ (1854-1903), ÌmL AwgbÖo
Ìowgpwd eÞiÖL„
LÖldwk Axcgwoy KÚnäPëbÛ iRÖibwk XwKwk diêwl Æ×Ël xmqKZw
KkËZd„ xZxd KxgZwK×oÖiwgly, iËdwkx™Kw, XwKw eÞKwm, xgšwedy,
gyYwewxY eÞhÙxZ ex¢Kw oóewbdw KËkd„ KÚnäPëbÛ iÔlZ Kxg xQËld,
o¨wgmZK (1861) I ÌiwpËhwM (1871) Zwk KwgøMÞìÿ„ kwRdwkwtY goÖ
ZwËK ‘XwKwB mwxrk døwt DuKÚÄ XwKwB Kxg’ gËl iìægø KËkd„
XwKwk Axcgwoy pxkmPëbÛ xi¢I Kxg xQËld„ xZxd KÚnäPËëbÛk iËZw
GKwxcK ex¢Kw jaw xP£kx™Kw (1862), AgKwmkx™Kw (IB), KwgøeÞKwm
(1864), xpëbÖ xpÐZxnYy (1865), xpëbÖkx™Kw (1868), xi¢eÞKwm (1870)
eÞhÙxZ oóewbdw KËkd; ex¢Kw†Ëlwk AwtÖ þñùe xQl„ Gog ex¢Kwt xZxd
MyxZKxgZw, AwLøwdKwgø, eÞpod I eÞgìc eÞKwm
KËkËQd„ ‘KxgZwËK#iÖby’ (3 hwM, 1863-70), gyk gwKøwgly (1864),
KyPKgcKwgø (1866), xdgêwxoZw oyZw (1871) eÞcwd KwgøMÞìÿ„ Âhoø
myNÞv (1861), iøwI ckËg ÌK? (1862) I Nk awKËZ gwgÖB ÌhËR (1863)
eÞpodiÔlK kPdw„ XwKw eÞKwm (6 GxeÞl 1872) ex¢Kw ZwËK ‘eÔgê
gwvlwk GKxU kZíþñkÕe’ gËl AxhxpZ KËkd„
XwKwk AbÔËk e^wPËbwdwk Axcgwoy hwB xMxkmPëbÛ exg¢ K×kAwd I
10 LË¡ pwxbo AdÖgwb KËk Ggv pRkZ iÖpwóib ow:-op iÖoxli idyny I
Zwfxok, KËtKxU RygdyMÞìÿ kPdw KËk LøwxZ ARêd KËkd„ Awkxg I fwkxo
hwnwt Zwk AMwc ewx¡Zø xQl„ xZxd gwvlw hwnwt eÞai K×kAwd AdÖgwb
KËk GK xbËK owpxoKZwk exkPt Ìbd, Aek xbËK iÖoxli oiwËRk Aìc ÌPwL LÖËl
Ìbd„ AdÔxbZ K×kAwd I pwxbo QwrwI xZxd Zweoiwlw, ZwRxKkwZ×l
AwDxltw, dyxZiwlw, xpËZwewLøwdiwlw, byItwd-B-pwxfR, ipweÖkØn pRkZ
iÖpwóib I ZueÞgxZêZ Bolwi ciê, Biwi pwowd I ÌpwËoËdk Rygdy, PwxkxU
owcµy iÖoliwd dwky, kwiKÚnä ekipvËok Dx£ß I Rygdy BZøwxb Zwk
MbøMÞìÿ„
1898 owËl kgyëbÛdwa VwK×k gŠyt owxpZø exknËbk mwLw ÌLwlw DelËq
XwKwt GËo iìægø KËkd ‘XwKwt bmêdyt xRxdo xZdxU, eÞaËi iw
XwËKmðky, Zwkek KwlyeÞodí gwgÖ I byddwa gwgÖ„’ KwlyeÞodí ÌNwn xg
¢ßieÖËk RdôMÞpY KËkd„ XwKwt ÌlLwerw KËk eÞaËi AwbwlËZ ÌKkwxdk
PwKxk KËkd, eËk hwItwËlk hÔiøwxcKwkyk eÞcwd KiêKZêw xdjÖ£ß
pd„ KwlyeÞodí eÞcwdZ Mbø ÌlLK; eÞhwZxPìæw, xdmyaxPìæw,
xdhÙZxPìæw, Qwtwbmêd, eÞËiwblpky, oyZwk AxMíekyqw eÞhÙxZ Zwk
MbøMÞìÿ Ggv ÌKwil KxgZw I oŠyZ i™ky KxgZw I MwËdk
eÖþæK„ xgbøwowMkyt MbøkyxZk Rdø ZwËK ‘eÔgêgËŠk xgbøwowMk’ glw
pËZw„ XwKw beêY (1863) I gwìcg (1874) ex¢Kw oóewbdw Zwk Aek
owxpZøKyxZê„
kgyëbÛdwa VwK×Ëkk iËZ, XwKwk x§Zyt ‘bmêdyt gøx£ßZò’ byddwa Ìod
iwxdKMË™k gwtkw MÞwËi RdôMÞpY KËkd„ xZxd eÞaËi XwKwk diêwl
Æ×Ëlk xmqK I eËk Æ×l BdoËeƒk pd„ XwKwt gÛwÊoiwR eÞxZÅw KËk dwdw
owiwxRK AwËëbwlËd ÌdZÚZò Ìbd„ xmqwbwd eÞYwly, gŠËbm I AwowËik
ovxq® xggkYy, dyxZxgšwd eÞhÙxZ Zwk AwËlwPdw eÖþæK Ggv
hwkZgnêyt K×xUk Mùeo‰ld„
pxkpk dëby dwUK I eÞpod kPdw KËk oÖdwi ARêd KËkd„ Kxlk Ìg# pwr
Ròwlwdy (1875), Qwl dwB K×K×Ëkk gwNw dwi (1877), NÖNÖ ÌbËLQ f^wb
ÌbLxd (1879), ddb hwB Ìg#k SMrw (1880), Kxlk Ìg# Nk hwŠwdy (1884),
Aou KËiêk xgekyZ fl (IB), Gid Kiê Awk Kkg dw (1886), dwxZd RwiwB (IB),
xmLQ ÌKwawt? ÌVKxQ jaw (IB), ÌNwrwk xWi (1889), Kxlk K×lwŠwk (1890)
BZøwxb Zwk dwUøMÞìÿ„ iwbKwox£ß, Ìgmøwox£ß, xgcgwxggwp, gwgÖ
oóeÞbwËtk xglwxoZw BZøwxb Zwk eÞpoËdk xgntgþç xQl„ AeÔgê kpoø
(1880) I obwdëb (1881) dwËi bÖ’Lwdw pwoø-gøŠwZôK ex¢Kw oóewbdw
KËkd„
ipwKxg KwtËKwgwb UwŠwBËlk AwMlw MÞwËi RdôMÞpY KËkd„ xZxd XwKw
iwbÛwowt ÌlLwerw KËkd Ggv xdR MÞwËi ÌewýUiwýUwËkk PwKxk KËk Rygd
AxZgwxpZ KËkd„ xgkpxglwe (1870), K×oÖiKwdd (1873), AmÞØiwlw
(1896) eÞhÙxZ L¡ KxgZw, ipwmômwd (1904) Ggv xmgixëbk (1921),
Axitcwkw (1922), ipki mkyf (1933), mômwdhþô Kwgø (1938)
KxpdyKwgø„ Zwk ipwmômwd oËgêwuKÚÄ kPdw„ oiKwËl KxgËbk iËcø Zwk
owflø ogwk ÌPËt AxcK„
XwKwk kwRwk ÌbDry xdgwoy ÌmL AwgbÖo Ìowgpwd ‘xpëbÖ-Ìiwoliwd’ (3 L¡,
1889, 1891) kPdw KËk oiwËR AwËlwrd oÙxÄ KËkd„ XwKwk ‘hwkZ gwìcg’ I
‘owkþñZ ÌeÞo’-Gk iwxlËKk owËa iËdwiwxdlø pËl KlKwZwk xild ÌeÞo ÌaËK Zw
eÞKwm KËkd„ Zwk eÞai MÞìÿ Kxlk dwky Pxk¢ (1880) XwKw xdDR ÌeÞËo
Qwew pt„ Zwk Aek MÞìÿ Awjêciê (2 L¡, 1904) XwKwk Ìgbgøwo ÌeÞËo Qwew
pt„ xZxd ‘Bolwi-oÖpÕb’ (1906) dwËi GKLwxd iwxoKe¢ oóewbdw KËkd„
K×xilöwk ÌpwidwgwËbk Rxibwk dgwg ftRÖËdíowk kÕeRwlwl (1876), Z£ò I
RwZyt oŠyZ (1884) Ggv xoËlËUk Kxg AwRêÖiëb Awlyk ÌeÞibeêY (1891)
XwKw ÌaËK eÞKwxmZ pt„
G eËgê KlKwZwk ‘gUZlw’k AdÖkÕe XwKwk ‘KxgZwex›’k Ìbwhwny
eÖ^xaowxpËZøk bweU xQl„ GKwìæhwËg iÖoliwd Kxg kxPZ icøjÖMyt
hwgcwkwk Gog KwxpdyKwËgøk gøgowxtK owflø AxcK xQl oËëbp ÌdB, ZËg
G†Ëlwk ewV I eÞPwk eúPwueb iÖoxli oiwRËK AwËkw eúPwËZk xbËK ÌVËl
Ìbt„ oþæw AwËgM I þñeíPwxkZw ZwËbk NÖi ewxrËt ÌkËLxQl„ eÞwt GK m’
gQk cËk gÉ iÖoxli Kxg Ìbwhwny eÖ^xak gøaê fol Z×ËlËQ„
XwKwk iÖoliwd ÌlLKMËYk Aek ‘WwBËidmd’ xQl fwkxo I DbêÖ hwnw I
owxpZøeÞyxZ; xgËmnZ XwKwk AxhRwZ exkgwk†Ëlw GkÕe AdÖhÔxZ
byNêKwl cËk ÌkËLxQl„ Zwkw Mbø-eËbø AwcÖxdK cwkwk KxgZw, Dedøwo,
dwUK, ÌQwUMùe, eÞgìc kPdw KËkËQd; ex¢KwI eÞKwm KËkËQd„ Dxdm
mZËK AwgbÖl Mffwk dwowL, LwRw AwpowdDlöwp mwpyd, Ñotb iÖpóib
AwRwb, dgwg iÖpóib ARwb, IgwtbÖlöwp Awl Igwtby ÌowpkwItwbêy,
LÖxRþæw AwLZwk ÌowpkwItwbêy, pwxKi pwxggÖk kpiwd eÞiÖL DbêÖ ÌlLK
xQËld„ G oit ow®wxpK ‘Awl iwmxkK’ (1906) I iwxoK ‘RwbÖ’ (1921) dwËi
bÖ’xU RdxeÞt ex¢Kw eÞKwxmZ pt„ kwRw kwiËiwpd kwt, kwRdwkwtY goÖ,
icÖoÔbd b£, ÌRøwxZxkëbÛdwa VwK×k eÞiÖL hwËlw fwkxo
RwdËZd„ kwiËiwpd fwkxoËZ MÞìÿ kPdw I ex¢Kw oóewbdwI KËkËQd, xKìç
AxPËkB Zw ZøwM KËk gwvlwt MÞìÿ eÞYtd I ex¢Kw eÞKwm KËk gwOwxlk
xPìæwk RMËZ xgeög owcd KËkd„ XwKwk gËdxb exkgwËkk ÌKwËdw oboø G
KwRxU KËkdxd„ AxhRwZ ÌmÛYyxU jÖËMk þeëbd AdÖcwgd KkËZ gøaê pt„
xgm mZËKk ÌMwrw ÌaËK ÂkØ KËk 1947 owl ejêìæ eÞcwd bÖ’xU NUdwt
XwKwk PwlxP¢ ewËùU jwt„ Gk GKxU 1905 owËl ‘gŠ-xgËâQb’ (Partition)
Ggv ‘eÔgêgŠ I Awowi eÞËbm’ MVd; AekxU 1921 owËl ‘XwKw
xgmðxgbøwlt’ eÞxZÅw„ dgMxVZ eÞËbËmk kwRcwdy pItwt XwKwt
dgRygËdk oéwk pt„ AdÖkÕe XwKw xgmðxgbøwlt eÞxZxÅZ pËl eÔgêgËŠk
ovLøwMxkÅ iÖoxli oiwËR DâPxmqwk §wk DËdôwxPZ pt„ NUdw§t ‘iÖoxli
þñwËaê’k (Muslim Interest-Gk) AdÖKÔl I ‘xpëbÖ þñwËaê’k (Hindu Interest-
Gk) exkeìÿy xQl„ xpëbÖ oiwRexZkw DhËtk xgËkwxcZw KËkd, ZwËbk
AwËëbwlËd okKwk 1911 owËl gŠ-xgËâQb kxpZ KËk„ GËZ dgwg
oxliÖlöwpop iÖoxli oiwRexZkw pZwm I xgq׳ pd„ XwKw mpËkk oyiwdwk
iËcø oyiwg¦ ÌaËKI XwKw xgmðxgbøwlt oiwR-ÌbËp mx£ßgcêK o™ygdy oÖcw
oéwk KkËZ awËK„ xgmðxgbøwltËK ÌKëbÛ KËk xmMxMkB GKxU DâP iwËek
gÖx¦Rygy ÌmÛYyk oiwËgm NËU„ DâPxmxqZ I DdíZ xPìæwk GB ÌmÛYyk
pwËZ gwvlw owxpËZøk iwd AËdKLwxd ÌgËr jwt„ Gk fËl XwKwk AwcÖxdK
owxpZø ÌKgl ÌK#lydø lwh KËkxd, x¢Ëmw£kKwËlk dZ×d ÌPZdw cwkY KËk
oiMÞ gwvlw owxpËZøËK dZ×d iw¢w bwd KËkËQ„
xgmðxgbøwlt I KËlËR Acøwedw DelËq pkeÞowb mwþèy, iÖpóib
mpybÖlöwp, ÌiwxpZlwl iRÖibwk, PwkØPëbÛ gËëbøwewcøwt, oÖmylK×iwk
Ìb, mÛymPëbÛ P¢ßgZêy, Ñotb AwgÖl ÉËod, AwgbÖl IbÖb, jbÖdwa okKwk,
kËimPëbÛ iRÖibwk, dxldyKwìæ h›mwly, oËZøëbÛdwa goÖ, KwRy
ÌiwZwpwk ÌpwËod, šwdPëbÛ ÌNwn, dËkmPëbÛ Ìod†®, AiËlëbÖ goÖ, exkil
kwt eÞiÖL šwdy-†YyRd XwKwt Agþÿwd KËkd Ggv Acøwedwk ewmwewxm
owxpZø I MËgnYwKiê exkPwldw KËkd„ Zwkw AËdËK KlKwZw ÌaËK XwKwt
AwËod„ XwKw xgmðxgbøwlËtk eÞai xbËKk Qw¢ gÖ¦Ëbg goÖ, idôa kwt,
AwgbÖl Kwxbk, RoyiDbzbyd, AwgÖl fRl eÞiÖL Kxg-owxpxZøK xpËoËg
ekgZêyKwËl LøwxZ I eÞxZÅw lwh KËkd„
Ñotb AwgÖl ÉËod, iÖpóib mpybÖlöwp, AwgbÖl IbÖb, KwRy ÌiwZwpwk
ÌpwËod eÞiÖËLk DËbøwËM eÞxZxÅZ ‘XwKw owxpZø oiwËR’k (1926) iÖLe¢
‘xmLw’ I ÌlLKËMwÅyk iwcøËi ‘gÖx¦k iÖx£ß AwËëbwld’ Aek GKxU
DËlöLËjwMø xgnt, jw XwKwk xdúPl iÖoxli oiwRËK xKQ×Uw pËlI dwrw xbËZ
ÌeËkxQl„
xgmðxgbøwlter×tw iÖoliwd ÌlLKËbk AwxghêwËg XwKwk owxpËZø dZÖd
ewlwgbl ÂkØ pt„ 1940 owËl ewxKþæwd kwÄÛ MVËd iÖoxli lyËMk lwËpwk-
eÞþæwËg GkÕe ewlwgbËlk pwItwËK ZygÛZk KËk„ PxlöËmk bmËK
pwxggÖlöwp gwpwk, fkkØL Awpib, Awpowd pwgyg eÞiÖL dZ×d iÖËLk
Awxghêwg pt„ 1942 owËl XwKwt eÞxZxÅZ ‘eÔgê ewxKþæwd owxpZø
ovob’ MÞwiyY Rygd Agl¹d KËk, eÖ^xa owxpZø ÌaËK iÖoxli ovÆÚxZk
Dewbwd MÞpY KËk Ggv Awkxg-fwkxo m˲k gøgpwk gwxrËt dZ×d owxpZø
kPdwk eÞþæwg MÞpY KËk„ Ñotb owŒwb ÌpwËod I Ñotb Awly Awpowd GËZ
ÌdZÚZò Ìbd„ LÖg þñwhwxgK Zwkw ‘iÖoxli þñwaê’ËK owiËdk xbËK xdËt
AwËod„
føwxoýU-xgËkwcy ÌlLK I xmùey ‘eÞMxZ ÌlLK oáN’ eÞxZÅw KËk Ggv oËáNk
iÖLe¢ ewxqK ‘eÞxZËkwc’ eÞKwm KËk gwvlw owxpZøËK eÞxZgwby I
MYiÖLy ÌPZdwt D§Ö¦ KËkd„ ZkØY Dbytiwd Mùe-ÌlLK ÌowËid PëbÛ oËáNk
owËa NxdÅhwËg RxrZ xQËld„ xZxd 1942 owËl GK eÞxZgwby xixQËl
ÌdZÚZò xbËZ xMËt xdpZ pd„ gwi cwkwk Adø mx£ßiwd ÌlLK xQËld kËYm
bwm†®, dÙËeëbÛPëbÛ ÌMwþñwiy, xKkYm‰k Ìod†®, AP×øZ ÌMwþñwiy
eÞiÖL„ Zwkw AËdËK KawowxpxZøK xpËoËg dwi KËkd„
iÖbÛYjËìèk eÞPld Ggv e¢ex¢Kwk eÞKwm oioÔË¢ MÞxaZ„ XwKwt gwŠwlw
jìè (1860) eÞxZÅwk gQk GËK GËK iwxoK ‘KxgZwK×oÖiwgly’ (Ìi, 1860),
iwxoK ‘iËdwkx™Kw’ (RÖd 1860), ewxqK eËk iwxoK ‘dggøgpwk ovxpZw’
(AwMýU 1860), iwxoK ‘ovÆwk ovËmwcdy’ (1860) eÞKwxmZ pt„ eËkk gQk
xgLøwZ ow®wxpK, eËk ÑbxdK ‘XwKw eÞKwm’ (iwPêê 1861) eÞKwxmZ pt,
jwk AwtÖ xQl eÞwt mZ gQk„ XwKw eÞKwËmk iÖLø hÔxiKw xQl kwRÐdxZK,
AaêÐdxZK I owiwxRK ovgwb exkËgmd; ZËg KxgZw, eÞgìc, oiwËlwPdw,
ovÆÚxZ-ovgwb BZøwxbI exkËgmd Kkw pËZw„ GKxU exkovLøwd ÌaËK
Rwdw jwt Ìj, 1860 ÌaËK 1900 owl ejêìæ Pxlöm gQËk 60-Gk AxcK GkÕe
ÑbxdK, ow®wxpK, ewxqK, iwxoK e¢ex¢Kw eÞKwxmZ pËtËQ„ G†Ëlwk iËcø
eÔËgêw£ß KxgZwK×oÖiwgly I XwKw eÞKwm QwrwI ‘xpëbÖ xpÐZxnYy’
(ow®wxpK, 1865), ‘xi¢eÞKwm’ (1870), ‘gwìcg’ (iwxoK, 1874), ‘hwkZ
oÖpÕb’ (iwxoK, 1879), ‘XwKw ÌMËRU’ (ow®wxpK, 1886) BZøwxb
DËlöLËjwMø„ KxgZwK×oÖiwgly dwi ÌaËKB eÞiwxYZ pt GxU owxpZøxgntK e
¢„ ex¢Kwk DË¥mø o¹Ëìc glw pt ‘gŠyt KxgZwk DuKnêowcd I xg¦ KwgøKlw
eÞPwk §wkw Rdi¡lyk KløwY gcêd„’ KwlyeÞodí ÌNwËnk oóewbdwt eÞKwxmZ
gwìcg ex¢Kwk Awbmê xQl gx‰iPëbÛ PË›wewcøwËtk ‘gŠbmêd’ (1872);
XwKw eÞKwm GxUËK ‘x§Zyt gŠbmêd’ gËl AxhxpZ KËk„ 1906 owl ejêìæ ex
¢KwxU xUËK xQl„ GxUI owxpZøxgntK e¢„ ‘xP£kx™Kw’ËK ‘ebøity iwxoK e¢’
glw pËtËQ„
xgm mZËKk eÞai 47 gQËk jÖËMk exkgZêd, xmqw I šwËdk xgþæwk Ggv
oÖËjwM-oÖxgcw gÙx¦k owËa ex¢Kw-xmùeI DdíZ I oiÙ¦ pËtËQ„ G eËgê
DdíZiwËdk e¢ex¢Kwk iËcø xQl ‘eÞxZhw’ (iwxoK, 1911), Gi Gd hbÛ
oóewxbZ ‘XwKw xkxhD I oxóild’ (1912), dËkmPëbÛ Ìod†® oóewxbZ
‘KËlöwl’ (1923), Ìiwpwóib KwËoi oóewxbZ ‘Axhjwd’ (iwxoK, 1926), Ñotb
AwgÖl ÉËod oóewxbZ ‘xmLw’ (gwxnêK, 1927), gÖ¦Ëbg goÖ I AxRZ b£
oóewxbZ ‘eÞMxZ’ (iwxoK, 1927), ÌK Gi AwgbÖk kpiwd oóewxbZ ‘oét’
(1928), xKkYm‰k Ìod†® I AP×øZ ÌMwþñwiy oóewxbZ ‘eÞxZËkwc’ (1942)
BZøwxb„ eÞxZhw, KËlöwl, eÞMxZ, xmLw, eÞxZËkwc eÞhÙxZ ex¢Kwt
KxgZw, Mùe I eÞgìc Ggv iddmyl AwËlwPdw eÞKwxmZ
pËZw„ kgyëbÛxgËkwcy x¢Ëmw£k gwvlw owxpËZøk eÞg£ßw I Avmybwk
dËkmPëbÛ ÌodM® I gÖ¦Ëbg goÖ KËlöwËlk iwcøËi AwZôeÞKwm
KËkd„ KlKwZwk ‘Kwxl-Kli’ (1926) kgyëbÛxgËkwcy ÌPZdwËK AwËkw ÌgMgwd
KËk ÌZwËl„ xmLw I eÞxZËkwËck ÌlLK ÌMwÅy xQËld eÞMxZmyl xPìæwk
AMÞbÔZ„
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gwvlw hwnwk lwlËd iÖoliwdËbk hÓxiKw

