You are on page 1of 48

A.

C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

SOLVED

Q.1 The voltage and current in a circuit are given by = 150


300 V and = 2-300A. If the circuit works on a 50 Hz
supply, determine the power factor, power loss, impedance,
resistance, and reactance considering the circuit as a simple
series circuit.
= 150 300 V

Data :

= 2150 A
f = 50Hz
=

150 300
2 15 0

= 75 450 = 53.03 + j50.03


Impedance

= 75

Resistance

R = 53.03

Reactance

Power factor

pf = cos = cos (450) = 0.707 (lagging)

Power loss

= 53.03

= VIcos

= 150 2 0.707 = 212.1w

Q.2 An rms voltage of 100 00


combination of Z1 & Z2
1

v is applied to a series

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

SOLVED

when Z1 = 20 300 . Find reactive component of Z2.


Ans. = 100 00 , 1 = 20 300 , 1 = 40 -300 V.

Total Impedance =

=
=

40 300
20 30 0
100 00
2 60 0

= 2 600 A
= 50 600 = 25 + j 43.3

1 = 20 300 = 17.32 + j 10
1 = + 1
Reactive component of 2 = 33.3

Q. 3 When a sinusoidal voltage 120 V (rms) is applied to a series


R-L circuit, it is found that there occurs a power dissipation
of 1200 W and a current flow given by i (t) = 28.3 sin (314t
). Find the circuit resistance and inductance.
Data :

= 120 V

i ( t) = 28.3 sin (314 t )


P = 1200 W
I =

28.3
2

= 20.01A

P = VI cos
1200 = 120 20.01 cos
cos = 0.499
= 60.020
2

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

Z =

120
20.01

= 6

= Z = 660.020 = 3 + j5.2
Resistance R = 3
Resistance XL = 5.2
XL = WL
5.2 = 314 X L
Inductance L = 0.0165 H

SOLVED

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

SOLVED

Q.4 In a series circuit containing resistance and inductance, the


current and voltage are expressed as i (t) = 5 sin 314t +
2
3

and v (t) = 20 sin 314t +

5
6

(a) what is the impedance

of the circuit ? (b) What are the values of resistance,


inductance and power factor ? (c) What is the average
power drawn by the circuit ?
i (t) = 5 sin 314t +

Data:

2
3

v (t) = 20 sin 314t +


I=

5
2

V=

5
6

20
2

Impedance Z =

20/ 2
5/ 2

= 4

Current is (f) lags behind voltage v (t) by an angle = 1500 - 1200


= 300
Power Factor = cos = cos (300) = 0.866 (lagging)
= 4300 = 3.464 + j2
Resistance

R = 3.464
XL = 2
XL = L
4

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

SOLVED

2 = 314 X L
Inductance

L = 6.37 mH

Average power P = VI cos


=

20
2

5
2

0.866 = 43.3W

Q.5 A choke coil is connected in series with a fixed resistor. A


240 V, 50 Hz supply is applied and current of 2.5 A flows. If
the voltage drop across the coil and fixed resistor are 140 V
and 160 V respectively, calculate the resistance and
inductance of the coil, and the value of the fixed resistor and
power drawn by the coil.

Resistance of fixed resistor R =


Impedance of choke coil Zcoil =
Zcoil =

160
2.5
140
2.5

= 64
= 56

2 + 2 = 56
5

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

2 + 2 = 3136
Total impedance

Z=

240
2.5

= 96

= (R+r) + jXL
Z=

( + )2 + 2

96 =

( + 64)2 + 2

( + 64)2 + 2 = 9216
Substituting Eq. (ii) from (i)
( + 64)2 2 = 6080
2 + 128 + 4096 2 = 6080
128 r = 1984
r = 15.5
Resistance of coil r = 15.5
Substituting the value of r in the Eq. (i),
(15.5)2 + 2 = 3136
2 = 2895.75
= 53.81

SOLVED

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

SOLVED

= 2 50 L
Inductance of coil

L = 0.17 H

Power drawn by the coil = I2r


= (2.5)2 15.5 = 96.875 W

Q.6 A 100 resistance is connected in series with a choke coil.


