You are on page 1of 11

# ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE

AND
INTERNAL RESISTANCE

SITUATION 1

SITUATION 1

SITUATION 2

Cable WITH
electric current

Broken
Cable

## Electromotive force = e.m.f

The e.m.f of a source is the electrical
potential energy transferred from other
forms, per coulomb of charge that passes
through the source when it is not connected
to any external circuit
voltmeter

bulb

switch

DEFINITION
The energy supplied by the source
(Battery, accumulator) per unit charge
in incomplete circuit
e.m.f = Electric energy provided by the source
charge that flow from the source

is the e.m.f. of the battery and accumulator

potential energy
e.m.f

## The energy supplied by

the source per unit
charge

Potential difference

## The energy used to

move charge flow
through the component

## In electricity source such In electrical component

as battery, generator
such as bulb, rheostat,
resistor

## Internal resistance (r)

Resistance caused by the difficulty of ion
movement in electrolyte

## Internal resistance of a cell causes part of the

electromotive force (e.m.f) to be loss in the cell when
connected to a resistance

Question 1

## A 9.0 V battery whose internal resistance, r is a

0.5 is connected in the circuit as shown above
a) how much current is drawn from the battery
b) what is the terminal voltage of the battery

Solution
a)1/Rp = 1/10 + 1/(6+3)

A)

= 19/90
RP= 4.74 ohm
RT =4.74 + 5.0 ohm
= 9.74 ohm
I = E/ RT
= 9/9.74
= 0.92 A

b) E = V + Ir
V = E Ir
= 9.0 (0.8)(0.5)
= 9.0 0.46
= 8.54 v

Than
k
You