Ñotb Awmkwf Awly


IËtgýUwËkk hwnwt, ‘hwnw pËâQ oÙxÄKZêwk ZwuqxYK bwd’ (Language
was the immediate gift of God). gwvlw AwiwËbk hwnw, gwvlw AwiwËbk
Awmw, gwvlw AwiwËbk eÞwY„ GB gwvlwËK ÌKëbÛ KËkB AwgxZêZ pt
eÞxZxU gwvlwËbmyk oÖL-bÖ:L, gøaw-Ìgbdw, Awmw-AwKwáqw„ gwvlw
hwnwB ZwËbk ogwk dtixY, ZwËbk pÕbþeëbd„
gwvlw hwnw ÌKwËdw owcwkY hwnw dt„ Gk kËtËQ GK NUdwgÉl, HxZpøit
BxZpwo„ eÙxagyk BxZpwËo GxUB GKiw¢ hwnw jwk þñyKÚxZk Rdø
ovMÞwi KËkËQ GKxU eÖËkw RwxZ, pwxoiÖËL mwpwbZ gkY KËkËQ AMxYZ
iwdÖn„ eÙxagyk BxZpwËo GxUB GKiw¢ hwnw jwk Rdø ovMÞwi Rdô
xbËtËQ GKxU þñwcyd, owgêËh#i Ìbm gwvlwËbm„
1931 xLÛÄw˲ grÖ fxKk AwxgûKÚZ xgLøwZ ipwþÿwd flKxUËK (The
Mahasthan Plaque) ÌKD ÌKD Awxb gwvlwk ‘eÞwPydZi’ xdbmêd xpËoËg
xgËgPdw KËk awËKd (Agmø xgLøwZ ‘PjêwPjêø xgxdúPt’-G jwguKwËl eÞw®
gwvlw owxpËZøk eÞwPydZi xdbmêd xpËoËg owgêRdydhwËg þñyKÚxZ
ÌeËtËQ)„ G xgntxU eÞiwY KËk Ìj, hwnw†ËâQk iËcø gwvlw dgoÙÄ dt„ jxbI
Indo-Aryan exkgwËkk AìæMêZ eÔgêwélyt eÞwKÚZ ÌMwÅy ÌaËK G hwnwk
D¨g, AwjêËbk oitKwËl Gk BxZpwo ÌeÞwxaZ„ ÌKwËdw ÌKwËdw ex¡Z GiËdw
bwxg KËkd Ìj, oiÛwU AËmwK, GidxK ipwixZ gÖ¦I, DeipwËbËmk eÔgêwéËlk
eÞRw owcwkY gw xmnøËbk owËa ÌjwMwjwËMk ÌqË¢ KLËdw KLËdw GKxU
xgËmn ckËdk gwvlw ‘xlxe’ gøgpwk KkËZd„ eÞwK-Awjê jÖËM gwvlwt
bÛwxgr, iËŠwxltwd, ÌhwU-Pyd Kl˹wWw DuoRwZ ÌlwKRd gogwo KkZ„ Zwkw
bÛwxgr, ÌhwU-Pyd Aagw iÖ«w hwnwt Kaw glZ„ †® jÖËMB Awjê ohøZwk
owËa gwvlwk eÞai ÌjwMwËjwM þÿwxeZ pt„ xKìç Awjê ohøZwk owËa
gwOwxlËbk pÕbtR I KwjêKk ovËjwM eÞxZxÅZ pItwk AwËMB ewlê kwRwkw
gwvlwËK Ìg#¦ cËiêk AdøZi eyVþÿwËd exkYZ KËkxQËld„ Awjêkw Delx³ KËk
Ìj, ÌKwËdw ovÆÚxZk xgdÄowcd Aagw ÌoxU xdxû¢ßt KËk Z×lËZ pËl ogêeÞai
hwnw xgKÚZ gw cµvo Kkw eÞËtwRd„ ovÆÚZ Ggv eÞwKÚZ hwnyËbk
oÖexkKxùeZ P¢ßwËìæk fËl xdkyp opR-okl gwvlwk Axcgwoykw ZwËbk xdR
hwnw hÖlËZ ÂkØ KËk„ oÖdyxZ K×iwk PË›wewcøwt oËëbpwZyZhwËg
eÞiwY KËkËQd Ìj, AwjêebwdZ gwvlwËbm hÓLË¡k ZuKwlyd Axcgwoykw
ZwËbk oiËtk iÖËLk hwnw hÖËl ÌjËZ gwcø pt„ xKìç ÌjËpZ× ovÆÚZ ÌKwËdw
KwjêKk Kaø hwnw xQl dw Ggv Ìo oit eÞwt og xKQÖB ovÆÚZËZ xlxLZ
AwKwËk awKZ, RdMËYk GKxU Avm ÌM#ryt eÞwKÚZ dwËi Zuoi eÞcwd GKxU
xgËmn eÞwKÚZ hwnwt KawgwZêw glËZ ÂkØ KËk„ Adwjê, bÛwxgr, ÌhwU-
Pyd, iÖ«w Ggv ÌKwl Gkw ogwB ÌM#ryt eÞwKÚZ Ae¸vËm Kaw glËZ awËK
Ggv ZwËbk Kaø-hwnw ÌaËK AËdK m² cyËk cyËk GB xgËmn ckËdk eÞwKÚZ
hwnwk þÿwd KËk Ìdt„ cyËk cyËk GB ÌM#ryt eÞwKÚËZk Ae¸vm eÞwPyd
gwvlw hwnwk oÙxÄ KËk„ xKìç jwkw gwvlwk GB eÞwPydkÕËe Kaw glZ,
Awjêkw ZwËbk xdØgËYêk iwdÖn I ÌóöâQ gËl Z×âQ šwd KkZ„ GidI bwxg
Kkw pËZw Ìj, jwkw AþeÙmøËbk GB ‘AijêwbwKk’ hwnwt Kaw gËl Zwkw
AgmøB dkËK eÞxq® pËg„ AZyg bÖËhêwMøRdK xgnt Ìj, jxbI ÌMwewl Ìbg
Ggv Zwk gvmckËbk DeipwËbËmk GB AvËm xZd mZwxcK gQËkk
kwRZòKwËl xPìæwhwgdwk ÌqË¢ xgxhdí xbËK gwvlw ÌM#kËgk myËnê
Awoyd pËtxQl, Zawxe gwvlw hwnw ÌKwËdw DËlöLËjwMø oiÙx¦ ARêd KkËZ
ewËkxd„ Gk opR-okl KwkY pËlw xpëbÖ oiwR ogêbwB AþeÙmøËbk oÖdwi-
pwxdKk GB Kaø hwnwËK NÙYwk ÌPwËL ÌbLZ„ fËl gwvlw hwnw ZLd ejêìæ
AwËb# ÌKwËdw xlxLZ kÕe cwkY KkËZ ewËkxd„
ewlËbk eËk AwËod Ìod kwRwkw„ Zwkw eÞwt GK m’ gQk mwod
KËkd„ ZwËbk KwËQI gwvlw AþeÙmøËbk hwnw xpËoËg DËexqZ xQl„ xKìç
1201 xLÛÄw˲ iÖoliwdËbk gŠ xgRt gwvlwk Rdø GK dgjÖËMk oÔPdw
KËk„ gwvlw hwnwk AdÖKÓl exkËgËmk oÙxÄ pt Ggv eÞcwd hwnw xpËoËg
eÞxZxÅZ pItwk oÖëbk oÖËjwM-oÖxgcwI AwËo„ iÖoliwdËbk gwvlw xgRËtk
oÔPdwt glËZ ÌMËl gwvlw owxpËZø DËlöLËjwMø ÌZid xKQÖB xQl dw„ ÂcÖ
ZwB dt, xmxqZ ÌmÛYy G hwnwt ÌKwËdw xbd PPêwI KËkxd„ owZPxlömxU
KxgZwI ogêowKÓËlø PwkmZ AwxmxU eOzxZovgxlZ PjêwPjêø xgxdúPËtk
hwnw (GLd ÌaËK Pjêweb glw pËg) xgËmnšËbk AxhiËZ ‘owxpËZøk AxZ
q×bÛ Avm’ xpËoËg MYø Kkw pt„ Gk D¨gËK eÞcwdZ ZwxìèK Ìg#¦Ëbg ciêiZ
RdxeÞt Kkwk eÞtwËo kxPZ gËl iËd Kkw pt„ ‘Ìl#xKK’ ÌaËKB Gk D¨g NËU„
PjêweËbk oxVK Kwl jwB ÌpwK dw ÌKd owcwkYhwËg ex¡Zkw iËd KËkd,
iÖoliwdËbk AwxghêwËgk AwËM gÛwÊYø mwodgøgþÿwt iÖ£ß owxpZø
oÙxÄËZ ÌKwËdw þÿwdyt hwnwËK oÖËjwM Ìbtw ptxd Ggv Zwkw ovÆÚZ
Qwrw og hwnwËK xdxn¦ KËk kwLËZd„
xdØgxYêZ GKxU oÖLøwZ ovÆÚZ ÌmöwËK glw pËtËQ, ‘AÄwbm eÔkwY’-Gk
Kaw xKvgw ‘kwËik PxkZ’ mÛgY KkËl ZwËK ‘Ìk#kg’ dkËK xdxq® Kkw pËg :

