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Types of Hospitals

Public Hospitals

A public hospital or government hospital is a hospital which is owned by a


government and receives government funding. This type of hospital
provides medical care free of charge, the cost of which is covered by the
funding the hospital receives. Most hospitals worldwide are public.

Private Hospitals

A private hospital is a hospital owned by a for-profit company or a non-profit


organisation and privately funded through payment for medical services
by patients themselves, by insurers, or by foreign embassies. This
practice is very common in the United States and Australia. In the
United Kingdom, private hospitals are distinguished from the far more
prevalent National Health Service institutions.

Specialized

Types of specialized hospitals include trauma centers, rehabilitation hospitals,


children's hospitals, seniors' (geriatric) hospitals, and hospitals for dealing with
specific medical needs such as psychiatric problems (see psychiatric hospital),
certain disease categories, and so forth.A hospital may be a single building or a
number of buildings on a campus. Many hospitals with pre-twentieth-century
origins began as one building and evolved into campuses. Some hospitals are
affiliated with universities for medical research and the training of medical
personnel such as physicians and nurses, often called teaching hospitals.
Worldwide, most hospitals are run on a nonprofit basis by governments or
charities. Within the United States, most hospitals are nonprofit.

Teaching

A teaching hospital combines assistance to patients with teaching to medical


students and nurses and often is linked to a medical school or nursing school.
Some of these are associated with universities

Clinics

A medical facility smaller than a hospital is generally called a clinic, and often
is run by a government agency for health services or a private partnership
ofphysicians (in nations where private practice is allowed). Clinics generally
provide only outpatient services.
FUNCTIONS OF HOSPITALS

Patient care
Inpatient, outpatient and day patient, Emergency and elective, Rehabilitation

Teaching
Vocational, Undergraduate, Postgraduate, Continuing education

Research
Basic research, Clinical research, Health services research, Educational
research

Health system support


Source for referrals, Professional leadership, Base for outreach activities,
Management of primary care

Employment
Inside hospital:
Health professionals, other health care workers
Outside hospital:
Suppliers, Transport services

Societal
State legitimacy, Political symbol, Provider of social care, Base for medical
power, Civic pride
Hospital Organizational Chart
Duties and Responsibilities of Radiologic Technologist

1. Radiologic Technologists use x-ray machines, ultrasound machines,


magnetic resonance scanners, positron emission scanners, and other
technologically advanced machines to help diagnose and treat illnesses
and injuries under the direction of a physician.
2. They are responsible for explaining and getting patients ready for
radiological tests and treatment that will be performed.
3. Using the proper measuring instruments, radiographers position
radiographic equipment at the proper height and angle to x-ray the
appropriate area on the patient.
4. The most important of the radiologic technologist duties is to accurately
position the patient to get the correct angles in the x-ray that you are
taken.
5. They place the equipment at the right distance and right angle from the
patient to make the appropriate images for the physician.

6. Radiographers also assist physicians in performing sophisticated


procedures.
7. It is their responsibility to ensure that the radiology equipment is
properly maintained.
8. They work in hospitals, clinics, medical laboratories, nursing homes,
and in private industry.

Prepared by:

Jonal S.Manaruddin
Types of Pathology

Clinical pathology/general pathology


Studying primarily bodily fluids, blood and other patient specimens, the clinical
pathologist is the laboratory expert. They key here is scientific analysis. They
are concerned with the management of data, quality control and all facets of
diagnostic testing. Clinical physicians often call upon these doctors to consult
on what the best test might be, given certain symptoms These experts in
scientific processes, both natural and in the laboratory setting, require three
years in residency.

Examples:
• Chemistry pathology
• transfusion medicine pathology
• immunology pathology

Anatomic pathology
Anatomic pathologists study the organs, tissue and cells to make exact
diagnoses as to what caused that specimen to be removed from the patient.
Through the use of biopsy, autopsy, fine-needle aspiration or surgery, this
physician will conduct examinations from gross to microscopic. Where the
clinical pathologist relies on testing and analysis, the anatomic pathologists
determinations come largely from visual inspection. They remain alert for
unexpected processes at work. Residency training for the anatomic pathologist
is three years.

Examples:
• forensic pathology,
• autopsy and
• surgical pathology.

Prepared by:
Jonal S.Manaruddin