A Case Study Presented to the Faculty of The Ateneo de Davao University College of Nursing

A Case Study on Schizophrenia Undifferentiated
Mrs. Anabel Bauzon, RN, MN
Clinical Instructor – Panelist of the Case Study

Submitted to:

Submitted by: [Group 1]

Abarquez, Eva Rica V. Ampilanon, Rae Maikko M. Ausa, Ryan S. Balboa, Tessa Marie R. Batuhan, Katherene P. Beltran, Maribel S. Bulosan, Von Rainier S. Cabonita, Kristi Ann J. Campaner,Marie Allexis I.
BSN-3H

09 February 2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………………..…..3 Introduction…………...……………………………………………………………….…4 Objectives (General & Specific)……………………………..……………………….….6 Personal Data…………………………………………...……………………………….9 Genogram……………………………………………………………………….………11 Anamnesis………………………………………………………………………….…...12 Theories of Development………………………………………………………….....…24 Etiology and Symptomatology….……………………………………………….……44 Psychodynamics………………………………………………………………..………62 Mental Status Exam……………………………………………………………….…..68 Multi Axial Assessment………………………………………………………………..78 Nurse Patient Interaction ……………………………………………………………..81 Complete Diagnosis…………………………………………………………......…….101 Differential Diagnosis……………………………………………………………....…104 Anatomy and Physiology…………………………………………………….…..……115 Doctor’s Order…………………………………………………………...……………126 Drug Study……………………………………………………………………….……130 Nursing Care plan ……………………………………………………………..………149 Prognosis………………………………………………………………..…….......……176 Recommendations………………………………..………………………...…………180 Significance of the Study……………………………………………………...………182 Appendices……………………………………………………..………………...……183 2

References……………………………………………………...………………...……195

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The group wishes to express their deepest gratitude and warmest appreciation to the following people, who, in any way gave us the possibility making this case study a success: First of all, to the Almighty God, who never cease in loving us and for the continued guidance and protection. To the group’s clinical instructor, Mrs. Apple V. Guiao, R.N,M.N for her guidance and support in the duration of the study and during the psychiatric nursing exposure , whose help, stimulating suggestions and encouragement helped us in all the time of making this case study. To Mrs. Zenaida Lagrosa RN, Mrs. Anabel Bauzon RN and Mr. Richard Cheng,RN for their unlimited patience, guidance and being with us during our psychiatric nursing exposure . Finally to Ms. Melba Irene Gabuya RN for imparting knowledge and learning experience during our lectures on Psychiatric nursing. Without their encouragement and constant guidance, our Psychiatric Nursing exposure would not have been a very meaningful learning experience. The group also wishes to acknowledge the invaluable assistance and cooperation of the staff nurses of the Davao Mental Hospital (DMH), for allowing us to conduct this study, for essential assistance in reviewing the patient files and giving us the opportunity to care for the mentally-ill patients. Special appreciation is extended to the client subjected for this study and other informants for their selfless cooperation, time and entrusting personal information needed for this study. To the group, we would like to show our endless gratitude to each other by specifying our names; Maikz, Eva, Allexis, Kat, Bel, Kitty, Ryan, Tessa and Von; for the understanding, believing in each other, and teamwork. May we continue working hard for future studies.

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And lastly, to our parents who have always been very understanding and supportive both financially and emotionally. INTRODUCTION Schizophrenia (from the Greek roots skhizein ("to split") and phrēn, phren- ("mind")) is a severe mental illness characterized by a variety of symptoms including but not limited to loss of contact with reality. Schizophrenia is not characterized by a changing in personality; it is characterized by a deteriorating personality. Simply stated, schizophrenia is one of the most profoundly disabling illnesses, mental or physical, that the nurse will ever encounter (Keltner, 2007). There are 5 subtypes of schizophrenia naming; paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, undifferentiated, and residual. Schizophrenia undifferentiated is the type of schizophrenia wherein characteristic symptoms (delusions. Hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms) are present, but criteria for paranoid, catatonic, or disorganized subtypes are not met. Schizophrenia is not a terribly common disease but it can be a serious and chronic one. Worldwide about 1 percent of the population is diagnosed with schizophrenia. About 1.5 million people will be diagnosed with schizophrenia this year around the world. (mentalhelp.net). Ninety-five percent (95%) suffer a lifetime; thirty-three percent (33%) of all homeless Americans suffer from schizophrenia; fifty percent (50%) experience serious side effects from medications; and ten percent (10%) kill themselves (Keltner, 2007). According to study done 697,543 out of 86,241,697 of Filipinos or approximately 0.8% are suffering from schizophrenia

(cureresearch.com). Here in Davao, Dr. Padilla said that the Davao Mental Hospital receives an average of eight to 10 patients a day suffering from schizophrenia, depression and bi-polar illnesses (Positivenewsmedia.net).

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Schizophrenia Ranks among the top 10 causes of disability in developed countries worldwide (World Health Organization, www.who.int) Schizophrenia is a disease that typically begins in early adulthood; between the ages of 15 and 25. Men tend to get develop schizophrenia slightly earlier than women; whereas most males become ill between 16 and 25 years old, most females develop symptoms several years later, and the incidence in women is noticeably higher in women after age 30. The average age of onset is 18 in men and 25 in women. Schizophrenia onset is quite rare for people under 10 years of age, or over 40 years of age (schizophrenia.com). The group 1 of BSN-3H was given opportunity to have a hospital exposure in Davao Mental Hospital last January 19 – 30, 2010 for their psychiatric exposure. It was on that said dates that the group found a creditable case sensible to be presented as case presentation as suggested their Clinical Instructor Apple V. Guiao, R.N. M.N. and was agreed by whole group. The patient, Bob, not his real name, was one of the patients admitted to the Crisis Intervention Unit of Davao Mental Hospital due to Schizophrenia Undifferentiated. The group chose Bob as their subject primarily because his case posed as a very intricate case requiring due understanding and knowledge. Making this case is a good avenue to broaden the proponents’ knowledge about the mental illness involved.

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OBJECTIVES General Objective: The main goal of the group is to be able to present an extensive and comprehensive case study of our chosen client that would present a comprehensive discussion of Schizophrenia Undifferentiated to yield important information for the case study.

Specific Objectives: In order to meet the general objective, the group aims to: Cognitive: • • interpret the pertinent data gathered from the patient and his significant others; present the anamnesis by thorough gathering of the client’s pertinent personal data, appropriate selection of informants, and familial history tracing; • evaluate the developmental stage of the patient according to the theories of Erikson, Freud and Piaget; • • determine the etiology factors (precipitating and predisposing) of the mental disorder; evaluate the presence or absence of signs and symptoms seen in the patient in relation to the mental disorder; • present the psychodynamics of the client’s diagnosis by recognizing its predisposing and precipitating factors with appropriate rationales; To track down the significant events during the client’s developmental stage as shown in the psychodynamics; • Interpret and analyze nurse-patient interaction taken through spontaneous and effective use of therapeutic communication; • thoroughly define the complete diagnosis of the patient; 7

• •

come up with a differential diagnosis with accord to the client’s maladaptive behaviors; discuss thoroughly the Anatomy and Physiology of the involved organs and organ systems in accord to the final diagnosis;

• •

present the doctor’s order with its rationalization; formulate effective, specific, measurable, attainable, realistic and time-bounded nursing care plans base on identified actual and potential nursing problems;

arrive to a general realistic prognosis drawn from the information gathered and factors affecting the patient’s condition;

provide the significance of the case study;

Psychomotor: • gather pertinent data about the client through detailed chart taking, and effective therapeutic communication and interaction with the client and his significant others; • • commence the patient with his personal data and present and past health history; trace the health history of the client and family illnesses (past and present) through a genogram; • assess client’s mental status thoroughly during the orientation and termination phase as well as the Multi-Axial diagnosis; • present the medications given to the client, including their respective modes of action, indications, contraindications, side effects, adverse reactions, nursing responsibilities, and importance to the client’s condition; • • render quality nursing care in line with the formulated nursing care plans; impart appropriate recommendations to the client, his significant others and community, medical world, and the group as a part of the nurse’s holistic care. 8

Affective: • • establish rapport to the patient and the patient’s significant others; and establish a trusting nurse-patient relationship with the client and his significant others through provision of holistic care toward the client and use of appropriate verbal and nonverbal therapeutic communication skills with the client and significant others during the data gathering;

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PATIENT’S DATA PERSONAL DATA: CODE NAME: Bob AGE: 40 SEX: Male BIRTHDAY: April 9, 1969 BIRTHPLACE: Cagayan de Oro City ADDRESS: Prk. 1 Rizalian, Bayugan Agusan del Sur Tulip Drive, Matina, Davao city ORDINAL RANK: 1st CIVIL STATUS: Single NATIONALITY: Filipino RELIGION: Catholic EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT: 2nd Year College undergraduate OCCUPATION: None NUMBER OF CHILDREN: 0 NUMBER OF BROTHERS: 2 MOTHER: Aina AGE: 58 EDUCATIONAL ATTAINEMNT: college undergraduate OCCUPATION: Businesswoman FATHER: Danni EDUCAIONAL ATTAINMENT: college undergraduate 10 NUMBER OF SISTERS: 2

OCCUPATION: Businessman CLINICAL DATA: WARD/SERVICE: Crisis Intervention Unit/Psychiatry ADMITTING PHYSICIAN: GIOIA FE D. DINGLASAN, M.D ADMITTING DIAGNOSIS: Schizophrenia, undifferentiated PRINCIPAL DIAGNOSIS: Schizophrenia, undifferentiated DATE OF AMISSION: January 19, 2010 DATE OF DISCHARGE: January 21, 2010 INSTITUTION: Davao Mental Hospital

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GENOGRAM
SuperAina † old Apolinario DanniFielita Ω Ω Ronan Jeorgin Emman Dennz 59 Pa GranYose Watusi Lolo Lolo LeoLegend: Bob Carmz Leyears Apolinaria LolaAl Angelit Super Ronan Watus Gran Al Angelito 2620years - Male 39Ѳ years years o years years 40† † 31a†† †a years † 58 Ω Lola Ωa Ma Ω old old old - Female old as old ∞ ∞schizophrenia Ωhypertension Ѳ - Diabetes

†-deceased

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ANAMNESIS A. INTERVIEWS Informant #1 Name: Aina Age: 58 Address: Purok 1, Rizalian, Bayugan, Agusan del Sur Sex: Female Civil Status: Married Relationship to Client: Mother Length of Time Known by the Patient: Since Birth up to Present (40 years) Apparent Understanding of the Present Illness of the Client: According to Aina, her son, Bob, started having the condition when he stopped schooling in late August of 1987 and went back to Agusan because he thought lessons in school are becoming too difficult for him. Bob also verbalized that something is wrong with him and that he needed a psychological check-up. Yet, Aina did not pay attention to what he said; until two days after, Bob’s tongue shrunk, hindering his speech. This event forced Aina to bring Bob to San Pedro Hospital for a check-up. In San Pedro, no diagnoses indicating any mental illness resulted and they were asked to come back for a follow-up check up the following month. On November 1987, Aina brought Bob back to Davao City for a check-up but transferred to Davao Mental Hospital. There, Bob was diagnosed with Schizophrenia Catatonic Type and was admitted for two weeks; after which, he was discharged and was asked to go back to the hospital once a month for psychiatric evaluation and for monthly doses of a depot. Aina says that Bob at times would show extreme hostility and wild behavior. She believes that Bob’s wild behavior which is the reason for his second admission in December 2007 and

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current admission this January 2010 is due to Bob’s incompliance with the advices of the doctor to stop drinking coke, alcoholic beverages and smoking. The current admission of Bob is already his third admission. Bob and Aina were only at the Davao Mental Hospital to have Bob’s monthly dose of his depot but Bob shouted at the doctor without any apparent reason, exhibiting extreme hostility and wild behavior. This action convinced the doctor that Bob may need a three-day admission at the CIU for observation. After which, he was then discharged Characteristics and Attitude of Informant: Sincerity and concern regarding the condition of the patient is highly evident in the verbal and non verbal cues of the informant during the interview. She looks straight to the eyes and is very cooperative all throughout the interview, trying her best to recall all events that took place in connection to the condition of her son.

Informant #2 Name: Emman Age: 39 Address: 162 Interior Tulip Drive, Matina, Davao City Sex: Male Civil Status: Married Relationship to Client: Brother Length of Time Known by the Patient: Since Birth up to Present (39 years) Apparent Understanding of the Present Illness of the Client: Emman said that the illness began when Bob went to Bukidnon in August 1987 to fetch him and go home with him to Agusan. On the night of Bob’s arrival, he started having a convulsion and was given paracetamol. Hours later, Bob was caught eating his own feces and drinking urine from a 16

potty. After the incident, they went home to Agusan. Since then, Bob started to think and talk illogically, displaying disorganized speech and delusions. Weeks later Bob was brought to Davao for a check-up, first as San Pedro then at DMH. Since then, Bob has always been visiting Davao Mental Hospital and was even admitted two times, one in November 1987 then in December 2007, prior to the recent admission. Emman sees Bob’s condition rooted from that convulsion which took place in Bukidnon. As to the reason of the convulsion and the events that took place prior to the convulsion, the brother does not claim any knowledge. Characteristics and Attitude of Informant: Emman was very open and receptive to the group during the interview. He had shown efforts to recollect all salient points regarding the condition of his brother.

Informant #3 Name: Carmz Age: 18 Address: 162 Interior Tulip Drive, Matina, Davao City Sex: Female Civil Status: Single Relationship to Client: Sister Length of Time Known by the Patient: Since Birth up to Present (18) Apparent Understanding of the Present Illness of the Client: Mae understands Bob’s condition because she is a student nurse. According to her, Bob’s manifestations are indeed characteristics of schizophrenia. She believes that Bob’s condition will be best improved if Bob follows all medication orders of the doctor and strictly avoid everything that the doctor prohibits him to take. 17

Characteristics and Attitude of Informant: The informant was very responsive in the conversation, showing strong desire to tell the group everything that she knows about the illness of the patient.

Informant #4 Name: Mimi Age: 39 Address: 162 Interior Tulip Drive, Matina, Davao City Sex: Female Civil Status: Married Relationship to Client: Sister-in-law Length of Time Known by the Patient: Since Marriage up to Present (20 years) Apparent Understanding of the Present Illness of the Client: According to Mimi , the patient has been isolated and withdrawn since she first met him when she married his brother, Emman wayback in May of 1990, the patient was 21years old by then. She noted that Bob is irritating to the family members at times because there are instances wherein he seems to act like a child. She cited incidents wherein he wakes them up in the midnight because he was hungry and asks them for something to eat or drink. Bob also occasionally asks his mother to sleep with him at night. Taking this information to consideration, the sister-in-law concluded that, somehow, Bob is a burden to their family. She can see that the siblings of Bob have been exhausted in trying to understand him. Yet, in spite this, the family still show their invaluable support and love to Bob. Characteristics of the informant: The informant was open and hospitable to the group. She made ways for the group to contact the family and talk to other members of the family in order to gather data that she could not 18

provide. The warm and welcoming attitude of the informant made it possible for the group to know more about the patient.

Informant #5 Name: Boy Age: 18 Address: 162 Tulip Drive, Matina, Davao City Sex: Male Civil Status: Single Relationship to Client: Nephew Length of Time Known by the Patient: Since Birth up to Present (18) Apparent Understanding of the Present Illness of the Client: Boy says that Bob’s condition was not improving. He said that what Bob’s actions now are the same as what he does in the past. He was always isolated, self-preserved and indifferent with others. He could even go for a whole day without talking to anybody and just watch TV. Boy also says that Bob’s strange actions like talking to the television, flight of ideas and hostile behaviors are not unusual of Bob anymore. Characteristics of the informant: Boy was at the first visit unresponsive to the questions asked by the group. However, on the next home visit, he volunteered to talk about what he knows about his uncle in a warm manner.

B. FAMILY HISTORY

a. Maternal and Paternal Lineage Direct bilateral lineage of the patient show no conditions of mental illness. On the paternal side, prominent family illnesses only concern some members having 19

hypertension. Aside from the condition, no other illnesses run the family. On the maternal line, no illness were reported to run in the family, except one family member having diabetes mellitus type 2, an illness condition occurring singularly to be considered familial. Generally, no mental illness can be traced on both sides of the family. b. Father The father is 59 years old; a known small time businessman in their place at Agusan; owning a small rice mill enough to support the needs of his family. He is a Civil Engineering Undergraduate and was able to finish only until 3rd year of the above course, due to his early fatherly obligation. He impregnated the patient’s mother, when he was only 19 years old, then eloped with her, thwarting him to finish his studies then at the University of Mindanao. As a father, he was lenient in his relationship with his children. Most of his time is spent in their rice mill and would only go home in the afternoon or at night. Moreover, he is a kind of father who would not spank or scold his children and he seldom verbalizes what he feels. He would only speak to his children wherever they do something incorrect.

c. Mother The mother helps in their small rice mill. Pregnant at the age of 18, she was unable to finish her college education at the University of Mindanao. She was in her second year in college when she dropped out of her Chemical Engineering course.

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The mother says that she brought her children up in discipline and love; she said she doesn’t spank her children because it does them no good. Like the father, she doesn’t also believe in punishing her children through spanking and the like when they do something wrong. However, as she states, she left her children to the care of nannies when they were young. And put her children in their house in Davao City to pursue their education from elementary school, leaving them, still with a nanny, and visiting them once a week. According to her, this is the best way for her to offer the best education and life to her children and help improve their business in Agusan. d. Siblings The family is composed of five siblings; Bob being the eldest, followed by the second informant, Emman, then by Carmz, Denns and then Yose . His relationship with his siblings is not so good. As a child, although they were the only ones that he would play with, he would still isolate himself when with them. He never shares his thoughts with them. Furthermore, when they grew up and the illness took place, the siblings gradually got irritated with him because of his hostility towards others.

III. Personality History a) Prenatal Being the result of the early pregnancy of his mother, the patient was an unexpected child. Only 18 when she was impregnated, the mother was not ready and did not know what to do, so she eloped with the patient’s father without giving her 21

parents the knowledge as to the reason why she ran away. The mother stayed with the father’s family in Cagayan for the whole duration of her pregnancy. On course of nine months, the mother has adequate prenatal check-ups at a nearby health center. Moreover, she was able to eat adequately because the parents of her husband supported them. They provided her with enough support for her pregnancy. b. Birth Bob was born in the Provincial Hospital in Cagayan de Oro City on the 9th of April 1969 through Normal Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery. No complications took place in the delivery. The mother, Aina, described that her labor was very long, she started having labor pains in the morning and delivered in the afternoon. She did not also breastfeed the patient because she is having pain breastfeeding him and as reported, no breast milk would come out; so instead, she bottle fed the patient with a formula milk in a timed manner. Moreover, she hired a nanny named Nena to look after the baby because she did not have any experience in taking care of a baby, considering her age. c. Infancy and Childhood Characteristics After the birth, in June of 1969 Aina went back to Agusan to talk to her parents. She told them that she ran away because she was pregnant and apologized for everything that she has done. Her parents did accept her apology and welcomed her back. On the August of 1969, Aina and Danni married each other and decided to reside in Agusan. Trying their luck in a new business, the couple got busy with their rice mill that they decided to leave Bob in the care of Nena, Bob’s nanny since birth, while they attend to their business.

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The nanny was very caring to the child, cuddling him always and looking after him. However, when Bob was almost five months, Nena went home to her province and was replaced by another nanny named Ging-ging. Moreover, Aina instructed her nanny to continue the timed bottle feeding routine every three hours, a routine which continued until the patient was three years old. She instructed to feed the baby every three hours, believing that this would help the nanny attend to other tasks while taking care of the baby. In cases that the baby would cry Ging-ging would just give him a pacifier for him to stop crying. Bob was toilet trained when he was 2 years old. Toilet training was mostly implemented by the nanny Ging-ging, and she is not strict in it. As he had a nanny, Aina instructed the Ging-ging to teach him to urinate and defecate in a potty because it irritates her to find urine and stool just anywhere. Aina is very strict in toilet training. But on instances that Bob would pee or defecate anywhere, Ging-ging would just clean the mess, not correcting Bob. Bob started talking when he was a year old and started walking on that certain age more or less as reported. As to the strategies and the relationship of the nanny to the child, the mother did not exactly describe because according to her, she changed nannies several times. According to her, the relationship of the nanny was not so important to her as long as the needs of her children are met and her children’s safety is not harmed. She carefully instructed the nannies to give to the children everything they want to keep them from having tantrums that could hinder the nanny from doing other household chores. The mother could not remember whether or not the patient’s immunization is complete; but what she does remember is that the patient had measles before he was one year old. 23

d. Psychosexual History The patient’s sexual awareness started when he was 16 years old, on his 4th year in high school. It was on this time that he started having a crush and actually had a girlfriend who after sometime broke up with him. This break-up with his only girlfriend bagged down his self esteem. In addition, his mother also keeps on teasinf him that his girlfriend’s teeth resembles that of a rat which further decreased his self-confidence and esteem as he tried to compare himself with the boys of his age. In his adolescence, he also engages in sexual activities with GROs. e. Play Life Bob does not engage so much in cooperative play and prefers solitary play. He would only sit by himself and play alone in a corner. His playmates were his siblings and would choose to play only in their yard. As a child, he is not talkative, he is uncooperative and becomes aggressive when forced to play with other kids. Furthermore, he likes being a follower in a game rather than a leader. f. School History The patient began preschool in June of 1974, when he was five years old where he was sent to Davao to study at Assumption up to second grade. He stayed in their residence in Davao which is in 162, Interior Tulip Drive, Matina, Davao City. He stayed in Davao together with his brother Emman and their nanny. The first days in school were terrible for Bob, he would cry inside their classroom and would not separate from his nanny. In his third grade, he was transferred to Our Lady of Fatima School, which he did not really approve that he cries in between classes just to be sent home. He is withdrawn from the rest of his classmates and would talk only to a few people. His grades were also affected by his isolation, he did not perform well in school and was not interested in studying. 24

He spent his high school days still at Fatima. In June of 1982, when he is 13 years old, he entered first year highschool, where he formed new set of friends which he grew much attached to. These friends of him were not of good influence because when they started hanging out, he began cutting classes, extorting money from his parents and having low grades. He started drinking and smoking. Also, he started using marijuana. His bad school records started worsening when his girlfriend in his fourth year high school broke up with him, these events pulled his confidence down, that he started isolating himself and increased his use of marijuana, drinking and smoking. Yet he is able to graduate from high school in the March of 1986. Troubles in school were rampant, being evident even when he is already in college. He was occasionally caught brawling with classmates. Furthermore, his mother was once called by the Guidance Office because he threw an eraser to his teacher because the eraser hit him when the teacher threw the eraser at his classmate. He was also suspected of using marijuana during this time but is persistently denying the accusations, although it was really true. Peer pressure can be seen as a great contributing factor in his use of marijuana because his friends would tease him when he refuses to use marijuana.