AÄwbm eÖkwYwxY kwioøËP#k ZwxdP


hwnwtwv iwdg: oÛZòw Ìk#kgv dkKv gÛËRø„„

þñwhwxgK KwkËYB gwvlw hwnwt owxpZøPPêw Ìo xbd xQl Aoºg„ byËdm


PëbÛ ÌoËdk hwnwt :
If a person hears the stories of Eighteen Puranas or of the ramayana
recited in bengali, he will be thrown into the hell called Raurava [History of
Bengali Language and Literature, P.5]
glwgwÉlø, iÖoliwd mwoK xoKwëbwk mwp, ÌpwËod mwp, gkgK mwp Ggv
ekwMl Lwd eÞiÖL kwRdøgËMêk eÙÅËewnKZw dw awKËl ‘AþeÙmøËbk
hwnw’ gwvlw A‰×ËkB xgdÄ pËZw„
iÖoxli mwod eÞxZÅwk AdøZi †kØZòeÔYê flwfl GB Ìj, šwd I owxpZø Kwjê
¢ßËik ÌqË¢ gÛwÊYømx£ßk GKâQ¢ AwxceËZø hwOd ckl Ggv gYêgwËbk
xdMr ÌaËK xpëbÖcymx£ßËK owcwkYhwËg iÖ£ß Kkw oºg pËlw„ gÛwÊY Ggv
AgÛwÊY G bÖ’Ëtk ÑgcwdÖM Kwjêcwkwt iÖoliwdkw AwËb# ÌKwËdw
ewaêKø xgËgPdwt Ìddxd„ šwd AwpkËYk ÌqË¢ ZwËbk ogwBËKB oiwd iËd
Kkw pËZw„ ZwËbk bwfZxkK Agþÿwd xdYyêZ pËZw Ìicwk
xhx£ËZ„ iÖoliwdkw gwvlwËK ÂcÖ Ìj DdôÖ£ß pÕbËt þñwMZ Rwdwt ZwB dt,
G jwguKwl DËexqZ GB hwnwËK owxpZø ÌqË¢ Zwkw GK dgRdô bwd
KËk„ 1350 xLÛÄw² dwMwb iÖoliwdkw gËŠk xgxhdí AélËK GKyhÓZ KËk Ggv
gwvlw hwnw I owxpËZøk eÙÅËewnËKk hÓxiKw ewld KkËZ ÂkØ
KËk„ GhwËg gwvlw hwnwt dg dg owxpZø oÙxÄËZ D¥yedwk oéwk pt„
kwRKyt eÙÅËewnKZwk gËb#lËZ owMËkk D£wl ÌXDËtk iËZw gwvlw hwnw
gËŠk ogê¢ eÞowk lwh KËk„ D^P×-xdPÖ, cdy-xdcêd ogwk KwËQ gwvlw
hwnw Ìe^#QËZ ÂkØ KËk Ggv og Kwjê¢ßËi, og hwgdwxPìæwt gwvlw
eÞcwd hÓxiKw ewld KkËZ awËK„ xpëbÖ-iÖoliwd ogwB GB kwRKyt
eÙÅËewnKZwËK þñwMZ Rwdwt Ggv Gk xpZKk AgþÿwdËK ogêwìæKkËY
DeËhwM KkËZ awËK„
gwvlw hwnwk eÔYêwŠ AqËkk iwcøËi xlxLZ Abøwgxc eÞwPyd jZ eÖ^xa-
eÖþæK AwxgûKÚZ pËtËQ Gk iËcø AdøZi ogËPËt eÖkËdw eÖ^xaxU pËlw
gr× P¡ybwËok gw x§R P¡ybwo xgkxPZ mÛyKÚnä KyZêd, jwk kPdwKwl 1400
xLÛÄw˲k ÌmnwËcê Aaêwu iÖoliwd mwodwiËl„ AËdËKB GxUËK eÔYêwŠ
gwvlw AqËk kxPZ ogËPËt eÖkËdw MÞìÿ gËl bwxg KËkd„ glw gwÉlø,
‘PjêwPjê xgxdúPt’ owgêRdydhwËg gwvlw hwnwk AwxbZi ew¡Öxlxe gËl
þñyKÚZ pt„
kwiwB ex¡Z §øaêpyd hwnwt gËŠk iÖoxli xgRtËK ‘þñMêyt Awmygêwb’
xpËoËg DËlöL KËk iÖoliwdËbk hÓtoy eÞmvow KËkd„ ‘mÔdø eÖkwY’-Gk
‘xdk™Ëdk Dûôw’ xmËkwdwiyt AcøwËt iÖoliwdËbk ciêwgZwk xpËoËg xPx
¢Z Kkw pt, jwkw xK dw gÛwÊY I ÌodkwRwËbk ÑþñkmwoËdk Dueyrd I
AZøwPwk ÌaËK RdMYËK iÖ£ß KËk„ xgþôËtk xKQÖ ÌdB, xgbˆ owxpZø-
oiwËlwPK eÞia ÌP#cÖky x§cwpyd hwnwt þñyKwk KËkd : ‘gwvlw owxpËZøk
Rdô pt iÖoxli mwodwiËl„’
eÞLøwZ BxZpwoxgb Wƒk iÖpwóib Ìiwpk Awly iÖoliwdËbk gwvlw hwnwk
eÞmvodyt eÙÅËewnKZwk xgþæwxkZ xggkYy eÞbwd KËkËQd : “LÖg oºgZ
Rwlwl Dbzbyd iÖpwóib mwËpk kwRZòKwËl (1415-1431 xLÛÄw²) eébm
mZËKk eÞaiwvËm Kxg KÚx£gwËok kwiwtËYk gwvlw AdÖgwbB gwvlwt eÞai
DËlöLËjwMø owxpZøoÙxÄ„ Kxg-eÙÅËewnKZw eÞbwËdk Rdø ÌM#Ërk
mwoËKk hÓtoy eÞmvow KËkd Ggv DËlöL KËkd, kwRwk Awšw AdÖowËkB
xZxd IB AdÖgwbKiê oóewbd KËkd„ Zwk eËkk DËlöLËjwMø owxpZøKiêxU
pËlw iwlwck goÖ xgkxPZ, jwk DËlöL AwËMB Kkw pËtËQ„ iwlwck goÖ
iÖxmêbwgwb ÌRlwk ‘K×lyd’ MÞwËik gwxoëbw xQËld„ oÖlZwd BDoÖf
mwËpk oit (1474-1482 xLÛÄw²) iwlwck goÖ owxpZø PPêw KËkd„ oÖlZwd
BDoÖf mwËpk eÙÅËewnKZwt Kxg iwlwck hMgZ MyZwk bmi I GKwbm
AcøwËtk Iek xhx£ KËk Zwk ‘mÛyKÚnä-xgRt’ Kwgø kPdw KËkd„ gwkgK
mwp Aagw BDoÖf mwp KxgËK ‘†YkwR Lwd’ DewxcËZ hÓxnZ KËkd„ Kxg
DËlöL KkËZ ÌhwËldxd Ìj, xdØgYê xpëbÖ ‘mÔbÛ’Ëbk iÔl ‘eÖkwY’ ÌaËK ewV
xdxn¦ awKwk KwkËYB xZxd IB KwgøkPdwt DuowxpZ pËtxQËld„ Bxltwo
mwpy jÖËM AwËkw KËtKRd Kxg LøwxZ ARêd KËkxQËld„
ÉËod mwxp jÖËM Ìgm KËtKRd LøwxZiwd Kxg, Ìjid xgRt†®, xgeÞbwo
xeelwB, jmkwR Lwd, KgyëbÛ ekËimðk, mÛyKwk dëby ZwËbk Kwgø kPdw
KËkd„ ÉËod mwËpzk kwRËZòk (1493-1519 xLÛÄw²) eÞai xbËK, LÖg oºgZ
1494-95 xLÛÄw˲, xgRt†® ‘ebôeÖkwY’ kPdw KËkd„ xgeÞbwo xeelwB eÞwt
GKB oiËt kPdw KËkd oeêeÔRwe¦xZk Iek eÞYyZ ‘idowiŠl’„ ÉËod mwpy
jÖËMB jmkwR Lwd kPdw KËkd ‘mÛyKÚnä-xgRt Kwgø’„ ÉËod mwËpzk
Ìodwcøq Ggv P›MÞwËik mwoK (Mhdêk) ekwMl LwËdk eÙÅËewnKZw lwh
KËkd KgyëbÛ ekËimðk Ggv ZwkB (ekwMl LwËdk) AdÖËkwËc ‘ipwhwkZ’-Gk
AvmxgËmn xZxd gwvlwt AdÖgwb KËkd„ ekwMl LwËdk eÖ¢ QÖxU Lwd Kxg
mÛyKwk dëbyk eÙÅËewnKZw KËkd„ Zwk AwËbm-AdÖ¢ßËi mÛyKwk dëby
‘ipwhwkËZk AmðËic egê’ AdÖgwb KËkd„ dÖokwZ mwpz þñtv ipwhwkËZk
Aek GKxU AdÖgwbKËiêk Aaêwtd KËkd„ xKìç ÌoB kPdw AwËlwk iÖL
ÌbËLxd„ dÖokZ mwËpk eÖ¢ xfËkwR mwËpk eÖÅËewnKZwt x§RmÛyck dwËi
Aek GKRd Kxg ‘xgbøwoÖëbk’ ipwKwgøxU kPdw KËkd (iÖpwóib Ìiwpk Awly,
xpýUÛ Ag xb iÖoxlio Ag ÌgŠl, xktwb, 1985, eÙÅw 856-858)„
iÖoxli mwoKkw gwþæxgKB gwvlw hwnwk eÙÅËewnKZwk iwdËo ogêwZôK
eÞËPÄw MÞpY KËkd„ ‘mÛyKÚnä KyZêd’-Gk kPxtZw gr× P¡ybwo ÌM#Ërk
kwRbkgwËk DexþÿZ pËt oŠyZ exkËgmËdk Rdø kwRKyt AwiìèËYk oóiwd
lwh KËkd„ AwËMB DËlöL Kkw pËtËQ, oÖlZwd gwkgwK mwËpk KwQ ÌaËK
owZ gQk Kwl AxZeÞËtwRdyt kwRKyt eÙÅËewnKZw lwh KËk iwlwck goÖ
‘mÛyKÚnä xgRt’ Kwgø oóeÔYê KkËZ oiaê pd„ oÖlZwd þñtv KÚx£gwoËK
iwløhÓxnZ KËkd, Kxgk Rdø jw xQl xgkl ijêwbw lwËhk AdÖei GK
NUdw„ byËdm PëbÛ ÌodI xdx§êcwt þñyKÚxZ eÞbwd KËkËQd Ìj, "We are led
to believe that when the powerful Moslem sovereigns of Bengal granted
this recognition to the vernacular literature in their own courts, Hindu
Rajas naturally followed the suit."
Kaø hwnw ÌaËK xlxLZ hwnwt gwvlwk D£kËYk Ìj eÞx¢ßtw ZwËZ iÖoliwd
kwRdøgËMêk AxZ KwjêKk I fleÞoÔ eÙÅËewnKZwk Kaw gþçZ ÌKD-B
AþñyKwk KkËZ ewkËg dw„ G eÞoËŠ DËlöL Kkw ÌjËZ ewËk Ìj, iÖoliwdËbk
þñYêjÖËM gËŠ gÉovLøK iÖoliwd ÌlLËKkI Awxghêwg NËUxQl„ ‘BDoÖf-
RÖËlLw’ LøwZ iÖpwóib owxMËkk iËZw ipwd gøx£ßZò Zbwdyìæd ÌM^wrw
ÌiwlöwËbk ht-hyxZËK oóeÔYê DËeqw KËk xdhêËt DdôÖ£ß iËd Kwgø kPdw
KËk jwd„ Ñotb iÖlZwd, pwRy Ìiwpwóib, ÌmL iÖZwxlg Ggv Aw²Öddgy
eÞKwËmø gwvlwk †YKyZêd KËkd„ ¢Ëtwbm mZËK pRkZ dÔk K×ZgÖl AwlËik
ipwd xeZw, xjxd ew™wg ÌaËK gwvlwt PËl GËoxQËld, Zwk xdËRk dwËik
ÌmËn ‘gwŠwly’ Dewxc ejêìæ ovjÖ£ß KkËZ x§cw KËkdxd„ owkw gËŠ xZxd
exkxPxZ lwh KËkxQËld ‘ÌmL AwlwIl pK gwŠwly’ dwËi„
o®bm mZËK Kxg AwgbÖl pwKyiB eÞai owxpZøoÛÄw, xjxd gwvlw hwnwËK
NÙYw eÞbmêdKwky gøx£ßËbk RNdø KwjêKlweËK xlxLZhwËg oiwËlwPdw
KËkd„ gwvlwk Ñgky m¢ØËbk xZxd eÞZøt I owpxoKZwk oËŠ ZwËbk
iËdwhwg exkgZêËdk Awpµwd Rwdwd Aagw xPkZËk gŠhÓxi ÌQËr jwItwk
ekwimê Ìbd„ gwvlwËbËmk iwdÖn gwþæxgKB ZwËbk døwtoŠZ AxcKwk
Awbwt Ggv ZwËbk iwZÚhwnwk þñyKÚxZ lwËhk Rdø ovMÞwi KkËZ awËK Ìj
ovMÞwi PËl mZw²yk ek mZw²y„ fËl gkKZ, owlwi, kxfK, RgµwËkk exg¢ kË£ß
kx™Z HxZpwxoK GK×Ëmk owfËlø D¥yxeZ pËt þñwcyd owgêËh#i
gwvlwËbm eÙxagyk iwdxPË¢ þÿwd KËk Ìdt„ eÙxagygøwey xgbøiwd Pwk
opoÛwxcK iwZÚhwnwk iËcø owgêRdydhwËg AwìæRêwxZK iwZÚhwnw
xbgokÕËe exkxPxpßZ GB ipwd GK×Ëmk Awikw AwR Ìe#kËgk owËa
Dbjwed KkËZ ewxk ÂcÖ GKxU KwkËY„ Awk ÌoxU pËlw iÖoliwdkwB ZwËbk
þñYêjÖËM gwvlwhwnwËK Rdô xbËt lwld I eÙÅËewnKZwk iwcøËi eÔYêwŠ,
oiÙ¦ I GKxU ÌgMgwd hwnw I owxpËZø kÕewìæxkZ KËkd„
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ÑoxdK kxfK×l BolwËik (R. 11 GxeÞl, 1953) KËŸB ogêeÞai DâPwxkZ
pt„ K×xilöw xh˃wxktw okKwxk KËlËR kxfK×l Bolwi Awiwk eÞZøq Qw¢
xQl„ GB kxfK×l BolwiB xQËld AwìæRêwxZK iwZÚhwnw xbgËok eÞai
eÞg£ßw I DËbøw£ßw„ Mother Language Lovers of the World dwiK GKxU
ovMVd LwrweÔgêK Gk MxZËK ÌgMgwd KËk Z×ËlxQËld„ G DËbøwËM Zwk
opËjw¦w xQËld P›MÞwi kwDRwËdk AwËkK hwnwÐoxdK AwgbÖo owlwi (R.
1951)„ Ìemwt xQËld xZxd Ìixkd Bx™xdtwk„ kxfK×l Bolwi
PwKxkRygy„ DhËtk AKõwìæ mÛi-NwËi I xPìæw-eÞxZhwt Ggv Ìicw-idËd
AgËmËn BDËdËÆw GK×Ëm ÌfgÛØtwxkËK AwìæRêwxZK iwZÚhwnw xbgo
ÌNwnYw KËkxQl„
eÞoŠZ GLwËd GKU× eUhÓxik Kaw DËlöL KkËZ pt„ kxfK×l Bolwo RdôMZ
gwOwxl! K×xilöw mpËkk kwRgwxr KóewD« Zwk Rdôþÿwd ‘MxY lR’ mynêK
GKxU xdhÙZËlwËK„ K×xilöw xh˃wxktw KËlËR Qw¢ awKwKwËl [1968-
1972] Zwk iËcø RwZytZwgwby ÌPZdwk DËdôn I xgKwm NËU„ xZxd ZLd
ÌaËKB kwRdyxZK ovÆÚxZ PPêw I AdÖmylËd iËdwËjwMy pd„ Qw¢lyËMk
ÌixdËfËýUw I AwbmêËKB xZxd Zwk kwRdyxZK ovÆÚxZPPêwk iwcøi xpËoËg
ÌgËQ xdËtxQËld„ xZxd 1970-71 owËl xh˃wxktw KËlR Qw¢ ovob ÌaËK
owxpZøe¢ oóewbK xdgêwxPZ pËtxQËld Ggv GK×Ëm ÌfgÛØtwxk 1972
xLÛÄw˲ xZxd ‘ÌiN ÌKËU oÔjê Ggwk pwol’ mynêK GKxU o‰ld Ìgk
KËkd„ oËgêwexk xZxd xQËld gyk iÖx£ßËjw¦w„ Ìo RdøB xZxd o‰lËdk
GkÕe dwiKkY KËkxQËld„
KËlR RygËdB xZxd KËtKxU ÌfgÛØtwxk eÞZøq I cwkY Kkwk oÖËjwM
ÌeËtxQËld„ Gk icø xbËtB xZxd xdR iwZÚhwnwk Kaw iËiê iËiê Delx³
KËkd„ xPìæw-ÌPZdw I eÞxZhwt xZxd iw, iwZÚhÓxi I iwZÚhwnwËK oËgêwâP
šwd KËkxQËld„ KwkY kxfK, Rgµwk, gkKZ, owlwpDx¥d eÞiÖËLk iwZÚhwnwk
Rdø AwZôZøwMB Zwk iËcø GB Delx³ Rdô xbËtxQl„ fËl xgËbm Zaw
KwdwWwt gogwo KËkI xZxd iÖpÔËZêk Rdø Zwk iwZÚhwnw I iwZÚhÓxik
Kaw hÖËl ÌjËZ ewËkdxd„ gkv BDËkwe, AwËixkKw I KwdwWw eÞhÙxZ Aél
¸iËYk fËl Zwk iËcø Ìj gøweKZk I dZ×dZk Delx³ I AxhšZwk Rdôwìæk NËU
Zwk iÔl xQl eÙxagyk xgxhdí hwnwËMwÅyk iwZÚhwnwËK kqw Kkw„ ÌKddw
xZxd lq KËkd BDËkwËe Ìgm xKQÖ q×bÛ I bÖgêl RwxZËMwÅyk hwnw
pwxkËt ÌMËQ Aagw xglÖx® NËUËQ iÔlZ oóeÞowkYgwbyËbk owvÆÚxZK
AwMÞwoËdk eÞgl Pwe I ZwËe„ GB Delx³RwZ ÌPZdw ÌaËKB LÖg oºg gwOwxl
kxfK×l Bolwi KwdwWwxhx£K Mother Language Lovers of the World MVd
KËkd„ fËl kxfËKk eËq KwR Kkw opR pt„ ZgÖ ZwËK AËdK bÖMêi ea I AËdK
gwcw-xgex£ xWOwËZ pt GK×mËK AwìæRêwxZK iwZÚhwnw xbgo ÌNwnYw
Ìbtwk Rdø„
GB lËqø xZxd RwxZoËáNk ipwoxPg Kxf AwdwdËK GK×Ëmk †kØZò, Zwuejê,
DË¥mø I ARêd oóeËKê gøwLøweÔgêK Gk Zwx£òK xbK AdÖcwgËdk Rdø
GKxU e¢ ÌlËLd 9 RwdÖtwxk 1988 xLÛÄw˲ Ggv owËa GB xbdxUËK
AwìæRêwxZK iwZÚhwnw xbgo xpËoËg xgËgPdw Kkw jwt xK dw Zw-I eË¢
DËlöL KËkd„ Gk RgwËg 23 RwdÖtwxk 1988 owËl Kxf AwdwËdk BdfkËimd
Axfowk gwOwxl pwowd ÌfkËb#o Rwdwd Ìj G ckËdk eÞþæwg ÌKwËdw
kwÄÛeq ÌaËK ÌeÞkY KkËZ pt„ ZËgB Zw MÞpYËjwMøZw ARêËd oiaê„ Gkek
kxfK×l Bolwi e^wPxU hwnwk eÞxZxdxc oiìñËt MVd KËkd A Group of
Mother Language Lovers of the World„ AwMÞËpk KwkËY AwËkw bÖËUw
hwnwËMwÅyk iwdÖnËK oóeÙ£ß Kkw pt„ GB owZ hwnwËMwÅy iwdÖËnk
iÖLø eÞg£ßw xdjÖ£ß pd kxfK×l Bolwi„ GB bËl AìæhÖê£ßËbk iËcø bÖ’Rd
gwOwxl, bÖ’Rd BvËkR, GKRd Rwiêwd, bÖ’Rd xfxlxeËdw, GKRd KwxâP,
GKRd KøwË«wxdo I GKRd xpxëbhwny xQËld„ Gkek ÂkØ pËtxQl þñwqk
ovMÞp Axhjwd„ Gk GK Kxe RwxZoËáN xdjÖ£ß KwdwWwk kwÄÛbÔZ
ÌWxhW fwIlwËkk KwËQ ÌeÞkY Kkw pt Zw xdxbêÄ ÌfwkwËi DeþÿweËdk
Rdø„ xZxd GxU AdÖËiwbËdk Rdø Zwk ÌbËmk ekkwÄÛ bfZËk ewxVËt
Ìbd„ ÌoLwËd eÞwt AwU-dt iwo xgl¹ pt„ ZwËZI bËi jwdxd kxfK×l
Bolwi„ Awmw I þñeí xdËt AËeqw KkËZ awËKd GKxU Âh iÖÖpÔËZêk
Rdø„ Gk iËcø xZxd BDËdËÆwk hwnw xghwËMk exkPwlK ÌRwËof eËlk owËa
ÌjwMwËjwM KËkd„ GKBhwËg BDËdËÆwk obk bfZËk KiêkZ Awdw iwxktw
iwBlËfk oËaI„ xZxd ZwËZ Duowpgø™K owrw Ìbd Ggv Zwk Zkf ÌaËK
e^wPxU ÌbËmk dwi xbËt IB og ÌbmËK MÞØËek eÞþæwg BDËdËÆwËZ
AwdÖÅwxdKhwËg DeþÿweËdk Rdø AdÖËkwc Kkw pt„ e^wPxU ÌbËmk iËcø
kËtËQ gwvlwËbm, hwkZ, KwdwWw, xfdløw« I pwËŠxk„ Gkek BDËdËÆwk
obk bfZk fÝwËëok eøwxko ÌaËK RwdwËdw pt G gøwewËk GB Ìbm†ËlwËK
eÙxagyk xgxhdí ÌbËmk oiaêd Awbwt KkËZ pËg„ GËZ eÞai owrw Ìbd
pwËŠxk 16 AwMýU 1999 owËl„ Gkek ÂkØ pt xdxbêÄ fkËi eÞþæwËgk
oiaêd„ ZwI GK oit Awbwt pËt jwt„ Zwkek gwvlwËbËmk ZuKwlyd xmqw
oxPg KwRy kxfKD¥yd Awpib, xmqwiìèy Go G GBP ÌK owËbK, gwvlwËbmþÿ
BDËdËÆwk oxPg eÞËfok Kxfl Dx¥d Awpib, fÝwËëok gwvlwËbmþÿ
kwÄÛbÔZ Ñotb ÌiwtwËŒi Awly, BDËdËÆwk obk bfZËkk KiêKZêw Uxd pK
eÞiÖËLk eÞËPÄwt I eÞjZímylZwt Zw AËdK bÔk GxMËt jwt„ ZËg
gwvlwËbËmk ZuKwlyd eÞcwdiìèy G gøwewËk bÛØZ gøgþÿw MÞpËYk fËlB
GK×Ëm ÌfgÛØtwxkËK AwìæRêwxZK iwZÚhwnw xbgo ÌNwnYwk xgntxU
ZòkwxìñZ pt„ Gk ÌeQËd xgËmðk 28xU ÌbËmk oiaêd xQl„ Gk iËcø
ewxKþæwdI AìæhÖê£ß„ 1999 owËlk 17 dËh¹k ÌoB gÉ KwxáqZ HxZpwxoK
AwìæRêwxZK iwZÚhwnw xbgo ÌNwxnZ pt Ggv xgmðgøwey Zw eÞPwxkZ
pt„ xgRt oÔxPZ pt gwvlw I gwOwxlk Zaw gwvlwËbËmk„
G xgRt I ÌM#kg DelËq kxfK×l BolwiËK Awxi Axhdëbd RwxdËt GKLwdw xPxV
xlxL„ Gk D£Ëk kxfK×l Bolwi 6-3-2000 owËl AwiwËK xlËLxQËld ‘xeÞt
xmqw†kØ, AwìæRêwxZK iwZÚhwnw xbgËok ÌeÞqweËU Awedwk ÂËhâQw I
AxhdëbËdk Rdø AwedwËK cdøgwb RwdwB„
1952 owËl eÙxagyk GKxU AéËlk xKQÖ ÌlwK iwZÚhwnwËK hwËlwËgËo Ggv
eÞËtwRËd xdËRk Rygd xbËt ZwËbk hwnw I ovÆÚxZËK ÌjhwËg ixpiwxìñZ
KËk ÌMËQd, 47 gQk ek eÙxagyk og K’xU ÌbËmk og K’xU hwnwk og
eÞxZxdxc GK¢ pËt Delx³ KËkËQd Ìj Zwkw Ìo xbd ÂcÖ ZwËbk hwnwxUËKB
dt, eÙxagyk og K’xU hwnw Ggv iwdÖnËK ixpiwxìñZ KËkËQd„ gwvlw AwR
eÙxagyk og K’xU hwnw- ovÆÚxZk kqw I xgKwËmk iÔl ÌeÞkYw„
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Awiwk iËdk KawxU

KwRy LÖkmybÖŒwiwd Duel


KxgZwxU Ìmn Kkwk ek Awiwk iËd pËlw GxU Adø KwËkw ÌlLw„ GKxU
xSkxSËk ÌoíËpk ÌQ^wtw Awiwk owkw MwËt gËt ÌMl Awgwk jLd erlwi„
ÌQwU ÌgwdUw oìæwdËbk xdËt gwowt GËoxQl„ Awiwk xbËK AËdKqY
ZwxKËt gll, Z×xi GKU× ÌmwI ÌZw, ÌZwiwk iwawk P×Ël pwZ gÖxlËt
ÌbB„ oìæwd bÖËUw KwËQ gËo Awiwk AwOÖl xdËt ÌLlw KkxQl, Awiwk Ìgwd
iwawk P×Ël AwOÖl xbËt xgxl KËk xbËZ lwMl, xVK Awiwk iw Ìjid iwawk P×Ël
xgxl ÌKËU xbËZd„ kwËRøk NÖi ÌPwËL ÌdËi GËlw Awiwk„
ZëbÛwk iËcøB GKxU Qëb iËd Ìbwlw xbËZ lwMl

