The Japanese Period in the Philippines

Prepared by: Marilyn B. Balabag

The Transfer of the Commonwealth Government to America

Pearl Harbor Bombing

The Fall of Bataan and Corregidor
On December 8, 1941, the Japanese invades the Philippines hours after bombing Pear Harbor in Hawaii. While the forces of Gen. Douglas MacArthur retreated to Bataan, the Commonwealth government of President Quezon moved to Corregidor Island. Manila was declared an open city to prevent further destruction. After the fall of Bataan on April 9, 1942 and Corregidor, In March 1942, MacArthur & Quezon fled the country and by invitation of President Roosevelt, the Commonwealth government went into exile to Washington D.C. American and Filipino forces surrendered in May 6, 1942.

As many as 10,000 people died in the Bataan Death March.

Life During the Japanese Period in the Philippine
• Japan launched a surprise attack on the Clark Air Base in Pampanga, Philippines on December 8, 1941, just ten hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Aerial bombardment was followed by landings of ground troops on Luzon. The defending Philippine and United States troops were under the command of General Douglas MacArthur. Under the pressure of superior numbers, the defending forces withdrew to the Bataan Peninsula and to the island of Corregidor at the entrance to Manila Bay.

The Huks In the midst of fear and chaos, the farmers of Pampanga banded together and created local brigades for their protection. Luis Taruc, Juan Feleo, Castro Alejandrino, and other leaders of organized farmers held a meeting in February 1942 in Cabiao, Nueva Ecija. In that meeting, they agreed to fight the Japanese as a unified guerrilla army. Another meeting was held the following month, where in representatives from Tarlac, Pampanga and Nueva Ecija threshed out various details regarding their organization, which they agreed to call "Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa mga Hapon" or HUKBALAHAP. Taruc was chosen to be the Leader of the group,

The Puppet Government
On October 14, 1943, the declaration of the Philippine Independence was read and the “Puppet Republic” was formally inaugurated. Jose P. Laurel was declared as the President of the “Puppet Government”.

The Japanese Influences in the Philippines
Negative Effects: 1. Many Filipinos, Americans, and Japanese died in the battlefields. It was an all-out war in the air, on land, and on water. 2. Hundreds of cities, towns, and barrios were destroyed. Millions of dollars’ worth of property were lost. 3. Economic activities during the war were limited. Industry, commerce, and trade wee at a standstill. Work animals decreased and agriculturesuffered. Most of the people engaged in the buy –and-sell buseness.

Effects of Japanese Colonization
1. Subjects such as Japanese culture and Niponggo, a Japanese language, were made compulsary subjects in schools. 2. Different types of livelihood were taught in vocational schools built by Japanese. They controlled the industries, factories and food production. 3. Filipinos learned to engage in different business like buy and sell and barter trade to earn a living. 4. Filipinos were encouraged to write on a condition that they would use Tagalog as a medium. 5. The HUKBALAHAP or Hukbong Bayan Laban sa Hapon tried to fight the Japanese.

The Japanese Influences in the Philippines
• Livelihood • The Filipinos learned to engage in diferent businesses like buy and sell and barter trade to earn a living.

The Japanese Influences in the Philippines
• In Literature, Filipinos were encouraged to write on a condition that they would use Tagalog as medium. However, the writers did not fully enjoyed the freeedom of expresions.

The Japanese Influences in the Philippines
• Entertainment

The Liberation of the Philippines from the Japanese Occupation
By mid-December, the American soldiers had reached Mindoro. The Japanese, meanwhile, secured other area where their thought other American units would land. Nevertheless, US liberation forces successfully docked at Lingayen Gulf on January 9, 1945. The news alarmed the Japanese. Lt. Gen. Tomoyuki Yamashita, supreme commander of the Japanese troops in Manila, mobilize his kamikazes (Japanese suicide pilots); but they failed to stop Americans. The Japanese also deployed MAKAPILI units to defend Manila but neither succeeds.

On December 8, 1944, President Laurel and his cabinet moved to Baguio upon orders of Yamashita, who is also known as the tiger of Malaya. The Japanese forces retreated to Yamashita line a jungle battlefront stretching along the Sierra Madre Mountains from Antipolo, Rizal to Appari Cagayan. The Japanese in Manila would not give up easily. In fact, it took 3 weeks of intense fighting before they finally surrendered on February 23. Gen. MacArthur continued to liberate other parts of the country. And finally proclaim general freedom from the Japanese on July 4, 1945.

The Third Republic
Independent Philippines and the Third Republic (1946–1972)

Administration of Manuel Roxas (1946-1948)
Elections were held in April 1946, with Manuel Roxas becoming the first president of the independent Republic of the Philippines. The United States ceded its sovereignty over the Philippines on July 4, 1946, as scheduled. However, the Philippine economy remained highly dependent on United States markets. The Philippine Trade Act, passed as a precondition for receiving war rehabilitation grants from the United States, exacerbated the dependency with provisions further tying the economies of the two countries. A military assistance pact was signed in 1947 granting the United States a 99-year lease on designated military bases in the country (the lease was later reduced to 25 years beginning 1967).