In his college days, he spent his two years of college education at the University of Mindanao, in the Civil Engineering course. However, he did not have good grades and still continued cutting classes and indulging in his vices. On his second year, he finally decided to stop, claiming that he is already having difficulty catching up with the lessons. g. Religious and Social Adaptability

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The family is Roman Catholic. However, when he was in college, their family converted to Seventh-day Adventists. However, the patient still follows the Catholic Faith and does not go to Seventh-day Adventist religious celebrations. h. Occupational History When the patient stopped studying during his second year in college, late in the August of 1987, he stayed in Agusan and helped in their rice mill business. There, he would help in the loading and unloading sacks of rice and also in operating the mill. Bob doesn’t get regular salary because what he gets is ten percent of the day’s income. i. Marital History The patient is single. However, he is looking forward to marrying someday. According to his verbalizations, he wants to be married so badly that he would even marry their maid at home. According to him, he already told the maid that he wanted to marry her, but unfortunately, after telling her, the maid ran away. j. Onset of the present illness The recent admission is already the third admission of Bob. Recurrence of hostile behavior is the primary reason why Bob was admitted for three days in the CIU of Davao Mental Hospital. He suddenly shouted at a doctor in the hospital upon having his monthly depot injection and check-up.

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THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT These are just a few of the fascinating aspects of the field of “human development”: the science that studies how we learn and develop psychologically, from birth to the end of life. This very young science not only enables us to understand how each individual develops, it also gives us profound insights into who we are as adults. Each theory has its own perspective on the development of man. ERIK ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT The Psychosocial Stages of Development developed by Erikson enumerates eight stages though which healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. Every stage describes a task to be accomplished. These development stages can be seen as a series of crisis and each stage forms on the successful accomplishment of the earlier stages. Successful resolution of these crises supports a healthy self-development. Failure to resolve the crises damages the ego and maybe expected to reappear as problems in the future.

LIFE STAGE

INDICATORS OF POSITIVE

INDICATORS OF NEGATIVE

ASSESSMENT

JUSTIFICATION

RESOLUTION RESOLUTION Infancy (birth to Learning how Mistrust, 1 year) Central Trust Mistrust The first stage, centers infant's on the basic task: vs. to trust others withdrawal, estrangement

Mistrust

Aina, his mother, did not breastfeed Bob because she is having breastfeeding no breast pain him milk

and as reported and would come out; so instead, she bottle fed the patient in a timed manner. She 27

needs being met

by the parents. The parents, especially sustenance, comfort. parents the warmth dependable affection, the infant's view of the world will be one of trust. But if the are the instead mistrustan an unsafe the and If the expose to and mother, for food, infant depends on the

would hours, the

feed

the

baby every three believing to be that this would train baby disciplined. Moreover, she hired a Yaya Nena to look after the baby because she did not have experience baby, her age. After 5 months on the service, Yaya Nena left and Yaya Ging-ging took over her place in taking care of Bob. Because Bob was given not enough attention and left under a care of a nanny he had built a sense of mistrust to his parents. He has not been fed well since he’s being fed in a timed manner, he hasn’t feel the sense of 28 any in

child

taking care of a considering

caregivers neglectful, infant learns in unpredictable and place.

that the world is

comfort since his parents haven’t been there for him to cuddle him when he’s crying or to play with him when Early Childhood Self(2 to 3 years) Central Autonomy task: self vs. ability cooperate control Compulsive –esteem; Or compliance; to willfulness and and defiance necessary. Shame and doubt The patient started talking when he was 1 year old and started walking on that age as well. The patient was toilet trained when he was 2 years old. child As he had a nanny (Yaya Ging-ging), the instructed mother Yaya

without loss of self-discipline

Shame & Doubt If

caregivers express oneself self-

encourage sufficient behavior,

develops a sense of autonomy- a sense of being able to handle many things on their own. But if caregivers demand refuse to too let much too soon, children perform tasks of which they are capable; children instead about may develop their

Ging-ging to teach him to urinate and defecate in a potty because it irritates his mother to find urine and stool just anywhere, she was too demanding that the child will learn how to toilet train right away. On the other hand, Yaya Ging-ging doesn’t train him well; she has not disciplined 29

shame and doubt ability to handle

things.

the child well if the child anywhere of ging was the pees because unstrict

training Yaya Gingimplemented unable to on Bob. The child master this kind of task in this stage, since he developed the sense of shame and doubt in which he was unable to handle because different implementation of the nanny and his Late Childhood Learning degree Lack task: and of self Guilt mother. The client does not engage cooperative play. He much play would of things the

(4 to 6 years) Central Initiative Guilt During

of assertiveness confidence; purpose pessimistic and the over restriction of own activity vs. influence environment;

and prefers solitary only sit and play alone in a corner. According to his mother and brother, he’s a silent type of person, playing bike he’s with not his 30 talkative. He likes and would

to this begins stage, the child evaluate one’s learns to take own behavior. initiative and get ready leadership roles. for and

goal achievement

If encourage support children’s efforts, also them realistic proper

adults and

play only in their yard together with his siblings. As verbalized by the mother, when playing, he was a follower.

while helping make and choices,

children develop initiativeindependence in planning undertaking activities. But if, adults discourage the search of independent activities, children develop guilt about their needs desires. School Age (7 to Developing 12 years) Central Industry Inferiority At this to stage, are learn sense vs. perseverance Sense of being Inferiority of mediocre; from peers and school. He attended his nursery until Grade 2 in Holy Cross of Davao College. When he was grade 3, he transferred at Our Lady of Fatima School. There, he again developed a separation anxiety, 31 and and

Task: competence and withdrawal

children eager and more

accomplish complex

skills: writing, time.

reading, telling

as he needed to leave friends, his old teachers

If children are encouraged make and to do

and classmates. He was a silent type of person and not very cooperative expressive. and He

things and are then praised for their accomplishments , they begin to demonstrate industry by being diligent, persevering tasks completed putting at until and work

withdraws himself with his classmates, he only have few friends due to lack of interaction with them. displays performance school uninterested not met He also poor in and with the

before pleasure. If children are instead ridiculed or punished for their efforts or if they find they are incapable meeting teachers' parents' expectations, they feelings develop of of their and

his studies. He has expectations of his parents from him, which is to do well in his studies.

inferiority about their capabilities. 32

Adolescence (13 Sense of self Feelings to 19 years) Central Confusion The adolescent is newly concerned with how they appear to others. The central sexual, emotional, educational, ethnic, and cultural, vocational The also sense of identity and plans to confusion, Task: actualize one’s hesitancy, possible antisocial behavior

of Role Confusion and

At this stage the client had his first year high school at Holy Cross College of Davao and later on, they’ve transferred to Cebu, he enrolled himself to Cebu Avillana High School, and there, due to being a shy type, he had not group gained of new people friends. A certain make friends with him but they were bad influence. He started drinking and smoking because of peer pressure. Also, he they started have using when group he’s marijuana, sessions

Identity vs. Role abilities

appears through

discovery. adolescent person develops

coherent sense of self and plans to actualize abilities. one’s The

sense of self can be confused if a core Feelings confusion, hesitancy, possible and identity of does not solidify.

cutting his class and because of his vices he always got low grades. When he was 4th year high school (16 years old), he met his first love and became 33

antisocial behavior also emerge. may

his girlfriend, but when he brought her at home, her girlfriend was being criticized by his mother to have big front teeth which are similar to a rat, this incident bagged down his selfesteem. He spent his two years of college education at the University of Mindanao, in the Civil course. good still indulging vices and stopped year high Engineering However, grades and

he did not have continued in his

cutting classes and finally studying school

when he was in 2nd due to difficulty in catching up with his Early Adulthood Intimate (20 to 34 years) Central Intimacy Isolation relationship Task: with a Avoidance relationship, or another career sense of commitments of Isolation lessons. After though never the crushing developed 34

relationship he had, with other girls, he

vs. person and has lifestyle

people commitment to and have established work their identities, relationships Once they are ready to make long-term commitments to others. of intimate, reciprocal relationships and willingly make the sacrifices and compromises that relationships require. If people cannot these form intimate such They forming become capable

another relationship had not

intimate with form with

another woman. He intimate relationships friends, though he considers people to be his friends, he didn’t trust them enough. He felt that he’s being envied by his friends. He continues to isolate himself others. from

relationships--a sense of isolation may result. Middle to 65 years) Central Stagnation During middle age the primary developmental task is one of Working betterment task: the Lack the productivity; of not forward helping society; society to move of Stagnation The patient is not so productive due to his illness. He’s being dependent to his family, though generating small income for helping in the Rice Mill, but still he’s not being productive because 35 Adulthood ( 35 towards

Generativity vs. being productive

contributing society future generations.

to and

the little money he earned what is is being being wasted for buying prohibited for him to be used, like marijuana cigarettes contributes worsening own he family wasted and that in his to his

helping to guide

When a person makes contribution during period, by family raising this perhaps a or a

illness. He has no support that’s why money for his own wants. When he had free time, he went to the plazas or parks to eat or drink. He also loves to watch television shows. The client also adapt to his physical changes in his body and accepted this as part of him, about his disease, he hasn’t understand fully for and him this needs to 36

working toward the betterment of society, a sense of generativity- a sense of productivity and accomplishmentresults. who unable society a feeling is In selfand or move of contrast, a person centered

unwilling to help forward develops stagnationdissatisfaction with the relative lack productivity. of

further explanation

A person in this stage have and his responsibilities and knows that he is accountable of whatever actions he takes. should time for

understand. And as a Filipino citizen, he has done his part in becoming a good citizen, he is a registered voter and planned to vote for Noynoy Aquino in the coming election period, in a way he’s being productive because he has done his duty for the betterment of the country. But still, he’s not helping the country had to move the forward since he violated Republic Act 6425 or the Dangerous Drug Act of 1972, Article III, Sec. 8 which is regarding the usage of the prohibited drugs.

companionship recreation. He also knows

SIGMUND FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL THEORY

37

The concept posits that from birth human have intellectual sexual appetites (libido) which unfold in a series of stages. Each stage is characterized by erogenous zone that is the source of libidinal drive during that certain stage. LIFE STAGE CHARACTERISTICS IMPLICATIONS ASSESSMENT Oral (Birth to 1 The center of pleasure Feeding NOT 1/2 year) is the mouth; it is the produces major pleasure satisfaction exploration. source of pleasure, a sense and of comfort or and ease and safety. The Feeding should necessary. sources the of Controlling and NOT feces ACHIEVED should be when ACHIEVED JUSTIFICATION Though the mother, Aina, doesn’t breastfed her child because she felt that it is painful, still he feds Bob through bottle-feeding but in a timed manner which is every 3 hours. Toilet was Bob not was by training strict. toilet his

child’s primary need be pleasurable, it is security or safety. Major weaning ANAL (1 1/2 The to 3 years) and conflict: provided

pleasure are the anus expelling (sensual

bladder give pleasure and Toilet training be a

satisfaction, sense of comfort.

trained

self control). training.

nanny which was instructed by his mother to instruct him to defecate in a potty. Her Yaya was to well able nanny, Ging-ging not implement

Major conflict: toilet should

pleasurable experience.

the instructions of her Ma’am Aina, the Bob, mother Bob of was

still urinating and 38

defecating everywhere. Yaya Ging-ging not well able when discipline was to Bob it

comes to toilet PHALLIC (4-6 The genitals are the The years) center of gratification. determines Masturbation offer together with the of the pleasure to the child. parent fantasy, child ACHIEVED training. At this stage, he was able to learn that a boy is for a girl, and a girl is for a boy.

Other actions include opposite sex and later takes on a the experimentation with love relationship peers, and questioning outside of adults about sexual family. issues matter. Major conflicts: the Oedipus Complex (refers to the male child's attraction for his mother his and father) unfriendly towards attitudes or sexual

and Electra Complex (refers to the female's attraction for her father and sees her mother as her rival), which resolves when the when child the identifies child 39

identifies with parent of same sex. LATENCY (6 Energy is heading for Encourage child NOT years puberty) to physical and with physical and ACHIEVED intellectual activities. intellectual Sexual impulses tend pursuits. to be repressed. Encourage sports other with Develop relationships and between peers of the activities same sex. He started to go to school by this time; gained playmates because be alone. he He prefers himself to isolates himself to his peers. He had not performing to school uninterested been well and to he had few

friends and few

same-sex peers.

study his lessons. Genital (puberty after) Energy and toward is full directed Encourage sexual separation being make NOT from ACHIEVED He is not still his to

independent, until now , he lives with

maturity and function parents, skills needed to cope able with the environment. to

and development of independent and right and good decisions

parents and being dependent them, especially

when it comes to his basic needs and as well as to meet his personal needs to gratify his desires, like asking money to have sexual 40

gratification together with some GROs and to buy marijuana or cigarettes. He’s not matured when it comes to his sexuality.

JEAN PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT This theory pertains to the nature and development of human intelligence. LIFE STAGE CHARACTERISTICS ASSESSMENT Sensorimotor Thought • In this stage, ACHIEVED (birth-2years) infants build an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences (such as seeing and hearing) with physical, motoric actions. Infants gain knowledge of the world from the physical actions they perform on it. An infant progresses from reflexive, 41 JUSTIFICATION The client as an infant was not by being her breastfed

mother; he was fed with the use of the bottle, when giving the bottle, the infant Bob grasp it as a response hungriness. mother, when the at of his The times, child is

gives him a pacifier crying thus fulfilling the child’s wants.

instinctual action at birth to the beginning of symbolic thought toward the end of the stage.

Thought derives from sensation and movement.

The child learns that he is separated from his environment and that aspects of his environment continues to exist even they may be outside the reach of his senses. Thinking is still egocentric: has difficulty taking the point of view of others.

Preoperational Thought (2-7 years)

ACHIEVED

At this age, was fond of drawing that represents his ideas. He also draws to show what is inside of him, to express his feelings through images that he creates.

The children begin to represent the world with images and words. Symbolic thought goes further than connections of sensory information and physical action.

42

Objects are classified in simple ways, especially by significant feature; the child isn’t able to conceptualize abstractly. The child starts to think abstractly and conceptualize, forming logical structures that explains his or her physical experiences.

Concrete Operational • Thought (7-12 years)

NOT ACHIEVED

Bob does not know how to arrange his things systematically or in order depending on its size, shape or any characteristics; other he’s

disorganized when it comes to his things.

Children can execute operations and logical reasoning replaces intuitive thought as long as reasoning can be applied to specific or concrete examples.

Children show thinking is decentered -they consider multiple aspects of the problem (e.g. understanding the significance of 43

height and width). They focus on the dynamic change in the problem. And, most importantly, they show the reversibility of true mental Formal above) Operational • operation. The person is capable of deductive and hypothetical reasoning.

ACHIEVED

During this stage, the client was able to understand what love means .He shared about his plans about getting married in the future chance; if given he a really

Thought (12 years and

The logical quality of the adolescent's thought is when children are more likely to solve problems in a trial-and-error fashion.

wanted to marry their helper, according to him. Though he never courted the girl, he just directly asked her to marry him but the woman home refused to to their answer him and went hometown. In addition to that, when asked, “Kung makakita ka ug pitaka na punog kwarta, unsaon man nimo ang pitaka, iuli o gastuhon ang kwarta?”; he then 44

During this stage the young adult is able to understand such things as love, "shades of gray", logical proofs and values.

During this stage the young adult begins to entertain possibilities for the future and is

fascinated with what they can be.

replied “Iuli nako, kay basig kailangan sa tag-iya ang kwarta.” He was able to draw conclusion from the given available. situation

At this stage, they can also reason logically and draw conclusion from what information is available.

45

ETIOLOGY AND SYMPTOMATOLOGY A. ETIOLOGY

Predisposing Present/ Absent Factors Family History Absent Rationale Individuals schizophrenia seem Justification with Schizophrenia is not to present in any of the

inherit a predisposition to family members of the disorder because the patient in both runs in paternal and maternal

schizophrenia

families. The relatives of lineages. individuals schizophrenia have with a

greater incidence of the disorder than chance would allow. amazing resources directed genetic at Although amount have finding cause an of been the of

schizophrenia, the results are far from specific. In fact, almost has every been 46

chromosome

linked with schizophrenia. Keltner, Neurostructural Anomalies Absent N. Psychiatric have The patient’s chart that did not show any

Nursing. Chapter 4. The theorists proposed

schizophrenia, is a direct laboratory results to effect of three confirm the existence defects. of such anomalies if

nuerostructural Ventricular brain

enlargement, such are present in and the patient. cerebral These

atrophy

dysfunctional blood flow.

anatomical anomalies in the brain play a major role in the illness. Keltner, N. Psychiatric

Nursing. Chapter 4. Precipitating Present/ Absent Intake Factors of drugs, Present or which levels of Rationale Justification Dopamine is known to be The patient admittedly the neurotransmitter which takes marijuana since is prominently affecting he was thirteen. All the occurrence of informants also concur the patient is

substances chemicals increase dopamine.

schizophrenia. In patients that with dopamine

schizophrenia, indeed levels are marijuana.

using

47

invariably high. Therefore, intake or use of drugs, substances and chemicals which elevation promote of the

dopamine

levels in the brain would trigger Example levodopa, schizophrenia. of these are

ampethamines

and marijuana. Keltner, Perinatal Factors Absent N. Psychiatric

Nursing. Chapter 4. Some researchers believe The mother did not that schizophrenia can be report linked exposure birth to to during perinatal abnormalities influenza, complications winter, her pregnancy any and during and

exposure to lead, minor birth. The mother also malformations during early verbalized no exposure gestation, exposure to to any infections

viruses from house cats during her pregnancy. and complications of

pregnancy,

particularly

during labor and delivery. Keltner, N. Psychiatric

Nursing. Chapter 4. 48

Developmental Factors

Present

Developmental include the

factors There are some stages internal of development

reaction of an individual to according to Erikson life stressors or conflicts. that the patient did not Three theorists could be successfully meet. considered here: Meyer, Freud and Erikson. For Meyer, events in early life can cause problems that are as severe as

schizophrenia. For Freud, developmental include boundaries, inadequate development, poor fragile factors ego ego, ego superego

dominance, regressed or id behavior, ambivalent

relationships and arrested psychosexual development. Furthermore, Erikson eight-stage human believed model that of

development

starting from Trust Vs. 49

Mistrust highly influences development condition. of the The

accomplishment or failure in the levels affect a person’s aspect. Keltner,N. Convulsion Present Psychiatric patient had a developmental

Nursing. Chapter pp. Convulsion, in medicine, The series of involuntary convulsion when he of muscles. frequently the was 18 years old. have

contractions voluntary eyeballs

The Informants

roll attested that after the the patient having odd and

upward or to one side incident, during a convulsion; started

breathing appears labored, behavior

and saliva oozes from the disturbance in thought mouth. The teeth usually process. are tightly clenched,

sometimes causing serious bites to the tongue and the cheeks. Convulsions are a common symptom of epilepsy. They 50

also

occur

in

young

children as a part of the reaction of the body to infection. Such

convulsions, called febrile convulsions, usually last only a few minutes and are not dangerous. Other

causes of convulsions are virus infections; brain

tumors or hemorrhages; toxemias, such as uremia or lead or cocaine chemical such as

poisoning; disorders,

hypoglycemia; and acute or chronic alcoholism. A doctor should be notified whenever a convulsion

occurs. Until the arrival of a physician, is emergency directed

treatment

toward protection of the victim from biting or other forms of self-injury. 51

Anticonvulsant include phenobarbital, phenytoin.

drugs diazepam, and

A convulsion may have a significant effect in an individual restriction oxygenation occurrence convulsion. due of in of Damage to brain the the to

brain tissues range from mild to severe depending on the type of convulsion and how brain long. cell

Furthermore,

damage is irreversible. Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

B. SYMPTOMATOLOGY Symptoms Present/Abse nt Rationale Justification

52

OBJECTIVE SIGNS A. Alterations in Personal Relationships Decreased attention to appearance and social amenities related to introspection and autism. Inadequate or inappropriate communicatio n Present Present Frequently, patients become less The concerned with their appearance and troubled patient has

relationship

might not bathe without persistent with other people. prodding. Table manners and other social skills might diminish to the point that the patient becomes disgusting to others. Keltner, N. Psychiatric Nursing. Patients with schizophrenia have Communication troubled personal skills

relationships. of the patient show incoherent

Often, these problems develop over a constant long period, is well before statements,

schizophrenia

diagnosed,

and circumstantiality, and the

become more pronounced as the tangentiality illness progresses. It is

not like which are highly

uncommon to hear that a person was indicative of inadequate asocial, loner or a social misfit and before being diagnosed. Hostility Present Keltner, N. Psychiatric Nursing. Hostility can also be a common theme, which distances patient from others. Keltner, N. Psychiatric Nursing. inappropriate

communication.
As the illness progresses the hostility became apparent in the patient. The patient has tantrums, confronting people with

53

no apparent reason, tumbling tables and chairs and wants to hit people.

Withdrawal

Present

Patients withdraw,

with which

schizophrenia further

As the informant could remember the patient prefers solitary play in his childhood. Moreover in his adolescence he would hangout with a few friends. Patient has diminished or lost interest in communicating with people.

compromises their ability to engage in meaningful activities. Keltner, N. Psychiatric Nursing

B. Alterations in Activity Psychomotor retardation Absent Psychomotor retardation, the markedly slow speech and body movements which occurs as a symptom of schizophrenia Catatonic rigidity Absent Keltner, N. Psychiatric Nursing Patients with schizophrenia also display alterations of activity. They may be too active or they may be inactive or catatonic. Keltner, N. Psychiatric Nursing SUBJECTIVE SIGNS A. Altered Perception The patient did not exhibit this symptom. The patient did not exhibit this symptom

54

Hallucinations Present

Hallucinations

which

are

false

Hallucinations, especially those which are auditory in form is highly evident in the verbalizations of the patient and also in his actions as described by the informants. The patient does not exhibit this symptom.

sensory perceptions, which can be auditory, visual, tactile, gustatory or somatic probably . Hallucinations caused are by

hyperdopaminergic state in the limbic areas. Keltner, N. Psychiatric Nursing Illusions Absent Illusions are misinterpretations of stimuli. Like hallucinations,

illusions also occur as a result of hyperdopaminergic state in limbic areas. books.google.com.ph/books? Paranoid thinking Present isbn=0471245313 Suspiciousness of others and their actions also occur as a symptom of schizophrenia which happens due to the alteration of the normal In connection to persecutory delusions of the patient, he is becoming suspicious and distrustful of people around him. He is in deep belief that people are out there trying to kill him, thus, he becomes paranoid.

perceptual pattern of an individual affected by the condition. www.asialink.unimelb.edu.au

55

B. Alterations of Thought Loose associations Present This is the stringing together of unrelated topics with vague connection. This occurs as a result of the altered thought process in individuals with schizophrenia. Keltner, N. Psychiatric Nursing. Loose associations can be traced in many of the statements made by the patient in conversations. Details which do not have anything to do with the topic are being mentioned by the patient. Retardation Absent Retardation is the slowing of mental activity, which is also a direct effect of thought process alterations in individuals affected by schizophrenia. Keltner, N. Psychiatric Nursing. This symptom is not exhibited by the patient.

56

Blocking

Present

Blocking is the interruption of a thought and inability to recall it. Blocking may be caused by the intrusion of hallucinations, delusions or emotional factors. Keltner, N. Psychiatric Nursing.

Blocking is apparent in conversations with the patient. There are several instances wherein he would suddenly stop right in the middle of a conversation.

Ambivalence

Absent

Ambivalence is a state in which two opposite strong feelings exist

This symptom is not exhibited by the patient.

simultaneously. Schizophrenic patients may be immobilized by their ambivalence

regarding a matter as simple as deciding whether to drink an apple juice or an orange juice. Keltner, N. Psychiatric Nursing.