Awiwk iwawk ÌKËm xgxl KBkw NÖi ewrwBZ iw


NÖËik iwËS þñed ÌbxL ÌZwiwt Awxi iw

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pËtËQ„ G Qwrw xgmwl GB RdeËbk iwdÖËnk Rdô iwxUk ÌKwËlB„ dwdy-
bwby, Lwlw, cwBiwk ojZí pwËZB RËdô GB bm ÌKwxUkI Ìgxm iwdÖn
eÞKÚxZk iËZwB ÌgËr DËVËQ„ kwRcwdy XwKwk gwBËk iwdÖn GLËdw iwËtk
ÌKwËl oìæwËdk NÖxiËt erw ÌbËL Ahøþæ„ xKQÖ AwcÖxdK iw KwËR Aagw
AKwËRI xdËRËK gøþæ kwËLd gËl ‘gÖtw’ o˹wcËd GKRd Axhš dwkyk pwËZ
AwbËkk oìæwd Z×Ël Ìbd lwld-ewlËdk Rdø; Ìjid MÞwËik GKRd iwËK oìæwd
lwlËdk owpwËjø pwZ gwxrËt Ìbd gr Ìgwd, f×eÖ, hwxg gw GKRd Rw„
mpËk hwMø DdíZ Kkwk Awmwt GB hwMøxgrx¹Z gÖtw AwËo„ gÖtw hwËlw
pËl oìæwd, iw-Lwlwk RwtMwt gÖtwk ÌoíËpk eÞZøwmy pt„ MÙxpYy,
MÙpþñwiy, ÌQwU KwËRk ÌQËl GidxK mðÂk-mwÂxrk KwËQI GB hwMøxgrx¹Z
dwky GK WwËK gÖtw pËt jwt„ AwqxkK gÖtwk Aaê xgiÔZê pËt ogêRd
exkxPZ MÙpexkPwxkKw, oìæwd ewxlKw Kwi MhËdêo pËt jwt Ìo„ iwËtk ÌKwl
h×Ël xMËt xm gËl IËV, ‘gÖtwk KwËQ ÌmwËgw’ gw ‘dxokËdk pwËZ
Lwg’„ Awxi Agmø gÖËK pwZ ÌkËL glËZ ewxk G ovLøw LÖgB Ki, ZËg ÌoB Ki
ovLøwI ÌdpwZ Ìfldw dt„
Awiwk glËZ GZU×K× oˉwP ÌdB Ìj Awiwk xdËRk Rdôþÿwd, Rdô
AwgpwItw, gwlø I ÑKËmwk Awiwk AwcÖxdK xgšwËdk AwmygêwËb hÓxiÅ
eÖ¢-Kdøw KwËQ cwËkI ÌN^nËZ ewkËg dw„ Awiwk oŠy, oway Awiwk
Rygdbw¢y, Awiwk iw„ gwvlwËbËmk Awk opoÛ ÌKwxU iwdÖËnk iËZw Awiwk
Rdô iwxUk ÌKwl ÌN^Ën„ hkw hwËbÛk gnêYeÖÄ Nd ogÖR g^wmSwr,
eÞwPyd AwiMwËQk ÌKwËl ÌgËr IVw xPkl ewZwk AwMwQw Awk LËrk Pwl
ÌaËK SËk erw gÙxÄk Rl Awiwk RËdôk owqy, oŠy I AwmygêwbKwky„ Awxi
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eÞKÚxZ iwËtk ojZí pwËZ ÌgËr DËVxQ„
ÑgmwËLk xgËKËl pVwuB AwKwm KwËlw pËt ÌiËNk owR xdËt
GËoËQ„ gwZwËo AwMwi gÙxÄk Vw¡w AwËiR„ Awiwk iw gÙxÄ-SËrk iwËSB
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xgRt MËgê ÌK^wPk hkw Awi xdËt iw DËV GËoËQd ÌeQËd Awxi, bÖ’RdB
KwKxhRw„
kwdíwNËkk ewËmB ÌQwU eÖK×k„ dwi ‘gwxlMwbwk eÖK×k’„ xdRêd NÖNÖ
WwKw bÖeÖËk ZwËlk †^xrk Iek iw AwiwËK xdËt gwxlMwbwk eÖK×Ëk iwQ
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LËrk Pwl ÌgËt xmxmk iwxUËZ SËk eËr„ gwBËk Ña Ña ÌRwQdw„ bwItwt
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kwRKdøw, Ìowdwk ÌK#Uwk ¸ik, ÑbZø, eqykwR Gkw og AwmewËmB AwËQ„
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Ròk pËl iw glËZd pwZ xbËt iÖËQ jxb RòkUw owxkËt xbËZ ewkËZd! gYêiwlw
pwËZ Lxr Awiwk iwËtk pwËZ„ iwxUk eÞbyËek AwËlwt iwbÖk ÌeËZ iw
erwËâQd„ ÌoB Awiwk gËYêk owËa owkw RygËdk Rdø exkPt„
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iw Z×B iwoÖbw Rwpwd, Z×B Awiwk iw„ Awxi ÌZwËKB owkw Rygd cËk
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þñËeí, iËd, xPìæwt, ÌPZdwt, AxhiwËd, Awiwk ÌlLwt, KxgZwt„
Kõwo fwBËh erwk oit iwawt Mùe erwk ÌewKw XÖxKËt xbËtxQËld ÌWwËko
oøwk„ eÞxl¢ßwe ÌWwËko, dgwgeÖk MhdêËiëU pwBÆ×Ëlk BvËkxR
xmqK„ L^wxU gwOwxlk ÌQËl pËtI oøwk xg¦ BvËkxRËZ Kaw glËZd,
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Rdø ÌWwËko oøwk iwËS iËcø Zwk BvËkR Aagw AwËixkKwd gìc×Ëbk xdËt
AwoËZd„ AwRËK Awiwk jZU×K× BvËkxRk gwpwbÖxk Zwk 98 hwM ewIdw
eÞxl¢ßwe ÌWwËkËok„
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dt, AwR Mùe erg, gwvlwt„ Awxi KwRy Ìiwpwóib mym I AwKw¥wo xdËRËbk
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gwlK pËt ÌjZ; Awk Awikw ÌZw ÌK^ËPw! g^wbk ZwrwËdw glxQ G Rdø, Æ×Ël
GKxU iþæ xUËdk NËk AwiwËbk Kõwo goZ„ ÌoB xUËdk NËkk Kxr gkMw
BZøwxbËZ AovLø g^wbk ZwËbk ovowk Rygd jwed KkZ„ oÖZkwv
erwËmwdwk f^wËK f^wËK g^wbËkk g^wbkwËiw ÌbËL AwiwËbk xP£
xgËdwxbZ pËZw ÑgxK! AwiwËbk iËcø bÖÄ×Zi xQl xblÖ G Kaw AwËMB
gËlxQ„ g^wbk Awk Ìo Ìjd GK owxkËZ PlZ„ G mwLwiÙMËbk owËa oLøZw
Kwi g^wbkwËiw KkËZ xMËt xblÖ Ìj Ìgm K’gwk ZwËbk Kwir ÌLËtËQ, Zw
AwiwËbk ogwk Rwdw„ ÌoB xblÖk ÌPwËLI AwR dykg eÞmí„ oøwk ÂkØ KkËld,
‘Awiwk GB hgNÖËk RygËdk Aekwpî Ìglwt b^wrwBtw ...
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gËl iËd pËZw„ Kùedwk Wwdw Awiwk Ìilw„ erËZ goËl Aagw ÌMweygwM
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Ìe^#ËQ ÌbËgd RdZwk KwËQ„

eÖrxQl Ìbm Aw†Ëd


erxQl gÖK gwOwxlk
Ròll gÖK gwOwxlk

lwl KËk ÌPwL gll Ikw


GLd ÌaËK DbÖê glxg ÌZwkw,
GLd ÌaËK DbÖê glxg ÌZwkw!!
hynY ÌkËM gll owkw Ìbm
lwR mkËik ÌdB xK ÌKwËdw Ìmn?
Awiwk hwnw, iÖËLk hwnw,
iwËtk hwnw, gÖËKk hwnw,
Ìo ÌZw Awiwk gwOlw hwnw
Ìo ÌZw Awiwk gwOlw hwnw!!

gwOlw gËl Qw¢ ÌRËl K×Ëiwk Ggv Pwnw


GB hwnwËZ Rdô Awiwk K^wbw Ggv pwow

eÞxZgwËbk lwl Aw†Ëd K^weËlw owkw Ìbm


fw†Ëdk GK okg ÌhwËk xQl myËZk Ìkm

Ikw Ìo xbd QÖrl †xl


Ikw ZLd QÖrl †xl
†^xrËt xbËlw iwawk LÖxl
lwm pËt jwt gkKZ-kxfK-owlwi
Rygd xbËl
xfxkËt xdËl
gwOlw hwnw
iwËtk hwnw
owlwi, ÌZwiwt pwRwk pwRwk owlwi„

RÖlÖ ÌZw Awiwk KxgZw eËr lwfwËZ lwMl„ hynY DË£xRZ pËl gll, ‘Pl, Awikw
ÌZwk KxgZw BË£fwËK ewxVËt xbB„’ VwK×kewrw ÌaËK Awxi Ìoxli, RÖlÖ,
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ovlwËe AwxgÄ pËt„ Qxg A^wKg G RdeËbkB eËU, hwËlwgwowk Z×xlËZ„

‘kÕeoy gwvlwk’ Kxgk hwnwt

Awxi jxb pZwi gdpvo


gdpvoy pËZ jxb Z×xi
ÌKwËdw GK xbMËìæk Rlxo^xr dbyk cwËk
cwd ÌqËZk KwËQ
xQexQËe mËkk xhZk
GK xdkwlw dyËr
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hwnwxPìæwt þñwËbxmKZw

mwtlw AwpËib
hwnw Gid GK iwcøi, jw pwbêø AdÖhÓxZËK opËR Ìe^#ËQ Ìbt KwxáqZ RËdk
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AwZôwk oóeËKêk iwdÖËnk owËa„ AwZôwk oóeËKêk iwdÖËnk iËcø eÞai
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KËk„ icøjÖËMk Kxg Aw²Öl pwxKËik opR DâPwkY ZwËbk eÞxZ :
‘Ìj oËg gËŠZ Rxdô xpvËo gŠgwYy
Ìo og Kwpwk Rdô, xdYêt d Rwxd„’
AwcÖxdKKwËl RËdô Awikw Agmø ZwËbk xeZÚexkPt xgnËt AdÖoìcwd Kkg
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pËg gwvlw AZøìæ mx£ßmwly I Hmðjêity hwnw„ G hwnwk MÞpYqiZw I
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eÞKwËmk Rdø oxVK, eÞwËtwxMK m˲k ÌKwËdw Ahwg ÌdB gwvlwk„ ZËg
gwvlw ÌKd DËexqZ pËg? eÙxagyk og hwnwB Aìæ:oóeKê j֣߄ xgRwZyt og
m˲k MÞpYËjwMø Aaêoóedí m˲k ÌKwËdw NwUxZ ÌdB gwvlwk„ ZËg NwUxZ
xKËok? xKËok Ahwg? Ahwg þñËbmËeÞËik„ ÌbmËK Awikw GLËdw eÞwY
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Awmw?’
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xgxgc kZd
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ekcd ÌlwËh i£ KxkdÖ ¸iY
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AwMwiy eÞRdôËK gwvlwhwny xpËoËg xgËmðk bkgwËk exkPt KxkËt
ÌbËgw„
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qiZw§Ëë§k AwgËZê xeÞt iwZÚhwnw

W. iwpiÖb mwp ÌKwËkmy


Languages are jealous sovereigns, and passports are rarely allowed for
travelers to cross their strictly guarded boundaries.
Rabindranath Tagore, 1935.
(Quoted from Rabindranath Tagore, the Myriad-Minded Man by Krishna
Dutta and Andrew Robinson; St. Martin's Press, New York, 1995,
Dedication Page).
1995 owËl AwPiKw GK AwiìèY GËlw eøwxko ÌaËK„ ÌoLwdKwk eÞwPøhwnw
eÞxZÅwËdk x§mZgwxnêKy DbjwxeZ pËâQ„ GxU ogêd xgmðxgbøwlËtkB
GKxU Avm„ nwËUk bmËKk iwSwiwxS ÌaËK Ìgm K’gQk ÌoLwËd Awxi
xmqKZw Kxk„ Awgwk 1992 owËl AwixìèZ pËtxQlwi xZdxU g£ßÚZwk
Rdø„ xKìç Ìo xhdí eÞoËŠ„ 1995 owËl ÌoLwËd Ìj AwìæRêwxZK AwËlwPdw
ohw pËlw ÌoUwk xmËkwdwi xþÿkyKÚZ pËtxQl ‘l^MzRz G eÖËhwtwk’
Aaêwu hwnw†Ëlw I qiZw„ Ìmn iÖpÔËZêk bwItwËZ ZxrNxr GKUw Ìeewk
Aaêwu eÞgìc ÑZxk Kklwi ‘lw l^Mz g^Mwxl fwoz I eÖËhwtwk’ Aaêwu gÉxgc
qiZw glËtk iÖËLwiÖxL gwvlw hwnw„ gwvlwt gZêiwËd Zwk GKxU
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eÞþæwg KkxQ : ‘qiZw§Ëë§k AwgËZê xeÞt iwZÚhwnw’„
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„ xKìç mpybÖlöwp, xolh^øw Ìlxhk KwQ ÌaËK eÞw® ZËaøk oÔ¢ cËk gwvlwk
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ovÆÚZ ovËjwRËdk eÞtwo PËl„ hwnw, dwi, GidxK AwPkYxgxcËZ oiøK
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xWxMÞk Axhoëbhê lw fwiz g^Mwxl b^ lw xlËZkwZ×økz bÖø ÌiwtwBËtdwR
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DejÖ£ßhwËg þñyKÚZ„ AxmxqZ ÌbmRËbk Ìbwldw ÌaËK kwRohw Agxc
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bwmêxdKkwI ÌeËZd Duowp Ggv DejÖ£ß eÖkÆwk„
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KkËld„ Zwk AwxghêwËgk fËl xpëbÖcËiêk eÖdRêdô Ggv owvÆÚxZK
kËdo^wËok oÔ¢ewZ NUl„ (lÖB kdÖ, l^øwbÖBoi, eøwxko, 1951, eÙ: 4,
101-103)„ Zw Qwrw Zwx£òK Ìg#¦ciê I ÌbmR xpëbÖcËiêk eÞhwËg oÙÄ
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ÌjËZ ewËk : AÄwbm eÖkwdwxd-kwioø PxkZwxdP
hwnwtwv iwdg : mÞØZòw : Ìk#kg dkKv gÛËRu
(iwdg hwnw Aaêwu gwvlwt jwkw AÄwbm eÖkwY, kwi PxkËZk Kwxpdy
ÂdËg, xdxúPZB Zwkw Ìk#kg dkËK Mid KkËg)„
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Kkw pt Ìo oiËt„
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GK ckËdk Awex£ AwËkwe KkËZ ÂkØ KkËld„ GKwxcK Kxg Agmø ÌowâPwk
pËtxQËld Gk xgkØ˦„ o®bm mZw²yËZ Kxg AwgbÖl pwxKi G ckËdk KwËRk
oÖewxkm jwkw KËkËQd ZwËbk KUÔ-KwUgø KËk gËlËQd, gwvlwt RdôMÞpY
KËk awKËlI Zwkw gkv xdgêwoËd PËl ÌjËZ ewËkd„ xZxd xlËLËQd :
Ìj oËg gËŠËZ Rxdô xpvËo gŠgwYy
Ìo og Kwpwk Rdô xdYêt d Rwxd
Ìbmy hwnw xgbøw jwk iËd d jÖjwt
xdR Ìbm ZøwMy ÌKd xgËbm d jwt„
AZ:ek AwiwËbk KwËQ exkbÙmøiwd pËlw GKUw dZ×d oioøw„ ÌoUw pËlw
Mbø gøgpwËkk oÔ¢ewËZ jw bxqY Gxmtwk Adøwdø hwnw†Ëlwk ÌqË¢I NËU„
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iÖoliwËdk ek GLd GKUw ZÚZyt kwRÐdxZK, AaêÐdxZK I owvÆÚxZK qiZw
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owiÛwRøgwby, xLÛÄyt Ggv xgšwdiÖLy eÞZyPø kÕËe„ eZ×êxMR, WwP,
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hwnw„ jw pItwk Zw pËlw, gwOwxl Aùe þñùe BvËkxR xmLl„ ÌKD ÌKD A…
ËfwWê-Køwx¹ÛËRk ex¡ZËbkI oiÖZl pItwk eÞtwËo QÖUl„ xKìç gwvlw bÛØZ
DdítËdk eËa cwxgZ pËlw, dZ×d xPìæwËPZdwk cwkK-gwpKkÕËe owxpZø I
xgšwdPPêw eÞowkZw lwh Kkl„
kwRÐdxZK qiZw GKxU dZ×d exkgZêd Awdtd Kkl jwËZ AwBd-AwbwlËZk
Ggv okKwxk ÌjwMwËjwËMk hwnwkÕËe BvËkxRËK eÞxZxÅZ Kkl„ BvËkxR
fwkxok þÿwd bLl Kkl (1835)„ fwkxo Zwk Qt m’ gQËkk hÓxiKw pwxkËt ¢ßËi
xglÖ® pËt ÌMl„ BvËkxR iwcøxiK I DâPZk xmqwk eÞcwd gwpËd exkYZ
pËlw„ xgMZ mZw²yk ZÚZyt bmK ÌaËK KlKwZw I XwKw xgmðxgbøwlËtk
xKQÖ xKQÖ xmqw Kwjê¢ßËi gwvlw gøgpÕZ pËZ awKl„ GhwËg ÌbLw jwt
ciêyt I kwRÐdxZK qiZw glt xKhwËg GËKk ek GK gwvlwt ovÆÚZ, Awkxg,
fwkxo I BvËkxR PwxeËt xbËtxQl„ xKQÖ ÌqË¢ gwOwxlk iwZÚhwnw
þñwhwxgK xgKwm xgxNíZ pËlw„ Awk xKQÖ ÌqË¢ GB hwnw†Ëlw gwvlwËK
oiÙ¦ Kkl„ gwvlw hwnwt dZ×d foËlk eÞwglø ÌbLw xbËlw„
gwOwxl eÞxZhwk DËdôËnk ÌqË¢ Agmø xdxpZ xQl Adø KwjêKwkY„ ZgÖ
Edxgvm mZw²yk cwkwgwxpKZwt kwRw kwiËiwpd kwt ÌaËK kgyëbÛdwa
VwK×k, CmðkPëbÛ xgbøwowMk I gx‰iPëbÛ PË›wewcøwt Ggv Adø AËdK
fkwxo owxpZøwdÖkwMy gwvlwËK GKxU AwcÖxdK hwnwt DdíyZ KkËZ
Axhlwny Ggv KwR KËk ÌMËQd Ìo lËqø„ kwRw kwiËiwpd xglwZ jwItwk eËa x
¢gYê kx™Z fkwxo eZwKwk eÞxZ mÛ¦w xdËgbd KËkxQËld gËl Rwdw
jwt„ gwOwxl Kxg iwBËKl icÖoÔbd b£ Agþÿwd KkËld ÌhoêwBËZ 1856 ÌaËK
1857 owl Agxc Ggv GB bÖB gQËkk lw Ìf^wËZd kPdwk hwnwìæk KkËld,
ÌbmËeÞiop gÉ dZ×d hwgcwkwk Awibwxd NUwËld Zwk xeÞt iwZÚhwnwt„
xgvm mZw²y pËlw GKxbK ÌaËK eÔYêwŠ o‰yYê RwZyt xPìæwiÖ£ß
xgmðRdydZwk Dbwk AwbËmê D§Ö¦ pItwk jÖM„ eÞwPø-eÞZyËPøk oxóild
Agmøºwgy pËt b^wrwl AËdK xbK ÌaËK„ hwnwk jÖ¦ËK hwËlwhwËg GxMËt
Ìdtwk Rdø ZLd Ìgm xKQÖ Ñodø owiËìæk eÞËtwRd pËt erl„ xgËmn KËk
GKRd ÌodwexZk„ ÌoB ÌodwexZ þñtv GKRd Kxg kwRxgËkwcy KxgZw kPdwk
Rdø jwËK ÌRl LwUËZ pËlw; xZxd KwRy dRkØl Bolwi xZxd jawaêB RwdËZd Ìj,