When a 400 V. 50Hz supply is applied to this combination,
the voltage across the resistance and the choke coil are 200
V and 300 V respectively. Find the power consumed by the
choke coil. Also calculate the power factor of the choke coil
and the power factor of the circuit.

Current I =

200
100

=2A

Impedance of choke coil Zcoil =

200
100

= 150

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

SOLVED

2 + 2 = 150
2 + 2 = 22500
Total impedance

(i)

Z=

400
2

= 200

= (R + r) + jXL
z=

( + )2 + 2 = 200

(100 + )2 + 2 = 40000
Subtracting the Eq. (i) from (ii)
(100 + )2 + 2 = 17500
10000 + 200r + 2 2 = 17500
200r = 7500
r = 37.5
Substituting the value of r in the Eq. (i) ,
(37.5)2 + 2 = 22500
2 = 21093.75
= 145.24
Power consumed by choke coil = I2 r = (2)2 X 37.5 = 150 w

Power factor ofchoke coil =

Z coil
8

37.5
150

= 0.25 (lagging)

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

Power factor of circuit

+
Z

100 + 37.5
200

SOLVED

= 06875 (lagging)

Q.7 When a resistor and a coil in series are connected to a 240


V supply, a current of 3 A flows, lagging 370 behind the
supply voltage. The voltage across the coil is 171 volts. Find
the resistance of the resistor and the resistance and
reactance of the coil.

Impedance of the coil coil

Zcoil =

171
3

= 57

2 + 2 = 57
2 + 2 = 3279
Total impedance

Z=

(i)
240
3

= 80

= Z = 80 370 = 63.89 + j48.15


But

= (R + r) + jXL

Reactance of coil XL = 48.15


9

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

SOLVED

2 + 2 = 3249
2 + (48.145)2 = 3249
2 = 931.04
Reactance of coil r = 30.51
(R + r) = 63.89
R + 30.51 = 63.89
R + 30.51 = 63.89
Reactance of coil R = 33.38
Q.8 A cricuit consists of a pure resistance and coil in series.
Power dissipated in the resistance and in the coil are 1000
W and 250 W respectively. The voltage drops across the
resistance and the coil are 200 V and 300 V resistance. (ii)
resistance and reactance of the coil, (iii) coil impedance, (iv)
combined resistance of the circuit, (v) combined impedance,
and (vi) supply voltage.

PR = 1000 W

VR = 200 V

10

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

PCOIL = 250 W
PR =

VCOIL = 300 V

2
R
(200)2

1000 =

R = 40
VR = RI
200 = 40I
I = 5A
Pcoil = I2r
250 = (5)2 x r
Resistance of coil

r = 10

Impedance of coil

Zcoil =

Reactance of coil

XL =
=

300
5

= 60

(60)2 (10)2 = 59.2

Combined resistance Rr = R + r = 40 + 10 = 50
( + )2 2

Combined impedance Zr =
=
Supply voltage

(50)2 + (59.2)2 = 77.5

V = Zr. I = 77.5 x 5 = 387.5 V


11

SOLVED

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

SOLVED

Q.9 When a voltage of 100V is applied to a coil A, the current


taken is 8 A and the power is 120W. When applied to a coil
B, the current is 10 A and the power is 500W. What current
and power will taken when 100V is applied to the two coils
connected in series ?

For the coil A.