57

Delusions

Present

Delusions are fixed false beliefs and can take many forms. Delusions are defined as false belief firmly held by a person even though other people recognize the belief as obviously untrue. For example, a person who truly believes he is Napoleon Bonaparte is delusional. Religious beliefs or popular conceptions, such as the belief that people have been abducted by aliens, are not delusions because they are widely held beliefs. Delusions are a type of psychotic symptom that indicate a person has lost contact with reality (see Psychosis). There are many different types of delusions. A person with a paranoid delusion believes that others—such as the FBI, CIA, or the Mafia—are trying to harm or plot against him or her. A person with a delusion of reference believes that events or people refer specifically to him or her when they do not. For example, a woman with schizophrenia may believe that a television news

Persecutory delusions are highly evident in the patient’s verbalizations and actions described by the informants.

broadcaster is talking personally to her rather than to the entire viewing audience. A grandiose delusion is a belief that one is 58

extremely famous or that one has special powers, such as the ability to magically heal people Keltner, N. Psychiatric Nursing. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delusion Poverty of Speech Absent Poverty of speech is manifested by the inability to formulate and articulate thoughts that are relevant to the discussion at hand. This is also highly connected in the alterations of thought process taking place in individuals with schizophrenia. Ideas of Reference Absent Keltner, N. Psychiatric Nursing. Ideas of reference and delusions of reference involve people having a belief or perception that irrelevant, unrelated or innocuous phenomena in the world refer to them directly or have special personal This is not exhibited by the patient. This is not manifested by the patient.

significance. In psychiatry, delusions of reference form part of the diagnostic criteria for psychotic illnesses such as schizophrenia during the elevated stages of mania. Keltner, N. Psychiatric Nursing.

59

Autism

Absent

Autism

occurs

when

patients

are

so

This is not manifested by the patient

introspective that they are distracted from external events. Patients become

preoccupied with themselves and may be oblivious to the reality around them.This results in a personalized view of reality. Keltner, N. Psychiatric Nursing. C. Altered Consciousness Confusion Present Confusion is an anxiety-producing symptom that is associated with psychosis. Keltner, N. Psychiatric Nursing. Disorientation to time is evident in the patient. The patient is obviously confused as to the time and chronological arrangement of events in his life.

60

Incoherent Speech

Present

Like confusion, incoherent speech is also a direct effect of schizophrenia in the

The patient displays incoherent speech as evidenced by the disorganization of thoughts and flight of ideas which are illogical to follow.

functioning of an affected individual. Keltner, N. Psychiatric Nursing.

D. Alterations in Affect Inappropriate, blunted, flattened or labile Absent Affective flattening, inappropriateness, This is not manifested by the patient.

lability are affective symptoms sometimes associated with schizophrenia. They often respond to antipsychotic drug. Flat affect is a cardinal symptom of negative

schizophrenia and may only respond to an atypical antipsychotic drug. Keltner, N. Psychiatric Nursing.

61

Apathy

Absent

Apathy is another symptom associated with the affective alterations brought about by schizophrenia. It can be defined as a lack of concern or interest. It is the inability to generate a normal response to people, situations or the environment.

This is not manifested by the patient.

Overreaction

Present

Keltner, N. Psychiatric Nursing. Because of emotional limitations,

the

The patient overreacts to normal situations. The informants verbalized that the patient overreacts even in simple television shows.

schizophrenic patients overreact to normal events to overcome mental and social inertia. Keltner, N. Psychiatric Nursing.

Anhedonia

Absent

Anhedonia is the inability to experience pleasure which is highly associated with the detrimental effects of schizophrenia in the affect of individuals Keltner, suffering N. from

This is not manifested by the patient.

schizophrenia. Nursing.

Psychiatric

62

PSYCHODYNAMICS

63

NARRATIVE PSYCHODYNAMICS Bob’s parents, Aina and Danni, eloped at the age of 18 and 19 respectively. They ran away to Cagayan because Aina got pregnant. They lived together with Danni’s parents there while Aina’s parents did not know about anything. Anxiety, guilt and shame caused emotional distress in both of them in this stage. Both undergraduates in their courses, Aina and Danni, stopped studying and were dependent to Danni’s parents to support them in Aina’s pregnancy. Danni’s parents, supportive of their child, provided a jeepney for Bob to use as a temporary means of income for them to use in the course of Aina’s pregnancy. In the course of her pregnancy, Aina had adequate prenatal check-ups at a nearby heath center. Young for pregnancy and emotionally anxious, Aina’s situation puts her child, Bob at high risk of fetal abnormalities. In the prenatal stage, the mother’s pregnancy is highly affecting the baby. According to researches, the mother’s emotional state during pregnancy may bring about long term effects in the fetus. This is so because stress-induced changes in the endocrine system of a woman during pregnancy is said to cross the placental barrier, thereby, affecting the fetal environment. Researches in low income African American populations in 2002 made by Mulder, et. Al., presented that depressed and anxious mothers during pregnancy were more likely to have negative consequences to the baby which extend far beyond the events of childbirth. During birth, the mother may experience complications, premature labor and delivery and even spontaneous abortion. Depression during pregnancy may also induce immunologic and neurological anomalies in growing fetus. Cognitive impairment, together with motor retardation may also be possible. 9th of April 1969. Aina felt labor pains early in the morning, unfortunately, Danni was out making a living, and it was some time before Danni was successfully called by a neighbor that his wife was already in labor. Aina was rushed to Cagayan de Oro Provincial Hospital. There, she

64

delivered Bob through NSVD without any complication. However, according to her labor was rather long and extremely painful. From birth, Bob was left in the care of a nanny named Nena. Aina entrusted Bob to Nena because she did not have enough skills in tending a child. Furthermore, she also has to go home to Agusan in order to talk to her parents. Bob was not breastfed because Aina felt pain when she attempted to breastfeed Bob. So she decided to feed him with formula milk in a timed manner every three hours. Bob being left to the care of a nanny and the limited presence of his parents, started building the sense of mistrust in the part of Bob as a baby. Furthermore, as Bob was not able to be breastfed, he was unable to absorb significant nutrients from his mother, together with oxytocin and colustrum, which directly contributes to poor mother-child bonding. In the August of 1969, Aina and Danni married each other in Agusan and moved there, starting a rice mill business. Trying their luck on their new business, the couple got busy in their rice mill and left Bob to the care of Nena. They would only go home at night and has poor bonding with the child. As a result feelings of Mistrust formed in the child’s psyche.

Moving on, in Bob’s toddlerhood, the core conflict in this stage, according to Erikson is Autonomy Vs. Shame and Doubt. And in the resolution of this conflict, the child must learn to imitate. Imitation being the core process involved in the resolution of the conflict in this stage, Bob is not at all fortunate. His parents’ availability was limited and the attitude of his mother and nanny were very variable. Thus, Bob developed a sense of confusion and inability to identify to any of his parents. Bob was unable to master skills such as eliminating and dressing up because everything was just handed to him readily by the nanny. Although this “spoiling” of the nanny to Bob may contribute to his sense of autonomy, his lack of figures of attachment bringing about confusion and inability to master certain tasks further outweighs his derived autonomy. Thus, Bob gained doubt. 65

During his play age, Bob was a loner. He would want to be in solitary play. He would only play with his siblings and would only play inside their yard. He was not open to other children. In this stage, the core conflict is Initiative Vs. Guilt. Initiative is the inquiry of the child to the world. The child begins to explore and uncover the wonders of the world around him and use his senses to perceive the order of things. In this stage the child learns to adapt and resolve the conflict thru education. However, Bob was a loner, withdrawing from other people in play. Furthermore, first signs of hostility were noted on Bob at this stage, because he would become hostile whenever asked or forced to join other kids in their play. Bob is also a good follower rather than a leader in games. During this stage, he did not accomplish the developmental task of forming initiative but instead formed sense of guilt. In school age, Bob was as withdrawn as he is in his past developmental stage. He has a difficulty in relating to others and as a result, his school performance is highly affected. He consistently has separation anxiety and cries inside the classroom every time his nanny would be out of his sight. Because of this, Bob was unable to form meaningful relationships with others and thus formed inferiority. In his adolescence, Bob entered high school at the age of 13 in the June of 1982. Bob became attached to a certain group of friends who doesn’t seem to be a good influence to him. As a shy person, Bob didn’t have many friends, so when this small group of people asked him to hang out with them, Bob was overwhelmed, believing that they could provide belongingness and acceptance. Bob treasured this small group of friends because this is all that he has. Bob was easily affected by peer pressure. Fearing rejection if he does not do what his friends would want him to do. So when his friends asked him to join them in their vices, Bob also joined in. Bob started drinking alcoholic beverages and smoking. Worse, Bob also began using marijuana. During his fourth year in high school, Bob was 16 years of age, he met a girl named Rowena and courted her. Rowena became Bob’s only girlfriend. There was actually a time wherein Bob 66

brought Rowena home, but his mother disapproved of her because she said her teeth looks like rat teeth. This created anger and insecurity in Bob. Later on, Rowena broke up with him for an unknown reason. This break up bagged down Bob’s self esteem. He started isolating himself again and increased his use of marijuana, drinking and smoking. In this stage, Bob is obviously not in control of his life. His decisions were affected by the people around him. Even his role in the society and the people that he chooses to be with are dictated by peer pressure and the ideas of his mother. Bob therefore has role confusion. Entering college at 17, Bob went to the University of Mindanao for Civil Engineering course. However, due to his constant to constant absences and tardiness, Bob’s academic performance trampled. Coupled with his consistent use of marijuana, cigarettes and alcohol, Bob’s life was greatly affected. Behavioral changes emerged, his hostility grown so large that he already fights with teachers and brawls with classmates. He was also called in by the Guidance Counselor regarding his behavior. With this in mind, Bob therefore failed to achieve this stage of development and formed isolation. It was also in this stage that the first onset of the illness happened. Bob was 18 back then when Bob stopped studying, he went back to Agusan with his brother. Prior to going to Agusan, he had a convulsion in a trip to Bukidnon in the August of 1987, there he ate his own stool and drank urine from a potty. First persecutory delusion also emerged there. After the incident, Bob was never the same again. He is already having flight of ideas, disorganized speech, hallucinations and extreme hostility. Because of this and his verbalization that there is something wrong with him, he was brought to Davao City for a psychological chec-up. In San Pedro Hospital, no mental illness was diagnosed, but upon their return the next month and transferred to DMH, Bob was diagnosed with schizophrenia catatonic type. After then, Bob constantly visits DMH for his depot. At first, control of symptoms were at its best, but as the years progressed, he was again admitted in the

67

December of 2007 because of the recurrence of symptoms of hostile behavior. The following admission, which is on the 19th of January 2010 was also due to his hostile behavior.

68

MENTAL STATUS EXAMINATION INITIAL Name: Bob Age: 40 years old Ward: Crisis Intervention Unit I. PRESENTATION A. General Apperance The patient appears to be younger than his real age which is 40. During the interview at Crisis Intervention Unit in Davao Mental Hospital, he wore a green polo shirt, denim shorts, and a pair of slippers and is seated on bed with his mother and sister-in-law. The patient appears to be untidy. He has dirty clothing, unkempt hair, long fingernails and toenails with traces of dirt evidently seen on both. At the time of the interview, the patient was alert and responsive. B. General Mobility a. Posture and Gait – The patient slouches when seated but holds himself erect when standing and walking. His mannerisms include manually hyper extending his fingers and scratching his head. b. Activity – The patient’s movement are organized and purposeful during the interview. He moves in a normal pace and does not show any signs of over and under activity. c. Facial Expression – The patient’s facial expressions are very much appropriate to his verbal responses during the interview. He was composed and receptive to whatever the group asks him. Diagnosis: Schizophrenia Undifferentiated Physician: Gioia Fe D, Dinglasan, MD Date of Examination: January 21, 2009

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A. Behavior The patient was friendly and warm to us during the interview. He was sitting on bed calmly. He interacts well with the group and as what we had observed; he has a good relationship with his mother and his sister-in-law who were present at that time. B. Attitude towards the Examiner The patient accepted the group warmly. He entertained our questions and answered almost all of them. However, his eye contact was poor. He often looks down. I. STREAM OF TALK A. Characteristic of Talk – During our conversation with the patient, we noticed that he is spontaneous most of the time. However, there are times in which blocking is evident in between his speech. His articulation words were clear but the content is slightly vague. B. Organization of Talk – The patient was eager to talk with the group. He tries to answer every question the group asks him however, in his answers, we apparently observe succession of circumstantiality and tangentiality. He provides an excessive amount of irrelevant detail before finally arriving at the answer, or at times, he doesn’t arrive at the answer at all. I. EMOTIONAL STATES AND REACTION A. Mood – At the course of the interview, the patient’s mood was euthymic. His feelings were appropriate to the situations as he relays his answers to the group. His mood was just appropriate and basing from his gestures and other nonverbal cues, his mood is fitting to the situation.

70

B. Affect – The patient’s affect is appropriate as well. There is a marked harmony

between thought content, emotional response, and expressiveness. When asked, “Unsa may nabati nimu kadtong nagka-uyab mo?”, he replied, “Lipay kaayo ui. Alangan. Kaw gud daw magka uyab.” with a smile. I. THOUGHT CONTROL A. Perceptions – Throughout the interview, the group observed manifestations of illusions and hallucinations. When the patient was asked if he experiences any of the two, he told us that there are times that he hears someone whispering to him. “Naa may gahong-hong sa ako usahay na mag wild daw ko.”, as claimed by the patient. He denied that he had any visual hallucinations however, the mother and the sister-in-law attested that during tantrums, the patient verbalizes that he sees someone whom they cannot see. B. Delusion – There are several types of delusions that are present in the patient as claimed by the patient himself, and confirmed by the mother who witnessed them all. First, the patient claimed that there is some sort of outside force controlling his thought, compelling him into the belief that somebody has aa plan to kill him – which is a clear sign of persecutory delusion. He also has a feeling that others, especially his friends, hate him because they are jealous of him. I. NEUROVEGETATIVE STATE A. Sleep The patient usually sleeps at 12 in the midnight and usually wakes up at 5am getting at least 5 hours of sleep. He says that he finds it hard to sleep at night and instead, he just spends his time watching television until he falls asleep. Five in the morning for the patient is too early for him to wake up that is why he

71

attempts to go back to sleep, but then, he is unable to do such. This is a manifestation of late or terminal insomnia. B. Appetite The patient has increased appetite. He eats a lot however, he is choosy in his food. “Ganahan man gud ko mukaon samot na kung lami ang sud-an.”, reported by the patient. “Kusog kaayo mukaon nang bataa na, pero pili-an lang jud ug sud-an.”, as verbalized by his mother. C. Diurnal Variation The patient’s mood varies during the day. He is usually fine in the morning and gets, uneasy, restless, and irritable as the day progresses. Other times, his day starts out worse in the morning and feels better later on. I. GENERAL SENSORIUM AND INTELLECTUAL STATUS A. Orientation The patient is well oriented of the time, place and person. When asked during the interview if what date and time was it, he answered correctly. However, as the conversation progressed, we noticed that he is confused and not well oriented with the time. When asked, when did he last used marijuana, he answered, “Two months ago. Mga 2008.” The group finds this statement confusing since two months ago, basing on the date of the interview, is around November of last year (2009). The patient is also oriented with the situation since he knows that he is the Davao Mental Hospital for his treatment. B. Memory The patient has difficulty recalling remote memories. When asked what his age when he went to Bukidnon was, he replied; “Ambot lang. Wala ko

72

kahinumdom.” On the other hand, the patient has a good memory when it comes to remembering recent and immediate memories. C. Calculation The patient was given simple mathematical tasks like 1+1, 2-1, 18-7, 6x7 and the like. He was able to answer all of them but there we long pauses before he can finally give the answer. D. General Information The patient knows basic general information like the current president of the Philippines and even of the United States. He know the capital of some Philippine provinces and he was able to name the national hero of the country. E. Abstract Thinking, Judgement and Reasoning The patient was given a maxim translated in Visaya to evaluate his reasoning and abstract thinking. He was asked to explain the quote Try and try until you succeed. He was able to explain it but not profoundly. He said, “Maningkamot gud.” And when asked to elaborate, he refused to. He was also given a situation wherein someone left her wallet, and he was asked what he should do. He replied, “Akong i-uli. Di man na akoa so dapat nako i-uli.” I. INSIGHTS The patient understands that he needs to go to the hospital for his treatment. Since he was 18, he knew that there is a problem in him and he even asked his mother to bring him to the doctor. However, he does not have concrete understanding of what his illness is. He believes that there is a lube (grasa) in his brain that is why he is acting differently, thus, he has a fair insight.

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FINAL

Name: Bob Age: 40 years old

Diagnosis: Schizophrenia Undifferentiated Physician: Gioia Fe D, Dinglasan, MD

Place of Interview: 162, Interior Tulip Drive, D.C. Date of Examination: January 23, 2009

I.

PRESENTATION A. General Apperance During the home visit the group did, the patient was wearing a blue shirt and denim pants. Again, Bob looked younger that his age which is 40. He was properly groomed and looked like he had just taken a bath. He was actually getting himself ready to go back to Agusan. His fingernails and toenails are still long and dirty. During the interview, the patient was again warm and yet a little aloof to us. He looked happy to see us again for the second time. B. General Mobility a. Posture and Gait – The patient still slouches when seated but holds himself erect when standing and walking. His mannerisms are still present and evident throughout the interview.
b. Activity – During the interview, the patient was able to sit straight and

focus on answering the questions asked to him. There is no overactivity or underactivity nor impulsiveness noted. He was very calm and composed along the interview. c. Facial Expression – The patient was able to exhibit appropriate facial expression towards a certain topic. 74

A. Behavior/Attitude towards the examiner The patient was still accommodating to the group but we noticed that he is a little shy this time. He seated on one corner and has minimal eye contact. I. STREAM OF TALK A. Characteristic of Talk – He speaks in a loud tone and his words were very clear to us. Blocking was still evident especially when we bring in the discussion on his use of marijuana. He maintains limited eye contact this time and prefers to look down and do his mannerisms. His attention was still in the conversation though. B. Organization of Talk –Most of his statements were not comprehensible this time. Circumstantiality and Tangentiality still surfaced during the interview. He still cooperates with the discussion and still, he tries to answer the questions we gave him. I. EMOTIONAL STATES AND REACTION A. Mood – The patient was able to maintain a normal mood all through the home visit. He was responding well to the conversation and his mood was appropriate for the discussion. B. Affect – The patient’s affect was still appropriate as well. His statements jive very well with his facial expressions and gestures. I. THOUGHT CONTROL A. Perceptions – Throughout the interview, the group did not observe any manifestations of illusions or hallucinations. He was very calm and composed.
B. Delusion –Delusion of paranoia was present. He believes that his friends were

very much jealous of him since his family owns a rice mill. When he was asked why did he say so, he answered, “Dugay ra ko gaduda ana nila. Maka ingon jud 75

ko na na sina ni sila nako kay din a muduol nako.” This is a manifestation of delusion of paranoia. He was also asked about his illness. “Naa man koy grasa sa utok. Murag gud ug makina. Madaot.” This is a manifestation of a somatic delusion. I. NEUROVEGETATIVE STATE A. Sleep The patient said that he had a good sleep the night before the interview. According to his sister-in-law, he slept at around 11pm and woke up at around 5am. He said that he did not have any difficulty sleeping at night. “Na injectionan man gud ko gahapon mao nang maayo akong tulog.” B. Appetite The patient had a good appetite. He was eating his breakfast well and was able to consume a moderate amount of rice and viand. C. Diurnal Variation It was around 7:30am when we conducted the home visit and so far, he was relaxed and comfortable. He did not have any feeling of discomfort or uneasiness during the interview. I. GENERAL SENSORIUM AND INTELLECTUAL STATUS A. Orientation The patient is well oriented of the time, place and person. He was still able to recognize our group after two days of not seeing each other. He is aware of the time and the place as well.

B. Memory

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Most of our questions to him were about his adolescent life and we can say that he has difficulty remembering details. Long pauses before answering indicate that he was trying to retain information for him to come up with the answer. The nurse asked, “Pila man imong edad gasugod kag gamit ug marijuana?”. He replied “Ambot lang” and “Dili ko sigurado.” C. Calculation The patient was given again given mathematical equations. Still, he was able to answer all of them correctly and quickly. D. General Information The patient was asked to enumerate the presidentiables he knows for this upcoming election in May 2010. He was able to name Villar, Aquino, Estrada, and Gordon. He said that he would vote for Aquino since his mother was a good example to everyone. “Si Noynoy jud akong iboto kay maayo nang tao, liwat sa iyang mama.”, said with calm emotion by the client. E. Abstract Thinking, Judgement and Reasoning The patient was given another set of situations and questions to evaluate him. He was asked to tell the group the meaning of certain idiomatic expressions like parang basing sisiw. He was them each correctly but with limited words. When asked if he would cheat on a quiz if the teacher is not around, he insistently answered NO. “Dili mana maayo nang manikas ka. Maski wala pa gatan-aw ang teacher, gatan-aw man ang Ginoo.” He explained.

I.

INSIGHTS

77

The patient still had the same understanding of his illness. Manifestation This time, he insists his false belief that marijuana is not harmful to him and even claimed that it is therapeutic for him. Delusions were more evident this time. He also insists that his vices especially smoking and drinking Coke, which the doctor prohibited, are helpful to him. With these statements, we can say that he has a poor insight.

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MULTIAXIAL ASSESSMENT Axis I- Schizophrenia Undifferentiated This type of schizophrenia is manifested by pronounced delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thought processes and behavior, but criteria for other types of schizophrenia are not met (Antai-Otong, 2003). Axis II Schizotypal Personality Disorder Schizotypal personality disorder, or simply schizotypal disorder, is a personality disorder that is characterized by a need for social isolation, odd behavior and thinking, and often unconventional beliefs. These people tend to turn inward rather than interact with others, and experience extreme anxiety in social situations. People with schizotypal personality disorder often have trouble engaging with others and appear emotionally distant. They find their social isolation painful, and eventually develop distorted perceptions about how interpersonal relationships form. (Psychiatric Nursing: contemporary practice. Mary Ann Boyd. 2007) Individuals with schizotypal personality disorder have odd thoughts, affects, perceptions, and beliefs. Diagnostic criteria fort 301.22 Schizotypal Personality Disorder A. A pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior, by beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five or more of the following: 1. Ideas of reference (excluding delusions of reference) 2. odd beliefs or magical thinking that influences behavior and is inconsistent with subcultural norms (e.g., superstitiousness, belief 79

in clairvoyance, telepathy, or “sixth sense in children and adolescents, bizarre fantasies or preoccupations) 3. unusual perceptual experiences, including bodily illusions 4. odd thinking and speech (e.g., vague, circumstantial, metaphorical, overelaborate, or stereotyped) 5. suspiciousness or paranoid ideation 6. inappropriate or constricted affect 7. behavior or appearance that is odd, eccentric or peculiar 8. lack of close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives 9. excessive social anxiety that does not diminish with familiarity and tends to be associated with paranoid fears rather than negative judgments about self B. Does not occur exclusively during the course of Schizophrenia, a Mood Disorder with Psychotic Features, another Psychotic Disorder, or a Pervasive Developmental Disorder ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔

Note: If criteria are met prior to the onset of Schizophrenia, add “Premorbid,” e.g., “Schizotypal Personality Disorder (Premorbid) 6÷10 ×100 =60% Axis III- Axis 3 is not applicable to the client. Axis IV- inability to go back to school, unemployment Napoleon was unable to finish his schooling. He was a 2nd-year undergraduate at the University of Mindanao with a course of Civil Engineering. The reason for stopping school was due o the onset of his illness. As a result of the patient’s mental illness, he has not landed a permanent job and is currently unemployed. The patient’s educational attainment

80

also made him unable to land a job. The patient is currently living with his parents and depends on them for his basic needs. Axis V- Global Assessment of Functioning a) Initial Assessment (51-60) Moderate symptoms or moderate difficulty in social, occupational, or school functioning. According to the patient, he finds it hard to sleep at night. He usually sleeps at around 12am and wakes around 5am. Circumstantial and tangential speech is also noted since he provides an excessive amount of irrelevant detail before finally arriving at the answer, or at times, he doesn’t arrive at the answer at all. According to Bob, he has very few friends. Also, he is quite withdrawn to people around him like the workers of his parents’ business. b) Final Assessment (51-60) Moderate symptoms or moderate difficulty in social, occupational, or school functioning. During the final assessment, circumstantiality and tangentiality is still noted in his speech. He was also quite aloof to the group, when the interview and assessment was being conducted.