bÖMêi xMxk, Kwìæwk ikØ, bÖþæk ewkwgwk


lxáNËZ pËg kwx¢ xdmyËa jw¢ykw É^xmtwk!
xKìç jw¢ykw xK oxZø oxZø owgcwdy xQËld? eÞhÓZ exkiwËY owxpxZøK-
ÑgšwxdK kPdwoºwk gwvlw hwnwt eÞKwËmk ekI kwRÐdxZK qiZw glËtk
KwQ ÌaËK og oit DejÖ£ß þñyKÚZ Zwk pËlw dw„ KiêKw¡ GxMËt ÌMl dw
eÞZøwxmZ ogêeÞKwk xgntwgxlËK ÌKëbÛ KËk„ Gk iËcø GËlw 1947
owl„ xgËbmy mx£ß ÌlR †xUËt PËl ÌMl„ xKìç þñwcydZwk iÔlø xbËZ pËlw LÖg
Ìgxm„ ÌKddw oyiwËìæk bÖB xbËK QxrËt erËld gwOwxlkw„ GK xbËK xpxëb,
Adø xbËK DbÖêk eÞhÖËZòk KwËQ AwZôwÉxZ xbËZ AËdKUw gwcø pËld
Zwkw„ 1948 owl ÌaËK oËgêwexk 1952 owËlk GK×Ëm ÌfgÛØtwxk gwvlw
hwnwk eËq AwËëbwld pËlw jwËZ ovLøw†kØ dwMxkKËbk GB hwnwxUI
DbÖêk owËa AdøZi kwÄÛhwnwt exkMxYZ pt„ eËk Zw Gid kÕe exkMÞp Kkl
jw 1971 owËl hwnwZwx£òK RwZytZwgwËbk xhx£ËZ iÖx£ß ovMÞwËi ZygÛ
AwKwk cwkY Kkl„ ÌKwËdw eÞwxZÅwxdK xdtixdËbêm Ñbdxëbd gøgpwËk
AdÖoÙZ pItwk eÞËtwRdytZw ÌbLw ÌMl dw„ xKvgw gwcøgwcKZw awKl dw„
gÉ AwZôZøwËMk xgxdiËt ewxKþæwËdk gwvlwhwny ÌMwÅy xdËRËbk iÖ£ß
Kkl Ggv eÞxZÅw Kkl xdËRËbk owgêËh#i kwÄÛ„
GB ÌZw GKUw bÙÄwìæ : xKhwËg hwnw AwËkwpY KËk qiZwt!
bmêdyt Ggv jawËjwMø owfËløk ekI gwvlwËbËm gwvlw Awgwk GK ckËdk
xgeËbk iÖËLwiÖxL b^wxrËt„ eÞaiZ, glw eÞËtwRd xmqw ÌqË¢ gÉxgc KwkËY
AgdxZ NËUËQ bwkØY„ iwZÚhwnw gwvlw ÌmLwk ÌqË¢ ÌpwK gw eÞcwd
xgËbmy hwnw BvËkxRk ÌqË¢ ÌpwK, ÌbLw ÌMl lqøËjwMø qtqxZ„ Zwk Iek
oioøw pËlw Ìbm ZøwËMk xpxrK„ xgËmn KËk, BvËkxR hwny Ìbm†Ëlwt eÞaiZ
jÖ£ßkwÄÛ, Zwkek AËýUÛxltw, Gkek Bvløw« Awk hwkZ„ GLd hwËlw gwvlw
ÌmLwk eÞËtwRdI eÞwt AbÙmø pËt ÌMËQ„ ogwB Ìjd ÌUwËtËfl, xRAwkB
eÞhÙxZ ewo KkËZB gøxZgøþæ„ ZwB, gwvlwËbËmk ifþñl mpËkI GLd
xK«wkMwËUêd, BvËkxR iwcøËi eÞwBiwxk I ÌoËK«wxk Æ×l Ggv ÌKwxPv
ÌoëUwËkk kikiw gøgow„ Zwk Iek Awgwk pwRwk pwRwk gwOwxl ZwËbk
ÌQËlËiËtËbk DâPxmqwk Rdø ewVwËâQ ÌbËmk gwBËk„
G exkxþÿxZ eÞwcwËdøk oÖËjwM KËk xbËtËQ BvËkxR hwnwk Aùexgþæk
bqZw ARêdKwkyËbk„ GUw GKhwËg owiwxRK ovpxZk exkeìÿy„ GUw
AeÞËtwRdyt DâPidøZwk iËdwhwg Ggv iwZÚhwnwk eÞxZ PÔrwìæ Agšw I
AgËplw exkbÙÄ pËâQ eÞwtmB„ AaêÐdxZK þñwËaêk xiËak qiZw GLd
ÌbËmk hwnwk AMÞMxZk eÞx¢ßtwËK KkËQ exkPwldw„
gwvlw hwnw eÙxagyk bmxU ogËPËt Ìgxm eÞPxlZ hwnwk AdøZi„ 1755
owËl xkhwkl fkwxo eÞoËŠ Ìj gËlxQËld, ‘xdxúPZ, owiwxRK Ggv Ìj#x£ßK’
¢ßim gwvlwk ÌqË¢ ZwB exkbÙmøiwd„ Awmw Kkg Ìj, AbÔk hxgnøËZ gwvlw
qiZw §Ëë§k eÞËKwe ÌaËK ÌkpwB ewËg„ þñyt DdítËdk eËa AMÞokiwd awKËg
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gwvlw hwnwt ÑdkwRø

AkØYwh okKwk
AcøweK kxfK×l Bolwi ovgwbeË¢ GK xdgËìc xlËLËQd, (AËdK xmqËKk gwvlw
DâPwkY ¦ dt, 13 ÌfgÛØtwxk, 2010) ‘gwvlw hwnwk gøgpwk, gwdwd
DâPwkËY Pki ÑdkwRø xgkwR KkËQ„’
eËkk xbËdk GK KwMËR W. xgmðxRu ÌNwËnk xdgìc ‘gwvlw hwnw : hwgdw I
bÖhêwgdw’„ xmËkwdwËiB þeÄ, GB hwnw gøgpwËk Ìj ÑdkwRø PlËQ, Zw
Zwk bÖhêwgdwk KwkY„ xZxd xlËLËQd, ‘gwvlw hwnw AwR bÖkgþÿwk iÖËL
b^wxrËtËQ’„
GB ÑdkwËRøk xKQÖ DbwpkY ÌbLw ÌMl Ìo xbd (12 ÌfgÛØtwxk, 2010) GKxU
gBËtk eÞKwmdw DuoËgk xdiìèY ÌeËt„ LwËik IeËkk ÌlLw ‘Rwxpb AwKgk
ÌP#cÖky’k KwgøMÞìÿ AìæËk gwxpËk’„
ÌP#cÖky ebxgk eËk EcµêKiw (’) ÌKd? BvËkxRËZ eËoxoh ÌKËo Ecµê Kiw
lwËM (Ìjid Rahim's book); xKìç gwvlwt lwËM dw„ Ìjid Awiwk eZwKw, kxfËKk
gB BZøwxb„
ÌKwËdw xKQÖk Iek AËdøk AxcKwk ÌgwSwËZ GB o¹ìc eb pt„ Ìjog eËbk
DâPwkY þñkwìæ Zwk oËŠ ‘k’, Awk jwËbk DâPwkY plìæ ZwËbk oËŠ ‘Gk’ (gw
‘Ì’-Gk k-G-Kwk Ggv k) xghx£ß xgËct„
ÌKwËdw ÌKwËdw owvgwxbK Gog xgcwd RwËdd dw Aagw Zw AMÞwpø
KËkd„ 8 GxeÞl (2007) Awiwk Ìbm-Gk GKxU xmËkwdwi “MwBgwìcwt
‘Awlöwpk bl’k 17 oboø ÌMÞfZwk”„ ‘bl’k’ KawUw hÖl„ pËg bËlk Aagw bl-Gk„
Zw Qwrw Kwgø iwËdB ÌZw KxgZwk gB„ Gk ÌmËn Awgwk MÞìÿ ÌKd?
kgyëbÛdwaI Agmø KwgøMÞþÿ xlËLËQd; xKìç ÌKD eÞxZgwb dw Kkwt Zw
PwlÖ pËt ÌMËQ„
AdÖÅwËd Pgêø-ÌPwnø-Ìlpø-Ìet dwdw gþçk xgmwl AwËtwRd xQl„ xQl AËdK
†Yy gøx£ßk oiwËgm„ xKìç iËék ÌeQËd xgmwl gøwdwËk KËtKxU hÖl
AËdKËKB LÖg eyrw xbxâQl„ iÖLøËK ÌlLw pËtxQl ‘iÔLø’„ GB xdgìcKwËkk
dwiI xQl hÖl gwdwËd„
AìæËk-gwxpËk gBxU eÞKwm KËkËQd kdRÖ kwBi, KxgZw ov¢ßwxìæ
ÌaËK„ KxgZw ov¢ßwxìæ dwiUw Ìgm hwgdw RwMwt„ ov¢ßwxìæ iwËd iwËok
Ìmn xbd Aagw Aoit„ GLwËd ÌKwd AËaê?
Awgwk dwËik gwdwd eÞoËŠ xfxk„ GgwËkk dwi ÌmL pwxodw, xjxd MÞìÿKwk
Ggv ÌbËmk eÞcwdiìèy„ gwdwd hÖl ÌbLw jwt Zwk dwËik gwdwËdI„ Zwk
GKxU gBËtk dwi ‘kPdw oiMÞ’„ ilwËU MÞìÿKwk xpËoËg ÌlLw pËtËQ ‘ËmL
pwxodw’„ GLwËd G-KwkUw hÖl„ iwËSk G-Kwk (Ë) pËg dw, pËg ewËmk G-
Kwk (Ì)„
MZ 17 RwdÖtwxk (2010) gwvlw GKwËWiyk ‘ZkØY ÌlLK eÞKËùek’ D˧wcdy
AdÖÅwËd eÞKËùek eÞcwd eÞxmqK Kxg pwtwu iwiÖb gËld, ‘owxpËZøk iÔËl
pËâQ hwnw„ hwnw gøgpwËk ÌlLKËK oËPZd pËZ pËg„’
pwtwËZk GB ekwimê dZ×d xKQÖ dt„ ZkØY ÌlLKkw AËdËKB ZgÖ G
gøwewËk oËPZd dd„ xgbNÖËU og hÖl ÌbLw jwt ZwËbk KwkI KwkI ÌlLwt„ hÖl
ÌbLw jwt, KwËkw KwËkw dwËik gwdwËdI„
dwËik gwdwd eÞoËŠ glw pt, Zw xdËRk BâQwiËZw ÌlLwk AxcKwk kËtËQ
ogwkB„
Zw kËtËQ, xKìç jxZ xPËpßk RwtMwt xgoMê gøgpwËkk AxcKwk ÌdB„ AaP GB
hÖl ÌbLw jwt kwÄÛexZk dwËik gwdwËdI„
eÞwaxiK xmqw o®wËpk (7-13 RwdÖtwxk, 2010) Ì¢ßwreË¢ kwÄÛexZ, iìèy,
eÞxZiìèy Ggv oxPËgk dwËik gwdwËd hÖl ÌbËL PiËK DËVxQlwi„ Gid hÖl
Agmø eÞxZxbdB ÌbLw jwt„ ZgÖ xmqw iìèYwlt gËl Kaw!
ovgwbeË¢ eÞKwxmZ GB Ì¢ßwreË¢ kwÄÛexZ, eÞcwdiìèy, ovxmöÄ iìèYwlËtk
iìèy, eÞxZiìèy Ggv oxPg GB e^wPRËdk gwYy Qwew pËtËQ„ xKìç eÞcwdiìèy
Qwrw Awk KwËkw dwËik gwdwdB ¦ dt„
kwÄÛexZk dwi AwËM ÌlLw pËZw xRlöÖk kpiwd„ GLd GB oŒd gøx£ßk dwËik
AwËM ÌlLw pt Ìiwpwóib hÖl gwdwËd ‘Ìiw:’„ dwËik ÂcÖ GB Avm ovËqËe ÌKd?
ovËqe KkËZ pËlI xbËZ pËg xgëbÖ xPpß Ìiw.„ xgoMê (:) gwvlw Aqk„ Zw
xbËt m² gw dwi ovËqe Kkw jwt dw„
iìèy GKRd xPxKuoK Ww£ßwk„ ÌlLw pËtËQ ‘Ww:’„ GKB hÖl„ Ww: pËg dw,
pËg Ww.„ Zw Qwrw xZxd Ggv eÞxZiìèy bÖ’RdB ovob oboø Gi.xe.„ Gi
AqËkk ek xgëbÖ xPpß Ìbtw pËtËQ„ xKìç xe AqËkk ek Ìbtw ptxd„ Zw hÖl„
Ì¢ßwre¢ eÞþçZKwkyËbk Ky owiwdø xmqwI ÌdB?!
ÌKwËdw ÌKwËdw ex¢Kwt ekkwÄÛiìèyk dwi ÌlLw pt, ‘W. byeÖixY’„ Zw xVK
dt„ W. pËâQ WƒËkËUk ovËqe„ byeÖixY WƒËkU dd, Ww£ßwk, ovËqËe Ww.„
gwvlw hwnwt gwdwd I m² eÞËtwËM hÖl eÞoËŠ GKxbd Kaw DËVxQl GK
oóewbËKk gwowt GK Awœwt„
xZxd GKxU owixtKyI eÞKwm KkËQd„ owixtKyxUk eÞKwËmk eÔgêkwËZ
ovxmöÄ ovLøwk ÌlLKËbk Aweøwtd Kkw pt„ pt Awœw„ Awœwt ÌlLwk †ËYk
Kaw pt„ hÖËlk KawI„
x§Zyt ovLøwk ÌlLK Aoyi owpw RwdwËld oóewbKyËtk xmËkwdwËiI hÖl ÌlLw
pËtËQ ‘Awikw AxhhÔZ„’ AxhhÓZ m˲k GKiw¢ gwdwd AxhhÓZ„
gwdwd I m² eÞËtwËMk hÖl pt eÞwt ogwkB„ oËŠ oËŠ Zwk eÞxZgwb Kkw pt
dw gËl Zw ‘eÞPxlZ’ pËt jwt„ Zw þÿwd ewt ÌlLK-KxgËbk ÌlLwËZI„ AoyËik ÌlLwI
gøxZ¢ßi dt„
AdÖÅwËd Aoyi Zwk ‘xdgêwxPZ KxgZw’k GKxU Kxe AwiwËK xbËld„ fõøwËe
Aoyi oóeËKê ÌlLw, xZxd ‘nwËUk bmËKk AdøZi eÞcwd KxgËbk GKRd’„ bmK
ÌZw bm gQk„ nwUxU bmËK Kt gQk? Aoyi oºgZ glËZ ÌPËtËQd, MZ mZw²yk
QËtk bmK„ (UwŠwBËl 1 RwdÖtwxk ÌlLK xbgËok AdÖÅwËd eÞmí KkwËZ
Aoyi glËld, IUw Zwk ÌlLw dt„) bmK ÌlLwk hÖl ÂkØ pËtxQl 1930 owl ÌaËK
1939 owl ejêìæ bmËK„ BvËkxRËZ IB oitËK ÌlLw pt 1930v„ ovËqËe 30v.
ZLdKwk gwOwxl Kxgkw glËZd, Zwkw xZxkm bmËKk Kxg„ AwoËl Zwkw
xQËld ZÚZyt gw xZËdk bmËKk Kxg„ AoyiËK glw pËtËQ„ AdøZi
GKRd„ iwËd? AdøZi iwËdB ÌZw KËtKRËdk GKRd„ xKìç xZxd Ky QËtk (gw
nwËUk) dw owËZk bmËKk Kxg? XwKw xgmðxgbøwlËt hxZê pItwk ek
XwKwk (‘RwZyt’) ex¢Kwt Zwk ÌlLw Qwew pËZ awKËlI KËtK iwËoB Kxg
xpËoËg Zwk eÞxZÅw ewItwk Kaw dt„ xZxd oºgZ owËZk bmËKk Kxg„ xKìç
fxkb Awpib (bÖlwl) Zwk GKxU gB (xd:oŠ kRdyk lwgYø) QËtk bmËKk Ìj
bmRdËK DuoMê KËkËQd, Zwk iËcø AoyiI kËtËQd„
AoyËik gBËt ÌQw› GB ÌlLwËZI Ìgm KËtKxU hÖl„ Awk GKxU iw¢ DËlöL
Kxk„ ÌlLw pËtËQ ‘eÞKwxmZ owZxU KxgZwk gB’„ AeÞKwxmZ gBI pt dwxK?
hÖl eÞoËŠB AwËo ‘AwËlwKlZw’-k Kaw„ glw pËtËQ, Zw ‘ÌQwUËbk
AwdëbgwxnêKy’„ xgmwl AwKwËkk oÖbÙmø gBxUk xmùe oóewbK cÛØg
Gn„ eÞâQb I Al‰kY ZwkB Kkw„ Gog LÖgB oÖëbk KËkËQd xZxd„ oÖëbk,
xKìç xdhÖêl dt„ ÌlLw pËtËQ ‘AwËlwK l3w’„ Awiwk xeÞt ÌlLK cÛØgI ÌZw Awk
3 (xZd)-Gk ewaêKø RwËdd dw? GKxbd GB eÞoŠ Z×lËZB cÛØg glËld, ‘IUw
ýUwBl„ xmËkwdwËik ÌKwËdw AqËkB iw¢w ÌdB„’
ÌKwËdw ÌKwËdw AqËk iw¢w dw awKËlI PËl„ xKìç ZËtk gøwewkUw Awlwbw„
ZËt iw¢w dw xbËl pËt jwt 3 (xZd) Awk ¢ xlLËZ iw¢w dw xbËl pËt jwt G„
ÌlLxdýLld (slip of the pen) Agmø dwiy ÌlLKËbk ÌqË¢I NËU„ Ìjid Ñotb mwioÖl
pK„ xZxd AwiwËbk AdøZi eÞcwd Kxg„ Awxi Zwk Mbø-ebø bÖB-B LÖg eQëb
Kxk„ xZxd oóeÞxZ GKxU xgšwedxPË¢ KŸ xbËtËQd„ ‘oÖewkýUwk’
eÞxZËjwxMZwk xgšwed„ KxeUwI oºgZ ZwkB ÌlLw„ xUxhËZ xgšweËdk Zwk
xgLøwZ KËŸ Ìmwdw ÌMl, ‘lÖxKËt kwLw †®cd’„ †®cd iwËdB ÌZw lÖxKËt
kwLw cd„ hÖlUw oºgZ ÌlLxdýLlËdk fl„
GB ÌfgÛØtwxk iwËoB AìæZ bÖ’xU xgšweËd ÌbLw ÌMl, ‘iÙZ×øgwxnêKy
þôkËY’„ iÙZ×øgwxnêKyËZ iÙZ×øËK Aagw Zwk iÙZ×øxbdËK þôkY Kkw jwt„
xKìç gwxnêKyËK ÌKd?
xgšwed eÞoËŠB iËd eËr GKxU KwxpdyxPË¢k dwi„ xgšweËd ÌlLw awËK
‘xeÞtZiwnÖ’„ þèy xlËŠ nÖ pt dw, pt oÖ„ xeÞtZiwoÖ Aagw xeÞtZËioÖ„
gwvlw hwnwt GB ÑdkwRø bÔk KkËZ ÌlLwËlxL I oóewbdw gBxU (gwvlw
GKwËWiy) ÌbLw ÌjËZ ewËk„ xg¸wxìæKk AËdK m²B Ìbtw pËtËQ ÌoLwËd„
ÌlLK : Kxg I owvgwxbK
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GK×Ëmk owxpZø ÂkØ pËtËQ obø kxPZ GKxU KxgZw Ggv P›MÞwËik
eÞxZgwb ohwt KxgKËŸ ÌoB KxgZwk AwgÙx£ xbËt„ GK×m glËlB iÖpÔËZê
AwiwËbk iwdoeËU ÌhËo IËV BxZpwËok ÌoB og xbd, Ìjog xbËd hwnwk Rdø
gÖËKk k£ß ÌXËlxQËld hwnwmpyËbkw„ GK×m GLd gwvlwËbËmk iwdÖËnk
ÌPZdwk Axgdmðk gyRiìè„ GK×m GLd gwvlw hwnw I gwvlwËbËmk
oiwaêK„ gÖËKk k裧 ÌKdw gwvlw hwnwk kËtËQ pwRwk gQËkk
HxZpøxdhêk owxpZø„ Awk gwvlw owxpZø iÔlZ
KxgZwxdhêk„ gwvlwËbËmk iwdÖn KxgZwËeÞiy„ AwiwËbk RygËd oiwËR I
kwËÄÛk Awmw-AwKwáqw Awdëb-Ìgbdwk Qxg owxpËZøk Ìj mwLwt ogËPËt
Ìgxm eÞxZxgx¹Z pËtËQ Zwk dwi KxgZw„ GK×Ëmk NUdweÞgwp xQl
kwÄÛyt ejêwËt iwZÚhwnwk ijêwbw oiÖdíZ awKËg xK awKËg dw Ìo eÞmí
xdËt„ AwËgM, jÖx£ß I AxþæËZòk oÖxgmwl eUhÓxi xdËt MËr DËVËQ
GK×m„ gwOwxlk RygËd GK×m ogËPËt †kØZòeÔYê GK Ìi#xlK NUdw„ GB
oÖxgmwl NUdwt AwiwËbk owxpËZøk KxgZw mwLw ogËPËt Ìgxm eÞxZx
¢ßtw eÞKwm KËkËQ„ oPxKZ pËt gÉ gQËkk gøgpÕZ ÌLwlo ÌSËr iÖËQ hwnwk
dwËi þñwRwZøËgwËck eÞËtwRËd mZ mZ KxgZwKiyê oÙxÄmylZwk AMêl
LÖËl xbËtËQd„ NUdwk ZwuqxYK eÞxZx¢ßtwt 1952 owËlk 21 ÌfgÛØtwxk
kwËZ Kxg iwpgÖg Dl AwlËik ‘K^wbËZ Awxoxd f^wxok bwxg xdËt GËoxQ’
oÙxÄ pItw ÌaËK ÂkØ KËk GLËdw ejêìæ GK×Ëm xdËt AwiwËbk KxgËbk
oÙRdmylZw Kõwxìæpyd-Duowpgø™K„ GK×mËK xdËt Zwkw KxgZw xlLËZ
ewkËl xdËRËK Ìo#hwMøgwd gËl iËd KËkd„ ‘K^wbËZ Awxoxd f^wxok bwxg
xdËt GËoxQ’ KxgZwxU P›MÞwËik eÞxZgwb ohwt 22 ÌfgÛØtwxk 1952 owËl
Kxg iwpgÖg Dl Awli ÌP#cÖky ewV KËkd Ggv iÖxbÛZ Kxe RdZwk iwËS
xgZkY KËkd„ ÂkØ pËlw GK×Ëmk owxpZø Awk GK×Ëmk AwgÙx£k GK¢
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exkeÔkK pËt exkËgxmZ pËâQ„
ié xixWtw†Ëlw GK×Ëmk AdÖÅwdiwlw xdiêwY KËkd KxgZw AwgÙx£ËK
eÞcwd KËk„ xgRt xbgo, þñwcydZw xbgo, etlw ÑgmwL, Cb, bÖMêweÔRw,
Ìg#¦ eÔxYêiw, grxbd BZøwxbk AdÖÅwËdk ÌPËt GK×Ëmk AdÖÅwËd AwgÙx£
xgËmn AwoËd AxcxÅZ„ GK×Ëmk og AdÖÅwd Ìjd AwgÙx£kB AdÖÅwd
KxgZwkB AdÖÅwd„ RdxeÞt KxgZw ÌaËK ÂkØ KËk obøoÙxRZ KxgZwk
AwgÙx£ j¢Z¢„ ÌmÛwZw-bmêK Zw xgeÖl DuowËp MÞpY KkËQd„ Awikw
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iwcøËik ÌPËt KxgZwB ÌlLw pËtËQ Ìgxm„ GxUI GK×Ëmk AwgÙx£k GKxU
KwkY gËl iËd Kxk„ GK×Ëmk KxgZwt Kxgkw Kùedw eÞxZhw,
AwËgMwdÖhÓxZk þñZ:ýfÓxZê xbËt gwkgwk iÔløwtd-eÖdiÔêløwtd I
eÖdkoÙxÄ KËkd GK×mËK„ GK×mËK ÌKëbÛ KËk gwOwxl RwxZËK AwMwiyk
þñeí ÌbxLËt PËld„ Kxgkw þñeíbÛÄw Ggv bwmêxdK„ KxgZwt þñËeík gyR
Mhyk I ZygÛhwËg gÖËd Ìbtw jwt„ GK×Ëmk KxgZwt iwdÖn RËtk Mhyk
Dlöwo Awk AwMwiy þñËeík eÞxZfld ÌbLËZ ewt gËlB Zw MÞpY KËk
Ìgxm„ AwgÙx£k KwR pËlw KxgZwk gøwLøw Kkw, eÖdRêdô Ìbtw„ xlxLZ
m˲k cµxd iwcÖjê bwd Kkw, ZwËK Rygìæ Kkw„
gwËKøk xmùeyZ DâPwkYB AwgÙx£„ AwgÙx£ËZ iÔZê pt gwËKøk
AìæxdêxpZ qxYK I xPkKwlyd hwgdw, og þñeí Ggv ÌbLw-AËbLw, ÌPdw-
AËPdwk jwgZyt xdiêwY„ KxgZw QËëbk HmðËjê MÞxìÿZ gËl KËŸB Zwk
eÔYêZw„ lxlZ cµxdËZB Ìo RwMÞZ, xmùeyZ Ìo#KËjê Ìo
Ìbbyeøiwd„ AËMwPËkk MÔsËK gxYêl ÑghËg eÔYê eÞKwm Kkwk Rdø KËŸk
oÙRdmyl eÞKwmhxŠ GKxU dZ×d iwx¢KZw ÌeËt eÙaK iwcøi pËt
IËV„ KxgZwk xgnt AwgÙx£ xmùeyk ÌgwËc lwxlZ pËt gwËKøk AwËgM
kÕewìæxkZ pt KËŸk AwËgËM„ AwiwËbk AwKwáqw eÔkY pt Awikw
AwËëbwxlZ pB„ dZ×d AËaê dZ×d gËYê, dZ×d ÌQ^wtwt, dZ×d oÙxÄËZ,
dZ×d hxŠËZ GK AwâQdíZwt Awikw ÌeËt jwB GK dZ×d oÙxÄ xmùe, KŸ jwk
AwmÛt, AwgÙx£„ GK×Ëmk KxgZw pËâQ gwKkyxZ, KwgøkyxZ I xgnt
ÌPZdwk ximÛËY Axhdg xP¢Kùe opËjwËM eÞMws AwËgËMk I xgmðwËok m²
eÞËtwËM Ìk#bÛko, gykko I KkØYkËok gÉl gøgpwkoiÙ¦ xgnt-ÑgxPË¢ø DŒòl
Aaêwl‰wk eÞcwd KxgZw„ þñhwgZ KwkËYB GK×Ëmk KxgZw AwgÙx£k
GKxU eÙaK kyxZ gw Xv AwËQ„ eÞxZxU AwgÙx£ xmùeyk Ìjid xmùeoËPZd
pItw AwgmøK ÌZixd GK×m oóeËKê GKxU eÔYêwŠ cwkYw awKw
AwgmøK„ GK×Ëmk KxgZwk xgxP¢ þækxgdøwo, Ìgwxc gw hwgËPZdwk
AwKxþôK eUexkgZêd, þñpÕbt ovËgby m²wgxl, AeÔgê Deiw DuËeÞqwk
gwK-eÞxZiw, xgþôtKk gwþægxP¢Kùe, Kxgk opR I þñwhwxgK RygdËgwc,
eÞMws gøx£ßK gw AwxZôK AdÖhÓxZ BZøwxb AwgÙx£KwkËK Mhyk
AxhxdËgËmk owËa Delx³ KkËZ pËg„ GK×Ëmk KxgZwk lqø Zw pËg oZø
ÌaËK RwZ Kùedw„ GK×Ëmk KxgZw AËdK Ìgxm oiwRoËPZd gËlB Zwk
KwxgøK Kùedwk RdôhÓxi AËdK Ìgxm xgmðwoø I Zaøxdhêk„ Ìjid :
GLwËd jwkw eÞwY xbËtËQ
kidwk EcµêiÖLy KÚnäPÔrwk Zlwt
ÌjLwËd Aw†Ëdk f×lxKk iËZw
GLwËd ILwËd RòlËQ AovLø kË£ßk Qwe
ÌoLwËd Awxi K^wbËZ Awxoxd
AwR Awxi ÌmwËK xgpµl dB
AwR Awxi Ì¢ßwËc Ddô£ dB
AwR Awxi eÞxZšwt AxgPl
iwpgÖg Dl Awli ÌP#cÖky
K^wbËZ Awxoxd f^wxok bwxg xdËt GËoxQ