ZR =

100
8

= 12.5

PA = IA2 rA
120 = (8)2 x rA
200 = 40I
rA = 1.875
XA =

ZA2 rA2 =

(12.5)2 (1.875)2 = 12.36

For the coil B,


12

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

ZR =

100
10

= 10

PB = IB2 rB
500 = (10)2 x rB
rB = 5
ZB2 rB2 =

XB =

(10)2 (5)2 = 8.66

When coils A and B are connected in series,

= rA + jXA + rB + jXB
= 1.875 + j 12.36 + 5 + j 8.66
= 6.875 + j 21.02
= 22.11 71.890
Z = 22.11
= 71.890
I=

100
22.11

= 4.52A

P = I2 (rA + rB) = (4.52)2 X (6.875) = 140.64w


13

SOLVED

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

SOLVED

Q.10 In a particular circuit, a voltage of 10 V at 25 Hz produces


100 mA. while the same voltage at 75 Hz produces 60 mA.
Find the values of components of the circuit.
Data

V1 = 10 V,

f1 = 25 Hz, I1 = 10 mA,

V2 = 10 V,

f2 = 75 Hz, I2 = 60 mA,

Case (i) V1 = 10 V,
Z1 =

1
I1

f1 = 25 Hz,

10
100 X 10 3

= 100

Case (ii) V2 = 10 V,
Z2 =

2
I2

I1 = 100 mA,

f1 = 75 Hz,
10
60 X 10 3

I2 = 60 mA,

= 166.67

As frequency increase, impedance of the circuit increases.


In a serices R-L circuit, inductive reactance XL increases
with frequency. Hence, impedance increases.
Z1 =

R2 + X L21 =

R2 + (2 x 25 x L)2 = 100

R2 + (50L)2 = 10000
Z2 =

R2 + X L22 =

R2 + (2 x 25 x L)2 = 166.67

R2 + (150L)2 = 27778.89
14

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

SOLVED

Solving Eqs. (i) and (ii)


R = 88.1
L = 0.3 H

Q.11 When 1 A is passed through three coils A, B and C in series,


the voltage across them are 6 V, 3 V and 8 V respectively on
a dc supply and 7 V 5 V and 10 V respectively on an ac
supply. Find the power factor and the power dissipated in
each coil and the power factor of the whole circuit.
Data

I=1A

On dc supply

VA = 6 V,

VB = 3 V,

On ac supply

VA = 7 V,

VB = 5 V,

For dc supply, f=0


XL = 2fL = 0
The coil behaves as a pure resistor
6

RA = = 6
1

RB = = 3
1

For ac supply,
15

RC = = 8
1

VC = 8 V,

VC = 10 V,

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

ZA = = 7
1

ZB = = 5

ZC =

10
1

XA =

ZA2 R2A =

XB =

ZB2 R2B =

(5)2 (3)2 = 4

XC =

ZC2 R2C =

(10)2 (8)2 = 6

(7)2 (6)2

Power factor of coil A =


Power factor of coil B =
Power factor of coil C =
Total impedance

SOLVED

= 10
= 3.6

= = 0.857 (lagging)
7

= = 0.6 (lagging)
5

8
10

= 0.8 (lagging)

= Ra + jXA + RB + jXB + RC + jKC


= 6 + j3.6 + 3 + j4 + 8 + j6
= 17 + j13.6 = 21.77 38.680

Power factor of the whole circuit = cos (38.680) = 0.78


(lagging)
Q.12 An air-cored coil takes 5 A current and consumes 600 W
power when connected across a 200V. 50 Hz ac supply.
Calculate the value of the current drawn by the coil if the
supply frequency increases to 60 Hz.
16

A.C CIRCUITS

Data

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

I=5A
V = 200 V
P = 600 W
f = 50 Hz.

