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Submitted by: Group 10, Div B, FT MBA 2009-2011 Ashwin Anand (110) Gajendra Singh (150) Ravil Srivastav (155) Rohit Jain (125) Tom Jose Parampath (159) Tushar Kothavale (130)

Business Environment in India India, the world’s largest & diverse economy with a population of 1.14 billion people has seen a decade of 7%+ growth. The economy of India can be categorized by the presence of a number of major sectors including manufacturing industries, agriculture, textiles and handicrafts, and services. Today, India is rated as one of the top economies in the world in terms of the purchasing power parity (1.15 trillion) of the gross domestic product by leading financial entities of the world such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank etc on account of changes (listed below) that has been adopted by the national government in recent times leading to improvement in business freedom, more economic freedom for individuals, reduced growth constraints and the overall improvement in business environment.1 Many countries today are seeking ways to boost their business environment in an increasingly hostile and increased global competition. Outlined below are the structural transformations undertaken by the government that have had a positive impact on the growth of the Indian economy & improving the rankings of India in terms of Business Environment among 183countries of the world. Industrial climate • Moving from a policy of considerable control over the private sector through licensing; control over imports of capital, raw material, technology and capital goods to an Industrial policy boosting role of the private sector and foreign investment in the Indian economy through the deregulation process. Investor’s incentive-

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Making the rupee convertible on the current account, and exchange rates are market-determined. The vast and growing middle-class population provides a large domestic market.2 Opening the Indian equity markets to foreign investors, development of capital markets by starting in 1994, the National Stock exchange as a computer-based trading system, reforms of India's banking infrastructure and the financial services sector.3 Increased investor protection with change in Company Director Liability norms, improved disclosure norms with the amendment of security laws giving SEBI the legal authority to register and regulate all security market intermediaries4.

Starting & Closing a Business • Fewer number of calendar days of pre registration, registration and post registration. • Paid in minimum capital requirement only for certain regulated sectors such as Airlines, Telecom.

Close to 100% recovery rate5

Employing Workers • Skilled manpower and professional managers are available at moderate cost.

Introduction of minimum wage requirements in certain labour intensive industries, mandatory legal requirements on dismissal for economic reasons & fixed term labour contracts.

1 http://rru.worldbank.org
2www.asiatradehub.com 3 Economic reforms in India, Wikipedia 4 5
Economic reforms in India, Wikipedia Page 5,45, Doing Business in India ; World Bank and the International Finance Corporation; 2010

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Measures undertaken to increase flexibility in the regulation of hiring, working hours and dismissal in a manner consistent with the conventions of the International Labor Organization (ILO).6 Introduction of a policy allowing setting up of Soft ware Technology Parks (STPs) for export of computer software and other export-oriented units (EOUs). 7

Free-trade zones-

Trading Across Borders • Fewer documents required by Customs Authority of India for clearance of goods shipped. • Easy custom clearance along with better port and terminal handling with increased private sector cooperation (Mundra Port in Gujarat).8 • Removal of quantitative restriction in manufactured consumer goods in 2001, reduction in tariff levels/import duty on number of non- agricultural goods from a peak of 400% in 1991 to 12.5% in 2005-06.9 Legal Framework enforcing contracts

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Reduced number of days to resolve commercial sales disputes over the internet with the introduction of IT Act , 2000 Lower attorney and enforcement cost as a percentage of claim value.10

Public / private sector cooperation-

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Sharing and setting up jointly many platforms and forums, e.g., chambers of commerce and industry associations by Government and private-sector leaders. Launch and promotion of numerous joint projects in which the government and private-sector promoters have nearly equal equity stakes. 11

Key benchmarks indicating Business Environment in India rankings among 183 countries of the world.

6 Page 16, Doing Business in India ; World Bank and the International Finance Corporation; 2010
7 www.asiatradehub.com


Page 37, Doing Business in India ; World Bank and the International Finance Corporation; 2010 Economic reforms in India, Wikipedia Page 44, Doing Business in India ; World Bank and the International Finance Corporation; 2010

10 11

Based on the above finding we can conclude that there is a definite improvement in the Business Environment in India. However, India still has to work on other areas important to business freedom such as an economy’s proximity to large markets, the quality of its infrastructure services (other than those related to trading across border), and macroeconomic condition or the underlying strength of institutions.

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