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NURSE-PATIENT INTERACTION Name: Bob Age: 40 years old Ward: Crisis Intervention Unit Diagnosis: Schizophrenia Undifferentiated Physician: Gioia Fe D. Dinglasan, MD Date: January 21, 2009 – 1:40 pm FIRST NURSE-PATIENT INTERACTION

NURSE Verbal Maayong buntag! diay estudyanteng de

PATIENT

INTERPRETATION

ANALYSIS acknowledge knowing client’s client’s

Nonverbal Verbal Nonverbal Greets the Maayong buntag Looks at the Nurse: Gives the patient and his Greetings mga with a inyong and smiles upon a positive atmosphere Greets and start back and

Kami patient

pud. Unsa diay student nurses family a warm greeting to create presence as well as creating a good Looks curious establish a good rapport asking Patient: disposition. of Nursing by

smile and pangutana?

nars sa Ateneo uses hand Davao gestures to University. Naa introduce lang miy pipila the group ka pangutana sa members imo. Ok ra ba nimu? Kumusta imong man Looks

the purpose of acknowledges the nurses with a Fundamentals the interview smile and shows interest and Kozier, B. p. 430 curiosity

at Ok ra man. Laay Scratches head N: paminaw na dire. down ko

Tries

to

open

up

a Broad openings make explicit that

ka? Unsa man the patient lang kaayo akong and pamati and smiles Starts karong adlawa? to Gusto

looks conversation by using questions the client has the lead in the that encourages patient to talk interaction. For the client who is and share hesitant about talking, broad P: Exhibits boredom over his openings may stimulate him or her

establish a muuli.

82

good rapport

hospital stay and expresses wish to take the initiative. to go home Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing by Frisch p 185

Kanus-a pa man Looks diay ka diri?

at Tulo na kaadlaw. Changes into a N: Asks a question to seek viable Seeking information is used to Pero pirmi man comfortable mi dire sige balik sitting position balik. information P: His change of know more about client’s feelings, position thoughts and ideas. It is also used meaningful or vague. Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing

the patient

communicates his interest to to make clear that which is not participate in the conversation

Ah. Kabalo pd Continues ka nganong naa to ka diri karon ug maintain kung dire? ngano eye gabalik balik mo contact

by Frisch p 185 Kabalo ui. Naa Makes an eye N: Attempt to evaluate patient’s Exploring is delving further into a

may hong wild
man

gahong- contact with understanding and perception of subject or idea. This can help his own illness patient examine the issue sa ako the nurse
N: Reports understanding that he morefully. Any problem or concern needs to be treated and evaluated can once in a while by a doctor Pa ba. mga sa be better If understood if explored. patient expresses

usahay na mag daw
ko.

ko.

Magpatambal injection nang pangutana balik.

unwillingness to share, the nurse must respect his or her wishes. Mental Health and Psychiatric Nursing by Ann Isaacs p.197 Auditory hallucinations are false sensory impression heard by the patient, usually, commanding in nature. Mental Health and Psychiatric

Tapos naa na pud

doctor nga balik

83

Nursing by Ann Isaacs p.197 Magpatambal ka? nimu? Moves O. Magpatambal Scratches head N: Repeats the statement made Clarification is putting into words to ko. Kani man gud and niy grasa. Murag gud ug makina. Kunga ayuhon. maguba, kaylangan looks by the client to seek clarification. vague ideas or unclear thoughts of Asks further questions to delve in the client. Purpose is to help nurse to what the patient has said. understand, or invite the client to P: Explains his understanding of explain. his illness. Patient has a false idea Mental Health and Psychiatric that his brain had some sort of a Nursing by Ann Isaacs p.197 lubricant. His belief that there is a lube (grasa) in his brain is a manifestation of Somatic delusion. This type of delusion is a false notion or belief concerning body image or body function. Psychiatric Nursing by Keltner, N Ngano naay naka Looks grasa at Mailhan nako. paminaw. man Manually Chap 9 pp.112-113 N: Attempts to focus and bring in Focusing is concentrating on a single point; Picking up on central akong utok, naa down again

Ngano? closer

Unsa diay sakit the patient

ingon man ka na the patient imong utok?

Basta hyperextending the discussion into a single topic repetitive manner

mulain na akong his fingers in a P: Verbalizes his thought about topics or cues given by the client. what he believes towards his The nurse encourages the client to illness. Starts to show his concentrate his energies on a sing le point, which may prevent a multitude of factors or problems from overwhelming the client. Mental Health and Psychiatric mannerisms.

84

Nursing by Ann Isaacs p.197 Unsa diay imung Looks mga gipangbati? at Naay mag hung Manually N: Asks question to open and Encouraging description of

the patient

hung sa ako nga hyperextending explore a certain topic. ug Usahay maglagot. repetitive (pause) manner

perceptions is asking the client to

mag wild daw ko his fingers in a P: Retells what he experiences verbalize what he or she perceives. whenever his illness recurs. The To understand the client, the nurse pause in between his lines is a must see things from client’s manifestation of blocking speech. perspective. Encouraging the client to describe fully may relieve the tension the client is feeling, and he might be less likely to take action on ideas that are harmful or frightening. Psychiatric Nursing by Keltner, N Unya, unsa pud Looks imung anang ga hung and hung nimo? hand gestures to convey message at Usahay uses kay mura kay Looks pud head Chap 9 p 233 down N: Evaluates how the patient Exploring is delving further into a scratches reacts to such stimulus subject or idea. This can help P: Patient has the tendency to patient examine the issue more heed to whatever this stimulus is fully. Any problem or concern can saying. Scratching his head is be better understood if explored. If another mannerism evident in the patient expresses unwillingness to patient. share, the nurse must respect his or her wishes. Mental Health and Psychiatric Panan-aw nimu, Continues nganong nasakit eye cotact Nursing by Ann Isaacs p.197 Wala man. Nikalit Looks at the N: Tries to stimulate the patient Seeking information is used to ra man ni. Pero nurse to recall past events of his life know more about client’s feelings, 85

pud kay mu ana nga patyon daw ko sa usa ka tao.

buhaton the patient tuohan man nako and bitaw ug tinuod.

man ka? Naay ba kay mahinumduman ngano nagka ingon ana ka? Ah… Kumusta Maintains man relasyon eye nimo sa imong contact mama ug papa? and Imung igsuon? conveying hand gesture

kabalo ko na naay jud lain mao to gusto pd ko padoktor. Okay ra

that could have contributed to his thoughts and ideas. It is also used present illness. to make clear that which is not P: Patient cannot remember any meaningful or vague. significant event which he thinks Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing

is a contributing factor. by Frisch p 185 man. Looks at his N: Assesses patients relationship Focusing is concentrating on a and towards his family at the tone of voice his family The pause in is between again, statement single point; Picking up on central The nurse encourages the client to le point, which may prevent a his multitude of factors or problems a from overwhelming the client. Mental Health and Psychiatric Nursing by Ann Isaacs p.197 Blocking is usually caused by affectively delusional preoccupations. Psychiatric Nursing by Keltner, N charged thoughts topics, or then P: Expresses seriousness in his topics or cues given by the client. Tells the nurse how close he is to concentrate his energies on a sing

Palangga man ko mother nila. Samot na ni smiles mama. akong manghud. Kamaguwangan (pause) man ko. Suod ming Emman. Kadtong nagsunod sa ako. mga looks

mga presents a Suod pud mi sa nurse again

manifestation of blocking speech.

Ah! Kung mag Looks away imung isgsuon imong ug mo mga sa mga

Chap 9 p 233 at Wala uy! Okay Looks at the N: Asks question to look at the General leads indicate that the kaayo among nurse with a current topic being discussed for nurse is listening and following what the client is saying without Seeks interaction. They also encourage P: Strongly denies any presence taking away the initiative for the of domestic violence. pamilya. I-agi ra face that tries further assessment gud sa storya. Di to convince man kinhanglan

sa the patient

86

ginikanan, naka sinakitay mo?

magsinakitay diba?

affirmation from the nurse by the client to continue if he is asking “Diba”. hesitant or uncomfortable about the topic. Mental Health and Psychiatric Nursing by Ann Isaacs p.191 N: Commends the patient for the Giving recognition good insight given. get viable information acknowledging and

Tama Maayo ingon

pud

no. Maintains nang eye ana. contact

Naa

gud.

Dula Scratches head

is

dula. Pero di man ko malingaw sa ilang mga (pause) dulay usahay mao nang ako na lang isa madula sulod

indicating

Assess the patient’s childhood to appraisal to the client’s actions. This helps elevate client’s self P: Expresses gloom through fall esteem. of voice tone. Blocking of speech Mental Health and Psychiatric is evident. Nursing by Ann Isaacs p.197 is a therapeutic using

Kadtong bata pa ba ka, daghan ba kag kadula?

sa balay. Nganong di man Sits on bed Dagan pud malingaw? ka and maintains eye contact Lami

dagan. Manually

N: Uses open-ended questions to Questioning

kaayo hyperextending allow patient to explain

communication

technique

magdagan dagan. his fingers in a P: Restricted facial expression open-ended questions to achieve Dili ko ganahan repetitive sa ilang mga dula. manner Daghan kaayo sila. Samukan ko. and inconsistency of eye contact relevance and depth discussion. show that the patient is not Psychiatric Nursing by Keltner, N interested his speech on as the he topic. Chap 9 p 93 provides the patient provides and excessive finally answering the question, the condition circumstantiality. Psychiatric Nursing by Keltner, N is called Circumstantiality is evident on If in response to a direct question, irrelevant data before answering amount of irrelevant details before the question.

87

Chap 9 p 113 Kadtong elementary kumusta imong skwela? high school ka, man pag Looks the Ok ug patient Bugoy kadali. bisyo. gud ordinaryong Bisyo? Unsa pud Maintains na nga bisyo? eye contact ra gud. Uses bugoy talks Bisyo Mura ra ug hand N: Changes the topic since the Questioning started to disinterest in the conversation is a therapeutic using

Barkada barkada. gestures as he patient

exhibit communication

technique

open-ended questions to achieve

P: Is interested again in the relevance and depth discussion. conversation as his vocal tone Psychiatric Nursing by Keltner, N rises and as he gestured while Chap 9 p 93 talking Tries to explore and Exploring is delving further into a patient examine the issue more be better understood if explored. If patient expresses unwillingness to share, the nurse must respect his or her wishes. Mental Health and Psychiatric

studyante. Sigarilyo ug Coke Does his finger N: jud ako (pause) mannerisms ganahan, inom- again inom, chiks chiks. Ana lang gud. vices

encourage the patient to recall his subject or idea. This can help P: Blocking is evident in his fully. Any problem or concern can speech as he enumerates his vices

Ah.

Ganahan Looks patient

Nursing by Ann Isaacs p.197 at Ganahan mo lang. Looks up at the N: Focuses the topic on a Focusing is concentrating on a Kadtong New ceiling particular subject single point; Picking up on central Year, halos isa ka case ako nahurot. Boring man gud maghulat ug alas dose. P: Retells a particular event topics or cues given by the client. where his craving for Coke was The nurse encourages the client to evident. concentrate his energies on a sing le point, which may prevent a multitude of factors or problems 88

diay kag Coke?

from overwhelming the client. Mental Health and Psychiatric Wala nitisting pud ka Maintains contact Droga??? Shabu? Looks Wala Marijuana Pero droga. di ui. and nuon. head mana down N: Explores for Nursing by Ann Isaacs p.197 further Seeking information is used to know more about client’s feelings, to make clear that which is not meaningful or vague. Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing Nagagamit marijuana? Sukad pa? kag Conveys curious expression while eye contact with Unsa patient diay Looks at Lami kaayo sa Smiles at and N: Seeks significant information Exploring is delving further into a the on the effect of marijuana to the subject or idea. This can help patient patient examine the issue more P: Shows elated response as he fully. Any problem or concern can smiles and verbalized how he be better understood if explored. enjoys marijuana Mental Health and Psychiatric Oo ui. Kadtong Smirks high school pa ko. Uso mana didto sa agro. Kami tanan sa among barkada ana. Ganahan man gud ko sa feeling ba. by Frisch p 185 N: Uses restatement to verify The nurse repeats what the client acquired information has said in approximately or nearly P: Smiked when the topic on his the same words the client has used. peers and their marijuana use was This restatement lets the client brought in know that he or she communicated the idea effectively. Mental Health and Psychiatric Nursing by Ann Isaacs p.197

anang eye

scratches significant details an prohibited and dangerous drug

droga droga?

P: has a delusion marijuana is not thoughts and ideas. It is also used

kanus-a facial

keeping an gagamit

mabati-an nimu the patient kung mugamit ka ana?

paminaw ui. Mura looks kag galutaw sa nurse hangin pero. Walay problema. Mag sige lang kag

89

katawa. ra Kabalo ba kang Looks makadaot marijuana imo? sa

Tistingi gud, head N: Gives information

Nursing by Ann Isaacs p.197

maganahan ka. at Dili mana Shakes makadaot. Makatambal mama, kasab-an daw maayo. sige pa ko man gani na. Si bahin

and When it is obvious that the client is The

ng the patient

and frowns

presents reality to patient that misinterpreting reality, the nurse marijuana use is not good neither can indicate what is real. beneficial shook his head and frowned P: Shows disagreement as he quietly expressing the nurse does this by calmly and nurse’s perceptions or the facts not by way of arguing with the client or belittling h is experience. Mental Health and Psychiatric Nursing by Ann Isaacs p.199 topic Exploring is delving further into a

ana kay di lage

Unsa pud imu Looks ginabuhat kasab-an ka sa imong mama.

at Muhilom

lang. Scratches head N:

Explores

on

the

kung the patient

Pero di man ko and mutuo niya. Wa down man ko nadaot.

looks discussed to get more information subject or idea. This can help P: Insists his belief that marijuana patient examine the issue more is not harmful fully. Any problem or concern can be better understood if explored. Mental Health and Psychiatric Nursing by Ann Isaacs p.197 head N: Assesses patient’s perception To understand the client, the nurse looks on how marijuana affected his must see things from client’s illness perspective. Encouraging the client P: Provided irrelevant answers to describe fully may relieve the and never arrived to the real tension the client is feeling, and he answer – a manifestation of might be less likely to take action

Panan-aw nimu? Stands up Ang Dili kaha mao from nang ka? rason sitting Continues to nganong nasakit position ganina, nikaon.

babae Shakes wala and Sayang down

ang pagkaon ba.

90

maintain eye contact

tangentiality.

on ideas that are harmful or frightening. Mental Health and Psychiatric Nursing by Ann Isaacs p.192 Tangentiality is when patient gets lost in unnecessary and irrelevant details and never answers the question. Psychiatric Nursing by Keltner, N

Bob, naa koy ipa Smiles explain Unsa nimu. imo

Dapat muundang skwela. dapat skwela maabot pangarap Dapat ka

dili Looks down ug Sige ug para ang ba. dili

Chap 9 p 93 N: Evaluates the abstract thinking Questioning of the patient of the client down could

is

a

therapeutic using

communication

technique

P: Uses self as example. Looking open-ended questions to achieve indicate relevance and depth discussion. Psychiatric Nursing by Keltner, N Testing the abstract thinking ability is a test to note the congruence between the patient’s economic status and his abstracting abilities. Mental Health and Psychiatric Nursing by Ann Isaacs p.194 and N: Terminates the conversation The nurse gives recognition in a and orients patient on the nonjudgmental way. The nurse then terminates the interaction by the client for his scheduled meeting disappointment. the the quotation given.

pagsabot sa try and try until you succeed?

Has concrete understanding of Chap 9 p 93

musundog nako.

Diay ba? Dire Taps lang sa mi kutob patient’s sa among back pagpangutana.

Aw.

Sige

sige. Smiles

Okay ra kaayo ui. waves hand Adto mog balay ha? Kita kita ta

Recognizes effort of the patient thanking

91

Bisitahun ra ka namu inyong karong para unya sa balay Sabado magstorya

didto Sabado. sa panahon.

karong Salamat inyong

who was accommodating to the participation group conversation time he and his family spared for us. P: Shows understanding by and cooperation responding throughout Fundamentals

and of

cooperation Nursing by

the during the whole interview.

Shows gratitude to patient for the Kozier, B. p 470

na pd ta. Ayos ba na? Salamat sa imung panahon.

positively to nurse’s statement SECOND NURSE-PATIENT INTERACTION Place of Interview: 162, Interior Tulip Drive, Davao City (Patient’s City Address) Date: January 23, 2009 – 7:30 pm

NURSE

PATIENT

INTERPRETATION

ANALYSIS

Verbal Nonverbal Verbal Nonverbal Maayong buntag Smiles and Nindot kaayo ang Stares blankly Nurse: Greets the patient to The nurse greets the patient Bob! Kumusta man looks at the adlaw. ang imong tulog patient kagabii? init. Ok lang man. Nakatulog man kog tarong. Sayo sayo gani ko kamata. Lami and looks create a positive environment and upon seeing each other and establish conversation opening. rapport. using a Starts uses broad openings to start broad their conversation. Broad openings lead or invite the Open-ended manglaba karon kay down

Patient: Able to answer the client to explore thoughts or question but circumstantiality is feelings. noted. evident and poor eye contact was questions specify only the topic to be discussed and invite answers that are longer 92

than one or two words. Circumstantiality is when in a response to a direct question, the patient provides amount an of excessive

irrelevant detail before finally answering the question. Kozier, B. Fundamentals of Nursing. Chapter 26, p. 469. Ah. Maayo. Mao Smiles pud diay sayo ka nakaligo no? Asa diay ka muadto ron? Nindot man lage kag suot? Aw. Kani? Mubalik Touches na man gud ming and smiles mama sa Agusan. Excited na gani ko. Gikapoy na man gud ko didto sa hospital ba. shirt N: Acknowledges patient’s effort Giving to P: groom Shows self and presentable during the interview. excitement while enthusiasm recognition, in a

look nonjudgmental way, of a change in behavior, an effort to may verbal a be or and the client has made, or a

conversing contribution

with the nurse and expresses his communication. feelings regarding his stay in the Acknowledgment hospital. with nonverbal. Kozier, B. Fundamentals of or understanding, without

Nursing. Chapter 26, p. 470. Diay ba? Abi nako Smiles and Ang among bugasan Looks at the N: Asks a question to explore a Questioning uses open-ended naay kay pormahan establishes karong adlawa? eye contact Nagkauyab ba ka? sa Oo. Agusan Ka-usa kusog nurse smiles ra. and certain topic. opinions about his questions to and achieve depth in kaayo ug kita. P: Shares his experiences and relevance

previous discussion (not closed/yes-no

93

Kadtong

high

relationship in a comical manner. questions). The nurse ask Irrelevant details are provided questions to explore and gain before arriving to answer – a information from a new topic. manifestation circumstantiality. of Circumstantiality is when in a response to a direct question, the patient provides amount an of excessive

school pa ko. Pero dili naman mi uyab karon. man Pangit gud na siya.

Ngipon niya murag ngipon sa ilaga.

irrelevant detail before finally answering the question. Keltner, et. al, Psychiatric Nursing, 5th Edition. Chapter Unsa may pangalan Maintains ato? Nagdugay pud eye contact mo ato? 7, p. 93. Ah. Kadto siya? Si Points finger at N: Focuses on the topic to gather Focusing is helping the client Rowena. Taga dinha the Namalhin na man siguro to sila. Dugay dugay pud. Mga pipila ka bulan. Pero wa ni abot ug tuig. specified more information and look into expand on and develop a his past experiences. experience remember with how a long topic of importance. It is former wait until the client finishes their before attempting to focus. The focus may be an idea or feeling. Kozier, B. Fundamentals of Ah! Gi unsa nimu Smiles pagka uyab sa iya? Gi ligawan pa ba Wala na uy! Ning Giggles nako. Naka crush Nursing. Chapter 26, p. 470. and N: Inquires about the history on Questioning uses open-ended how the relationship with her questions former girlfriend started. relevance to and achieve depth in P: Shares information about his important for the nurse to girlfriend. Patient is trying to stating the main concerns relationship lasted. ra man to sa una oh! direction

ngisi ra man to siya scratches head

94

nimu siya?

siguro ba. Ni ngisi ra pud kog balik. Mao to. Uyab na dayon mi.

P: Narrates their story in an discussion (not closed/yes-no amusing remembered between them. manner what as he questions). The nurse happened questions or inquires about the client’s past history. Keltner, et. al, Psychiatric Nursing, 5th Edition. Chapter 7, p. 93. and N: Actively listens to client and Active listening pays close to compliments on his physical attention attributes by giving recognition. nonverbal to verbal and communications,

Kuyawa ba.Gwapo Laughs and Wala na. Wala na Laughs diay kaayo ka no continues to man ka yang babae man look at the nagustuhan. ni-una. Pagkahuman na uyab? sa iya? Wala na kay patient koy continues

Mga scratch head

pangit na man ang uban uy. Bati ug nawong.

The nurse then resumes focusing patterns of thinking, feelings on the previous topic by asking and behaviors and the nurse questions. gives a positive recognition P: Shares to the nurse his lack of as a response to the patient’s interest in having a relationship statement. and his perceptions about Keltner, et. al, Psychiatric Nursing, 5th Edition. Chapter on 7, p. 93. patient’s The nurse assists the client to and acquires understanding women.

Pero sa edad nimu Conveys ron, gusto pa ka more magminyo? serious facial expression

a Gusto man

uy! gani

Gusto Manually

N:

Explores

nako hyperextending perceptions and thoughts about explore thoughts and feelings among his fingers in a getting married at his age. bahalag repetitive P: States his interest in getting from the client. The nurse married and his intention of tries to assess the client’s marrying their helper. Patient perceptions to the questions tells the nurse the reaction of his asked. family about his decision of Kozier, B. Fundamentals of

minyoon katabang

pangit. Pero kataw- manner an ra man ko nila man pag ako silang ingnon.

