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Raymond

A. Serway
Chris Vuille

Chapter 2
Mo:on in One Dimension

Dynamics
The branch of physics involving the mo:on of
an object and the rela:onship between that
mo:on and other physics concepts
Kinema'cs is a part of dynamics
In kinema:cs, you are interested in the
descrip(on of mo:on
Not concerned with the cause of the mo:on

Introduc:on

Quan::es in Mo:on
Any mo:on involves three concepts
Displacement
Velocity
Accelera:on

These concepts can be used to study objects


in mo:on

Introduc:on

Brief History of Mo:on


Sumaria and Egypt
Mainly mo:on of heavenly bodies

Greeks
Also to understand the mo:on of heavenly bodies
Systema:c and detailed studies
Geocentric model

Introduc:on

Modern Ideas of Mo:on


Copernicus
Developed the heliocentric system

Galileo
Made astronomical observa:ons with a telescope
Experimental evidence for descrip:on of mo:on
Quan:ta:ve study of mo:on

Introduc:on

Posi:on
Dened in terms of a frame of reference
A choice of coordinate axes
Denes a star:ng point for measuring the mo:on
Or any other quan:ty

One dimensional, so generally the x- or y-axis

Sec:on 2.1

Displacement
Dened as the change in posi(on
x xf xi
f stands for nal and i stands for ini:al

Units are meters (m) in SI

Sec:on 2.1

Displacement Examples
From A to B

xi = 30 m
xf = 52 m
x = 22 m
The displacement is posi:ve,
indica:ng the mo:on was in
the posi:ve x direc:on

From C to F

xi = 38 m
xf = -53 m
x = -91 m
The displacement is nega:ve,
indica:ng the mo:on was in
the nega:ve x direc:on
Sec:on 2.1

Displacement, Graphical

Sec:on 2.1

Vector and Scalar Quan::es


Vector quan::es need both magnitude (size)
and direc:on to completely describe them
Generally denoted by boldfaced type and an
arrow over the le_er
+ or sign is sucient for this chapter

Scalar quan::es are completely described by


magnitude only

Sec:on 2.1

Displacement Isnt Distance


The displacement of an object is not the same
as the distance it travels
Example: Throw a ball straight up and then catch
it at the same point you released it
The distance is twice the height
The displacement is zero

Sec:on 2.1

Speed
The average speed of an object is dened as the
total distance traveled divided by the total :me
elapsed
Average speed =

path length
elapsed time

d
v =
t
Speed is a scalar quan:ty

Sec:on 2.2

Speed, cont
Average speed totally ignores any varia:ons in
the objects actual mo:on during the trip
The path length and the total :me are all that
is important
Both will be posi:ve, so speed will be posi:ve

SI units are m/s

Sec:on 2.2

Path Length vs. Distance


Distance depends only on the endpoints

The distance does not depend on what happens


between the endpoints
Is the magnitude of the displacement

Path length will depend on the actual route


taken
Sec:on 2.2

Velocity
It takes :me for an object to undergo a displacement
The average velocity is rate at which the
displacement occurs

Velocity can be posi:ve or nega:ve


t is always posi:ve

Average speed is not the same as the average


velocity
Sec:on 2.2

Velocity con:nued
Direc:on will be the same as the direc:on of the
displacement, + or - is sucient in one-dimensional
mo:on
Units of velocity are m/s (SI)
Other units may be given in a problem, but generally will
need to be converted to these
In other systems:
US Customary: g/s
cgs: cm/s

Sec:on 2.2

Speed vs. Velocity

Cars on both paths have the same average velocity since


they had the same displacement in the same :me interval
The car on the blue path will have a greater average speed
since the path length it traveled is larger

Sec:on 2.2

Graphical Interpreta:on of Velocity


Velocity can be determined from a posi:on-
:me graph
Average velocity equals the slope of the line
joining the ini:al and nal points on the graph
An object moving with a constant velocity will
have a graph that is a straight line

Sec:on 2.2

Average Velocity, Constant


The straight line
indicates constant
velocity
The slope of the line is
the value of the average
velocity

Sec:on 2.2

Notes on Slopes
The general equa:on for the slope of any line
is

The meaning of a specic slope will depend on the


physical data being graphed

Slope carries units


Sec:on 2.2

Average Velocity, Non Constant


The mo:on is non-
constant velocity
The average velocity is
the slope of the straight
line joining the ini:al
and nal points

Sec:on 2.2

Instantaneous Velocity
The limit of the average velocity as the :me interval
becomes innitesimally short, or as the :me interval
approaches zero

The instantaneous velocity indicates what is


happening at every point of :me
The magnitude of the instantaneous velocity is what you
read on a cars speedometer
Sec:on 2.2

Instantaneous Velocity on a Graph


The slope of the line tangent to the posi:on
vs. :me graph is dened to be the
instantaneous velocity at that :me
The instantaneous speed is dened as the
magnitude of the instantaneous velocity

Sec:on 2.2

Graphical Instantaneous Velocity


Average veloci:es are
the blue lines
The green line (tangent)
is the instantaneous
velocity

Sec:on 2.2

Accelera:on
Changing velocity means an accelera:on is
present
Accelera:on is the rate of change of the
velocity

Units are m/s (SI), cm/s (cgs), and g/s (US


Cust)
Sec:on 2.3

Average Accelera:on
Vector quan:ty
When the objects velocity and accelera:on
are in the same direc:on (either posi:ve or
nega:ve), then the speed of the object
increases with :me
When the objects velocity and accelera:on
are in the opposite direc:ons, the speed of
the object decreases with :me
Sec:on 2.3