For

Z=

200
5

= 40

P = I 2r
600 = (5)2 x r
r = 24
XL = z 2 r 2
=

(40)2 (24)2

= 32

XL = 2fL
32 = 2 X 50 X L
L = 0.1019 H
For

f = 60 Hz
XL = 2 X 60 X 0.1019 = 38.4
r = 24

17

SOLVED

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

(r)2 X L2 =

Z=
I =

200
45.28

(24)2 + (38.4)2

SOLVED

= 45.28

= 4.417 A

Q.13 When an iron-cored choking coil is connected to a 12 V dc


supply, it draws a current of 2.5 A and when it is connected
to a 230 V, 50 Hz supply, it draws a 2 A current and
consumes 50 W of power. Determine for this value of current
(i) power loss in the iron core, ii) inductance of the coil, (iii)
power factor, and the (iv) value of the series resistance
which is equivalent to the effect of iron loss.
Data For dc
For dc

V = 12 V, I = 2.5 A
V = 230 V,

I=2A

P = 50 W

In an iron-cored coil, there are two types of losses


(i) Losses in core known as core or iron loss
ii) Losses in winding known as copper loss.
P = I2r + Pi

=R+

Rr = R +

Where R is the resistance of the coil and


which is equivalent to the effect of iron loss.
18

is the resistance

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

For dc supply,

SOLVED

f=0
XL = 0
R=

12
2.5
230

= 4.8
= 115

For ac supply

Z=

Iron loss

Pi = P I2R = 50 (2)2 x 4.8 = 30.8W


Rr =
XL =

Z 2 R2r =

50
(2)2

= 12.5

(115)2 (12.5)2 = 114.3

XL = 2fL
114.3 = 2 X 50 X L
Inductance

L = 0.363 H

Power factor

12.5
115

= 0.108 (lagging)

The series resistance equivalent to the effect of iron loss =


=

30.8
(2)2

= 7.7

Q.14 An iron cored coil takes 4A at a p.f. of 0.5 when connected


to a 200V, 50Hz supply. When the iron core is removed and
19

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

SOLVED

voltage is reduced to 40V, current rises to 5A at pf of 0.8.


Find the iron loss in the core and inductonce in each case.
soin with iron core
Without iron core

I = 4 A,

pf = 0.5

V = 200 V

I = 5 A,

pf = 0.8

V = 40 V

When the core is removed


Z=
pf =

40

= 8

0.8 =

Rr = 6.4
XL = Z 2 R 2 =

(8)2 (6.4)2 = 48

XL = 2fL
4.8 = 2 X 50 X L
Inductance with iron core,
Z=

L = 0.0153 H

200

pf =
0.5 =

= 50

50
20

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

SOLVED

= 25
XL =

(50)2 (25)2 = 43.30

Z 2 R2r =

XL = 2fL
43.3 = 2 X 50 X L
Inductance iron loss,

L = 0.01378 H

Pi = P - I2R
= VI cos I2R
= 200 x 4 x 0.5 (4)2 x 6.4 = 297.6W
Q.15)

The voltage applied to a circuit is e = 100 sin (t+ 300)

and the current flowing in the circuit is i = 1.5 sin (t+ 600).
Determine impedance, resistance, reactance, power and
power factor.
Data

e = 100 sin (t+ 300)


i = 15 sin (t+ 600)
=
=

100
2
15
2

300V

600A

21

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

100
2
15
2

30 0
60 0

SOLVED

= 6.67 300 = 5.77 -j3.33

Impedance

Z = 6.67

Resistance

R = 5.77

Reactance

XC = 3.33
= cos = cos (300) = 0.866

Power factor
(leading)
Power
Q.16)

P = VI cos =

100
2

15
2

0.866 = 649.5W

A resistor R in series with a capacitance C is connected

to a 240 V 50 Hz ac supply. Find the value of C so that R


absorbs 300 W at 100 V. Find also the maximum charge and
maximum stored energy in C.
Data

V = 240 V

VR = 100V

P = 300 W

f = 50 Hz

P=

V 2R

300 =

(100)2

R = 33.33
P = I 2R

22

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

SOLVED

300 = I2 X 33.33
I = 3A
V

240

Z= =
Xc = Z 2 R2 =
XC =

= 80

(100)2 (33.33)2 = 72.72


1

72.72 =

1
2 50

C = 43.77F
Voltage across capacitor
VC =

V 2 VR2 =

(240)2 (100)2 = 72.72

Maximum value of

VC = 218.7 x

2 = 308.54 V

Maximum charge
Qmax = CVcmax = 43.77 x 10-6 x 308.54 = 0.0135C
Maximum stored energy