95

marrying their helper. Ngano gusto man Maintains pud nimu minyoon eye contact inyo katabang nga pangitan man diay ka? Wala namay lain. Smiles Kadto na lang. Wala looks down na may lain. Pero di man musugot si mama. Di na jud siguro ko maminyo ani. and N: Clarifies the

Nursing. Chapter 26, p. 473. patient’s Clarification is a method o meaning of the more

statement on his objective of making the client’s broad marrying their helper, even if, overall according to him is unattractive. message

P: Replies to question with understandable. To clarify the noticeable desperation. Shows message, the nurse can restate that he is no longer interested the basic message or confess with the topic. confusion and ask the client to repeat or restate the message. Kozier, B. Fundamentals of

Nursing. Chapter 26, p. 470. Unya Bob, karong Looks at the Ambot ato nila ui. Looks at the N: Shifts topic to explore on The nurse assists the client to pag-uli sa imong nimu, patient mga Nasina man to sila nurse nako kay ako tig operate sa rice mill unya sila kay driver lang. Di na lang ko muduol nila kay lain naman sila. Giunsa pagkabalo nimu Maintains nga eye contact Mabati-an aw nako. another subject that may have explore thoughts and feelings significance illness. with his mental and acquires understanding from the client. The nurse still to explore on the magkita na pud mo barkada?

P: Shares insights about his tries his views about them.

friends back in his hometown and patient’s perceptions on the question asked. Kozier, B. Fundamentals of

Nursing. Chapter 26, p. 473. gyud Looks at the N: Focuses on the topic and seeks Focusing is helping the client and an understanding from the expand on and develop a focus may be an idea or Sigeg scratches head patient’s feelings towards his topic of importance. The friends.

nako. Sige silag tan- nurse panabis. Di na ko

nasina sila nimu?

96

ganahan nila.

mustorya

P: Relates his thoughts and feeling. The nurse then seeks feelings about his friends and understanding after focusing how they respond to him, on the topic. Kozier, B. Fundamentals of according to his observations.

Wala nila

pud

ka Maintains unya

Wala na uy! Klaro Looks na lain jud ilang and buot sa ako. Bahala head gud sila.

Nursing. Chapter 26, p. 470. away N: Seeks more information, by The nurse seeks informing by shakes topic, from the patient to further topic. Questioning uses openunderstand his situation with his ended questions to achieve friends. relevance and depth in P: Responded according to what discussion (not closed/yes-no he felt and from his viewpoint questions). about his friends. Lack of interest Keltner, et. al, Psychiatric was observed when asked to Nursing, 5th Edition. Chapter

nitisting ug duol eye contact mangutana?

na kaayo sa TB TB from the nurse asking questions regarding the asking questions about the

Bob, kung kita ka Looks at the Daghan ug Unsa pitaka, man unya patient imu nabilin sa tag-iya. buhaton? Akong na ako.

approach his friends. 7, p. 93. pitaka Looks at the N: Evaluates patient’s judgment Encouraging evaluation asks from the given situation. given situation that for patient’s views of the showed something. Circumstantiality is when in a response to a direct question, the patient provides an excessive amount of irrelevant detail before finally question. Keltner, et. al, Psychiatric answering the I-uli. P: Answers accordingly from the meaning or importance of appropriate behavior.

baligya sa gawas ba. nurse Alangan. Dili man

97

Nursing, 5th Edition. Chapter Dili pud kaha nimu Maintains kuhaon? Kwarta na eye contact gud Makatabang nimu. na. na Dili uy. Dili man na Shakes kwarta, magayo ra the nurse gud ko. Dili jud nako na hilabtan. 7, p. 93. head N: Further evaluates patient’s The nurse from the given evaluate on situation and how he would judgment respond from it. is trying the to

ako. Kung wala koy and looks at judgment

client’s further.

Encouraging evaluation asks

P: Explained his intention of for patient’s views of the returning the money that showed meaning or importance of a correct behavior from the given something. Keltner, et. al, situation. Psychiatric Nursing, 5th Edition. Chapter 7, p. 93. affirmative The nurse gives recognition

Wow! Maayo no Smiles and Daghan kaayo ug Looks at the N: kay i-uli jud nimu maintains ang pitaka eye contact magkina-unsa man. kawatan kung nako usahay dira sa nurse silingan. Samot na gabii. Masakpan pa gani

Provides

reinforcement to the patient’s on the client’s behavior and positive behavior in the given an effort the client has made, situation. P: Responded from to the their irrelevant or a contribution to a be or nurse communication. topic. Acknowledgment with nonverbal. or understanding, may verbal without Tangentiality

Tangentiality was noted.

differs from circumstantiality in that the patient gets lost in unnecessary and irrelevant detail and never directly answers the question. Kozier, B. Fundamentals of

98

Nursing. Chapter 26, p. 470. Bob, subject? unsa ba Looks at the Math. Mao ganing Looks at the N: Asks a question to explore on The nag Civil nurse smiles and a new topic. Engineering ko. nurse asks a new paborito nimu nga patient question to the client to delve

P: Answered appropriately to the in a new topic. Questioning question asked. Relates it to his uses open-ended questions to reason of taking up his course. achieve relevance and depth in discussion (not closed/yesno questions). Keltner, et. al, Psychiatric Nursing, 5th Edition. Chapter 7, p. 93. and N: Evaluates the client’s skill in The nurse is evaluating as at the calculation. P: Answered most of well as exploring on the the client’s ability to solve

Sige daw bi. 1+1? 7+2? 40-7? 6x8? 25/5? 100-7? Tama! math. jud Mama

Moves closer to the 2 uy. patient 9. 33. Grabe pud. Ahmm.. 48! 5

Laughs looks ceiling

calculations asked to him to solve mathematical solutions. on his own. Took time answering Videbeck. Psychiatric-Mental questions that were quite hard to Health Nursing. Chapter 6. solve. p.107. N: Provides a positive feedback The nurse gives recognition to the client’s skill in calculation in a nonjudgmental way. The and shows acknowledgment by nurse then terminates the giving recognition. Establishes interaction by thanking the information that the nurse is client for his participation and leaving and wishes him well cooperation during the whole upon their next encounter. interview. nurse-client Kozier, B. Fundamentals of Terminates

(pause) 97? Paborito Smiles and Sige. Kay excited na Smiles pud ko muuli. Si papa lang man gud isa sa balay. Gikapoy na pud ko dire. Salamat pud sa pag storya storya nako. Sige mo na Bob. eye contact kay si nimu.

nimu siguro ang maintains Murag mulakaw na naghulat

Mulakaw na lang

99

pud mi ug una. Salamat! Hangtod sa atong sunod na pagkita. Pamansin ha?

relationship. P: Responds appropriately and shows an eagerness to go back home and see his father.

Nursing. Chapter 26, p. 470.

100

101

DEFINITION OF COMPLETE DIAGNOSIS SCHIZOPHRENIA UNDIFFERENTIATED SCHIZOPHRENIA Schizophrenia is one of the most common causes of psychosis. It is not characterized by a changing personality; it is characterized by a deteriorating personality. Simply, schizophrenia is one of the most profoundly disabling illnesses, mental or physical. It is a diagnostic term used by mental health professional to describe a major psychotic disorder. It is characterized by disturbances in thought and sensory perception (hallucinations, delusions), thought disorders, and by deterioration in psychosocial functioning. Keltner, et. al, Psychiatric Nursing (p. 351).3rd Edition (1999) Philippines: C&E Publishing Inc. Schizophrenia is a disorder associated with a variety of a complex combination of symptoms, including hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech, disorganization, flat affect, alogia, and avolition (APA, 2000; Bleuler, 1950). Persons experiencing an earlier onset of schizophrenia usually have more problems with movement from adolescence into adulthood and development of inappropriate social relationships and interactions.The course of the disease may be different for each person, depending on when the disorder manifests itself and if symptoms of the schizophrenia are compounded by a person’s use of alcohol or other substance (Brunette and Drake, 1998). Deborah Antai-Otong. Psychiatric Nursing: Biological and behavioural concepts (p. 347). Australia; Clifton Park, NY: Thomson/ Delmar Learning (2003).

Refers to a group of psychotic disorders in which there are certain characteristic disorders like disturbances in reality testing, hallucinations, delusions, withdrawal from society, etc.

102

Schizophrenia is a major mental disorder having a characteristic set of symptoms. It is most closely approximate what most of us think as “craziness.” Schizophrenia ranges from mild to intense. It is the label given to a group of psychoses in which deterioration of functioning is marked by severe distortion of thought, perception and mood, by bizarre behaviour and by social withdrawal. Jafar Mahmud. Abnormal Psychology (p. 186). APH Publishing Corp. (2002)

Schizophrenia is a brain disorder that affects the way a person acts, thinks, and sees the world. People with schizophrenia have an altered perception of reality, often a significantloss of contact with reality. They may see or hear things that don’t exist, speak in strange or confusing ways, believe that others are trying to harm them, or feel like they’re being constantly watched. With such a blurred line between the real and the imaginary, schizophrenia makes it difficult—even frightening—to negotiate the activities of daily life. In response, people with schizophrenia may withdraw from the outside world or act out in confusion and fear. Maria Loreto Evangelist-Sia. Psychiatric Nursing: A Textbook and A Reviewer (p. 231). RMSIA Publishing, Quezon City, Phils. (2004)

UNDIFFERENTIATED TYPE Undifferentiated schizophrenia is manifested by pronounced delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thought processes and behavior. Deborah Antai-Otong. Psychiatric Nursing: Biological and behavioural concepts (p. 348). Australia; Clifton Park, NY: Thomson/ Delmar Learning (2003). Subtype in which the clients clearly meet the general criteria of schizophrenia, yet do not fit into any of the other three subtypes. 103

James Hansen & Lisa Damour. Abnormal Psychology (p. 406). Hobeken, N.J.: Wiley (2005). Clients with diagnosis of undifferentiated schizophrenia display forbid psychotic symptoms (delusions, hallucinations, incoherence, disorganized behavior) that do not clearly fit under any other category. Forti Nash & Holoday Worret. Psychiatric Nursing Care Plans (p. 113). 4th Edition. Mosby Inc., St. Louis, Missouri. The essential feature of undifferentiated schizophrenia is that it cannot be classified in any category listed or that meet the criteria for more than one of the other mentioned schizophrenic disorders. Jafar Mahmud. Abnormal Psychology (p. 188). APH Publishing Corp. (2002) This type is characterized by some symptoms seen in all of the other types but not enough of any one of them to define it a particular type of schizophrenia. Maria Loreto Evangelist-Sia. Psychiatric Nursing: A Textbook and A Reviewer (p. 231). RMSIA Publishing, Quezon City, Phils. (2004)

104

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS SCHIZOPHRENIA Schizophrenia is one of a cluster of related psychotic brain disorders. It is a combination of disordered thinking, perceptual disturbances, behavioral abnormalities, affective disruptions and impaired social competency. The diagnosis of a particular subtype of schizophrenia is based on the clinical picture that occasioned the most recent evaluation or admission to clinical care and may therefore change over time. They are defined by their symptomatology. The disorder lasts for at least 6 months and includes at least one month of the active phase symptoms namely two or more of the following: hallucinations, disorganized speech, catatonic behavior, negative symptoms). The subtypes are: 295.30 Paranoid Type 295.10 Disorganized Type 295.20 Catatonic Type 295.90 Undifferentiated Type 295.60 Residual Type

Diagnostic Criteria for Schizophrenia A. Characteristic symptoms. Two or more of the following, each present for a significant portion of time during a 1-month period (or less if successfully treated): (1) delusions (2) hallucinations (3) disorganized speech (e.g. frequent derailment or incoherence) (4) grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior (5) negative symptoms (i.e. affective flattening, alogia or avolition) Only one Criterion A symptom is required if delusions are bizarre or 105 ✔ ✔ ✔

hallucinations consist of a voice keeping up a running commentary on the person’s behavior or thoughts, or two or more voices conversing with each other. A. Social/occupational dysfunction. For a significant portion of the time since the onset of the disturbance, one or more major areas of functioning such as work, interpersonal relations, or selfcare are markedly below the level achieved prior to the onset (or when the onset is in childhood or adolescence, failure to achieve expected level of interpersonal, academic, or occupational achievement) A. Duration Continuous signs of the disturbance persist for at least 6 months. This 6month period must include at least 1 month of symptoms (or less if successfully treated) that meet Criterion A (i.e. active-phase symptoms) and may include periods of prodromal or residual symptoms. During these prodromal or residual periods the signs of the disturbance may be manifested by only negative symptoms or two or more symptoms listed in Criterion A present in attenuated form (e.g. odd beliefs, unusual perceptual experiences.) A. Schizoaffective and Mood Disorder exclusion: Schizoaffective Disorder and Mood Disorder with Psychotic Features have been ruled out because either (1) no Major Depressive, Manic, Or Mixed Episodes have occurred concurrently with the active-phase symptoms; or (2) if mood episodes have occurred during active-phase symptoms, their total duration has been brief relative to the duration of the active and residual periods. A. Substance/general medical condition exclusion: The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g. a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition A. Relationship to a Pervasive Developmental Disorder: If there is a history of Autistic Disorder or another Pervasive Developmental Disorder, the additional diagnosis of Schizophrenia is made only if prominent delusions or hallucinations are also present for at least a month (or less if successfully treated. Total 7÷10×100= 70% 295.30 Schizophrenia Paranoid Type 106 ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔

The essential feature of the Paranoid Type of Schizophrenia is the presence of prominent delusions or auditory hallucinations in the context of a relative preservation of cognitive functioning and affect. Symptoms characteristic of the Disorganized and Catatonic Types (e.g., disorganized speech, flat or inappropriate affect, catatonic or disorganized behavior) are not prominent. Delusions are typically persecutory or grandiose or both but delusions with other themes may also occur. Hallucinations are also typically related to the content of the delusional theme. Diagnostic criteria for 295.30 Paranoid Type A. Preoccupation with one or more delusions or frequent auditory hallucinations B. None of the following is prominent: disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior, or flat or inappropriate affect. TOTAL ✔

1÷2×100 = 50%

295.10 Schizophrenia Disorganized Type The essential features of the Disorganized Type of Schizophrenia are disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, and flat or inappropriate affect. Criteria for the Catatonic Type of Schizophrenia are not met, and delusions or hallucinations, if present, are fragmentary and not organized into a coherent theme. Diagnostic criteria for 295.10 Disorganized Type A. All of the following are prominent 1. disorganized speech 2. disorganized behavior 3. flat or inappropriate affect B. The criteria are not met for catatonic type TOTAL ✔ ✔ 1÷4×100 = 50% 295.20 Schizophrenia Catatonic Type The essential feature of the Catatonic Type of Schizophrenia is a marked psychomotor disturbance that may involve motoric immobility, excessive motor activity, extreme negativism, 107

mutism, peculiarities of voluntary movement, echolalia, or echopraxia. Additional feature include stereotypes, mannerisms, and automatic obedience or mimicry. Diagnostic criteria for 295.20 Catatonic Type A type of Schizophrenia in which the clinical picture is dominated by at least two of the following

TOTAL

1÷5×100 =20%

295. 90 Schizophrenia Undifferentiated Type Clients with a diagnosis of Undifferentiated Schizophrenia display florid psychotic symptoms like delusions, hallucinations, incoherence and disorganized behavior that do not clearly fit under any category. Diagnostic criteria for 295.90 Undifferentiated Type A type of Schizophrenia in which symptoms that meet Criterion A are present, but the criteria are not met for the Paranoid, Disorganized, or Catatonic Type TOTAL ✔ 1÷1×100 = 100% 295.60 Schizophrenia Residual Type 108

The Residual Type of Schizophrenia should be used when there has been at least one episode of Schizophrenia, but the current clinical picture is without prominent positive psychotic symptoms (e.g., delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, or behavior). There is a continuing evidence of the disturbance as indicated by the presence of negative symptoms or two or more attenuated positive symptoms. If delusions or hallucinations are present, they are not prominent and are not accompanied by strong affect. Diagnostic criteria for 295.60 Residual Type A. Absence of prominent delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior. B. There is continuing evidence of the disturbance, as indicated by the presence of negative symptoms or two or more symptoms listed in Criterion A for Schizophrenia, present in an attenuated form (e.g., odd beliefs, unusual perceptual experience) TOTAL 1÷2×100 = 50% ✔

301.22 Schizotypal Personality Disorder Individuals with schizotypal personality disorder have odd thoughts, affects, perceptions, and beliefs. Diagnostic criteria fort 301.22 Schizotypal Personality Disorder A. A pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior, by beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five or more of the following: 1. Ideas of reference (excluding delusions of reference) 2. odd beliefs or magical thinking that influences behavior and is inconsistent with subcultural norms (e.g., superstitiousness, belief in clairvoyance, telepathy, or “sixth sense in children and adolescents, bizarre fantasies or preoccupations) 3. unusual perceptual experiences, including bodily illusions ✔ 109

4. odd thinking and speech (e.g., vague, circumstantial, metaphorical, overelaborate, or stereotyped) 5. suspiciousness or paranoid ideation 6. inappropriate or constricted affect 7. behavior or appearance that is odd, eccentric or peculiar 8. lack of close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives 9. excessive social anxiety that does not diminish with familiarity and tends to be associated with paranoid fears rather than

✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔

negative judgments about self B. Does not occur exclusively during the course of Schizophrenia, a Mood Disorder with Psychotic Features, another Psychotic Disorder, or a Pervasive Developmental Disorder Note: If criteria are met prior to the onset of Schizophrenia, add “Premorbid,” e.g., “Schizotypal Personality Disorder (Premorbid) 6÷10 ×100 =60% Schizoid Personality Disorder Individuals with schizoid personality disorder are emotionally detached and prefer to be left alone. Diagnostic criteria for 301.20 Schizoid Personality Disorder A. A pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of expression of emotions in interpersonal settings, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following: Criteria Present 1. neither desires nor enjoys close relationship, including being a part of a family 2. almost always chooses solitary activities 3. has little, if any, interest in having sexual experiences with another person 4. takes pleasure in few, if any , activities 5. lacks close friends or confidants other than first degree

✔ ✔ ✔ 110

relatives 6. appears indifferent to the praise or criticism of others 7. shows emotional coldness, detachment, or flattened activity ✔ B. Does not occur exclusively during the course of Schizophrenia, a Mood Disorder With Psychotic Features, another Psychotic Disorder, or a Pervasive Developmental Disorder and is not due to the direct physiological effects of a general medical condition. Note: If criteria are met prior to the onset of Schizophrenia, add “Premorbid,” e.g., “Schizoid Personality Disorder (Premorbid)” TOTAL 4÷8 ×100 =50% 297.1 Delusional Disorder The essential feature of Delusional Disorder is the presence of one or more nonbizarre delusions that persist for at least 1 month. Auditory or visual hallucinations, if present are not prominent. Tactile or olfactory hallucinations may be present if they are related to delusional themes. Diagnostic Criteria for 297.1 Delusional Disorder A. Nonbizarre delusions (i.e., involving situations that occur in real life, such as being followed, poisoned, infected, loved at a distance, or deceived by spouse or lover, or having a disease) of at least 1 month’s duration. B. Criterion A for Schizophrenia has never been met. Note: Tactile and olfactory hallucinations may be present in Delusional Disorder if they are related to the delusional theme. C. Apart from the impact of the delusion(s) or its ramifications, functioning is not markedly impaired and behavior is not obviously odd or bizarre. D. If mood episodes have occurred concurrently with delusions, their total duration has been brief relative to the duration of the delusional periods. E. The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition. TOTAL ✔ 2÷5×100 =40% Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder 111 ✔

The essential features of Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder are prominent hallucinations or delusions that are judged to be due to the direct physiological effects of a substance. Hallucinations that the individual realizes are substance induced are not included here and instead would be diagnosed as Substance Intoxication or Substance Withdrawal with accompanying specifier With Perceptual Disturbances. The disturbance must not be better accounted for by a Psychotic Disorder that is not substance induced. The diagnosis is not made if the psychotic symptoms occur only during the course of delirium. Diagnostic criteria for Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder A. Prominent hallucinations or delusions. Note: Do not include hallucinations if the person has insight that they are substance induced B. There is evidence from the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings of either (1) or (2): 1. the symptoms of Criterion A developed during or within a month of, Substance intoxication or Withdrawal 2. Medication use is etiologically related to the disturbance C. The disturbance is not better accounted for by a Psychotic disorder that is not substance induced. Evidence that the symptoms are better accounted for by a Psychotic Disorder that is not a substance induced might include the following: the symptoms precede the onset of the substance use (or medication use); the symptoms persist for a substantial period of time (e.g., about a month) after the cessation of acute withdrawal or severe intoxication, or are substantially in excess of what would be expected given the type or amount of the substance used or the duration of use; or there is other evidence that suggests the existence of an independent non-substance –induced Psychotic Disorder (e.g., a history of recurrent non-substance related episodes. D. The disturbance does not occur exclusively during the course of delirium. Note: This diagnosis should be made instead of a diagnosis of Substance intoxication or Substance Withdrawal only when the symptoms are in excess of those usually associated with the intoxication or withdrawal syndrome and when the symptoms are sufficiently severe to warrant independent clinical attention. 112 ✔

1÷5×100 TOTAL 295.70b Schizoaffective Disorder Patients with schizoaffective disorder have psychotic episodes that resemble schizophrenia but with prominent mood disturbances. Their psychotic symptoms, however, must persist for some time in the absence of any mood syndrome. = 20%

Diagnostic criteria for 295.70b Schizoaffective Disorder A. An uninterrupted period of illness during which, at some time, there is either a Major Depressive Episode, a Manic Episode, or a Mixed Episode concurrent with symptoms that meet criterion A for Schizophrenia. Note: The Major Depressive Episode must include criterion A1: depressed mood. B. During the same period of illness, there have been delusions or hallucinations for at least 2 weeks in the absence of prominent mood symptoms. C. Symptoms that meet criteria for a mood episode are present for a substantial portion of the total duration of the active and residual periods of the illness. D. The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medication. 1÷4×100 = 25% Substance Intoxication Delirium Diagnostic criteria for Substance Intoxication Delirium A. Disturbance in consciousness(i.e., reduced clarity of awareness of the environment) with reduced ability to focus, sustain or shift attention B. A change in cognition (such as memory deficit, disorientation, language disturbance) or the development of a perceptual disturbance that is not better accounted for by a preexisting, established, or evolving dementia C. The disturbance develops over a short period of time (usually hours to days) and tends to fluctuate during the course of the day. D. There is evidence from the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings of either (1) or (2) 113 ✔ ✔ ✔

Criteria Present 1. the symptoms in Criteria A and B developed during Substance Intoxication 2. medication use is etiologically related to the disturbance* 2÷5×100 =40% INITIAL SUMMARY Schizophrenia Paranoid Type Disorganized Type Catatonic Type Undifferentiated Type Residual Type Schizotypal Personality Disorder Schizoid Personality Disorder Delusional Disorder Schizophreniform Disorder Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder Schizoaffective Disorder Substance Intoxication Delirium 40% 50% 20% 25% 40% ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY The nervous system is an intricate, highly organized network of billions of neurons and neuroglia. The structures that make up the nervous system include the brain, cranial nerves, spinal nerves, ganglia, enteric plexuses and sensory receptors. The two main subdivisions of the nervous system are the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. 60% 50% 70% 50% 50% 20% 100% 0%

114

The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. The brain is the center for registering sensations, correlating them with one another and with stored information, making decisions and taking actions. It also is the center for the intellect, emotions, behavior, and memory. The major parts of the brain include: the brain stem, cerebellum, diencephalon, and cerebrum. The spinal cord is connected to a section of the brain called the brainstem and runs through the spinal canal. Cranial nerves exit the brainstem. Nerve roots exit the spinal cord to both sides of the body. The spinal cord carries signals (messages) back and forth between the brain and the peripheral nerves.

