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17. KWL:

Basics:

 Time Allotted 5 to 10 minutes Room Arrangement Standard room arrangement Materials Chalk board/white board/smart board and/or paper chart

Process Directions:

 1) Meanings of abbreviations: a. K – What do you KNOW about the subject? b. W – What do you WANT to know about the subject? c. L - What did they LEARN about the subject? 2) Students complete the K and W categories section in the graphic organizer or on 3) the board before the lesson starts. Then students complete the L category section in the graphic organizer or on the 4) board after the lesson. Students can also use the categories to create additional graphic organizer and use it to review and write about write about what they have learned.

When/Example:

I will use this strategy as a warm up exercise in my social studies classroom, however it

could also possibly be used in a mathematics classroom as well. For example in my

classroom I will have a prompt on the board saying, “Please take your seat and fill in the

first two sections in the KWL Chart on the Mayans.” We would share some of their responses as a class. We would then fill in the last section as a class after the lesson has been completed.

Source:

Beal, C,, Bolick, C., and Martorella, P. (2009; 2013). Teaching Social Studies in Middle and Secondary Schools (5 th & 6 th edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon, Boston (2009, 2013)

18. Spider Map:

Basics:

 Time Allotted 5 – 25 minutes Room Arrangement Standard Arrangement or groups Materials Notebook, textbook, pencil

Process Directions:

 1) In the center of the paper the student makes a circle. 2) In the circle the student writes the “central idea.” a. A thing, a topic, a process, a concept, or a proposition 3) Next “ideas” which branch out from the “central idea” are written. 4) Then “details” which support the “ideas” are written 5) Frame with the following questions:
• a. Central Idea: “What is the central idea?”

• b. Idea:

“What are its attributes?”

• c. Details: “What are its functions?”

Figure 1 - copied from http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr1grorg.htm

When/Example:

I would use a spider map in a geography class to describe a geographic region. For

example a “central idea” could be “Asia.” Then my four “ideas” would be the cultural regions that make up Asia, “Sino-Tibetan, Slavic, Islamic, and Indian.” Then my “details” could be something like the nations in that cultural region. For Sino-Tibetan it would be, “China, Tibet, Japan, Korea (North & South) and Vietnam.” Then to see what the students know about geography and cultures I would ask them, “Where would you put Indonesia or Cambodia?”

Source:

Beal, C,, Bolick, C., and Martorella, P. (2009; 2013). Teaching Social Studies in Middle and Secondary Schools (5 th & 6 th edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon, Boston (2009, 2013)

19. Series of Events Chain:

Basics:

 Time Allotted 15 – 30 minutes Room Arrangement Standard arrangement or small groups Materials Notebook or worksheet, pencil, text or notes

Process Directions:

 1) First decide where to start the series of events. a. Most difficult part of the chain. b. Every student might have a different “Initiating Event.” 2) Then the students fill in the chain in a proper chronological order. a. Students can either be given a set number of events or have to choose the right ones from their notes or text. 3) Finally the students fill in the “Final Outcome.”
• a. This should be provided to the students, since the purpose is to work up to the final event.

Figure 2 - copied from http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr1grorg.htm

When/Example:

I would use this strategy in a World History & Geography class so that students can

visualize the steps that occurred in an important historical event. For example, “What were the events that led up to the Russian revolution?In the first box I would write, Industrialization.” Then in some of the middle boxes there would be things like, “Karl Marx & The Communist Manifesto, WWI, Vladimir Lenin.” In the last part of the chain would go, “The Russian Revolution.”

Source:

Beal, C,, Bolick, C., and Martorella, P. (2009; 2013). Teaching Social Studies in Middle and Secondary Schools (5 th & 6 th edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon, Boston (2009, 2013)

20. Continuum Scale:

Basics:

 Time Allotted 15 – 30 minutes Room Arrangement Standard arrangement or small groups Materials Notebook or worksheet, pencil, text or notes, board or slide

Process Directions:

 1) First the students must decide one the endpoints. a. Justification for why they choose the endpoints must be given. b. Easy to do, but hard to do perfectly. 2) Then the students pick out important events that belong on the timeline.
• a. Justification must also be given.

• b. Can be a set number of the teachers choice or of the students choice.

When/Example:

I would use this strategy in a history classroom when finishing/starting a unit. For

example when starting a unit on Medieval Europe; “When dose the Medieval period begin and end?” The students will be prompted with two questions: “When does the Classical European Age end and the Medieval European Age begin?” “When does the

Medieval European Age end and the European Renaissance Age begin?” The answers to these two questions become the endpoints of the continuum. Then in the middle goes important events that are worthy of mention, which are put in proper chronological order.

Source:

Beal, C,, Bolick, C., and Martorella, P. (2009; 2013). Teaching Social Studies in Middle and Secondary Schools (5 th & 6 th edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon, Boston (2009, 2013)

21. Problem/Solution Outline:

Basics:

 Time Allotted 30 minutes to full class time Room Arrangement Standard arrangement Materials Worksheet/slide and board

Process Directions:

 1) Present the class with a problem 2) Then as a class try to answer the following questions: a. What is the problem? b. Who has the problem? c. Why is it a problem? 3) Then as a class answer the following questions: a. What attempts can we make to solve the problem? b. What will result from those attempts? 4) Finally we would see if there were any final results.