Emax =
=

1
2

1
2

C (Vcmax)2

x 43.77 x 10-6 x (308.54)2

=2.08J

23

A.C CIRCUITS

Q.17)

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

SOLVED

A capacitor of 35 f is connected in series with a

variable resistor. The circuit is connected across 50 Hz


mains. Find the value of the resistor for a condition when the
voltage across the capacitor is half the supply voltage.
Data

C = 35 F
VC =
VC =
VC =

1
2

2
2

XC.I =
XC =

V
1

1
2

f = 50 Hz

1
2 50 35 10 6

= 90.946

V
1
2

Z.I

Z = 2XC
Z=

R2 X C2

(2XC)2 = R2 X C2
3X C2 = R2
R2 = 3 x (90.946)2 = 24813.35
R = 157.5

24

A.C CIRCUITS

Q.18)

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

SOLVED

A resistor and a capacitor are connected across a 250

V supply. When the supply frequency is 50 Hz, the current


drawn is 5A. When the frequency is increased to 60 Hz, it
draws 5.8 A. Fin the value of R and C and power drawn in
the second case.
Data

V = 250V
f1 = 50 Hz,

I1 = 5 A,

f2 = 60 Hz,

I0 = 5.8 A

f3 = 50 Hz,
Z1 =
R2 +
For

250
5

1
100

R2

= 50 =

21

R2

100

= 2500
f2 = 60 Hz,
Z2 =

Z2 =
R2 +

250
5.8

= 43.1

R2

1
120

Solving Eqs. (i) and (ii),


R = 19.96

25

1
22

R2

= 1857.9

1
120

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

SOLVED

C = 69.4F
Power drawn in the second case = I2R = (5.8)2 x 19.96 = 671.45 w

Q.19)

A coil of resistance 3 and an inductance of 0.22 H is

connected in series with an imperfect capacitor. When such


a series circuit is connected across a 200 V, 50 Hz supply, it
has been observed that their combined impedance is (3.8 + j
6.4) Calculate the resistance and capacitance of imperfect
capacitor.

Data

= 3.8 + j 6.4
XL = 2fL = 2 X 50 X 0.22 = 69.12

Total impedance

=3 + j69.12 + R - jXC
=(3 + R) + j (69.12 XC)

3+R =

3.8
26

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

SOLVED

R = 0. 8
69.12 XC = 6.4
XC = 62.74
XC =
62.72 =

1
2
1
2 50

C = 50.75F

Q.20)

An R-L-C series circuit has a current which lags the

applied voltage by 450. The voltage across the inductance


has maximum value equal o twice the maximum value of
voltage across the capacitor. Voltage across the inductance
is 300 sin (1000t) and R = 20 Find the value of inductance
and capacitance.
Data

VL

= 300 sin (1000t)

= 20

= 450

VL(max)
2 VC

= 2V
= 2 2 VC
27

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

I x XL
XL

= 2l x XC
= 2XC

cos

cos 450

20
2

= 28.28
R2 + X L X C

For a series R-L-C circuit, Z =


(28.28)2
799.76

= (20)2 + (2XC XC)2


= 400 + X 2

XC

= 20

XL

= 2 XC = 40

XL

= t

40

= 1000 x L

XC

20

SOLVED

40
1000

= 0.04H

1
1000

= 50F
28

A.C CIRCUITS

Q.21)

