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A systematic process by which
changes in the environment is
measured through a predetermined
set of indicator parameters

Elements of a Monitoring System


of monitoring
Design of monitoring network
Selection of Indicator parameters
-water -air
Selection of instruments
Design of data collection system
parameters; frequency; data


establish background or baseline data

To establish a classification system; e.g.
Malaysian River Classification System
To measure and monitor impacts of an
To measure and ascertain effectiveness of
a mitigation measure
Regulatory compliance monitoring
Management and benchmarking

Indicator parameters
Odour problems H2S
Sewage Pollution E-Coli; BOD, COD
Air Pollution NOx; SOx, CO and CO2
Soil Erosion Suspended Solids

Case Study
Waste water treatment plant at Mawar
College, UiTM
Lake at Seksyen 7, Shah Alam

WWTP at Mawar College, UiTM

What are the main components of a

What are the indicator parameters?
Design the network for
a. compliance monitoring
b. performance monitoring
c. impact monitoring
d. evaluation of different system

Lake at Seksyen 7, Shah Alam

What is retention time?
What flows into the lake?
What are the indicator parameters?
What are point & non-point sources?
Design the network for
a. background monitoring
b. impact monitoring