Nega:ve Accelera:on
A nega:ve accelera:on does not necessarily
mean the object is slowing down
If the accelera:on and velocity are both
nega:ve, the object is speeding up
Decelera:on means a decrease in speed,
not a nega:ve accelera:on

Sec:on 2.3

Instantaneous and Uniform Accelera:on


The limit of the average accelera:on as the
:me interval goes to zero

When the instantaneous accelera:ons are


always the same, the accelera:on will be
uniform
The instantaneous accelera:ons will all be equal
to the average accelera:on
Sec:on 2.3

Graphical Interpreta:on of Accelera:on


Average accelera:on is the slope of the line
connec:ng the ini:al and nal veloci:es on a
velocity vs. :me graph
Instantaneous accelera:on is the slope of the
tangent to the curve of the velocity-:me
graph

Sec:on 2.3

Average Accelera:on Graphical


Example

Sec:on 2.3

Rela:onship Between Accelera:on


and Velocity

Uniform velocity (shown by red arrows


maintaining the same size)
Accelera:on equals zero
Sec:on 2.4

Rela:onship Between Velocity and


Accelera:on

Velocity and accelera:on are in the same direc:on


Accelera:on is uniform (violet arrows maintain the
same length)
Velocity is increasing (red arrows are gelng longer)
Posi:ve velocity and posi:ve accelera:on
Sec:on 2.4

Rela:onship Between Velocity and


Accelera:on

Accelera:on and velocity are in opposite direc:ons


Accelera:on is uniform (violet arrows maintain the same
length)
Velocity is decreasing (red arrows are gelng shorter)
Velocity is posi:ve and accelera:on is nega:ve
Sec:on 2.4

Mo:on Diagram Summary

Sec:on 2.4

Equa:ons for Constant


Accelera:on
These equa:ons are used in situa:ons with
uniform accelera:on

Sec:on 2.5

Notes on the equa:ons

Gives displacement as a func:on of velocity


and :me
Use when you dont know and arent asked
for the accelera:on

Sec:on 2.5

Notes on the equa:ons


Shows velocity as a func:on of accelera:on
and :me
Use when you dont know and arent asked to
nd the displacement

Sec:on 2.5

Graphical Interpreta:on of the


Equa:on

Sec:on 2.5

Notes on the equa:ons

Gives displacement as a func:on of :me,


velocity and accelera:on
Use when you dont know and arent asked to
nd the nal velocity
The area under the graph of v vs. t for any
object is equal to the displacement of the
object
Sec:on 2.5

Notes on the equa:ons


Gives velocity as a func:on of accelera:on
and displacement
Use when you dont know and arent asked
for the :me

Sec:on 2.5

Problem-Solving Hints
Read the problem
Draw a diagram
Choose a coordinate system
Label ini:al and nal points
Indicate a posi:ve direc:on for veloci:es and
accelera:ons

Label all quan::es, be sure all the units are


consistent
Convert if necessary

Choose the appropriate kinema:c equa:on


Sec:on 2.5

Problem-Solving Hints, cont


Solve for the unknowns
You may have to solve two equa:ons for two
unknowns

Check your results


Es:mate and compare
Check units

Sec:on 2.5

Galileo Galilei
1564 - 1642
Galileo formulated the laws
that govern the mo:on of
objects in free fall
Also looked at:
Inclined planes
Rela:ve mo:on
Thermometers
Pendulum
Sec:on 2.6

Free Fall
A freely falling object is any object moving freely
under the inuence of gravity alone
Free fall does not depend on the objects original mo:on

All objects falling near the earths surface fall with a


constant accelera:on
The accelera:on is called the accelera:on due to
gravity, and indicated by g

Sec:on 2.6

Accelera:on due to Gravity


Symbolized by g
g = 9.80 m/s
When es:ma:ng, use g 10 m/s2

g is always directed downward


Toward the center of the earth

Ignoring air resistance and assuming g doesnt vary


with al:tude over short ver:cal distances, free fall is
constantly accelerated mo:on

Sec:on 2.6

Free Fall an object dropped


Ini:al velocity is zero
Let up be posi:ve
Conven:onal

vo= 0

Use the kinema:c


equa:ons

a = g

Generally use y instead of


x since ver:cal

Accelera:on is g = -9.80
m/s2
Sec:on 2.6

Free Fall an object thrown


downward
a = g = -9.80 m/s2
Ini:al velocity 0
With upward being
posi:ve, ini:al velocity will
be nega:ve

Sec:on 2.6

Free Fall object thrown upward


Ini:al velocity is upward, so
posi:ve
The instantaneous velocity at
the maximum height is zero
a = g = -9.80 m/s2 everywhere
in the mo:on

Sec:on 2.6

v=0

Actually straight
back down

Thrown upward, cont.


The mo:on may be symmetrical
Then tup = tdown
Then v = -vo

The mo:on may not be symmetrical


Break the mo:on into various parts
Generally up and down

Sec:on 2.6

Non-symmetrical Free Fall Example


Need to divide the mo:on
into segments
Possibili:es include
Upward and downward
por:ons
The symmetrical por:on back
to the release point and then
the non-symmetrical por:on

Sec:on 2.6

Combina:on Mo:ons

Sec:on 2.6