The brain stem is continuous with the spinal cord and consists of the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain. The medulla oblongata forms the inferior part of the brain stem. The medulla contains the cardiac, respiratory, vomiting and vasomotor centers and deals with breathing, heart rate and blood pressure. The pons is a bridge that connects parts of the brain with one another. The midbrain extends from the pons to the diencephalon. The midbrain is a short section of the brain stem between the diencephalon and the pons. 115

Posterior to the brain stem is the cerebellum. Traditionally, the cerebellum has been known to control equilibrium and coordination and contributes to the generation of muscle tone. It has more recently become evident, however, that the cerebellum plays more diverse roles such as participating in some types of memory and exerting a complex influence on musical and mathematical skills. Superior to the brain stem is the diencephalon, which consists of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus. The thalamus acts a relay center for all sensory impulses, except smell, to the cerebral cortex. The hypothalamus is involved in the acceleration or deceleration of the heart. Impulses from the posterior hypothalamus produce a rise in arterial blood pressure and an increase of the heart rate. Impulses from the anterior portion have the opposite effect. The hypothalamus is also involved in body-temperature regulation. If the arterial blood flowing through the anterior portion of the hypothalamus is above normal level, the hypothalamus initiates impulses that cause heat loss through sweating and vasodilation of cutaneous vessels of the skin. A belownormal blood temperature causes the hypothalamus to relay impulses that result in heat production and retention through the initiation of shivering, the contraction of cutaneous blood vessels. The hypothalamus is also involved in the regulation of hunger and control of gastrointestinal activity. Low levels of blood glucose, fatty acids and amino acids are partially responsible for the sensation of hunger elicited from the hypothalamus. When sufficient amounts of food have been ingested, the hypothalamus inhibits the feeding center. It also regulates sleeping and wakefulness. A specialized sexual center in the hypothalamus responds to sexual stimulation of the tactile receptors within the genital organs. Also, the hypothalamus is associated with specific emotional responses, such as anger, fear, pain and pleasure. The hypothalamus produces neurosecretory chemicals that stimulate the anterior pituitary gland to release various hormones. The epithalamus is the posterior portion of the diencephalon.

116

Supported on the diencephalon and brain stem is the cerebrum, which is the largest part of the brain. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and controls voluntary actions, speech, senses, thought, and memory. The surface of the cerebral cortex has grooves or infoldings (called sulci), the largest of which are termed fissures. Some fissures separate lobes. The convolutions of the cortex give it a wormy appearance. Each convolution is delimited by two sulci and is also called a gyrus (gyri in plural). The cerebrum is divided into two halves, known as the right and left hemispheres. A mass of fibers called the corpus callosum links the hemispheres. The right hemisphere controls voluntary limb movements on the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls voluntary limb movements on the right side of the body. Almost every person has one dominant hemisphere. Each hemisphere is divided into four lobes, or areas, which are interconnected.

The frontal lobes are located in the front of the brain and are responsible for voluntary movement and, via their connections with other lobes, participate in the execution of sequential tasks; speech output; organizational skills; and certain aspects of behavior, mood, and memory. The parietal lobes are located behind the frontal lobes and in front of the occipital lobes. They process sensory information such as temperature, pain, taste, and touch. In addition, the 117

processing includes information about numbers, attentiveness to the position of one’s body parts, the space around one’s body, and one's relationship to this space. The temporal lobes are located on each side of the brain. They process memory and auditory (hearing) information and speech and language functions. The occipital lobes are located at the back of the brain. They receive and process visual information. Neurotransmitters are chemicals which relay, amplify, and modulate signals between a neuron and another cell. Some neurotransmitters are commonly described as "excitatory" or "inhibitory". The only direct effect of a neurotransmitter is to activate one or more types of receptors. Examples of neurotransmitters are acetylcholine, dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, dopamine, glutamate, aspartate, and serotonin. The chemical compound acetylcholine (often abbreviated ACh) is a neurotransmitter in both the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) in many organisms including humans. In the peripheral nervous system, acetylcholine activates muscles, and is a major neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system. In the central nervous system, acetylcholine and the associated neurons form a neurotransmitter system, the cholinergic system, which tends to cause excitatory actions. Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. It plays a role in regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. In humans, GABA is also directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone. Dopamine has many functions in the brain, including important roles in behavior and cognition, voluntary movement, motivation, punishment and reward, inhibition of prolactin production (involved in lactation and sexual gratification), sleep, mood, attention, working memory, and learning. In the frontal lobes, dopamine controls the flow of information from other areas of the brain. Dopamine disorders in this region of the brain can cause a decline in neurocognitive functions, especially memory, attention, and problem-solving. Reduced dopamine concentrations in 118

the prefrontal cortex are thought to contribute to attention deficit disorder. Dopamine is commonly associated with the pleasure system of the brain, providing feelings of enjoyment and reinforcement to motivate a person proactively to perform certain activities. Dopamine is released (particularly in areas such as the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex) by naturally rewarding experiences such as food, sex, drugs, and neutral stimuli that become associated with them. Recent studies indicate that aggression may also stimulate the release of dopamine in this way. This theory is often discussed in terms of drugs such as cocaine, nicotine, and amphetamines, which directly or indirectly lead to an increase of dopamine in the mesolimbic reward pathway of the brain, and in relation to neurobiological theories of chemical addiction (not to be confused with psychological dependence), arguing that this dopamine pathway is pathologically altered in addicted persons. Projection neurons that produce dopamine are found in the diencephalon and the brainstem. In the diencephalon, dopamine cell bodies give rise to tuberopophysial dopamine projections, e which inhibit the release of prolactin and melanocyte-stimulating hormone from the anterior and intermediate lobes of the pituitary, respectively, and the incertohypothalamic projections, which connect the zona incerta in the posterodorsal diencephalon with the anterior hypothalamus and septal area. A third dopamine projection system arises from neurons scattered along the ventricular system in the periaqueductal gray, the dorsal motor of the nucleus of the vagus, and the nucleus solitarius. The preventricular system provides terminals in the gray matter along the course of the ventricles. Longer dopamine projection systems arise from the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain. The former, the nigrostriatal dopamine system, is particularly important in the control of motor function. The function of the VTA’s dopamine projections to the forebrain, called the mesolimbic and mesocortical systems, has been linked to the complex group of disease we refer to as schizophrenia. Sociability is also closely tied to dopamine neurotransmission. Low D2 receptor-binding is found in people with social anxiety. Traits common to negative 119

schizophrenia (social withdrawal, apathy, anhedonia) are thought to be related to a hypodopaminergic state in certain areas of the brain. In instances of bipolar disorder, manic subjects can become hypersocial, as well as hypersexual. This is credited to an increase in dopamine, because mania can be reduced by dopamine-blocking anti-psychotics. The locus ceruleus at the rostal end of the floor of the fourth ventricle on each side marks the position of a nucleus with a rich vascular supply and consisting of neurons containing melanin pigment. The nucleus (also known as nucleus pigmentosus) is partly in the pons and partly in the midbrain, lying dorsolateral to the oral pontine reticular nucleus. The locus ceruleus is the largest of about a dozen nuclei I the brainstem that produce cathecolamines. Most produce norepinephrine, but some of those in the medulla produce epinephrine. A third catecholamine is dopamine, a transmitter used by the large neurons of the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area, and by certain nuclei of the hypothalamus. Serotonin or 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter that is primarily found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and central nervous system (CNS) of humans and animals. Approximately 80 percent of the human body's total serotonin is located in the enterochromaffin cells in the gut, where it is used to regulate intestinal movements.[1][2] The remainder is synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the CNS where it has various functions, including the regulation of mood, appetite, sleep, muscle contraction, and some cognitive functions including memory and learning. Modulation of serotonin at synapses is a thought to be a major action of several classes of pharmacological antidepressants. Serotonin secreted from the enterochromaffin cells eventually finds its way out of tissues into the blood. There, it is actively taken up by blood platelets, which store it. When the platelets bind to a clot, they disgorge serotonin, where it serves as a vasoconstrictor and helps to regulate hemostasis and blood clotting. Serotonin also is a growth factor for some types of cells, which may give it a role in wound healing. 120

Serotonin is eventually metabolized to 5-HIAA by the liver, and excreted by the kidneys. One type of tumor, called carcinoid, sometimes secretes large amounts of serotonin into the blood, which causes various forms of the carcinoid syndrome of flushing, diarrhea, and heart problems. Due to serotonin's growth promoting effect on cardiac myocytes, persons with serotinin-secreting carcinoid may suffer a right heart (tricuspid) valve disease syndrome, caused by proliferation of myocytes onto the valve. Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate nervous system. At chemical synapses, glutamate is stored in vesicles. Nerve impulses trigger release of glutamate from the pre-synaptic cell. In the opposing post-synaptic cell, glutamate receptors, such as the NMDA receptor, bind glutamate and are activated. Because of its role in synaptic plasticity, glutamate is involved in cognitive functions like learning and memory in the brain. CRANIAL NERVES

Cranial nerves are nerves that emerge directly from the brain stem, in contrast to spinal nerves which emerge from segments of the spinal cord. There are 12 pairs cranial nerves emerging from the brain, and these are:

Cranial nerve number Name

Sensory, Motor or Both 121 Function

I II

Olfactory nerve Optic nerve

Purely Sensory Purely Sensory

Transmits the sense of smell; Located in olfactory foramina of ethmoid Transmits visual information to the brain; Located in optic canal Innervates levator palpebrae superioris, superior rectus, medial rectus,inferior rectus, and inferior oblique, which collectively perform most eye movements; Located in superior orbital fissure Innervates the superior oblique muscle, which depresses, rotates laterally (around the optic axis), and intorts the eyeball; Located insuperior orbital fissure Receives sensation from the face and innervates the muscles of mastication Innervates the lateral rectus, which abducts the eye; Located insuperior orbital fissure Provides motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression, posterior belly of the digastric muscle, and stapedius muscle, receives the special sense of taste from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue, and provides secretomotor innervation to the salivary glands (except parotid) and the lacrimal gland; Located and runs through internal acoustic canal to facial canal and exits at stylomastoid foramen

III

Oculomotor nerve

Mainly Motor

IV

Trochlear nerve

Mainly Motor

V VI

Trigeminal nerve Abducens nerve

Both Sensory and Motor Mainly Motor

VII

Facial nerve

Both Sensory and Motor

Vestibulocochlear nerve (or auditoryVIII vestibular nerveor statoacousti c nerve) IX Glossopharyngeal nerve Both Sensory and Motor

Senses sound, rotation and gravity (essential for balance & movement). More specifically. the Mostly sensory vestibular branch carries impulses for equilibrium and the cochlear branch carries impulses for hearing.; Located in internal acoustic canal Receives taste from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue, provides secretomotor innervation to the parotid gland, and provides motor innervation to the stylopharyngeus (essential for tactile, pain, and 122

thermal sensation. Some sensation is also relayed to the brain from the palatine tonsils. Sensation is relayed to opposite thalamus and some hypothalamic nuclei. Located in jugular foramen Supplies branchiomotor innervations to most laryngeal and all pharyngeal muscles (except the stylopharyngeus, which is innervated by the glossopharyngeal); provides parasympathetic fibers to nearly all X Vagus nerve Both Sensory and Motor thoracic and abdominal viscera down to the splenic flexure; and receives the special sense of taste from the epiglottis. A major function: controls muscles for voice and resonance and the soft palate. Symptoms of damage: dysphagia (swallowing problems),velopharyngeal insufficiency. Located in jugular foramen Accessory nerve (or cranial XI accessory nerve or spinal accessory nerve) Mainly Motor Controls sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles, overlaps with functions of the vagus. Examples of symptoms of damage: inability to shrug, weak head movement; Located in jugular foramen Provides motor innervation to the muscles of the XII Hypoglossal nerve Mainly Motor tongue and other glossal muscles. Important for swallowing (bolus formation) and speech articulation. Located in hypoglossal canal

123

DOCTOR’S ORDER Date 01/19/10 2:40pm Order Please admit to CIU. Rationale and proper management of his condition. The crisis intervention unit is a special unit operating on a 24-hour basis, which serves as a receiving and action center for walk-in referred, and rescued individuals Secure care. consent and families in crisis situation. to This is done to ensure that the Secured. client or significant others has been adequately informed of and significant information concerning treatment processes procedures. When persons, due to age or mental status, are legally incapable permission authorized substitute of giving from person, consent is a if informed legally such legally consent, doctors obtain informed Remarks

For close monitoring of the patient Admitted

permissible. To secure the consent of the client is important for legal purposes. DAT with aspiration This is done to give appropriate Done precaution. and adequate nourishment with the prevention or minimization of risk factors in the patient at risk for aspiration. 124

Monitor

vsq6

and Vital signs are important for Taken baseline assessment and to recorded. monitor patients condition which evaluates the whole treatment course, especially the medications he receives that could be a contributing factor in the variation results of the vital signs.

and

record please

Meds: Haloperidol q12 Flupentixol dec 20mg 1ampule now then q monthly 5mg Haloperidol is an older 1amp IM now then antipsychotic used in the treatment of schizophrenia. Flupentixol injection weekly is to a long or acting three with

Given

given

two

people

schizophrenia who have a poor compliance with medication and suffer frequent relapses of illness.

Hcl Biperiden is commonly used to 2mg/tab 1 tab BID improve parkinsonian signs and symptoms related to antipsychotic PRN for EPS Biperiden drug therapy. Homicidal suicidal escape please necessary. and This is ordered so that the patient Done tendencies will be monitored closely and to precaution avoid the harming of patient's life or others. medical interventions in the form of restraints to reduce safety risks posed by violent patients and to prevent patients from harming themselves and others. 125

Restrain patient when Psychiatric facilities often use Done

Refer accordingly

This may create a collaborative Referred treatment among the client and the health care providers; thus it also makes a good coordination on the treatment of the client.

01/20/10 11:40am Hold Haloperidol IM To change to chlorpromazine. Start Chlorpromazine This is given as a substitute for decanoate 200 mg/tab Haloperidol. This is an atypical ½ tab in am, 1 tab at drug and is considered to have less HS. 01/21/10 07:40 AM CONTINUE MEDS EPS side effects. To promote the patient's well Done Done Given

For possible discharge being. MGH: The patient’s psychotic episodes have diminished. The patient is advised to go home so the patient may go back to his normal life.. Home meds: 1. Chlorpromazine 200mg 1tab, ½ in AM 2. Biperiden HCL 2g/tab 1tab BID 3. Flupentixol dec 20mg/1amp IM qmonthly (last dose 1/1910) >Follow up at OPD This is ordered for patient's after 1 month. reassessment and constant monitoring. This is ordered as patient's maintenance medications for his condition. Done

126

DRUG STUDY

Generic Name: Brand Name:

Haloperidol

Aloperidin, Bioperidolo, Brotopon, Dozic, Duraperidol (Germany), Einalon Haldol, Halosten, Keselan, Linton, Peluces, Serenace, Serenase, and Sigaperidol Classification(s): Suggested Dose: Individualized dose depends on indication and response. AVAILABLE FORMS: Haloperidol: Tablets – 0.5 mg, 1 mg, 2 mg, 5mg, 10 mg, 20 mg. Haloperidol decanoate: Injection – 50mg/ml, 100 mg/ml Typical Antipsychotic

S, Eukystol,

Haloperidol lactate: Injection – 5mg/ml. Oral concentration: 2 mg/ml. Ordered dose: Mode of Action: Haloperidol 5 mg 1 amp IM now then q 12 (January 19, 2010) Unknown. A butyrophenone that probably exerts antipsychotic effects by blocking postsynaptic dopamine receptors in the brain. ROUTE P.O. I.V. ONSET Unknown Unknown 3-6 hr Unknown PEAK Unknown Unknown 127 DURATION

I.M. (decanoate)

Unknown

3-9 days

Unknown

I.M. (lactate) Unknown Indications:

10-20 min

Unknown

Psychotic disorders (Adults and children older than age 12: Dosage varies for each patient. Initially, 0.5 to 5 mg P.O. b.i.d. or t.i.d. Or, 2 to 5 mg I.M. haldol lactate q 4 to 8 hours, although hourly administration may be needed until control is obtained.)

Chronic psychosis requiring prolong therapy (Adults: 50 to 100 mg I.M. haloperidol decanoate q 4 weeks.)

Tourette Syndrome (Adults: 0.5 to 5 mg P.O. b.i.d., t.i.d., or p.r.n.)

Contraindications: ♂ In patients hypersensitive to drug and in those with parkinsonism, coma, CNS depression. ♂ Use cautiously in elderly and deliberated patients; in patients with history of seizures or EEG abnormalities, severe CV disorders, allergies, glaucoma, or urine retention; and in those and those taking anticonvulsants anticoagulants, antiparkinsonians, or lithium. Drug Interaction: Drug – Drug

Anticholinergics: May increase anticholinergic effect and glaucoma. Azole antifungals, buspirone, macrolides: May increase haloperidol level. Carbamazepine: May increase haloperidol level. CNS depressants: May increase CNS depression. Lithium: May cause lethargy and confusion after high doses. Methyldopa: May cause dementia. Rifampin: May decrease haloperidol level. 128

Drug – Lifestyle

Alcohol use: May increase CNS depression.

Side Effects: ♂ CNS: severe extrapyramidal reactions, tardive dyskinesia, sedation, drowsiness, lethargy, headache, insomnia, confusion, vertigo. ♂ CV: tachycardia, hypotension, hypertension, ECG changes ♂ EENT: blurred vision. ♂ GI: dry mouth, anorexia, constipation, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, dyspepsia. ♂ GU: urine retention, menstrual irregularities, priapism. ♂ Hematologic: leukocytosis. ♂ Hepatic: Jaundice. ♂ Skin: rash, other skin reactions, diaphoresis. ♂ Other: gynecomastia. Adverse Effects: ♂ CNS: seizures and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. ♂ CV: torsades de pointes, with I.V. use. ♂ Hematologic: Leukopenia Nursing Responsibilities: ♂ Although drug is least sedating of the antipsychotics, warn patient to avoid activities that require alertness and good coordination until effects of the drugs are known. ♂ Educate patient that drowsiness and dizziness usually subside after a few weeks. ♂ Inform patient to avoid alcohol while taking this drug. ♂ Tell patient to relieve dry mouth with sugarless gum or hard candy. ♂ Always remember, don’t give deconate form IV. 129

♂ Monitor the client for signs of tardive dyskinesia which may occur after prolonged use. It may not appear until months or years later and may disappear spontaneously or persist for life, despite ending drug. ♂ Watch out for signs and symptoms of neuroleptic malignant syndrome, which is rare but fatal. ♂ Inform patient to do not withdraw the drug abruptly unless required by severe adverse reactions. ♂ Remind patient to always protect the drug from light. Slight yellowing injection or concentrate is common and doesn’t affect potency. Discard the drug if there is a markedly discolorations in the solutions.

Stop taking haloperidol and check the patient with their doctor right away if they have any of the following symptoms while using haloperidol: convulsions (seizures); difficulty with breathing; a fast heartbeat; a high fever; high or low blood pressure; increased sweating; loss of bladder control; severe muscle stiffness; unusually pale skin; or tiredness. These could be symptoms of a serious condition called neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS).

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

26th Edition Nursing 2006 Drug Handbook by Lippincott Williams and

Wilkins; Phil. Pharmaceutical Directory Review, 7th edition.

130

Generic Name: Brand Name: Classification(s): Ordered dose: 2010) Mode of Action:

Flupentixol Fluanxol; Depixol; Depixol Low Volume; Depixol-Conc Typical Antipsychotics Flupentixol decanoate 20 mg 1 amp now then q monthly (January 19,

Flupenthixol is a type of thioxanthene drug and acts by antagonism of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors (as well as serotonin). Side effects are similar to many other typical antipsychotics, namely extrapyramidal symptoms of akathisia, parkinsonian tremor and rigidity. However, anticholinergic adverse effects are low. The typical antipsychotics are less commonly used now that the atypical antipsychotics are available (with less side effects).

Indications: 131

♂ Schizophrenia and other psychoses Dose: oral (rarely used) - initially 3-9mg twice daily, max. dose 18mg/day Depot antipsychotic (Depixol) (brand name: Fluanxol Depot in Australia) ○ test dose of 20mg IM, ○ if tolerated, further dose of 20-40mg after 7 days, ○ usual interval 2-4 weeks between doses, ○ usual maintenance dose between 50mg every 4 weeks and 300mg every 2 weeks, ○ max. 400mg IM weekly. ♂ Depression Dose: ○ initially 1mg/day, increased after 1 week to 2mg/day, ○ use half above doses in the elderly, ○ max 3mg/day (2mg in the elderly), ○ doses above 2mg (1mg in the elderly) should be gived as divided doses. Contraindications: ♂ If patient is allergic to flupentixol or any other medicine of this class. ♂ If patient is allergic to any other medicine including preservative and dyes. ♂ Elderly people should be prescribed flupentixol with caution. ♂ If patient has history of kidney problem, liver problem or epilepsy. ♂ If patient has a problem of heart disease, high blood pressure or diabetes. 132

♂ If patient has a problem of enlarged prostate, thyroid problem or Parkinson’s disease. ♂ If two drugs are taken together, they may interact with each other. If patient is taking any prescribed or non-prescribed, food supplements or herbal medicine. ♂ If patient is pregnant, or plan to become pregnant.

Drug Interaction:

Prescription and nonprescription medications, especially those that may cause drowsiness such as: sedatives, narcotic pain relievers (e.g., codeine), anti-anxiety agents (e.g., diazepam), antidepressants or other psychiatric medicine, dopamine-type drugs (e.g., cabergoline, pergolide, bromocriptine, pramipexole), muscle relaxants (e.g., cyclobenzaprine), drowsiness-causing antihistamines (e.g., diphenhydramine), atropinelike drugs, anti- seizure drugs.

Many cough-and-cold products contain ingredients that may add a drowsiness effect.

Side Effects: • Nausea, drowsiness, dizziness, diarrhea, constipation, blurred vision, insomnia, urine problem, tremor, weakness, vomiting, and difficulty in breathing, slow heart rate, irregular blood pressure and convulsions. • Less common side effects of flupentixol include skin rashes, muscle problem, dizziness while rising from bed, sore throat, dark urine, increased sweating, yellowness of skin and eyes, decreased sex drive and painful erection, chest pain and muscle spasms. Nursing Responsibilities: ♂ Educate patient that Flupentixol can cause drowsiness, dizziness and blurred vision. ♂ Remind client that alcohol will increase feelings of drowsiness.