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

SOLVED

A coil having a power factor of 0.5 is in series with a

79.57 capacitor and when connected across a 50 Hz supply,


the p.d. across the coil is equal to the p.d. across the
capacitor. Find the resistance and inductance of the coil
Data

pf

= 0.5

= 79.57F

f
Vcoil
XC
VCoil
I. ZCoil
ZCoil
pf of coil
0.5

= 50 Hz
= VC
=

1
2

1
2 50 79.57 10 6

= VC
= I . XC
= XC = 40
= cos =
=

40

Resistance of coil R = 20

29

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

2
Zcoil
(20)2 = 34.64

XC

XL

= 2fL

34.64

SOLVED

= 2 x 50 x L

Inductance of coil L = 0.11H

Q.22)

A 250 V 50 Hz Voltage is applied to a coil having

resistance of 5 and an inductance of 9.55 H is series with a


capacitor C. If the voltage across the coil is 300 V. Find the
value of V.
Data

= 250 V

= 5

= 9.55 H

Vcoil
XL
Zcoil

= R2 X L2 =

= 300 V
= 2fL = 2 X 50 X 9.55 = 3000

(5)2 + (3000)2 = 3000


I

30

300
3000

= 0.1A

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

Total impedance

When XL > XL

(2500)2
(3000X C )
XC

When Xc > XL

Q.23)

0.1

= 2500

R2 + (X L X C )2

= 500

XC

250

= 2500

2500

= (5)2 + (3000 X C ) 2

(2500)2

SOLVED

1
2 X C

1
2 50 500

= 6.37F

R2 + (X L X C )2

= (5)2 + (X C 3000) 2
= X C 3000
= 5500
=

1
2 50 5500

= 0.58F

Draw a vector diagram for the circuit shown in Fig. 3.62

indicating terminal voltage V1 and V2 and the current. Find


the volue of (a) current, (b) V1 and V2 and (c) power factor.

31

A.C CIRCUITS

Data

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

XL1

= 2 = 2 X 50 X 0.05V = 15.71

XL2

= 2 = 2 X 50 X 0.1 = 31.42

XC
Total impedance

SOLVED

1
2 X C

1
2 50 50 10 6

= 63.66

= 10 + j15.71 + 20 + j31.42 j63.66


= 30 j16.53 = 34.24 28.850
200

= 5.84 00 A

1
1

34.25

= 5.84A

= 10 + j15.71 = 18.62 57.52

=1 . = (18.62 57.520) (5.8400) =108.74 57.520 V


2

= 20 + j31.42 j 63.66
= 20 j32.24 = 37.94 57.520

=2 . = (37.94 58.190) (5.8400) =221.5758.120 V


32

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

pf

Q.24)

= cos = cos (28.850) = 0.875 (leading)

Find values of R and C so that Vx = 3Vy, such that Vx &

Vy, are in Quadrature.


Data

SOLVED

XL

= 2 = 2 X 50 X 0.0255 = 8

ZX

= 6 X j 8 = 10 53.130

VX

= 3Vy

I x ZX
Zx

= 3 X I X Zy
= 3Zy

33

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

SOLVED

VX and VY are in quadrature, i.e., phase angle between Vx


and Vy is 900.
Hence the angle between Zx and Zy will be 900. The
impedance is capacitive in nature.
Zy
Zy

10
3

= Zy

(53.1390)0 = 3.33 36.870 = 2.66-j2


R

= 2.66

XC

= 2

XC

1
2 X C
1
2 50 2

= 1.59mF

The admittance Y of a circuit is defined as a reciprocal of


impedance. The impedance Z can be written as
Z

= R + jK

The real part of impedance is called resistance and the


imaginary part is called reactance. Similarly, admittance also can
be expressed in terms of real part and imaginary part.
1
Z

1
R+jX

34

(R+jX ) (RjX )

R2 + X2

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

R2

+ X2

SOLVED

R2

+ X2

The real part of admittance is called conductance and the


imaginary part is called susceptance and are measured in mho
(V) or siemens (S).
In general,

Q.25)

= G + jB

If

= R + jXLB

If

= R jXC

Y =
Y =

1
Z

1
Z

= G - jBL

= G + jBC

Two circuits, the impedances of which are given by Z1

= (6+j8) and Z2 = (8j6) and connected in parallel. If the


applied voltage to the combination is 100 V. find (i) current
and pf of each branch. (ii) overall current and pf of the
combination. and (iii) power consumed by each impedance.

