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# Raymond

A. Serway
Chris Vuille

Chapter 2
Mo:on in One Dimension

Dynamics
The branch of physics involving the mo:on of
an object and the rela:onship between that
mo:on and other physics concepts
Kinema'cs is a part of dynamics
In kinema:cs, you are interested in the
descrip(on of mo:on
Not concerned with the cause of the mo:on

Introduc:on

Quan::es in Mo:on
Any mo:on involves three concepts
Displacement
Velocity
Accelera:on

in mo:on

Introduc:on

## Brief History of Mo:on

Sumaria and Egypt
Mainly mo:on of heavenly bodies

Greeks
Also to understand the mo:on of heavenly bodies
Systema:c and detailed studies
Geocentric model

Introduc:on

## Modern Ideas of Mo:on

Copernicus
Developed the heliocentric system

Galileo
Made astronomical observa:ons with a telescope
Experimental evidence for descrip:on of mo:on
Quan:ta:ve study of mo:on

Introduc:on

Posi:on
Dened in terms of a frame of reference
A choice of coordinate axes
Denes a star:ng point for measuring the mo:on
Or any other quan:ty

## One dimensional, so generally the x- or y-axis

Sec:on 2.1

Displacement
Dened as the change in posi(on
x xf xi
f stands for nal and i stands for ini:al

## Units are meters (m) in SI

Sec:on 2.1

Displacement Examples
From A to B

xi = 30 m
xf = 52 m
x = 22 m
The displacement is posi:ve,
indica:ng the mo:on was in
the posi:ve x direc:on

From C to F

xi = 38 m
xf = -53 m
x = -91 m
The displacement is nega:ve,
indica:ng the mo:on was in
the nega:ve x direc:on
Sec:on 2.1

Displacement, Graphical

Sec:on 2.1

## Vector and Scalar Quan::es

Vector quan::es need both magnitude (size)
and direc:on to completely describe them
Generally denoted by boldfaced type and an
arrow over the le_er
+ or sign is sucient for this chapter

magnitude only

Sec:on 2.1

## Displacement Isnt Distance

The displacement of an object is not the same
as the distance it travels
Example: Throw a ball straight up and then catch
it at the same point you released it
The distance is twice the height
The displacement is zero

Sec:on 2.1

Speed
The average speed of an object is dened as the
total distance traveled divided by the total :me
elapsed
Average speed =

path length
elapsed time

d
v =
t
Speed is a scalar quan:ty

Sec:on 2.2

Speed, cont
Average speed totally ignores any varia:ons in
the objects actual mo:on during the trip
The path length and the total :me are all that
is important
Both will be posi:ve, so speed will be posi:ve

Sec:on 2.2

## Path Length vs. Distance

Distance depends only on the endpoints

## The distance does not depend on what happens

between the endpoints
Is the magnitude of the displacement

## Path length will depend on the actual route

taken
Sec:on 2.2

Velocity
It takes :me for an object to undergo a displacement
The average velocity is rate at which the
displacement occurs

## Velocity can be posi:ve or nega:ve

t is always posi:ve

## Average speed is not the same as the average

velocity
Sec:on 2.2

Velocity con:nued
Direc:on will be the same as the direc:on of the
displacement, + or - is sucient in one-dimensional
mo:on
Units of velocity are m/s (SI)
Other units may be given in a problem, but generally will
need to be converted to these
In other systems:
US Customary: g/s
cgs: cm/s

Sec:on 2.2

## Cars on both paths have the same average velocity since

they had the same displacement in the same :me interval
The car on the blue path will have a greater average speed
since the path length it traveled is larger

Sec:on 2.2

## Graphical Interpreta:on of Velocity

Velocity can be determined from a posi:on-
:me graph
Average velocity equals the slope of the line
joining the ini:al and nal points on the graph
An object moving with a constant velocity will
have a graph that is a straight line

Sec:on 2.2

## Average Velocity, Constant

The straight line
indicates constant
velocity
The slope of the line is
the value of the average
velocity

Sec:on 2.2

Notes on Slopes
The general equa:on for the slope of any line
is

## The meaning of a specic slope will depend on the

physical data being graphed

Sec:on 2.2

## Average Velocity, Non Constant

The mo:on is non-
constant velocity
The average velocity is
the slope of the straight
line joining the ini:al
and nal points

Sec:on 2.2

Instantaneous Velocity
The limit of the average velocity as the :me interval
becomes innitesimally short, or as the :me interval
approaches zero

## The instantaneous velocity indicates what is

happening at every point of :me
The magnitude of the instantaneous velocity is what you
Sec:on 2.2

## Instantaneous Velocity on a Graph

The slope of the line tangent to the posi:on
vs. :me graph is dened to be the
instantaneous velocity at that :me
The instantaneous speed is dened as the
magnitude of the instantaneous velocity

Sec:on 2.2

## Graphical Instantaneous Velocity

Average veloci:es are
the blue lines
The green line (tangent)
is the instantaneous
velocity

Sec:on 2.2

Accelera:on
Changing velocity means an accelera:on is
present
Accelera:on is the rate of change of the
velocity