133

♂ Remind patient that before having any surgery, including dental or emergency treatment, tell the surgeon, doctor or dentist that you are taking flupentixol. ♂ Inform client that Flupentixol can occasionally cause a dry mouth. If patient experiences this, try chewing sugar-free gum, sucking sugar-free sweets or pieces of ice. ♂ Flupentixol can cause some people's skin to become more sensitive to sunlight than it usually is. Avoid strong sunlight and sunbeds until you know how your skin reacts and use a suncream higher than factor 15. ♂ If client experience 'flu like' symptoms such as stiffness, high temperature, abnormal paleness, leaking bladder and a racing heartbeat contact their doctor or go to the accident and emergency department of your local hospital immediately. ♂ Educate the patient that the symptoms of overdose may include seizers, muscle spasms, weakness, fast heartbeat, fever, difficult breathing, severe dizziness, drowsiness, convulsions, irregular heartbeat, disturbed concentration, constipation and coma. ♂ Inform patient to take the medicine with a full glass of water. ♂ Remind the patient that the medicine can be taken with or without food. ♂ Instruct to the patient that he can swallow the medicine as whole. Don’t cut or chew the medicine. BIBLIOGRAPHY: 26th Edition Nursing 2006 Drug Handbook by Lippincott Williams and

Wilkins; Phil. Pharmaceutical Directory Review, 7th edition.

134

Generic Name: Brand Name: Classification(s): Suggested Dose: Adults:

Biperiden Akineton, Benzum 2, Berofin, Biperen, Bipiden, Desiperiden Anti-Parkinson's Agent, Anticholinergic

Parkinsonism: 2 mg 3-4 times/day Extrapyramidal: 2 mg 1-3 times/day Elderly: Initial: 2 mg 1-2 times/day Ordered dose: Mode of Action: Biperiden Hcl 2 mg / tab 1 tab B.I.D. prn for EPS (January 19, 2010) Biperiden is a weak peripheral anticholinergic agent with nicotinolytic activity. The beneficial effects in Parkinson's disease and neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms are believed to be due to the inhibition of striatal cholinergic receptors. Indications: 135

♂ Adjunctive treatment of all forms of Parkinson's disease (postencephalitic, idiopathic, and arteriosclerotic). ♂ Improve parkinsonian signs and symptoms related to antipsychotic drug therapy. ♂ Relieves muscle rigidity, reduces abnormal sweating and salivation, improves abnormal gait, and to lesser extent, tremor. Contraindications: ♂ Hypersensitivity to biperiden or any component of the formulation ♂ Narrow-angle glaucoma ♂ Bowel obstruction, megacolon ♂ Myasthenia gravis Caution in patients with obstructive diseases of the urogenital tract, patients with a known history of seizures and those with potentially dangerous tachycardia. Drug Interaction: Drug – Drug ♂ Amantadine, rimantadine: Central and/or peripheral anticholinergic syndrome can occur when administered with amantadine or rimantadine. ♂ Anticholinergic agents: Central and/or peripheral anticholinergic syndrome can occur when administered with opioid analgesics, phenothiazines and other antipsychotics (especially with high anticholinergic activity), tricyclic antidepressants, quinidine and some other antiarrhythmics, and antihistamines.

136

♂ Atenolol: Anticholinergics may increase the bioavailability of atenolol (and possibly other beta-blockers); monitor for increased effect. ♂ Cholinergic agents: Anticholinergics may antagonize the therapeutic effect of cholinergic agents; includes tacrine and donepezil. ♂ Digoxin: Anticholinergics may decrease gastric degradation and increase the amount of digoxin absorbed by delaying gastric emptying. ♂ Levodopa: Anticholinergics may increase gastric degradation and decrease the amount of levodopa absorbed by delaying gastric emptying. ♂ Neuroleptics: Anticholinergics may neuroleptics. Side Effects:

antagonize the therapeutic effects

of

CNS : Drowsiness, vertigo, headache,

and dizziness are

frequent.

With

high

doses

nervousness, agitation, anxiety, delirium, and confusion. Biperiden may lower the seizurethreshold. ♂ Peripheral side effects : Blurred vision, dry mouth, impaired sweating, abdominal discomfort, and obstipation are frequent. Tachycardia may be noted. Allergic skin reactions may occur. ♂ Eyes : Biperiden causes mydriasis with or without photophobia. It may precipitate narrow angle glaucoma. Adverse Effects: ♂ Cardiovascular: Orthostatic hypotension, bradycardia

137

♂ Central nervous system: Drowsiness, euphoria, disorientation, agitation, sleep disorder (decreased REM sleep and increased REM latency) ♂ Gastrointestinal: Constipation, xerostomia, dry throat, nasal dryness ♂ Genitourinary: Urinary retention ♂ Neuromuscular & skeletal: Choreic movements ♂ Ocular: Blurred vision Nursing Responsibilities:

Instruct patient to use caution when driving, operating machinery, or performing other hazardous activities. Biperiden may cause dizziness or blurred vision. If patient experience dizziness or blurred vision, avoid these activities.

Remind patient to use alcohol cautiously. Alcohol may increase drowsiness and dizziness while client is taking biperiden.

Remind client to avoid becoming overheated. Biperiden may cause decreased sweating. This could lead to heat stroke in hot weather or with vigorous exercise.

♂ ♂ ♂ ♂

Educate client to take each dose with a full glass of water. Educate patient to take biperiden after a meal if it upsets his stomach. Remind the patient to store biperiden at room temperature away from moisture and heat. This medication decreases saliva production, an effect that can increase gum and tooth problems (e.g., cavities, gum disease). Instruct client to take special care with their dental hygiene (e.g., brushing, flossing) and have regular dental check-ups.

138

If client experiences signs of hyperthermia such as mental/mood changes, headache, or dizziness, promptly seek cool or air-conditioned shelter and/or stop exercising, and seek immediate medical attention.

♂ ♂

Remind patient to not share the medication to others. If patient misses a dose, remind them to take it as soon as they remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume their usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

26th Edition Nursing 2006 Drug Handbook by Lippincott Williams and

Wilkins; Phil. Pharmaceutical Directory Review, 7th edition

Generic Name: Brand Name: Classification(s): Suggested Dose:

Chlorpromazine Hydrochloride Chlorpromanyl, Largactil, Novo-Chlorpromazin, Thorazine Typical Antipsychotic

Individualized dose depends on indication and response. AVAILABLE FORMS: Capsules (extended release): 200 mg, 300 mg. Injections: 25 mg/ml Oral concentrate: 30 mg/ml, 100 mg/ml 139

Suppositories: 25 mg, 100 mg Syrup: 10 mg/5ml Tablets: 10 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg Ordered dose: Mode of Action: Chlorpromazine 200g/tab (January 20, 2010) Unknown. A piperidine phenothiazine that probably blocks postsynaptic dopamine receptors in the brain.

ROUTE P.O. I.M., I.V. P.R. Indications:

ONSET 30-60min Unknown >1hr Unknown Unknown Unknown

PEAK 4-6hr Unknown 3-4 hr

DURATION

Psychosis, mania (Adults: for hospitalized patients with acute disease, 25 mg I.M.)

Nausea and vomiting (Adults: 10 to 25 mg PO q 4 to 6 hours, p.r.n. Or, 25 mg IM initially.)

Acute intermittent porphyria, intractable hiccups (Adults: 25 to 50 mg PO t.i.d. or q.i.d.)

Tetanus (Adults: 25 to 50 mg IV or IM t.i.d. or q.i.d.)

Contraindications: ♂ In patients hypersensitive to drug; in those with CNS depression, bone marrow suppression, or subcortical damage, and in those in coma. ♂ Use cautiously in elderly and deliberated patients and in patients with hepatic or renal disease, severe CV disease, respiratory disorders, hypocalcemia, glaucoma, pr prostatic hyperplasia. 140

♂ Use cautiously in acutely ill or dehydrated children. Drug Interaction: Drug – Drug

Antacids: May inhibit absorption of oral phenothiazines. Anticholinergics such

as tricyclic antidepressants, antiparkinsonians: May increase anticholinergic activity, aggravated parkinsonian symptoms. Anticonvulsants: May lower seizure threshold. Barbiturates, lithium: May decrease phenothiazine effect. Centrally acting

anthypertensives: May decrease antihypertensive effect. CSN depressants: May increase CNS depression. Electroconvulsive therapy, insulin: may cause severe reactions. Lithium: May increase neurologic effects. Meperidine: May cause excessive sedation and hypotension. Propanolol: May increase levels of both propanolol and chlorpromazine. Warfarin: May decrease effect of oral anticoagulants. Drug – Lifestyle

Alcohol use: May increase CNS depression, particularly psychomotor skills.

Side Effects: ♂ CNS: extra pyramidal reactions, sedation, tardive dyskinesia, pseudoparkinsonism. ♂ CV: orthostatic hypotension ♂ GI: dry mouth, constipation ♂ GU: urine retention ♂ Skin: mild photosensitivity reactions, pain at IM injection site Adverse Effects: ♂ CNS: Seizures and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. ♂ Hematologic: Leukopenia, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, thrombocytopenia Nursing Responsibilities: 141

♂ Obtain baseline blood pressure measurements before starting therapy, and monitor regularly. Watch client for orthostatic hypotension. ♂ Monitor client for tardive dyskinesia, which may occur after prolonged use. ♂ Warn patient to avoid activities that require alertness or good coordination until effects of drug are known. ♂ Remind client that drowsiness and dizziness usually subside after a few weeks. ♂ Advise patient not to crush, chew, or break extended release capsule form before swallowing. ♂ Educate patient to avoid alcohol while taking the drug. ♂ Have the patient to report signs of urine retention or constipation. ♂ Remind patient to use sunblock and to wear protective clothing to avoid oversensitivity to the sun. ♂ Advise client to relieve dry mouth with sugarless gum or hard candy. ♂ Withhold dose and notify prescriber if jaundice, symptoms of blood dyscrasia, or persistent extrapyramidal reactions develop.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

26th Edition Nursing 2006 Drug Handbook by Lippincott Williams and

Wilkins; Phil. Pharmaceutical Directory Review, 7th edition.

SCIENTIFIC NAME: BRAND/STREET NAME:

Cannabis sativa L. Marijuana, Marihuana, Hemp, Hashish 142

CLASSIFICATION:

Psychoactive drug; stimulant; depressant; hallucinogen

ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION: Inhaled smoke, screened bowls, bubblers (small pipes with water chambers), bongs, one-hitters, chillums, paper-wrapped joints and tobacco-leaf-wrapped blunts, tea, and orally. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS: Cannabis chemical constituents including about 100 compounds responsible for its characteristic aroma. These are mainly volatile terpenes and sesquiterpenes. INDICATIONS: • • • • Amelioration of nausea and vomiting Stimulation of hunger in chemotherapy and AIDS patients Lowers intraocular eye pressure (shown to be effective for treating glaucoma) General analgesic effects (pain reliever)

CONTRAINDICATIONS: • • Hypersensitivity to cannabis Pregnant women, or planning to get pregnant

DRUG INTERACTIONS: • Alcohol: Make both drugs stronger. Amphetamines Cocaine: (Uppers and downers) Ecstasy: Extends and expands the experience of ecstasy. Heroin: Complimentary effects. Ketamine: Increases cannabis effects.


• • • •

SIDE EFFECTS: • General sense of well being and relaxation, giggliness and euphoria 143

• • • • • • •

Eyes: Reddening, decreased intraocular pressure. Dreaminess, increased appreciation of music, sleepiness and time distortion Dryness of the mouth Increase heart rate Muscle relaxation Low blood pressure Impairment of short-term episodic memory, working memory, psychomotor coordination, and concentration

Anxiety, panic, paranoia and feelings of impending doom

ADVERSE EFFECTS: • • • • • Lung cancer Chronic fungal infections Paranoia Confusion Long-lasting toxic psychosis

NURSING RESPONSIBILITIES: • Reassure client that anxiety attacks are common side effects of the drug and will disappear within hours. • Provide a supportive environment for the client when experiencing feelings of paranoia and anxiety. • Remind client to avoid strenuous activities like driving or operating machinery until the effects of the drug diminishes. • Educate client that effects at first can be subtle, first time users usually detect little or no effect at all.

144

Inform the client that if he is possibly experiencing marijuana OD symptoms, it is recommended that he calls the local emergency line.

Educate client that if he is a regular cannabis smoker (every day) and stopped smoking, he will experience some of the following withdrawal symptoms: restlessness, irritability, mild agitation, insomnia, nausea, sleep disturbance, sweats, and intense dreams.

145

146

NURSING CARE PLAN
TIME AND DATE Januar SUBJECTIVE: y @ 12:30 P.M. 21, “Naay 2009 C CUES NEED NURSING DIAGNOSIS Disturbed sensory At the end of 2 perception related hours to alteration in care, tissue ®It is the change in the amount or patterning of incoming stimuli accompanied by a diminished, exaggerated, distorted, impaired response to such stimuli. Schultz, M.J.;Videback, S.L.; Lippincott’s P Manual of or • of nursing the patient 1. Establish rapport and January 21, 2009 build trust with the @ 2:30 PM client ® The client must trust the nurse before talking about hallucinations and other sensory-perceptual alterations 2. Continuously orient the client to actual environmental events or of activities in a nonchallenging way. ®Brief, frequent orientation helps to present reality to the client with sensoryperception disturbance
3. Reinforce and focus •

GOAL OF CARE

INTERVENTIONS

EVALUATION

nagahung- O

hung sa akoa usahay G nga mag-wild daw ko N ug maglagot” by as I the T I V OBJECTIVE • • Disoriented to time visual hallucination s • Misinterprets actions others E P R C E P U to A of T verbalized patient

function of brain will be able to maintain orientation to place, person, and circumstanc es specified period time; for time,

GOAL UNMET T

he patient was able to maintai n orientati on to time, place, person and situatio n. “Huweb

Auditory and E

demonstrate accurate perception of t the by environmen responding appropriatel

Inability decisions

make simple L • Inappropriate

on reality. Talk about real events and real people. Use real

147

responses

A T T E R N

Psychiatric Nursing Care Plans 7th edition •

y to stimuli in s; and lessen visual auditory hallucinatio ns and the surrounding

situations and events to divert client from long, repetitive verbalizations of false ideas ® Working with lessens reality tedious,

es karon. Mga udto na man siguro. Naa ko sa Mental hospital para magpac heckup” • the client was not able to demonst rate accurate percepti on of the H owever,

patient’s initiation of his hallucinations. 4. Correct description and reality ® Explanation of, and participation in, real situations and real activities respond hallucinations. 5. Observe and behaviors for verbal nonverbal associated interferes to with the ability to describe client's of the

inaccurate perception, situation as it exists in

148

with hallucinations ® Early recognition of sensory-perceptual disturbance promotes timely interventions and alleviation of the client’s symptoms. 6. Describe hallucinatory behaviors client. ® The client may be unable nurse to can disclose openly on behaviors, perceptions and the facilitate disclosure by reflecting client’s observations of the which helps the client engage in more open discussion with the nurse, which in itself brings relief. 7. Explore the content of hallucinations to to the the

environ ment as evidenc ed by the presenc e of delusion and hallucin ation • of auditory hallucin ation is still evident. Pr esence

149

determine possibility environment ® Exploring of to

the harm

self, others or the the the

content

hallucination helps the nurse identify if the sensory-perceptual disturbance threatening dangerous client, such command to as type is or the a of

hallucination that may be telling the client to harm or kill the client or others. The nurse can then reinforce treatment and safety precautions. 8. Use clear, direct, verbal communication rather than unclear or nonverbal gestures ®Unclear directions

150

or

instructions

can

confuse the client and promote perceptions misinterpretations reality. 9. Modify the client’s environment decrease ®Decreased can reduce occurrence hallucinations
10. Reassure

distorted or of

to situations anxiety the of

that provoke anxiety

the that

client if the

(frequently necessary)

client is safe and will not be harmed ®Alleviation of fear is necessary for the client to begin to trust the environment and to feel safe.

151

152

TIME AND DATE Januar y @ 7:00 A.M 2009

CUES

NEED

NURSING DIAGNOSIS

GOAL OF CARE

INTERVENTIONS

EVALUATION

SUBJECTIVE

C

Disturbed related disintegration thinking. ®It is the in and

At the end of 2 to care, • the patient

1. Be

sincere

and January 21, 2009 when @ 12:30 PM GOAL PARTIALLY are MET

21, “Magpatambal ko. Kani O man gud akong utok, naa G niy grasa.” as verbalized N by the patient I T I OBJECTIVE • • • • • Delusion persecution Delusion paranoia Thought insertion Incoherent speech Demonstrates disturbance sleep pattern • Presence auditory hallucinations V of E of P E R C

thought process hours of nursing will be able to Maintain reality orientation; • Demonstrat e reality based thinking in verbal and nonverbal those by is

honest

communicating with the client. ®Clients

extremely sensitive about others and can remarks mistrust. 2. Assess client’s recognize reinforce insincerity. Evasive

The client was able to maintain reality orientation. He is oriented to time when asked what day it is. But he is still preoccupie d with his delusions about his

disruption cognitive operations activities. Cognitive processes include mental processes which knowledge mental processes include

behavior; and Demonstrat e the ability to abstract, conceptuali ze, and reason

a E in P T of U A L P

nonverbal behavior, such as gestures, facial expression and posture. ®This assessment

acquired. These

may help to meet the client’s needs

reality

calculate

153

A T T E R N

orientation, comprehension, awareness, and judgment. disruption these processes lead inaccurate interpretations of environment and may result in an inability to evaluate reality accurately. Alterations thought processes any group, or problem. (http://www1.us .elsevierhealth.c om/MERLIN/G one are age not limited to gender, clinical in the A in may to

consistent with ability to

that speech.

cannot

be

being jealous him to

conveyed

through

3. Encourage client to

the express

The client was able e not to reality-

mental

feelings and do not pry cross examine for information ®Probing increases client’s the suspicion therapeutic and interferes with relationship 4. Show empathy to the feelings, presence acceptance ®The distressing. Empathy conveys • client’s client’s reassure and

demonstrat based thinking in verbal and nonverbal responses. His mannerism is and largely he observed wasn’t able to establish eye contact with any of the interviewer . However,

the client of your

experiences can be

154

155

TIME AND DATE . Januar y 2010 @ 12 :30 PM

CUES

NEED

NURSING DIAGNOSIS

GOAL OF CARE

INTERVENTIONS

EVALUATION

SUBJECTIVE:

S L F eye P E social R C P I O N

Situational low At the end of 2 self-esteem related cognitive impairment • It is the state in which previously positive esteem experience a • negative feeling towards self due to a certain situation Handbook Nursing Diagnosis Lynda by Juall of an had selfindividual who Verbalize understandi ng of things that precipitate current situation; and Demonstrat e behaviors that show positive self-esteem hours of nursing to care, will: the patient

1. Encourage client to express honest feelings in relation to loss of prior level of of functioning. Acknowledge pain loss. Support through client

January 21, 2010 @ 2:30 PM GOAL UNMET • The patient was unable to verbalize understa nding of things that lead to current situation

“Maulaw man gyud ko E

21, basta ing-ana” OBJECTIVE: • • • • Lacking contact Lack interaction in activities asked

process of grieving. ® Client may be fixed in anger stage of grieving process, which resulting diminished esteem. is turned in selfinward on the self,

Has little interest E Talks only when T

The patient was unable to demonstr

2. Devise methods for
assisting client to express feelings

156

CarpenitoMuyet

properly.. ® To explore the feelings client of the thereby

ate behavior s show positive selfesteem as evidence d to an as as looking down at during the intervie w. by have eyewell to If are client inability that

allowing him to acknowledge his own strength and weakness. 3. Encourage client's attempts communicate. verbalizations express to

not understandable, what you think he or she intended to say. It may be to client necessary reorient frequently. ® The ability to communicate effectively with others may enhance

contact

157

self-esteem.

4. Encourage
reminiscence review. events. possible, Reminiscence client and Also Sharing is and discussion of life discuss present-day picture albums, if especially good. ® life review help the resume progression through the grief process associated disappointing self-esteem successes reviewed. 5. Encourage participation group in activities. with life as are

events and increase

Caregiver may need

158

to accompany client at first, until he or she feels secure that the group members will be accepting, regardless communication. ® feedback increase esteem. Positive from selfof limitations in verbal

group members will

6. Offer support and
empathy client inability remember ® Focus when expresses at to people, on

embarrassment

events, and places. accomplishments to lift self-esteem. 7. Encourage client to

159

be as independent as possible in selfcare activities. ® The ability to perform independently preserves esteem. 8. Listen to patient’s concerns verbalizations without comment or judgment. ®It enables the and self-

client to develop trust and thereby establish communication 9. Provide feedback to client’s feelings. ®To allow the negative

client experience a different view.

160

161

TIME AND DATE January 21, 2010 @12:30 PM

CUES

NEED

NURSING DIAGNOSIS

GOAL OF CARE

INTERVENTIONS

EVALUATION

SUBJECTIVE: The exactly clarified was the

C when O 2 G

Impaired

At the end of 3 day

1. Provide opportunities reminiscence recall past events ®Long-term memory recent usually enjoyable for the client. 2. Encourage cues such the as or cues the need to activities, may memory. is an activity persist after loss of Reminiscence or

January 21, 2010 for @ 2:30 PM GOAL MET • The patient was able to verbalize awareness of memory problems as “Usahay gyud makalimot na ko”

memory related nursing care, the to neurological patient will be able disturbances ®Impaired memory to effects is of or • directly related general medical condition of ongoing effects substance. Depending o n the areas of the brain, the client are recall information, either remote or recent. client confabulate The may to unable to to: • Verbalize awareness of memory problems; and Accept limitations of current condition

months he was referring N about his last used of I marijuana, he verbalized T “Kadtong 2007 man to, I aw 2008 diay” OBHECTIVE: • • time Observed experience forgetting • Scratches V E E R of C E his P Disorientation to P

he

verbalized

client to use written calendars notebooks ®Written decrease client’s recall

head when he is T unable to recall U information

The patient was able to verbalize acceptance of his limitations

A to L is

Inability behavior

determine if a

162

performe

fill in those lost memories.

plans and so on from memory. 3. Encourage ventilation feelings frustration, helplessness, and so forth. Refocus attention to areas of focus and progress. ®To lessen feelings of powerlessness/hope lessness 4. Provide for proper pacing of activities and having appropriate rest ®To avoid fatigue
5. Allow the client to

due to his conditions

of of

do tasks on his own, but do not rush him to do it. Make the client feel that he can still do things

163

independently. ®It is important to maximize independent function, assist the client memory 6. Assist the when has client and meet needs,

deteriorated further. deal with functional limitations ®To individual maximizing independence. 7. Provide single step instructions instructions needed. ®Client memory impairment cannot remember multistep instructions 8. Do not contradict with when are identify resources.

164

the

client

who an Instead, explain

experiences illusion. simply reality, some solutions problem ®Therapeutic

and to

find the

practical

responses promote reality offering while solutions

that help enhances the client’s sense and may reduce fear, anxiety, and confusion.
9. Monitor

client’s

behavior and assist in use of stressmanagement techniques ®To frustration 10. Determine client’s response to reduce

165

medication medications prescribe concentration, memory and emotional responses. ®Helpful deciding improved using medications TIME AND DATE CUES NEED NURSING DIAGNOSIS GOAL OF CARE prescribed. INTERVENTIONS EVALUATION in whether when the process modify and to lift spirits to improve attention,

quality of life is

166

January

SUBJECTIVE: “Makatamad usahay 21, maligo. Wala pa gani ko 2010 @ ligo ron. Kapoy pud manlimpyo ug kuko”, as 12:30 verbalized by the P.M. patient. OBJECTIVE: Unkempt hair noted food stains visible on clothing untrimmed fingernails and toenails with visible dirt noted

A C T I V I T Y E X E R C I S E P A T T E R N

Self care deficit: After 2 hours of nursing care, the bathing / client will be able hygiene related to: a) verbaliz to lack of e self motivation care ® The patient need has an impaired b) Demon ability to strate provide self care techniq requisites due to ues to environmental meet and selfpsychological care factors. needs

1. Establish rapport. R: to gain client’s trust and facilitate a good working relationship. 2. Identify reason for

January 21, 2009 @ 2:30 PM GOAL PARTIALLY MET After 2 hours of nursing care, the client was able to: a) ver bali ze self car e nee d b) but was una ble to de to mo nstr

difficulty in self-care. R: underlying cause affects choice of interventions/ strategies. 3. Determine needs with care and hygienic provide like and

assistance as needed activities of nails

brushing teeth. R: basic hygienic needs may be forgotten.