35

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

Z1

Data

= 6 + j8

= 100 v

= 100 00 V

I1

I2

V
Z1
V
Z1

=
=

100 00
6+ j8
100 00
8 j6

Z2 = 8 j6

= 10 53.130 A
= 10 36.90 A

cos 1

= cos (53.130) = 0.6 (lagging)

cos 2

= cos (36.90) = 0.8 (leading)

SOLVED

= I1 + I2 = 10 53.130 + 10 36.90
= 14.14 8.130

pf

Q.26)

cos = cos (8.130) = 0.989 (lagging)

P1

= I12 R1 = (10)2 x (6) = 600 W

P2

= I2 R 2 = (10)2 x (8) = 800 W

An impedance of (7 + j5) is connected in parallel with

another impedance of (10 - j8) across a 230 V, 50 Hz


supply.

Calculate

(i)

admittance,

36

conductance

and

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

SOLVED

susceptance of the combined circuit, and (ii) total current


and power factor.

Z1

Data

= (7 + j5) Z2 = (10 j8)


= 230 v

Y1

Y2

1
Z1
1
Z2

=
=

1
7+ j5

= 0.12 35.540

1
10 j8

= 0.08 38.660

= Y1 + Y2
= 0.12 35.540 + 0.08 38.660
= 0.16 7.040
= 0.16 j0.02

Admittance

= 0.16

Conductance

= 0.16

37

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

Susceptance

B
I

SOLVED

= 0.02
= +
= (230 00) (0.16 7.040)
= 36.8 7.040 A

I
pf

Q.27)

= 36.8 A
= cos = cos (7.040) = 0.99 (lagging)

A voltage of 200 250 V is applied to a circuit

composed of two parallel branches. If the branch currents


are 10 400 A and 20 300 A. determine the kVA, kVAR,
kW in each branch. Also calculate the pf of the combined
load.
Data

I1

= 10 400A

= 200 250 V

I2 = 20 -300A

= 0.16 7.040
Phase difference between V and I1 , 1 = 400 250 = 15
Phase difference between V and I2 , 2 = 250 (300 ) = 550
cos 1

= cos (150) = 0.97 (leading)


38

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

cos 2

SOLVED

= cos (550) = 0.57 (leading)

For the branch current of 10 400A


P1

=VI1 cos 1 = 200 x 10 x 0.97 = 1.94 kW

Q1

=VI1 cos 1 = 200 x 10 x sin (150) = 0.52 kVAR

S1

=VI1 = 200 X 20 = 4 kVA


For the combined load,
I1

= 10 400A

I2

= 20 -300A

= I1 + I2

10 400 + 20 300

= 25.24 8.140 A
= 250 (8.140)

Phase difference

= 33.140
pf

Q.28)

= cos (33.130) = 0.84 (lagging)

When a 240 V, 50 Hz supply is fed to a 15 resistor in

parallel with an inductor, the total current is 22.1 A. What


value must the frequency have for the total current to be 34
A?

39

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

Data

= 240 V

= 15

(16)2

256 +

= 22.1A

I1

I2

I
240 2
XL
57600
X 2L

240 0 0

= 16 00 = 16 A

15 00
240 0 0
XL

900

= 16 j

XL

XL

= 22.1
= 22.1
= 15.74

XL

= 2fL

240

240

XL

15.74

SOLVED

= 2 x 50 x L
= 0.05 H

40

= 900 = j

240
XL

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

SOLVED

Let the new frequency be f. Then


(16)2

240

= 34

2 0.05

256 +

57600
0.0987 2

Q.29)

= 1156
= 25.47 Hz

Determine the current in the circuit of Fig. 3.70 Also.

find the power consumed as well as pf.