Figure 3 - copied from http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr1grorg.htm

When/Example:

I would use this strategy in my Social Studies and History Classroom when a particular subject relates to a modern day problem. For example, drugs. As a class we would decide the, “who, what, where, why” of the problem. Then as a class we would come up with “Attempted Solutions,” and the “Results” of those solutions. Finally if possible we would see if there was a “End Result(s).

Source:

Beal, C,, Bolick, C., and Martorella, P. (2009; 2013). Teaching Social Studies in Middle and Secondary Schools (5 th & 6 th edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon, Boston (2009, 2013)

22. Network Tree:

Basics:

 Time Allotted 10 – 15 minutes Room Arrangement Standard arrangement or small groups Materials Worksheet or board

Process Directions:

 1) First decide what the tiers of the tree will represent. 2) Then fill in the branches and nodes of the Tree 3) Then formulate and answer to what this kind of hierarchy means for it’s society.

Figure 4 - copied from http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr1grorg.htm

When/Example:

I would use this strategy in my History & World Geography class when a subject involves some kind of branching hierarchy. For example a unit on Hindu social structures would fit the Tree nicely. First the top tier would be the priests. Then the second tier would be the kings, warriors, and generals. Then the next tier would be the

artisans, then the labors, and finally the untouchables.

Source:

Beal, C,, Bolick, C., and Martorella, P. (2009; 2013). Teaching Social Studies in Middle and Secondary Schools (5 th & 6 th edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon, Boston (2009, 2013)

23. Human Interaction Outline:

Basics:

 Time Allotted 20 – 30 minutes Room Arrangement Standard arrangement or small groups Materials Worksheet or board, pencil

Process Directions:

 1) First pick two groups that interacted. 2) Then outline the processes of their interaction 3) How would you describe this interaction?

Figure 5 - copied from http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr1grorg.htm

When/Example:

I would use this strategy in an American History class when teaching a unit on colonial

America. For example, how did the European Settlers interact with the American Indians? Then the students would use the first action of the European Settlers; their arrival in the new world. Then the American Indians reaction would be peaceful trade. This process would then continue until the American Indians have been exterminated and/or forcibly removed from their land.

Source:

Beal, C,, Bolick, C., and Martorella, P. (2009; 2013). Teaching Social Studies in Middle and Secondary Schools (5 th & 6 th edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon, Boston (2009, 2013)

24. Fishbone Map:

Basics:

 Time Allotted 15 – 30 minutes Room Arrangement Small groups Materials Worksheet, pencil, notes/text

Process Directions:

 1) First pick a result a complex event. 2) Then decide on some causes for the event.
• a. How do these causes combine and structure the event?

• b. What are some details about each cause?

Figure 6 - copied from http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr1grorg.htm

When/Example:

I would use this strategy in my History & World Geography classroom when teaching a lesson the causes of WWI. In small groups students would come up with the causes and

some supporting details for The Great War. For example, the result would be The First

World War. Then the Causes would be: “Military Alliances, Industrialization, Nationalism, and Trade Empires.” A detail for Military Alliances would be, “Military Alliances created a domino effect of combatants.” Then a detail for Industrialization would be “Industrialization allowed for the production and use of mass amounts of mechanized armaments.” Then a detail for Nationalism would be “The concept of Nationalism sparked revolutionary ideas inside the Austro-Hungarian Empire.Finally a detail for Trade Empires would be, “The Trade Empires of the English, French and Americans fueled the German desire for a trade empire of their own.”

Source:

Beal, C,, Bolick, C., and Martorella, P. (2009; 2013). Teaching Social Studies in Middle and Secondary Schools (5 th & 6 th edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon, Boston (2009, 2013)

25. Cycle:

Basics:

 Time Allotted 20 – 30 minutes Room Arrangement Standard arrangement Materials Worksheet, board, text/notes

Process Directions:

1)

To build the cycle answer the following questions informally:

• a. What are the critical events in the cycle?

• b. How are they related?

• c. In what ways are they self-reinforcing?

Figure 7 - copied from http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr1grorg.htm

When/Example:

I would use this strategy in my History & World Geography when teaching a lesson on Chinese Dynasties. As a class we would first decide on what is the first step in the cycle, “Claim the Mandate of Heaven.” Then we would find the second step of the cycle, “Govern China.” Then we would find the third step in the cycle, “Misgovernment and/or Natural disaster(s).” Then we would find the fourth step of the cycle, “New dynasty ascends to power.” Finally we would answer some of the follow up questions.

Source:

Beal, C,, Bolick, C., and Martorella, P. (2009; 2013). Teaching Social Studies in Middle and Secondary

Schools (5 th & 6 th edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon, Boston (2009, 2013)