AwgÙx£Kwk jLd GK×Ëmk AwgÙx£k Rdø KxgZw xdgêwPd KkËgd ZLd


eÞaËiB xZxd Mhyk iËdwËjwËMk owËa AwxgûKwk KkËgd KxgZwk AìæMÔês
hwgwaê„ AwËkw RwdËgd KxgZwk iÔl ko I MÔsZi gø™dw„ KxgZwk iÔlhwg
ko I Aaê gø™dw Delx³ KkËZ dw ewkËl hkwU KŸ I oÖPwkØ Qëbšwd awKËlI
AwgÙx£Kwk ÌmÛwZw-bmêËKk pÕbËtk KwQwKwxQ Ìe^#QËZ ewkËgd
dw„ Ìjid :
‘K×iËrw f×Ël f×Ël
dÖËt eËrËQ lZwUw
oRËd W^wUwt
hËk MøwËQ MwQUw
Awk Awxi WwËlk gxr
ÂxKËt ÌkËLxQ
ÌLwKw Z×B KËg Awoxg
KËg QÖxU’
ÌKwËdw GK iwËK
AwgÖ Rwfk IgwtbÖlöwp

GLwËd AwgÙx£Kwk jxb iwkÕey iwZÚhÓxik ÌmwK oìæweËK mdw£ß KkËZ


dw ewËkd ZËg Kxgk gwK-Ñgbˆ oiÔËl xgdÄ pËg„ GB KxgZwk iÔl ko
KkØY„ KËŸ bÖ:L-hwkw¢ßwìæ ÌmwKxgpµl þñk AwdËZ pËg„ iwËtk owËa
oìæwËdk Ìj gwuolø ZwI eÙaK KËŸ cwkY KkËZ pËg„ ÌKddw KxgZwxUËZ iw I
eÖË¢k KËaweKad kËtËQ„ KxgZwxUk AwËkw GKxU iRw pËâQ xgþæwxkZ
gYêdwk oit ovlwecxiêZw ZøwM KËk GK ckËdk xdkwËgM AaP FRÖ KŸþñk
eÞËtwRd pËg„ ÌmÛwZw Ìjd gÖSËZ ewËkd GLwËd iw pËâQd þñËbm Ggv
oìæwd pËâQd hwnwmpyËbk eÞZyK„ AwgÙx£Kwk m²wËaêk oËgêwâP
gøgpwËkk eÞxZ og oit oËPZd pËgd„ xmùeyk xdRþñ þñkhxŠk þñkËqeËYk
ÑgxPË¢ø xPkËPdw GB KxgZwxUËK GK Ìiwpit AwdëbËlwËK Ìe^#ËQ ÌbËgd„
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koMÞwpy KËk ÌZwËl„ ZwB AwgÙx£KwËkk kËtËQ Zwk exkËgmdwxU
pÕbtMÞwpy KËk ÌZwlwk bwt„ AwgÙx£ xmùey pËâQd
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xmùeyk AìæMêZ ÑPZdøËlwK DËdôwPd KËk ÌZixd Kwgø oÙxÄk Rygdbmêd
AŠyKwk I KxgZw kPdwk ÌeÞqweU Rwdw awKËl Ìo oÙxÄ xdËt KwR Kkwk GK
ckËdk þñwâQëbø I eÞZøty iËdwhwg RwËM„
Ìjid :
þôÙxZk xidwk ÌhËOËQ ÌZwiwk? ht xK gìc× Awikw GLËdw Pwk ÌKwxU
exkgwk
Lwrw kËtxQ ÌZw„ Ìj xhu KLËdw ÌKwËdw kwRdø ewËkxd hwOËZ
pyËkk iÖK×U dyl eËkwtwdw ÌLwlw ZËlwtwk
AwlwDx¥d Awl AwRwb
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GB KxgZwxUk ÌeÞqweËU kËtËQ eÞai mpyb xidwk
Qëb KxgZwk eÞwY„ GKxU oÖAwgÙx£k xdxbêÄ xmùe iw¢wt Ìe^#QwËdwk
AdøZi mZê pËâQ AwgÙx£KwËkk Qëb oóeKyêt Ìgwc„ xmùeoóiZ AwgÙx£
QËëbk ewkbxmêZwk Iek xdhêkmyl„ AaêeÔYê PwËek owËa QËëbk iw
¢wxghwRËd oÙxÄ pt GK þñtvoóeÔYê xdxiêZ, Ìjid :
ÌfgÛØtwxkk GK×m ZwxkL
bÖeÖk Ìglwk A£ß
gÙxÄ dwËi, gÙxÄ ÌKwawt
gkKËZk k£ß„
pwRwk jÖËMk oÔjê ZwËe
RòlËg Gid lwl Ìj
ÌoB ÌlwxpËZB lwl pËtËQ
KÚnäPÔrwk Wwl Ìj!
GK×Ëmk KxgZw
Awl iwpiÖb

Aagw
fw†d GËlB ewxL WwËK
ÌaËK ÌaËKB WwËK
ZwËK ÌZwikw ÌKwxKl glËg? gËlw
Awxi Ìj Zwk dwi ÌkËLxQ Awow
dwi xbËtxQ hwnw,
fw†d GËlB
Awowb ÌP#cÖky

GK×Ëmk GB KwlRty KxgZw bÖ’xU eÔYêwŠ QëboiÙ¦ KxgZw„ G KxgZwk


ÌgwcU×K× ÌmÛwZwk KwËQ Ìe^#QwËZ pËl QëbËK eÞcwdZi gwpd xpËoËg
gøgpwk KkwB pËg AwgÙx£KwËkk KwR„ KxgZw bÖ’xUk Awk GKxU ÑgxmÄø
pËâQ gYêdw I ovlweciyêk xiËml„ GLwËd QËëbk eÞgpiwdZwËK xVK ÌkËL
ovlwËek ÌhZËk jwxPZ AwËgM xbËZ pËg„ GK×Ëmk Ìjog KxgZw QëbeÞcwd
Zw QËëb AwgÙx£ Kkw DxPZ, jw Mbø-QËëb ÌlLw pËtËQ Zw þñwcyd I
g^wcdpwkw pËlI AwgÙx£KwkËK GKxU xdxbêÄ iw¢w I lt gRwt ÌkËL,
AaêeÔYê xgkwËik eÞËtwRd AdÖhg KkËl ÌoLwËd þñk xgkxZ MÞpY KËk
AwgÙx£xU Deþÿwed Kkw ÌmÛt„ Ìjid :
dq¢eÖË™k iËZw RòlRòËl eZwKw DxrËt AwËQw Awiwk o£wt
iiZw dwËik AweöÖZ eÞËbËmk møwixliw ÌZwiwËK xdxgr
xNËk kt ogêbwB„ KwËlw kwZ ÌewpwËdwk eËkk eÞpËk
xmDly ÑmmËg ewxL og KËk kg gËl ibdËiwpd
ZKêwl‰wk Ky cyËkwbwI þñËk eÞZøp xbËZd WwK„
mwioÖk kwpiwd
Awiwk bÖ:xLdy gYêiwlw

Kxg Ìjid Zwk eÞxZhwk þeËmê xPkexkxPZ m˲k owpwËjø AowcwkY ÌKwËdw
eOzx£ß xdiêwY KkËZ ewËkd, AwgÙx£ xmùeyI ÌZixd ewËkd Zwk þñkËqeËYk
owpwËjø xPkexkxPZ m˲k dZ×d gø™dw gw ÌbøwZdw oÙxÄ
KkËZ„ iwdÖËnk iËdk xgxP¢ AdÖhÓxZk ÌbwlwPËlk ÑgxP¢ø AdÖowËk
KŸþñËkk xhdíZwk eÞËtwRd eËr„ KxgZwk AìæMêZ Ìo#ëbjê AdÖowËk þñk
Ìjid D^P×xdP× pt ÌZixd þñËkk þÿwxtZòI KËi gwËr„ Awgwk AwËgËMk
ZygÛZw gwrËl DâPwkY bÛØZZk pt, þñkþæk ÌgËr jwt, ÌoB owËa þñËkk
ZygÛZwI gwËr„ ÌZixd D¥wipydZw xgnwËb bÖ:ËLk hwg þñkþækËK xdËP
dwxiËt AwËd„ Ìjid :
Awóiw Zwk dwixU cËk GKgwkI WwKËg dw ZËg Awk?
NÔxYêSËrk iËZw ÌoB dwi DdôxaZ iËdk eÞwìæËk
NÖËk NÖËk RwMËg, WwKËg,
bÖ’xU ÌV^wËUk ÌhZk ÌaËK iÖË£ßwk iËZw MxrËt GËo
GKgwkI DŒòl pËt DVËg dw, owkwxU RygËdI dw?
pwowd pwxfRÖk kpiwd
Aik GK×Ëm

xmùe iwcøi xpËoËg AwgÙx£ gwPxdK cwkwk„ fËl iwdÖËnk opRwZ


AdÖhÓxZ, jw Kxgk ÌlLxdk iwcøËi ewVËKk xP£ËK ÌbwlwxtZ KËk ZwËK
DâPwkËYk iwcøËi AwgÙx£ xmùey dZ×d iw¢wt D¨wxoZ KËkd„ ewVK
KxgZwxU eËr jZUw AwdxëbZ pd ÂËd Zwk ÌPËt Ìgxm D¥y® pd„ GK×Ëmk
Hmðjêit KxgZw†Ëlw ÌZixd AwgÙx£ xmùeyk KËŸ gwkgwk DâPwxkZ pËt
gwOwxl RwxZËK Zwk o£w xPxpßZ Kkwk oÖËjwM KËk ÌbËg„
GK×Ëmk ÌPZdwk iËcø Ìjid iwZÚhwnw eÞPlËdk xgntxU kËtËQ, ÌZixd kËtËQ
iwZÚhwnw oÖëbk KËk glw I erwk bwtxU„ hwnw ÌZw ÂcÖ xlLËl PËl dw ZwËK
glËZI pt„ iÔlZ Awikw gxl Ìgxm, xlxL AËdK Ki„ glwk Iek xdhêkmyl GKxU
hwnw oRyg awKËg dw xdRyêg pËt jwËg„ dw glwk KwkËY eÙxagy ÌaËK
AËdK hwnw pwxkËt xMËtËQ Ggv GLËdw jwËâQ„ Gid ogêdwm Ìjd Awikw
ÌWËK dw Awxd„ AwRKwl ÌkxWI ÌUxlxhmËdk AexkYwibmyê ZuekZwt
AwiwËbk gwvlw Kaøhwnw xgKÚZ pËâQ„ ZwI xKìç GK×Ëmk AwmÛt xdËt
ebwdZ KkËZ pËg„ AeiwËd xdúPt RòËl DVËg gYêiwlw„ RwZyt hwnwk
ijêwbw xdËt Ky pËg jxb Awikw Zwk jawja eÞËtwM dw Kxk; oÖëbk KËk Kaw
dw gxl?
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kÕeKawk Ìbm