Data

= 2 50 0.01 = 3.14

= 2 50 0.02 = 6.28

1
2 50 200 10 6

41

= 15.92

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

= 6 + j 3.14

= 4 + j 6.28

= 2 j 15.92

=(6 + j3.14) +

= 1 +

2 .3
2 +3

(4+ 6.28) (2 15.92)


(4+ 6.28)+(2 15.92)

SOLVED

= 17.27 30.750

100 00

= 5.79 30.750 A

VI cos = 100 x 5.79 x cos (30.750)

17.27 30.75 0

= 497.94 W
pf

Q.30)

cos = cos (30.750) = 0.86 (lagging)

Find applied voltage VAB so that 10A Current many flow

through the capacitor.

42

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

= 2 50 0.0191 = 6

= 2 50 0.0318 = 10
1

=8

= 2 + j 6 = 6.32 71.560

= 7 j 8 = 10.63 51.340

= +
=

2 50 398 10 6

1 .2
1 +2

SOLVED

+ 3

(2+ 6) (7 8)
(2+j6+7j8)

+ (8 + j10) = 19.91 45.530

= 1000 A

2 = 2 . 2 (10.6348.80) (10 00)


= 10.63 48.80V
1
1

1
2

= 2 = 106.3 48.80 V
106.348.80
6.32 71.56 0

=16.82 120.360 A

1 +2 =16.82 120.3601000

=14.58 84.090A

= . = (19.9145.530) (14.58 84.090)


43

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

SOLVED

= 290.28 38.560 V
Q.31)

An impedonce of R + jX ohm is connected in parallel

with another impedance of -j5 ohm. The combination is then


connected in series with a pure resistance of 2 When
connected across a 100 V, 50 Hz ac supply, the total current
drawn by the circuit is 20 A and the total power consumed
by the circuit is 2 kW. Calculate (i) R and L, and (ii) currents
through parallel branches.

Data

= 2kW

= 100 V

= 20 A

= VI cos

2000

= 100 20 cos

cos

= 1

= 0
44

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

= 100 00

= 20 00

SOLVED

= 2 200 00 = 40 00
= 100 00 40 00 = 60 00

23.32 30.960

60 00

=
60 00

5 900

= 12 900

20 00 12 900 = 23.32 30.960

= 2.57 30.960 = 2.2 + j1.32


R

= 2.2

XL

= 1.32

XL

= 1.32

XL

= 2f L

1.32
L

= 2 50 L
= 4.2 mH

45

A.C CIRCUITS

Q.32)

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

SOLVED

For the below circuit, calculate (i) total admittance, total

conductance and total susceptance (ii) total current and total


pf (iii) value of pure capacitance to be connected in parallel
with above conbination to make the total pf unity.

Data

= 6 + j8 = 10 53.130

= 8 - j6 = 10 36.870

1
1
1
2

=
=

1
10 53.13 0

= 0.153.130

1
10 36.87 0

= 0.136.870

= 1 + 2
= 0.1 53.130 + 0.1 36.870
= 0.14 j0.02 = 0.14 8.130

Total admittance Y

= 0.14

Total conductanceG = 0.14


46

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

SOLVED

Total susceptanceB = 0.02


Let

= 200 00 V

(ii)

= .

=(200 00 ) (0.148.130) = 28 8.130A


Total pf
(iii)

cos (8.130) = 0.989 (lagging)

since the current lags behind voltage, the circuit is inductive

in nature. In order to make the total pf unity, a pure capacitor is


connected in parallel so that pf becomes unity and imaginary part
of

becomes zero.

= 0.14 j0.02 + j0.02 = 0.14


= 0.02
= 50
=

1
25050

47

= 63.66 F

A.C CIRCUITS

RESISTOR, INDUCTOR & CAPACITOR IN A.C

48

SOLVED