Administration of Elpidio Quirino (1948-1953)
The Roxas administration granted general amnesty to those who had collaborated with the Japanese in World War II, except for those who had committed violent crimes. Roxas died suddenly of a heart attack in April 1948, and the vice president, Elpidio Quirino, was elevated to the presidency. He ran for president in his own right in 1949, defeating Jose P. Laurel and winning a four-year term. World War II had left the Philippines demoralized and severely damaged. The task of reconstruction was complicated by the activities of the Communist -supported Hukbalahap guerrillas (known as "Huks"),

Administration of Ramon Magsaysay (1953-1957)
President and Mrs. Magsaysay with Eleanor Roosevelt at the Malacañang Palace. Supported by the United States, Magsaysay was elected president in 1953. He promised sweeping economic reform, and made progress in land reform by promoting the resettlement of poor people in the Catholic north into traditionally Muslim areas. Though this relieved population pressure in the north, it heightened religious hostilities. Nevertheless, he was extremely popular with the common people, and his death in an airplane crash in March 1957 dealt a serious blow to national morale.

who had evolved into a violent resistance force against the new Philippine government. Government policy towards the Huks alternated between gestures of negotiation and harsh suppression. Secretary of Defense Ramon Magsaysay initiated a campaign to defeat the insurgents militarily and at the same time win popular support for the government. The Huk movement had waned in the early 1950s, finally ending with the unconditional surrender of Huk leader Luis Taruc in May 1954.

Administration of Carlos P. Garcia (1957-1961) Carlos P. Garcia succeeded to the presidency after Magsaysay's death, and was elected to a four-year term in the election of November that same year. His administration emphasized the nationalist theme of "Filipino first", arguing that the Filipino people should be given the chances to improve the country's economy.Garcia successfully negotiated for the United States' relinquishment of large military land reservations. However, his administration lost popularity on issues of government corruption as his term advanced.

Administration of Diosdado Macapagal (1961-1965)
Diosdado Macapagal was elected president in the 1961 election, defeating Garcia's re-election bid. Macapagal's foreign policy sought closer relations with neighboring Asian nations, particularly Malaya (later Malaysia) and Indonesia.[101] Negotiations with the United States over base rights led to antiAmerican sentiment.[101] Notably, the celebration of Independence Day was changed from July 4 to June 12, to honor the day that Emilio Aguinaldo declared independence from Spain in 1898.

Marcos era and martial law (1965–1986)

The leaders of the SEATO nations in front of the Congress Building in Manila, hosted by Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos on October 24, 1966. (L-R:) Prime Minister Nguyen Cao Ky (South Vietnam), Prime Minister Harold Holt (Australia), President Park Chung-hee (South Korea), President Ferdinand Marcos (Philippines), Prime Minister Keith Holyoake (New Zealand), Lt. Gen. Nguyen Van Thieu (South Vietnam), Prime Minister Thanom Kittikachorn (Thailand), President Lyndon B. Johnson (United States)

Macapagal ran for re-election in 1965, but was defeated by his former party-mate, Senate President Ferdinand Marcos, who had switched to the Nacionalista Party. Early in his presidency, Marcos initiated ambitious public works projects and intensified tax collection which brought the country economic prosperity throughout the 1970s. His administration built more roads (including a substantial portion of the Pan-Philippine Highway) than all his predecessors combined, and more schools than any previous administration.[104] Marcos was re-elected president in 1969, becoming the first president of the independent Philippines to achieve a second term.

Martial law Amidst the rising wave of lawlessness and the threat of a Communist insurgency, Marcos declared martial law on September 21, 1972 by virtue of Proclamation No. 1081. Marcos, ruling by decree, curtailed press freedom and other civil liberties, closed down Congress and media establishments, and ordered the arrest of opposition leaders and militant activists, including his staunchest critics senators Benigno Aquino, Jr., Jovito Salonga and Jose Diokno. The declaration of martial law was initially well received, given the social turmoil the Philippines was experiencing. Crime rates plunged dramatically after a curfew was implemented.[108] Many political opponents were forced to go into exile.

Marcos claimed that martial law was the prelude to creating a "New Society" based on new social and political values.The economy during the 1970s was robust, with budgetary and trade surpluses. The Gross National Product rose from P55 billion in 1972 to P193 billion in 1980. Tourism rose, contributing to the economy's growth. However, Marcos, his cronies and his wife, Imelda Romualdez-Marcos, wilfully engaged in rampant corruption.

http://www.philippinecountry.com/philippine_history/japanese_colonization.html

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