4. Discuss on importance
of hygiene. R: makes client aware of how hygiene is vital in caring for oneself. 5. Orient different client

equipment

167

for

self-care

like

ate tec hni que s to me et self car e nee ds.

various toiletries. R: increases the client’s awareness of different materials for self-care. 6. Let the patient enumerate his ideas on the importance of hygiene. R: Encourages the patient to understand the need for hygiene. 7. Discuss the possible negative implications of not taking a bath such as infections and odor. R: Broadens the problem the and patient’s idea about encourages him to meet the need. 8. Encourage client to perform self-care to the maximum of

168

ability as defined by the client. Do not rush client. R: promotes independence and sense of control, may decrease feelings of helplessness. 9. Allot plenty of time to perform tasks. R: cognitive impairment may interfere with ability to manage even simple activities. 10. Assist with dressing neatly or provide colorful clothes. R: Enhances esteem and convey aliveness.

169

170

PROGNOSIS GOOD FAIR POOR Onset of the illness ☻ JUSTIFICATION Bob first experiences the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia when he was 18 years old and now he is 40 years old. The first signs that Bob showed was when he ate feces and since then people who are close to him noticed that he has illogical speech and flight of ideas. It was until after two months, November 1987 that they decided to bring Bob to the hospital for check-up when Bob’s tongue shrunk. The onset of illness was poor since the family waited that the situation of Bob worsened and did not immediately seek medical advice immediately when there was changes in his behavior like when he ate stool and showed illogical Duration of illness ☻ speech and flight of ideas. The client has been diagnosed with schizophrenia catatonic 22 years ago. The patient went to the Davao Medical Hospital for his third admission last January 19, 2010 and was diagnosed with schizophrenia undifferentiated. As we can see, the duration of illness has been very long since it was years ago since he was mentally sick thus rating him Precipitating factors ☻ with poor prognosis. Intake of drugs, substances or chemicals which increase levels of dopamine and developmental factors are the present precipitating factors seen in Bob. The proponents rated this area as poor since Bob is abusing substances like marijuana, alcohol, cigarette and soft drinks. In his development, Bob developed mistrust, shame and doubt, guilt, inferiority, role confusion, and isolation which rated him poor. 171

Mood and Affect

During the interview, Bob has appropriate mood and affect therefore rating him with good prognosis.

Family Support

During the interview the mother and the sister-inlaw was with the patient. As the interview progresses the student nurses observed that the family is supporting the patient. The patient is receiving appropriate family support since his family is doing all they can to help him recover. They are helping him financially as well as emotionally. The family understood what he is undergoing and giving him the support he need for his recovery. Bob was brought to the hospital for check-up because he demanded to his parents saying that something is wrong with him. Bob submits himself properly to the medication without missing any single dose. He may be taking the proper regimen, however, he is not listening to the advice of the doctor to stop alcohol, smoking, taking marijuana and even drinking soft drinks. For a person to be treated he must not only take the drugs prescribed but also to stop things that are contraindicated for him for his treatment. Because of this, Bob was rated with prognosis with the willingness to take the medication and treatment. During the interview, the patient does not show any depressive features. Bob knew that something is wrong with him and he need medical attention. Even though he is aware that something is wrong with him, he is still not depressed with this fact. He didn’t finish college but he is not depressed with this fact. Not getting the things he wants won’t make him depress but instead, Bob goes wild and 172

Willingness to take medications and treatment

Depressive features

becomes hostile. Computation: ➢ Poor: (3*1)/7 ➢ Fair: Total 3 1 3 Total: General Prognosis: 1-1.6 = POOR 1.7-2.3 = FAIR 2.4-3.0 = GOOD Rationale for Fair Prognosis: Bob has a fair prognosis therefore he has small chance, according to the calculation, of recovering from his illness. The onset of illness was 22 years ago. He was not immediately brought to the hospital but they waited 2 months and decided to bring him to the hospital because of shrinking of his tongue and he demanded so. The duration of illness is long since it was last November 1987 that he was first diagnosed of Catatonic Schizophrenia and just this last January 19, 2010 that he was diagnosed of Schizophrenia undifferentiated. He also abused many substances like marijuana, alcohol, cigarette and soft drinks. And during his development, he developed mistrust, shame and doubt, guilt, inferiority, role confusion, and isolation which rated him poor. In addition to that, he didn’t listen to the advice of the doctor to stop alcohol, smoking, taking marijuana and drinking soft drinks. However, he submits himself to the regimen, taking the medications promptly even going to the hospital every month for his medication. Furthermore, during the interview, Bob has appropriate mood and affect therefore rating him with good prognosis. He has good family support as evidenced by the support of his mother and sister-in-law while he is in the hospital. His father is supporting him financially but is not able to go with him because of his work back in Agusan. The family understood what he is undergoing and giving him the support he need for his recovery. Lastly, the patient does not show any 173 (1*2)/7 2.00 ➢ Good: (3*3)/7 = 3/7 = 2/7 = 9/7

depressive features. Bob knew that something is wrong with him and he need medical attention. Even though he is aware that something is wrong with him, he is still not depressed with this fact. He didn’t finish college but he is not depressed with this fact. Not getting the things he wants won’t make him depress but instead, Bob goes wild and becomes hostile.

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RECOMMENDATION The group 1 of section 3H would like to recommend the following:

To the patient: He is advised to take part in complying with the treatment; the medication and therapeutic regimen designed for his rehabilitation. He should realize the importance of complying with his medication and the benefits this practice would bring to the improvement of his well-being.

To the patient’s family: The patient’s family plays an important role in the patient’s mental illness and recovery. The family should make themselves physically present so that the patient would feel their support and concern. They are encouraged to continue interacting with the patient so that ideas of violence towards self and others will be diverted. In addition, it is of prime importance that they are oriented and educated regarding the patient’s mental illness so that they will understand him even better and assist him in his daily activities.

To the Ateneo de Davao University- College of Nursing: The faculty and staff are encouraged to continue improving the standards of the Ateneo Nursing Curriculum by providing quality education to students. Also they, themselves, must be equipped with the knowledge and skill that they may impart to student nurses. They are challenged to not just teach but impart to us as well nursing experiences that we may apply in the course of caring for our future patients.

175

To the Davao Mental Hospital: The group recommends that they should improve their facilities in treating the mentally-ill patients, because still they deserve due treatment. The patients must be kept clean, well-fed, and have mattresses to sleep on. The hospital must provide a safe and therapeutic environment to the patients and staff. Address the needs of each patient by first assessing the level of severity of the patient’s condition; let every patient be submitted for history and physical examination and be evaluated by a psychiatrist, so that appropriate care is rendered to them. The proponents recommend that the psychiatric team would work together in order to provide mental health care service that promotes rehabilitation of the patient. Also they are recommended to know the latest trends in improving therapeutic communication between them and the patients.

To the student nurses: Even if nursing students find it difficult to establish therapeutic relationships with mentallyill patients because of the relatively short time spent in the clinical area, still we have to render amounts of effort, time and trust to our patients; and improve our therapeutic technique in caring for our patients; that we may play a part in the rehabilitation of our mentally-ill patients.

176

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will be a significant undertaking in depth understanding the reason behind our subject’s mental illness. This study will also be beneficial to the students and clinical instructors in College of Nursing in making use of different concepts taught inside the classroom related to psychiatric nursing.

This case study will give us better understanding regarding mentally-ill patients; provide recommendations on how to deal with them in the future. It will give us better grasp why certain people experience being mentally unstable by looking deeper into the history, physiology, brain chemistry; development of physical, emotional and cognitive; and social relations of the patient.

Some of the mentally ill patients remain undiagnosed and untreated because they never sought medical attention due to old stigmas and societal attitudes towards mental illness. Stigmas results in the social exclusion of people with a mental illness and is detrimental to the part of the family. Moreover, this study will be helpful to aid the family in caring their mentally-ill member; giving them more understanding, acceptance, and how to deal with the illness and issues concerning it.

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APPENDICES DIAGNOSTIC STATISTICAL MANUAL CRITERIA FOR DIFFRENTIAL DIAGNOSIS Schizophrenia is one of a cluster of related psychotic brain disorders. It is a combination of disordered thinking, perceptual disturbances, behavioral abnormalities, affective disruptions and impaired social competency. The diagnosis of a particular subtype of schizophrenia is based on the clinical picture that occasioned the most recent evaluation or admission to clinical care and may therefore change over time. They are defined by their symptomatology. The disorder lasts for at least 6 months and includes at least one month of the active phase symptoms namely two or more of the following: hallucinations, disorganized speech, catatonic behavior, negative symptoms). The subtypes are: 295.30 Paranoid Type 295.10 Disorganized Type 295.20 Catatonic Type 295.90 Undifferentiated Type 295.60 Residual Type Diagnostic Criteria for Schizophrenia A. Characteristic symptoms. Two or more of the following, each present for a significant portion of time during a 1-month period (or less if successfully treated): (1) delusions (2) hallucinations (3) disorganized speech (e.g. frequent derailment or incoherence) (4) grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior (5) negative symptoms (i.e. affective flattening, alogia or avolition) Only one Criterion A symptom is required if delusions are bizarre or hallucinations consist of a voice keeping up a running commentary on the person’s behavior or thoughts, or two or more voices conversing with each other. 178

A. Social/occupational dysfunction. For a significant portion of the time since the onset of the disturbance, one or more major areas of functioning such as work, interpersonal relations, or selfcare are markedly below the level achieved prior to the onset (or when the onset is in childhood or adolescence, failure to achieve expected level of interpersonal, academic, or occupational achievement) B. Duration Continuous signs of the disturbance persist for at least 6 months. This 6month period must include at least 1 month of symptoms (or less if successfully treated) that meet Criterion A (i.e. active-phase symptoms) and may include periods of prodromal or residual symptoms. During these prodromal or residual periods the signs of the disturbance may be manifested by only negative symptoms or two or more symptoms listed in Criterion A present in attenuated form (e.g. odd beliefs, unusual perceptual experiences.) C. Schizoaffective and Mood Disorder exclusion: Schizoaffective Disorder and Mood Disorder with Psychotic Features have been ruled out because either (1) no Major Depressive, Manic, Or Mixed Episodes have occurred concurrently with the active-phase symptoms; or (2) if mood episodes have occurred during active-phase symptoms, their total duration has been brief relative to the duration of the active and residual periods. D. Substance/general medical condition exclusion: The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g. a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition E. Relationship to a Pervasive Developmental Disorder: If there is a history of Autistic Disorder or another Pervasive Developmental Disorder, the additional diagnosis of Schizophrenia is made only if prominent delusions or hallucinations are also present for at least a month (or less if successfully treated. Total

295.30 Schizophrenia Paranoid Type The essential feature of the Paranoid Type of Schizophrenia is the presence of prominent delusions or auditory hallucinations in the context of a relative preservation of cognitive functioning 179

and affect. Symptoms characteristic of the Disorganized and Catatonic Types (e.g., disorganized speech, flat or inappropriate affect, catatonic or disorganized behavior) are not prominent. Delusions are typically persecutory or grandiose or both but delusions with other themes may also occur. Hallucinations are also typically related to the content of the delusional theme. Diagnostic criteria for 295.30 Paranoid Type A. Preoccupation with one or more delusions or frequent auditory hallucinations B. None of the following is prominent: disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior, or flat or inappropriate affect. TOTAL 295.10 Schizophrenia Disorganized Type The essential features of the Disorganized Type of Schizophrenia are disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, and flat or inappropriate affect. Criteria for the Catatonic Type of Schizophrenia are not met, and delusions or hallucinations, if present, are fragmentary and not organized into a coherent theme. Diagnostic criteria for 295.10 Disorganized Type A. All of the following are prominent 1. disorganized speech 2. disorganized behavior 3. flat or inappropriate affect B. The criteria are not met for catatonic type TOTAL 295.20 Schizophrenia Catatonic Type The essential feature of the Catatonic Type of Schizophrenia is a marked psychomotor disturbance that may involve motoric immobility, excessive motor activity, extreme negativism, mutism, peculiarities of voluntary movement, echolalia, or echopraxia. Additional feature include stereotypes, mannerisms, and automatic obedience or mimicry.

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Diagnostic criteria for 295.20 Catatonic Type A type of Schizophrenia in which the clinical picture is dominated by at least two of the following

TOTAL

295. 90 Schizophrenia Undifferentiated Type Clients with a diagnosis of Undifferentiated Schizophrenia display florid psychotic symptoms like delusions, hallucinations, incoherence and disorganized behavior that do not clearly fit under any category. Diagnostic criteria for 295.90 Undifferentiated Type A type of Schizophrenia in which symptoms that meet Criterion A are present, but the criteria are not met for the Paranoid, Disorganized, or Catatonic Type TOTAL 295.60 Schizophrenia Residual Type The Residual Type of Schizophrenia should be used when there has been at least one episode of Schizophrenia, but the current clinical picture is without prominent positive psychotic symptoms (e.g., delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, or behavior). There is a continuing evidence of the disturbance as indicated by the presence of negative symptoms or two or more attenuated positive symptoms. If delusions or hallucinations are present, they are not prominent and are not accompanied by strong affect. Diagnostic criteria for 295.60 Residual Type A. Absence of prominent delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior. B. There is continuing evidence of the disturbance, as indicated by the presence of 181

negative symptoms or two or more symptoms listed in Criterion A for Schizophrenia, present in an attenuated form (e.g., odd beliefs, unusual perceptual experience) TOTAL 301.22 Schizotypal Personality Disorder Individuals with schizotypal personality disorder have odd thoughts, affects, perceptions, and beliefs. Diagnostic criteria fort 301.22 Schizotypal Personality Disorder A. A pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior, by beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five or more of the following: 1. Ideas of reference (excluding delusions of reference) 2. odd beliefs or magical thinking that influences behavior and is inconsistent with subcultural norms (e.g., superstitiousness, belief in clairvoyance, telepathy, or “sixth sense in children and adolescents, bizarre fantasies or preoccupations) 3. unusual perceptual experiences, including bodily illusions 4. odd thinking and speech (e.g., vague, circumstantial, metaphorical, overelaborate, or stereotyped) 5. suspiciousness or paranoid ideation 6. inappropriate or constricted affect 7. behavior or appearance that is odd, eccentric or peculiar 8. lack of close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives 9. excessive social anxiety that does not diminish with familiarity and tends to be associated with paranoid fears rather than negative judgments about self B. Does not occur exclusively during the course of Schizophrenia, a Mood Disorder with Psychotic Features, another Psychotic Disorder, or a Pervasive Developmental Disorder Note: If criteria are met prior to the onset of Schizophrenia, add “Premorbid,” e.g., “Schizotypal Personality Disorder (Premorbid)

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Schizoid Personality Disorder Individuals with schizoid personality disorder are emotionally detached and prefer to be left alone. Diagnostic criteria for 301.20 Schizoid Personality Disorder A. A pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of expression of emotions in interpersonal settings, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following: Criteria Present 1. neither desires nor enjoys close relationship, including being a part of a family 2. almost always chooses solitary activities 3. has little, if any, interest in having sexual experiences with another person 4. takes pleasure in few, if any , activities 5. lacks close friends or confidants other than first degree relatives 6. appears indifferent to the praise or criticism of others 7. shows emotional coldness, detachment, or flattened activity B. Does not occur exclusively during the course of Schizophrenia, a Mood Disorder With Psychotic Features, another Psychotic Disorder, or a Pervasive Developmental Disorder and is not due to the direct physiological effects of a general medical condition. Note: If criteria are met prior to the onset of Schizophrenia, add “Premorbid,” e.g., “Schizoid Personality Disorder (Premorbid)” TOTAL

301.0 Paranoid Personality Disorder People with paranoid personality disorder are distrustful and suspicious and anticipate harm and betrayal. Diagnostic Criteria for 301.0 Paranoid Personality Disorder A. A pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent, beginning by early adulthood and present in variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following: Criteria Present 183

1.

suspects, without sufficient basis, that others are exploiting,

harming or deceiving him or her 2. is preoccupied with unjustified doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of friends or associates 3. is reluctant to confide in others because of unwarranted fear that the information will be used maliciously against him or her 4. reads hidden demeaning or threatening meanings into benign remarks or events 5. persistently bear grudges , i.e., is unforgiving of insults, injuries, or slights 6. perceives attacks on his or her character or reputation that are not apparent to others and is quick to react angrily or to counterattack 7. has recurrent suspicions, without justification, regarding fidelity of spouse or sexual partner B. Does not occur exclusively during the course of Schizophrenia, a Mood Disorder With Psychotic Features, another Psychotic Disorder, or a Pervasive Developmental Disorder and is not due to the direct physiological effects of a general medical condition. Note: If criteria are met prior to the onset of Schizophrenia, add “Premorbid,” e.g., “Paranoid Personality Disorder (Premorbid)” TOTAL 298.8 Brief Psychotic Disorder The essential feature of Brief Psychotic Disorder is a disturbance that involves the sudden onset at least one of the following positive psychotic symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech or grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior Diagnostic Criteria for 298.8 Brief Psychotic Disorder A. Presence of one (or more) of the following symptoms 1. delusion 2. hallucination 3. disorganized speech 4. grossly disorganized catatonic behavior Note: Do not include a symptom if it is a culturally sanctioned response pattern B. Duration of an episode of the disturbance is at least 1 day but less than 1 month, with eventual full return to premorbid level of functioning C. The disturbance is not better accounted for by a Mood Disorder With Psychotic 184

Features , Schizoaffective Disorder, or Schizophrenia and is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition TOTAL 297.1 Delusional Disorder The essential feature of Delusional Disorder is the presence of one or more nonbizarre delusions that persist for at least 1 month. Auditory or visual hallucinations, if present are not prominent. Tactile or olfactory hallucinations may be present if they are related to delusional themes. Diagnostic Criteria for 297.1 Delusional Disorder A. Nonbizarre delusions (i.e., involving situations that occur in real life, such as being followed, poisoned, infected, loved at a distance, or deceived by spouse or lover, or having a disease) of at least 1 month’s duration. B. Criterion A for Schizophrenia has never been met. Note: Tactile and olfactory hallucinations may be present in Delusional Disorder if they are related to the delusional theme. C. Apart from the impact of the delusion(s) or its ramifications, functioning is not markedly impaired and behavior is not obviously odd or bizarre. D. If mood episodes have occurred concurrently with delusions, their total duration has been brief relative to the duration of the delusional periods. E. The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition. TOTAL 295.40 Schizophreniform Disorder The essential features of Schizophreniform Disorder are identical to those of Schizophrenia (Criteria A) except for two differences: the total duration of the illness (including prodromal, active, and residual phases) is at least 1 month but less than 6 months and impaired social or occupational functioning during some part of the illnesses not require although it may occur. Diagnostic Criteria for 295.40 Schizophreniform Disorder A. Criteria A, D, and E of Schizophrenia are met B. An episode of the disorder (including prodromal, active, and residual phases) lasts at least 1 month but less than 6 months. (When the diagnosis must be made without waiting for recovery, it should be qualified as “Provisional.”) TOTAL

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Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder The essential features of Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder are prominent hallucinations or delusions that are judged to be due to the direct physiological effects of a substance. Hallucinations that the individual realizes are substance induced are not included here and instead would be diagnosed as Substance Intoxication or Substance Withdrawal with accompanying specifier With Perceptual Disturbances. The disturbance must not be better accounted for by a Psychotic Disorder that is not substance induced. The diagnosis is not made if the psychotic symptoms occur only during the course of delirium. Diagnostic criteria for Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder A. Prominent hallucinations or delusions. Note: Do not include hallucinations if the person has insight that they are substance induced B. There is evidence from the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings of either (1) or (2): 1. the symptoms of Criterion A developed during or within a month of, Substance intoxication or Withdrawal 2. Medication use is etiologically related to the disturbance C. The disturbance is not better accounted for by a Psychotic disorder that is not substance induced. Evidence that the symptoms are better accounted for by a Psychotic Disorder that is not a substance induced might include the following: the symptoms precede the onset of the substance use (or medication use); the symptoms persist for a substantial period of time (e.g., about a month) after the cessation of acute withdrawal or severe intoxication, or are substantially in excess of what would be expected given the type or amount of the substance used or the duration of use; or there is other evidence that suggests the existence of an independent non-substance –induced Psychotic Disorder (e.g., a history of recurrent non-substance related episodes. D. The disturbance does not occur exclusively during the course of delirium. Note: This diagnosis should be made instead of a diagnosis of Substance intoxication or Substance Withdrawal only when the symptoms are in excess of those usually associated with the intoxication or withdrawal syndrome and when the symptoms are sufficiently severe to warrant independent clinical attention. TOTAL 186

293.xx Psychotic Disorder Due to General Medical Condition Diagnostic criteria for 293.xx Psychotic Disorder Due to General Medical Condition A. Prominent hallucination or delusions B. There is evidence from the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings that the disturbance is the direct physiological consequence of a general medical condition C. The disturbance is not better accounted for by another mental disorder. D. The disturbance does not occur exclusively during the course of a delirium. TOTAL 295.70b Schizoaffective Disorder Patients with schizoaffective disorder have psychotic episodes that resemble schizophrenia but with prominent mood disturbances. Their psychotic symptoms, however, must persist for some time in the absence of any mood syndrome. Diagnostic criteria for 295.70b Schizoaffective Disorder A. An uninterrupted period of illness during which, at some time, there is either a Major Depressive Episode, a Manic Episode, or a Mixed Episode concurrent with symptoms that meet criterion A for Schizophrenia. Note: The Major Depressive Episode must include criterion A1: depressed mood. B. During the same period of illness, there have been delusions or hallucinations for at least 2 weeks in the absence of prominent mood symptoms. C. Symptoms that meet criteria for a mood episode are present for a substantial portion of the total duration of the active and residual periods of the illness. D. The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medication.

Substance Intoxication Delirium Diagnostic criteria for Substance Intoxication Delirium A. Disturbance in consciousness(i.e., reduced clarity of awareness of the environment) with reduced ability to focus, sustain or shift attention B. A change in cognition (such as memory deficit, disorientation, language disturbance) or the development of a perceptual disturbance that is not better accounted for by a preexisting, established, or evolving dementia C. The disturbance develops over a short period of time (usually hours to days) and tends to fluctuate during the course of the day. 187

D. There is evidence from the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings of either (1) or (2) Criteria Present 1. the symptoms in Criteria A and B developed during Substance Intoxication 2. medication use is etiologically related to the disturbance*

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