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ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE

AND
INTERNAL RESISTANCE

SITUATION 1

SITUATION 1

SITUATION 2

Cable WITH
electric current

Broken
Cable

Electromotive force = e.m.f


The e.m.f of a source is the electrical
potential energy transferred from other
forms, per coulomb of charge that passes
through the source when it is not connected
to any external circuit
voltmeter

bulb

switch

DEFINITION
The energy supplied by the source
(Battery, accumulator) per unit charge
in incomplete circuit
e.m.f = Electric energy provided by the source
charge that flow from the source

The reading of voltmeter


is the e.m.f. of the battery and accumulator

Comparison between e.m.f. and


potential energy
e.m.f

The energy supplied by


the source per unit
charge

Potential difference

The energy used to


move charge flow
through the component

In electricity source such In electrical component


as battery, generator
such as bulb, rheostat,
resistor

Internal resistance (r)


Resistance caused by the difficulty of ion
movement in electrolyte

Internal resistance of a cell causes part of the


electromotive force (e.m.f) to be loss in the cell when
connected to a resistance

Question 1

A 9.0 V battery whose internal resistance, r is a


0.5 is connected in the circuit as shown above
a) how much current is drawn from the battery
b) what is the terminal voltage of the battery

Solution
a)1/Rp = 1/10 + 1/(6+3)

A)

= 19/90
RP= 4.74 ohm
RT =4.74 + 5.0 ohm
= 9.74 ohm
I = E/ RT
= 9/9.74
= 0.92 A

b) E = V + Ir
V = E Ir
= 9.0 (0.8)(0.5)
= 9.0 0.46
= 8.54 v

Than
k
You