W. Awmzkwf xox¥Ky
GKxp K×iwk xQl dwËiËZ ibd„
gwËkwxp guok awËK ewak hgd„„
awxKËZ Ìk xZd xbd xgxc owËc gwc„
ewZwl ewak ÌhËO gwxpk pl P^wb„„
P^wb dw gwcd iwËd, KewËlk ÌLl„
xmKwËk ÌMlËk K×iwk gÖËK xbtw Ìml„„
xmKwk dw ewBl K×iwk, ewBl þñed„
icÖiwlw icÖiwlw Kxkl Red„„
ÌP#¥ xWOw icÖKk K×iwk owRwBtw ÌMl„
Ìoxp Ìj xgxck ewxL xgxc DrwBtw xbl„„
GËZK bÖ:ËLk ek eÔYê ÌnwlKlw
þñËeíËZ þñkM GËd xbl icÖgwlw„„
Awpw DRwdy dMËk
G pl bxqYk™d xi¢iRiÖbwk KZÚêK 1899 A˲ mZgnê gtËok GK Ìg#¦ gÙ¦wk
KwËQ ÌaËK ovMÙpyZ VwK×kiwk S×xlk ibdK×iwk icÖiwlwk Mùe-UwŠwBl
ÌaËK ovMÙpyZ„ VwK×kiw Aagw VwK×k bwbwk S×xl gw Vwd xbxbk aËl
BZøwxb MÞËìÿ KZ kowËlw kÕeKawk MùeB dw AwËQ jw GKwìæB AwiwËbk
gwvlwËbËmk oóeb„
P×Ëlk xfZwk iËZw dbdby, MË™k NwU, pwU, gU AmËat Pwtw, bwby-dwdy-
iwËtk icÖk Ìgwl-f×f×-gÖgÖËbk Awok-gwËlø ÑKËmwËk ÌK ÂËdxd kÕeKawk
Gog Mùe? AwËcw AwËlw AwËcw AìcKwk Nk, KZ Kiêpyd xgËKl oìcøw, bÔËk
Ìd#Kw jw¢w, NÖi NÖi XÖlÖxd AËdK xbbw Aagw VwKziw GKUw Mùe gËlw
dw„ ÂkØ pËlw Mùe„ Ìo A-Ìd-K-A-Ìd-K-xb-d xbd AwËM-GK xQl Ìbm-Zwk xQl
GK kwRw-Awk xQl-Awk xQl kwdy-cd-Ìb#lZ-ÌlwKlmzKk-pwZy-ÌNwrw-Ñodø-
owiìæ-DxRk-dwxRk-ixY-iwxdKø-xKQÖkB Ahwg xQl dw„ kwRw-Ahwg-ÂcÖ
xQl dw ÌgUweÖ£×k„ ÌlwËK Kawt gËl :
A^wUK×Ër kwRwk jxb oKwËl ÌbËLw iÖL„
owkw xbd RwdËg KewËl ÌlLw bÖL„„
Mùe ÂkØ pËlw„ Zwkek? Zwkek? Zwkek ÌKD NÖËi„ ÌKD Awc NÖËi„ GB
Zwkek Zwkek PlËZ awËK xbËdk ek xbd GK eÖkØn ÌaËK Adø eÖkØn-jÖM
pËZ jÖM-mZw²y-Ìbm pËZ ÌbËm„ ÂcÖ AwiwËbk ÌbËmB dt GB Mùe glwk kyxZ
og ÌbËmB AwËQ, gkfwâQwdí Awùeo, owpwkwk ikØhÓxi, AZlwxìæËKk
ewËrk ÌbËm„ ÌoLwËdI ‘MÞøw«iwËK’ xNËk xPkìædy xm ZwËbk xdR xdR
hwnwt gËl Zwkek-Zwkek?...
Kxg kgyëbÛdwa Awgpiwd GB Mùe KawËK iwZÚbÖˈk oËŠ Z×ldw KËk
gËlËQd : ‘GB Ìj AwiwËbk ÌbËmk kÕeKaw, gÉjÖËMk gwOwxl gwlËKk xP£ËqË
¢k Dek xbtw AmÛwìæ gxptw KZ xgeög, KZ kwRø hwOw Mrwk icø xbtw
Aq×Yí Pxltw AwxotwËQ, Zwpwk Duo oiþæ gwvlwËbËmk iwZÚËoíËpk
iËcø„ Ìo Ìoíp ÌbËmk kwËRøkmðk kwRw pBËZ bydZi KÚnKËK ejêìæ iwdÖn
KxktwËQ„ oKlËK ÂKõ oìcøwt AwKwËmk P^wb ÌbLwBtw hÖlwBtwËQ Ggv
NÖi ewrwxd MwËd mwìæ KxktwËQ„ xdxLl gwvlwËbËmk ÌoB xPk eÖkwZd
MhykZi Ìoíp pBËZ GB kÕeKaw DuowxkZ... gwvlwËbËmk ÌoíËpk oÖkxU
Zwpwk ZkØY xPË£k iËcø eÞËgm Kxktw ZwpwËK Ìjd gwvlwt kËo kowBtw lt„’

Adøwdø gÉ ÌbËmk iËZw AwiwËbk kÕeKawk BxZpwoI AxZ eÞwPyd„ eÞwPyd


I Ìg#¦ jÖËM eÞxZxU oó¸wìæ exkgwËkB GidxK kwRohwtI ‘Awlwxedy’ Kaw
gøgowty xdjÖ£ß pËZw„ byNêxbËdk PPêw I AxhšZwt Zwkw ZwËbk MËùe
AeÔgê iwcÖky ÌXËl xbZ AëbËkI Zwkw kwRKdøwËbk ‘ekYKaw’ ÂdwZ xbZ
Al£ß kwËM ew Awk Al‰wËk Mw owxRËt ZwkwB xQl MËùek f×l Awk Mlwk
f×Ëlk iwlwk M^wxaKw Ggv owxcKw„ KZkÕe ÌL^wew-†twVÖxU, iÖUxK,
S×UxK, ÌgËl, ÌeËZewrw, xkDxd, xUËtewxL, xoxaKwUw, LøwUwB, eÞRwexZ,
PkØ ÌL^wew, ÌMwtwxldy, cwËkk xnËa, Gog ÌL^wewI g^wcZ Mùe glËZ
glËZB„ ‘bÖxlËt ÌgYy PËld xjxd GB AwcÖxdK xgËdwxbdy’ AwedwkwB glÖd
KZxU ÌK^wewk dwi RwËdd? DeKaw, kÕeKaw, Dexdnc, RwZK Kaw
oxkuowMk kwiwtY, ipwhwkZ, xpËZweËbm, eéZìè Ggv ewkoø hwnwk
ÌoËKëbwkdwiw, ZÚZydwiw, Awkgø DedøwËok Mùe, mwËpkRwxb I
mwpRwiwËdk MùeI ZwËbk D£k eÖkØnMY xdúPtB GKBhwËg xmËLxQl„ iÖNl
AwiËl oiÛwU AwKgk koËg£w gykgËlk KwËQ Mùe ÂdËZd, Ìjid dbytwk kwRw
KÚnäPëbÛ ÂdËZd ÌMwewl h^wËrk KwËQ„ iÙZwqkyËYk gYêdw iËZ, dItwg
Awlygxbê I dItwg xokwRËb#lwI xdxbêÄ oiËt Awlwxedy Mùe gxlËtËbk
KwËQ Mùe ÂdËZd„ iykRwfk eÖ¢ iykd Ìj xbd gRÛewËZ iwkw jwt Zwk owËa
Mùe glwk Rdø Ìo xbdI GK kÕeoy Awlwxedy xQl„ KwËRB Mùe glw I Ìmwdwk
kyxZ G ÌbËm AxZ eÞwPyd jxbI Ìg#¦ jÖËMk ek gÛwÊYø jÖËM MËùek GB
þñwhwxgK þñZ:ýfÓZê ÌeÞi ÌZid Awbk ÌeËlw dw„ xKìç Z×xKê xgRËtk ek
Awgwk xgËbmy iÖoliwd Ñodø-xoewBkw owËa KËk xdËt GËlw Awxlf lwtlw,
p®etKk, mwpdwiw I Bkwd-Z×kwËdk Mùe lwBxl-iRdÖ, BDoÖf-RÖËlLw I
xmxk-fkpwËbk ÌeÞi„ gwvlwk Awi, K^wVwl I gËUk QwtwZl Ìbmy I xgËbmy
MËùek ÌRwtwËk ÌhËo ÌMl„
GUw AwR AxgovgwxbZ MËgnYwk fol Ìj, gxpxgêËmð jZ MùeKwxpdy AwR
oÖeÞPxlZ Zwk Ìgxmk hwMB xMËtËQ DeipwËbm ÌaËK oIbwMk, ciêeÞPwkK,
xRexo I ÌiwŠlËbk iwcøËi„ G xdËt ÌbËm-xgËbËm xgkwU MÞìÿ ÌlLw pËtËQ Ggv
pËâQ„
BxZpwo jwB ÌpwK dbyËiLlw QwtwoÖxdxgr gwvlwËbËmk ÌQËlËiËt jLdB ÂËd
‘owZ hwB Póew RwËMwËk’ Adøbl gËl IËV ‘ÌKd Ìgwd ewkØl WwËKwËk’? GB
ÌgwdËbk WwËKB Ìo xK iÖx£ßk gwZêw AwdËZ Nk QwËr gwpwËdí GKw£Ëk?
NËk NËk ARoÛ iw-Ìgwd, ZwËbk KwËkw dwi ixYiwlw, máLiwlw, icÖiwlw,
mwËpkRwxb, mZ NËkk xgËgxbZw, Kùedw Aagw AwiwkB Awbxkdy Kdøw„
Zwkek ZwkekI PlËZ awËK GB Zwkek GB Plwk Ìmn ÌdB oyiw ÌdB„ G kwËRø
xVKwdw ÌdB hÓËMwl ÌdB„
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xgmðwo I xgn

RÖgwBbw MÖlmwd Awkw


ÌQwU PwËtk Ìetwlwt Ìmn P×iÖKUw xbËt AwkwËik GKUw m² KËk Kwiwl
xitw„ S×exrk Adø gwxoëbwËbk GLËdw ÌRËM IVwk oit ptxd„ iwxUk GKkx£
P×Ëlwt Pw Ròwl xbËt iÖxr xbËt ÌLËt ÑZxk pt Kwiwl„ NËkk iËcø GKUw
gÖËdw Mìc hwËo„ kwRwk xgQwdwt xPuewZ pËt NÖËiwËâQ bÖB
oway„ L^wPwk iËcø ÌgxRUw ÌlR dwxrËt Awgwk NÖiwt„ Kwiwl iÙbÖ Mlwt
Mwd Mwt KZ xdbÛw jwI ÌMw K×iwk KZ xdbÛw jwI, ÌZwiwk NËkk Ìowdwk
Klxo pBËlw DcwI oxZø, Kwiwl Mwt gr PiuKwk„ GB gxþæËZ Nk ewItwk jËaÄ
gwcw oË£òI GB †ËYB ogwB ZwËK RwtMw xbËtËQ„ GLwËd og Ìemwk iwdÖn
awËK„ Ìlo xfZw, P×xrItwly, RÖZw ewxlmItwlw, ÌVlwMwxrk iRÖk ÌK dt? ZËg
KwiwËlk g^wËmk g^wxmk oÖËk ZwËbk KiêKõwìæ xgnYí oìcøw†Ëlw hËk
IËV„ bÖB S×exr eËk kogZy P×xrItwly gËl owkw xbd KZ xKxoËik Ròwlw
oBpø Kxk ÌMw Iþæwb„ Z×iwk g^wxm ÂdËl ekwdWw Vw¡w lwËM„ Gpd ÌZw
kwþæwNwËU MiMi KËk gwBbø„ Kwd fwBUøw jwt„ GKU×K gwRwI
Iþæwb, ... Âxd„
Ìhwk oKwËl kwþæwk cwËkk Kl ÌaËK ÌMwol ÌoËk AwËo Kwiwl„ Pw Lwt,
Zwkek KwËRk eÞþçxZ, kwRw Awk kwdy Pw-xgÆ×U Lwt, eáLy Lwt Zwk
Lwbø, Awk kŠgyk owiËd bÖËck Ìetwlw cËk Ìbt Kwiwl„ Zwkek ÌgxkËt eËr
owkw xbËdk Rdø„
eÞai xbd S×xrk XwKdw LÖlËZB A^wZËK DËVxQl GlwKwk iwZgkkw„
- AwËk xitw, Ìewlwewd lBtw awxK, AwiwËMw Wk KËk, GpwËd Z×iwk awKd
pBËgw dw„’
- dw dw, hwBRwd, xKQÖ KBËgw dw„ ÌbËpd dw S^wxe LÖËl pwZ iÖxV KËk
ÌbxLËtxQl Kwiwl„ cyËk cyËk gQk NÖËk GËoËQ„ Kwiwl gËoB ÌMËQ„ dbyk
Rygd GLd cÔok þôÙxZ iw¢„

ÌQwU ÌbwKwËd gËo bÖeÖËkk Lwgwk Lwt Kwiwl„ eÖkwd XwKwk


ÌbwKwdewU, gøþæ iwdÖnRd Awk bi AwUKwËdw xhr... ZwkB iËcø ÌKid KËk
Ìjd ÌK#ZÔply xhr RËi IËV„ fwxRl ÌQwKkwkw gËl GB gwëbk Klw LwBxg?
Kwiwl gËl dw, Akw LwBËQ„ I kwRw I kwdy gwgÖËk aøw‰× gBlw
bøwI„ kwRw b^wZ ÌbxLËt pwZ Z×Ël Ìolwi Ìbt„ PUeU pwZZwxl eËr„ fÝK ekw
kwdy GKU× dwP ÌbLwt„ L^wPwk ÌhZk ÌgxRUw QUfU KËk„

oìcøwt NËk xfËk xgmÛwi, Zwkek g^wxmUw gwRwt Kwiwl„ gÖËKk iËcø Ky
Ìjd ÌZwlewr KËk Zwk„ xmÂKwËlk jwjwgk Rygd, iËd eËr„ gwRwd jLd g^wxm
gwRwËZw, S×xrËZ gëby owe†Ëlw Ìjd Axþÿk pËt DVZ„ ZwËbk mkyk
ÌiwPrwËdw xd:mðwËok m² Ìjd iÖx£ß PwBZ gxëbbmw ÌaËK„ Zw PwBËgB
ÌZw„ ÌKwd bÔk ewpwËrk ÌMwed Awþæwdw ÌaËK cËk GËd Ìewn iwdwËdw,
gm Kkw... opR Kaw ÌZw dt„ gwRwËdk Mlw cËk Kwiwl glZ gwRwd, AwiwËk
g^wxm gwRwd xmLwBgw?
xmLwiÖËk xmLwiÖ, GKxbd Z×BI Awiwk iZd owe ÌLlwBxg, ... g^wxm
gwRwBxg ... gwBbøwk Ìewlw xK pwËU-gwRwËk Kwilw LwUËgw?
gwRwËdk Kaw AqËk AqËk ewld KËkËQ Kwiwl„ xKìç ÌgËbËbk bËlI ÌKid Ìjd
hwOËdk oÖk„ dbyk ÌoÛwZ Ìjid ÂxKËt AwËo ÌZidB blUwI Rygd-RyxgKwk
eÞËtwRËd xQUËK eËr„ KwlÖ obêwk gËlxQl bl cBkw kwLËZ ewkZwxQ dw
Ìk„ ÌRwtwd Ìewlwkw xodwiw bøwLgwk Pwt, Ìfdxo LwBgwk Pwt, ÌiwgwBËl
xexkZ Kkgwk Pwt„ ÑokhyËk ewlxQlwi KZ Awbk KBkw, ÌoI elwBtw ÌMl„ Zkw
Gpd g^wPwk ÌPÄw Kk„ gÖËrw KwlÖ ÌgËb PËl ÌMËQ MwËkw ewpwËrk ÌKwd
M^wËt„
Awk Kwiwl, ÑKlwo, kiRwdkw QxrËt eËrËQ... KLËdw gw RxrËt eËrËQ
AekwËc„ ÌKD Awgwk Nk Ìg^Ëc mwxìæ LÖ^ËR xdËtËQ„
GK xpËoËg hwËlwB AwËQ Kwiwl„ ÌlwËK ZwËK WwËK Iþæwb gËl„ ÌkwR
xgmwl ÌlwËKk xhËr hkw xNx™ GB mpkUwk ewmwewxm gwBËkI PËl jwt
ÌLlw ÌbLwËZ„ Alo ÌKwËdw ÌlwKwlËt ÌjËt ÌSwlw LÖËl gËo„ gËl, owe Awk ÌgxRk
lrwB ÌbLËgd owg?
xgxP¢ ÌPpwkwk g^wxmËZ f×^ Ìbt Kwiwl„ ÌgxRUwËK Ìgk KËk AwËd L^wPw
ÌaËK„ oweUw Zwk pwZ AdÖokY KËk KYw Ìbwlwt, iwxUËZ ÌVwKk Ìbt„ ¢ß×k
ÌPwËL ZwKwt Pwk ewËm„
oìcøwt NËk xfËk Kwiwl gËl AËdK ptkwd pBQo AwBR, ZwB dw? Awt ZËk
g^wxm ÂdwB„
XwKw mpk ogêbw UMgM KËk f×UËQ„ GLwËd xixQl, ILwËd eÖxlËmk
Zwrdw, lwl dyl KZ kOËgkËOk Duog„ mpkUwËK Ìjd PwgÖK ÌiËk QÖU KxkËt
Ìbt„ awiËZ Ìbt dw„
ÌZidB GK AwdëbËilwt ÌLlw ÌbLwËZ ÌbLwËZ GKU× AdøidÆ pËt eËr
Kwiwl„ ptËZw fwùMÖxd gwZwËo Dbwo pËt IËV id„ owiËd ZwxKËt ÌbËL,
dÙZøkZ ZkØYyËbk kxOd eÖxûeZ Qëbit Duog„ gÖËKk iËcø ÌRËM IËV
hwËlwgwow ewItwk ZÚnäw„ gr xd:oŠ iËd pt xdËRËK„ Ñokhy dwËik GK
eÞZwkK dwkyk Kaw iËd pt„ gÖKUw L^w L^w KËk„ G oiËt GKUw xPuKwk
ÂËd ZwKwt Kwiwl„ kwRw-kwdyk ÌPwËL ht f×ËU IËV„ GK lwËf ÌLlw ÌQËr
KwiwËlk K^wËc PËr gËo„ ÌgxRUw L^wPw ÌhËO ÌgxkËt AwoËZ Pwt„ ¢ßצ
pËt IËV„ f^øwo f^øwo KËk m² KËk„
-AwËk, AwËk ... hwB, ... AweËdk owe Ìj Pll..
PiËK ZwKwt Kwiwl„ oxZøB ÌZw„ WwlwUw ÌLwlw xQl dwxK? okz okz KËk
NwËok Iek xbËt PlËZ ÂkØ KËkËQ kŠy„
- AwËk„ AwËk„ k, .... k ... ÌgxU, jwBo KB? kŠyk iwawt ÌK#mËl pwZ QÖ^BËt
cËk ÌfËl Kwiwl„ GK xbËK xhr RiwËdw iwdÖËnk xgþôt Awk eÞmvow, Adø
xbËK oweUw Zwk pwËZk iÖËVwt ÌiwPr Lwt„ Kwiwl gËl ‘xLbw lwMËQ? Pl jwB
xKQÖ LwIËdk gËëbwgþæ Kxk xMtw„ KwBl Awgwk AwoÖiËd„’