## Units are m/s (SI), cm/s (cgs), and g/s (US

Cust)
Sec:on 2.3

Average Accelera:on
Vector quan:ty
When the objects velocity and accelera:on
are in the same direc:on (either posi:ve or
nega:ve), then the speed of the object
increases with :me
When the objects velocity and accelera:on
are in the opposite direc:ons, the speed of
the object decreases with :me
Sec:on 2.3

Nega:ve Accelera:on
A nega:ve accelera:on does not necessarily
mean the object is slowing down
If the accelera:on and velocity are both
nega:ve, the object is speeding up
Decelera:on means a decrease in speed,
not a nega:ve accelera:on

Sec:on 2.3

## Instantaneous and Uniform Accelera:on

The limit of the average accelera:on as the
:me interval goes to zero

## When the instantaneous accelera:ons are

always the same, the accelera:on will be
uniform
The instantaneous accelera:ons will all be equal
to the average accelera:on
Sec:on 2.3

## Graphical Interpreta:on of Accelera:on

Average accelera:on is the slope of the line
connec:ng the ini:al and nal veloci:es on a
velocity vs. :me graph
Instantaneous accelera:on is the slope of the
tangent to the curve of the velocity-:me
graph

Sec:on 2.3

Example

Sec:on 2.3

and Velocity

## Uniform velocity (shown by red arrows

maintaining the same size)
Accelera:on equals zero
Sec:on 2.4

Accelera:on

## Velocity and accelera:on are in the same direc:on

Accelera:on is uniform (violet arrows maintain the
same length)
Velocity is increasing (red arrows are gelng longer)
Posi:ve velocity and posi:ve accelera:on
Sec:on 2.4

Accelera:on

## Accelera:on and velocity are in opposite direc:ons

Accelera:on is uniform (violet arrows maintain the same
length)
Velocity is decreasing (red arrows are gelng shorter)
Velocity is posi:ve and accelera:on is nega:ve
Sec:on 2.4

Sec:on 2.4

## Equa:ons for Constant

Accelera:on
These equa:ons are used in situa:ons with
uniform accelera:on

Sec:on 2.5

## Gives displacement as a func:on of velocity

and :me
Use when you dont know and arent asked
for the accelera:on

Sec:on 2.5

## Notes on the equa:ons

Shows velocity as a func:on of accelera:on
and :me
Use when you dont know and arent asked to
nd the displacement

Sec:on 2.5

Equa:on

Sec:on 2.5

## Gives displacement as a func:on of :me,

velocity and accelera:on
Use when you dont know and arent asked to
nd the nal velocity
The area under the graph of v vs. t for any
object is equal to the displacement of the
object
Sec:on 2.5

## Notes on the equa:ons

Gives velocity as a func:on of accelera:on
and displacement
Use when you dont know and arent asked
for the :me

Sec:on 2.5

Problem-Solving Hints
Draw a diagram
Choose a coordinate system
Label ini:al and nal points
Indicate a posi:ve direc:on for veloci:es and
accelera:ons

## Label all quan::es, be sure all the units are

consistent
Convert if necessary

Sec:on 2.5

## Problem-Solving Hints, cont

Solve for the unknowns
You may have to solve two equa:ons for two
unknowns

Es:mate and compare
Check units

Sec:on 2.5

Galileo Galilei
1564 - 1642
Galileo formulated the laws
that govern the mo:on of
objects in free fall
Also looked at:
Inclined planes
Rela:ve mo:on
Thermometers
Pendulum
Sec:on 2.6

Free Fall
A freely falling object is any object moving freely
under the inuence of gravity alone
Free fall does not depend on the objects original mo:on

## All objects falling near the earths surface fall with a

constant accelera:on
The accelera:on is called the accelera:on due to
gravity, and indicated by g

Sec:on 2.6

## Accelera:on due to Gravity

Symbolized by g
g = 9.80 m/s
When es:ma:ng, use g 10 m/s2

## g is always directed downward

Toward the center of the earth

## Ignoring air resistance and assuming g doesnt vary

with al:tude over short ver:cal distances, free fall is
constantly accelerated mo:on

Sec:on 2.6

## Free Fall an object dropped

Ini:al velocity is zero
Let up be posi:ve
Conven:onal

vo= 0

equa:ons

a = g

## Generally use y instead of

x since ver:cal

Accelera:on is g = -9.80
m/s2
Sec:on 2.6

## Free Fall an object thrown

downward
a = g = -9.80 m/s2
Ini:al velocity 0
With upward being
posi:ve, ini:al velocity will
be nega:ve

Sec:on 2.6

## Free Fall object thrown upward

Ini:al velocity is upward, so
posi:ve
The instantaneous velocity at
the maximum height is zero
a = g = -9.80 m/s2 everywhere
in the mo:on

Sec:on 2.6

v=0

Actually straight
back down

## Thrown upward, cont.

The mo:on may be symmetrical
Then tup = tdown
Then v = -vo

## The mo:on may not be symmetrical

Break the mo:on into various parts
Generally up and down

Sec:on 2.6

## Non-symmetrical Free Fall Example

Need to divide the mo:on
into segments
Possibili:es include
Upward and downward
por:ons
The symmetrical por:on back
to the release point and then
the non-symmetrical por:on

Sec:on 2.6

Combina:on Mo:ons

Sec:on 2.6