S×exrk xbËK kIdw Ìbt Kwiwl„ ÌQwU xmÂk iËZw Zwk pwZ cËk PËl kwRw
Awk kwdy„ K^wËck Iek gËo xgrwlUw, iwawt SwËek S×xr, Adø pwËZ ÌgxRk
L^wPw„ xgxP¢ bÙmø gËU„ xKìç ogwB iRw ewt„
fwùMÖËdk DuoËg pVwu Ìjd gRÛ ÌdËi AwËo„ GKbl ZkØËYk k£ßqty ovNËnê
xbdUw Ìjd k£ßw£ß pËt IËV„ KrwK KrwK KËk †xlk m² IËV„ hyZoìèþæ iwdÖn
ewlwËZ awËK GxbK-IxbK„ KwiwlI ewlwËZ awËK„ ak ak KËk K^weËQ Zwk
Ìewnw eÞwYy†Ëlw„ G ÌZw lrwBËtk ÌLlw dt„ oxZøKwk k£ßxeewowk
jÖ¦„ k裧 ÌhËo jwt kwþæw„ ZwkB iËcø ÌKwËdwiËZ eÞwY g^wxPËt ewlwt
Kwiwl„

owkw kwZ ÌPwËLk ewxd ÌfËlËQ Kwiwl xitw„ Zwk AwbËkk xgrwlUwËK ÌiËk
ÌfËlËQ kŠy„ AaP owkw gQk kŠy ZwËbk oŠy ht Awk xgþôËt iwdÖn jLd
ZwËbk ÌbËL, ZLd bÔk ÌaËKB ÌbËL„ Kwiwl xitw ÌLlw ÌbLwt„ Ryg-RwËdwtwËkk
ÌLlw„ pwËZk WÖMWÖxMUw dwxPËt dwxPËt gËl ÌpB gwâPwkw, gÖrwkw,
iwËtkw, gBËdkw, AwËpd AwËpd, AwiwËMw gwbmw xitwk owKêwo ÌbLËgd,
QÖBUøw AwËpd„
p^øw, RËi Ñg xK Kwiwl xitwk ÌLlw„ gwgw xQl Iþæwb ÌgËb„ owe ckZ, owe
ÌLlw ÌbLwËZw„ Zwk Riwdw Ìmn pItwk ek ÌQËl ÌbLl, ÂcÖ owe ÌLlw ÌbxLËt
kØxUkØxR PËl dw„ oËŠ xdËlw g^wbk xdËt ÌLlwk Koku„ ÌoB oËŠ cÔZê
cÖkìck GK ÌgxR„ iRw pËlw, KwiwËlk oËŠ xZdxU eÞwYyk xZdkKi oLø„ ÌLlw
ÌbLwËdwk oiËt kŠyk DbøZ fYwt ÌV^wU QÖ^BËt Awbk Rwdwt Kwiwl ‘owgwo
ÌgxU, kwdy gwdwBiÖ ZËk„ dwPd ÌbpwBQo„ Awt bÖc Lw„’ AËdK AwbËk
kŠyËK bÖc LwItwt Kwiwl„ S×xrUw ÌXËK Ìbt owgcwËd„ kŠyk xgkØ˦ KLËdw
ÌKwËdw xpvoÛZwk AxhËjwM ÌZwËlxd Kwiwl„ p^øw, bÖËck iËcø iwËS iwËS
GKU× AwcU× Awxfi Ìo Ìimwt, Zw xVK„ pwRwk ÌpwK owËek RwZ, xgnb^wZ
hwOw awKËlI owgcwd awKw bkKwk„ g^wbkUw DËùUewËùU xWMgwxR
Lwt, b^wZ ÌbLwt, dwdw Koku KËk„ Kwiwl gËl ‘Apd gwbmw xitw ZwR iwawt
bøwI Ìbxp .... Z×iwk ÌmkItwxdWw KB kwLËQw? .... ÌgMi, Z×xi AwMwBtw
AwËpw„ KLdI gw gwvlw hwB pËt f^wxok Axhdt, KLËdw dgwg owËR ÌoËR
xovpwoËd gËo gwbmw Awk ÌgMi„ eÞP×k pwZZwxl eËr„ etow K×xrËt
ÌK#ËUw hËk ÌfËl„ ÌgxRUw ÌmKËl g^wcw awKËlI owe Awk ÌgxRk lrwB Ki
ÌkwiwéKk dt„ xpvoÛ pËt f×^Ëo DËV Pwk ewËm lwfwt ÌgxRUw„ ÌaËK ÌaËK
oweUwk iwawk ÌeQdUwt b^wZ gowËdwk ÌPÄw Pwlwt„ gøwewkUw iRwbwk
awKËZ awKËZ Kwiwl bÖËUwËK oxkËt Ìbt„ ewËm gËo Zwk ÌetwËkk ÌgrwlUw
GK bÙËÄ ÌMwUw owKêwoUw ÌbËL„ jwËK gËl L^wxU ejêËgqY, ZwB KËk jwt„
LwItwk oiËt Agmø xgrwlËK KwËQ xdËtB gËo Kwiwl„
‘Awt bÖ’ËUw hwZ iÖËL xbB„’ xgQwdw ewËZ Kwiwl„ owËek S×xrUw GKU×
bÔËk„ kwRw-kwdy NÖËiwt G ewËm„ eÞwt iwdÖËnk hxŠËZ„ ÌgxR NÖËiwt
Adø iwawt„ ÂcÖ xgrwlUw awËK ÌKwËlk KwËQB„ AdÖMZ GB eÞwYyk
ÌKwËdw xKQÖ eQëb dw pËl dwdwd oÖËk xi^twI xi^twI m² KËk„
- Zkw gÖSo dw„ iwdÖËnk ad Ryg-RwËdwtwk pwRwk †ËY hwlw„ iwdÖn
xdiKpwkwi gÖSQo? AwoËl, Nw ÌLËtËQ Kwiwl„ gwgwk iÙZ×øk ek Nk
Ìg^ËcxQl Ñokhyk oËŠ„ Ñokhyk xgbÖøuxmLwk iËZw xpËlöwxlZ Ìbp„ iwdÖn
hRwËdwk ÌK#ml, ÌlwK Uwdwk PwZ×kyËZ bÖ’RËd oÖËLB xQl„ xKìç ÌoB
Kwiwl PwBl ZwËbk ÌLlwNËkk ovowkUw Awol Nk pËt DVÖK„ Ñokhy Ìg^ËK
gËoxQl„ Kwiwl gËlxQl Zk ÌewlwewËdk mK lwËM dw Ñokhy? H PwBtw bøwL,
ÌowlZwd Awk itdw ÌKid Ìowëbk Nk gwBëbw lBËQ„ f×Ëlk dwpwl
gwâPwWwËk lBtw ÌowpwM KkZwËQ„ lI Ñokhy, Ìi#lhy owËgk KwËQ jwBtw
Kliw eBrw lB„
dw, ÑokhyËK Ìj ÌKwd Ìdmwt Ìel! pwËUgwRwËk ÌKwiËk ÌXD Z×Ël owËek S×xr
iwawt xdËt oÖËklw Mlwt p^wK xbZ AwËod ÌMw, gD xS, xSDxrkw, owe ÌLlw
ÌbLwiÖ ÌMw! KwldwxMdy, ÑLtw, ÌMwq×k, xgRlyk dwpwl owËek dwP
bøwLËZ AwËpd ...! Ìj xgxgk gwâPw pt dw, þñwiy hwlwgwËo dw, gD-
mwÂxrk xil ÌiwpwgµZ dwB .... pMl xgn gøwbdwk bwItwB ZwxgR AwËQ
Awiwk KwËQ... pwËZk xlLd ÌbBLøw xbiÖ iw ... oÖËklw Mlwt icÖ ÌXËl ifþñl
mpËkk eËa eËa WwK xbËt xbxgø ÌlwK RxiËt Z×lZ Ñokhy„ ÌMkËþÿk DËVwËd
gËo RwdËZ PwBZ
iw, iwBtwk pwZ ÌbBLøw ÌbB? etow lwMËgw dw„ xKËMw gBd ÌKiÖd RwiwB
eQëb?
Ñokhy, GZ ÌlwËKk id hÖlwBËZ ewko, Awiwk pwZLwd ÌbBLøw Ìb Ìbxp?
Ìd#Kwk ewUwZËd gËo ewxdËZ mZ LË¡ ÌhËO Lwd Lwd pËt jwItw P^wb
ÌbLËZ ÌbLËZ pwxoËZ ÌhËO Lwd Lwd pËt ÌjZ Ñokhy„ Mlw RxrËt cËk AwËgm
RrwËdw Mlwt glZ
- RwbÖ Rwxd ÌMw, RwbÖ Rwxd„ ogB gBËl xbËgw„
ÌoB ÌowpwM hwËlwgwowk iwdÖnUw GK kwËZ xKQÖ dw RwxdËt
xhdMÞwËik ÌRwtwd ÌLËlwtwËrk oËŠ PËl ÌMl„
ÌoB ÌaËK GKwB AwËQ Kwiwl„ oŠy oway xdËt AËdËK bÖ:LB Ìo hÖËl
ÌMËQ„ xKìç Zwk ÌMwQwËdw ovowËk GidUw NUËg, Zw Ìo KLËdw
hwËgxd„ Ñokhyk xdiêi gøgpwk, iwdÖËnk eÞxZ ZwËK Axgmðwoy KËk
Z×ËlxQl„ Awk Ìewnw eÞwYy†ËlwB ÌZw Zwk Agl¹d„ xgrwlUw xQl Zwk xd:m²
Qwtwk iËZw„ ÌMwLËkwk DbøZ fYw, ÌgxRUwk xpvoÛ ÌLlw gw g^wbËkk
owKêwËo etow AwËo„ xKìç iËdk Kaw, oÖL-bÖ:ËLk Kaw dykËg ÂËd Ñcjê cËk
awKwk iËZw ÌmÛwZw GKRdB xQl„ Ìo H iÖxdí„ ÌKwËlk KwËQ ÌN^Ën
NÖkZ„ awgwt cwkwËlw dL awKËlI KLËdw ZwËK mwod KkËZ ptxd„ ZwËKB
AwR pwkwËZ pËlw! Mlwk KwËQ oÖþeÄ owËek bvmËdk bwM„ AaP jLd
XwKdw Z×ll, ÌbLl NÖiwËâQ Zwk kŠy, KסÖxl ewxKËt„
- ÌiËtiwdÖn Ìk„ VKgwxR ÌZwËbk þñhwg Ìk„ ÌZwËbk Iek hkow Kkw iwËd ÌZw
xdËRk ikY ÌWËK Awdw! owkwUw xbd ÌPwËLk ewxd ÌiwËQ Awk hwËg Kwiwl„
oweUw S×xrk iËcø MRkwt„ S×xr ÌaËK ÌKwd AoZKê iÖpÔËZê ÌgxkËt iÖxdíËK
bvmd KËkËQ„ fwùMÖËdk Ìilwt NwËok Iek xbËt jw¢w KËkxQl kŠy„ oweUwI
xd:oŠ„ ptËZw oway Pwt„ Aagw gxëbZò ÌaËK iÖx£ß„ iwdÖËnk xpvoÛZw
ÌbËL Ik iËcøI ptËZw ÌRËMËQ k£ßZÚnäw„ iÖxdí ÌgrwlUw ptËZw KwiwlËK
RwxMËt xbËZ ÌPÄw KËkxQl ÌoB kwËZ, ZwB ZwËK AwNwZ KËkËQ
dwxMdy„ Kwiwl IËK xgmðwo KËkxQl„
ÌSwlwUw †xQËt Ìdt Kwiwl„ iwdÖny hwËlwgwow Awk xgmðwo ÌhËO ÌMËQ
Zwk„ ogwB GËo owìæòdw Ìbt ZwËK„ Kwiwl idxþÿk KËk ÌfËl„ AËdK xbd
oweUwk xbËK hwËlw KËk ÌLtwl Ìdtxd Kwiwl„ xgmðwo
KËkËQ„ hwËlwËgËoËQ„ iwdÖn ht ÌeËlI Ìo kŠyËK Mlwt RxrËtËQ, iwawt
ÌV^wU QÖBËt Awbk KËkËQ xKìç kŠy Ìj Gid KkËg Zw hwgËZ xMËt ÌKglB
ÌPwL xhËR IËV Zwk„ kŠyËK Ìo xdËRk pwËZ bÖc LwBËt lwld-ewld
KËkËQ„ iÖxdí xQl xdxgêËkwcy, dwbÖo-dÖbÖo, Zwk xeÞt GKUw
xgrwl„ dwMwËlk iËcø ÌeËt ÌeËt ZwËKB AwNwZ ÌpËdËQ oweUw„ Mhyk
ÌMweËd xgn RxiËt KwiwËlk xeÞt RygxUËKB ....
- Zt Awxi KwËk xgmðwo KkØi? iwBdËnËk fwlwBtw ZËMw xdtw AwxQlwi
Awk Apd ...
pwpwKwk KËk KwËb dw Kwiwl„ jZ dw ÌoíËpk ew¢ËK pwkwËdwk gøaw Zwk
ÌPËt Ìgxm xgmðwo pwkwËdwk KÄ„
GKoit ÌgxkËt eËr Kwiwl„ kwRw-kwdyËKI oËŠ Ìdt„ oËŠ Ìdt ÌgxRk
L^wPw„ xikeÖËkk xbËK L^w L^w KkËQ Rlw Awk RŠl„ Pwk xbK Âimwi„ ÌKD
ÌdB„ ÌoBLwËd GËo S×xrk XwKdw LÖËl Ìbt„ oweUw aiKwt GKUׄ Kwiwl gËl
jw, ZËk iÖ£ß KBkw xblwi„ oweUw xKQÖUw xgxþôZ„ Kwiwl LÖËl Ìbt ÌgxRk
L^wPwk xmKl„ jw, xdËRËk lBtw jw xMtw„ g^wbk bÖËUw xKìç jwt
dw„ A^wKËr cËk KwiwËlk Mlw„ ZwËbk ÌPwËL ¢wo, AwZ‰„ iwdÖËnk oŠB
ZwËbk gÖxS xdkweb iËd pt„ oweUw Ìjd xKQÖUw xgxþôZ„
- “jw, jw xMtw„ kŠy, ... jw eáLy, jw xMtw„ Z×BI jw xMtw ....„ Kwiwl SkSËk
Ìk#bÛwËlwxKZ AwKwËmk xbËK ZwKwt„
mpËkk ÌKwlwpl GLwËd Ìe^#Qwtxd GLËdw„ GLwËd jxb eÞwxYRMËZ
ÌKwËdw ikYeY lrwB pt, ÌK xRZËg ÌK pwkËg, ÌKD RwËd dw„
- ikØK xdËRkw lrwB KBkw„ ÌZwËMw lrwB ÌZwkwB KBkw ik„ Awiwk Lwxl
bÖ:LÖ Awiwk xgmðwoU×K× dÄ Kkxl„ iwBdËnk iZdB xdËRkw jÖ¦ Kkxg, ikxg
xgn Xwlxg„ Awxi bÖ:LÖ KkØi dw„”
ÌeQd xfËk gr kwþæwt DËV mpËkk xbËK ew gwxrËt Ìbt Kwiwl xitw„
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GK×Ëm ÌfgÛØtwxk AwiwËbk AwËëbwxlZ KkØK

AwfZwg ÌP#cÖky
Awgwk goìæ„ Awgwk xfËk GËlw GK×Ëm ÌfgÛØtwxkk AxgþôkYyt xbd, 58
gQËkk þôÙxZ Mìc xdËt„ gQËkk xpËoËg gr Ki dt, Acê mZw²y ÌexkËt xMËt
xbdxU AwiwËbk KwËQ goËìæk oiwaêK pËt ÌMËQ„ kgyëbÛdwa AËdK xbd
AwËM goìæËK hÖgd xgRty gËl ÌMËQd„ GK×Ëm ÌfgÛØtwxk Zwk Ìbtw
AxhcwËK owaêK I oÖeÞjÖ£ß KËkËQ„ Awikw ogwB G xbdxUk BxZpwo
Rwxd„ owkw eÙxagyk iËcø hwnw gøgpwkKwky iwdÖËnk xpËoËg eéi
þÿwËd kËtËQ Ìj gwvlw hwnw, Ìo hwnw iwZÚhwnw jwËbk ZwkwB
gwOwxl„ 1952 owËlk GK×Ëm ÌfgÛØtwxk, 1358 oËdk 8 fwùMÖd gwOwxl
RwxZk GKwvm ÌoB xbËdk eÔgê ewxKþæwËdk mwoKËMwÅy KZÚêK
Rgkbxþæ DbÖê hwnw PwxeËt xbËt iwZÚhwnwk AeiÙZ×ø NUwËdwk
nrjËìèk xgkØ˦ XwKwk kwþæwt k£ß SxkËt BxZpwo oÙxÄ
KËkxQl„ þñwcydZw lwËhk ek ÌaËKB eÔgêgwvlwk ‘eÔgê ewxKþæwd’ dwËik
hÓL¡xU exúPi ewxKþæwËdk DexdËgËm exkYZ pËtxQl gËl 1948 owl ÌaËKB
eÞxZgwby AwËëbwlËdk Rdô pËtxQl„ Ìo AwËëbwlËdk cwkweËaB GËlw
iwZÚhwnwk Ìi#l AxcKwk kqwk ovpZ Ggv ÌowâPwk GK×Ëm ÌfgÛØtwxk,
1952-Gk xgËmn xbdxU„ G xbd XwKw mpËk Qw¢Ëbk AhÖø¤wËd eÖxlËmk
xpvoÛ Aw¢ßiËY jwkw mpyb pËtxQËld, ZwËbk iËcø DËlöLËjwMø Rgµwk,
kxfK, owlwi I gkKZ„ ÌoB xbd ÌaËKB ÌbËm ÌbËm ÌQwU-gr og iwZÚhwnwk
jawaê ijêwbw I AxcKwk lwËhk ovMÞwËik oÔPdw pËlw„ xgËmn KËk eÔgê
ewxKþæwËdk AwKwËm Awodí gÙp£k iÖx£ßjÖ˦k ÌNwnYw KËk xbdxU Ìjd
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iwZÚhwnw xbgo AwiwËbk eki xeÞt GK×Ëm ÌfgÛØtwxk„
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Awiwk hwBËtk k裧 kwOwËdw Awikw ÌKwawt?

W. iwpgÖg pwowd
AZøwPwk-xdjêwZËd KwËkw iÙZ×ø dw pItw ejêìæ Awikw gÖxS dw Ìj oZø
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eÞwt cZêËgøk iËcøB Awikw kwxL dw„
‘Awiwk hwBËtk k裧 kwOwËdw GK×Ëm ÌfgÛØtwxk/Awxi xK hÖxlËZ ewxk’
G Mwd ÌKgl Mwd dt, G AwiwËbk AìæËkk gwodwkB eÞxZkÕe Ìjd„ AwiwËbk
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AwËgbd eÞKwm ÌeËtËQ ZwËZ AwiwËbk iËd ÌKwËdw ÌLb awKwk Kaw
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gwrwt og oPl hwnwkB þñhwgPxk¢ GxU„ gwvlwkI kËtËQ gøweK m²-ÌmwnY
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xdRþñ gwvlw iwo ‘fwùMÖd’ ZLd ZwËK Awxi owvÆÚxZK AwMÞwodB
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gwvlw od-ZwxkL AwR Awk KxiDxdËKU KkËZ ewËk dw iwdÖnËK„ ZËg,
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AwìæRêwxZK bwZwkw Gk owËa owvÆÚxZK HKø Ìgwc KËkd„
Awiwk Kaw pËlw Ky KËk AwiwËbk ÌPZdwt ‘AwU fwùMÖd’ xggxZêZ pt
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kqwk Rdø DbÖê gw BvËkxRk Rdø dt„ ‘Awp! ixk gwvlwk’ Rdø Awikw G iwËo
K^wbg, ÌPwËLk Rl Ìflg AwËlwPdw KkËZ xMËt Awk glg ‘Aik GK×Ëm
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