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Chuyn 6

K NNG C BN V V O BC TIN LNG


PHC V CNG TC QUN L D N U T
KHU VC NG BNG

LI NI U
Hin nay mt b phn khng nh cc cn b x phng lm vic lin quan
n lnh vc qun l hot ng xy dng li thiu kin thc chuyn mn v xy
dng, iu ny gy khng t kh khn cho h trong cng vic ca mnh. Chnh
v vy chng ti bin son chuyn ny nhm cung cp cho h mt s kin thc
ti thiu h c th c v hiu c cc bn v k thut, kim sot c khi
lng cc cng tc xy lp trong cc giai on trin khai d n ti a phng
mnh.
Chuyn ny s cung cp cho ngi hc:
- Mt s kin thc c bn trong vic biu din vt th trong khng gian ln
mt phng;
- Nhng tiu chun c bn c th c c bn v k thut;
- Mt s quy nh ca nh nc hng dn cng tc o bc khi lng cho
mt s cng tc thng gp ti cc d n nh trn a bn x, phng.
Do thi gian hn hp nn vic bin son ti liu cn nhiu hn ch, rt mong
nhn c kin ng gp, nhn xt ca bn c hon thin gio trnh trong
tng lai. Xin chn thnh cm n.
c th hiu su hn v chuyn ny cc bn c th c thm cc ti liu
tham kho gii thiu phn cui cun ti liu ny.

455

M U
Trong cc giai on ca d n chng ta thng xuyn gp cc bn v thit
k khc nhau, n cung cp cho chng ta cc thng tin v cng trnh tng lai v
vic c v hiu cc bn v thit k ny c ngha v cng quan trng trong cng
tc qun l d n.
Vy bn v thit k l g? Trong cc giai on khc nhau ca d n chng ta
c th gp cc loi thit k khc nhau: thit k c s; thit k k thut; thit k bn
v thi cng; bn v hon cng. Nhng trn a bn x phng do quy m ca cc
d n khng ln nn chng ta hay gp: thit k c s trong giai on lp d n;
thit k bn v thi cng trong giai on lp, thc hin d n; v bn v hon cng
trong giai on thc hin v bn giao a d n vo khai thc s dng. Vi mi
loi bc thit k th bn v k thut cung cp cho ta cc thng tin vi mc
nng su khc nhau v cng trnh nhng ta c th a ra mt khi nim chung v
bn v thit k nh sau: Bn v k thut l cc ti liu k thut trong mi
thng tin lin quan n sn phm nh: ca ngi thit k, hnh dng, cu to
ca sn phm, cc kt qu tnh ton v kch thc, v kh nng chu lc ca sn
phm, ca vt liu lm ra sn phm. . . . . . . . u c th hin trn giy bng cc
k hiu, quy c, cc quy nh c tnh php quy. C th ni bn v k thut l mt
loi ngn ng c bit ca ngi lm k thut ngn ng hnh v, th ngn
ng ny c s dng khng ch trong phm vi mt ngnh ngh m l trong nhiu
ngnh ngh khc nhau, khng ch trong phm vi mt quc gia m trn phm vi
quc t.
Cc hnh v ni trn chnh l hnh biu din cc i tng trong thc t
(my mc, cc cng trnh xy dng. . . .) ln trn mt phng bng cc phng php
biu din khc nhau nhng trong phm vi chuyn ny chng ta ch xem xt hai
phng php biu din: phng php chiu thng gc; phng php chiu phi
cnh.
Cn cc h thng k hiu, quy c v cc quy nh c tnh php quy? l
ni dung c quy nh trong cc tiu chun thuc cc lnh vc khc nhau v do
nh nc ban hnh. Cc tiu chun ny c rt nhiu nhng trong chuyn ny
chng ta gii hn chng mt s tiu chun c gii thiu trong mc ti liu vin
dn, nhng tiu chun ny ngi c c th c v hiu c cc bn v k
thut xy dng.
456

Ni dung chuyn chia thnh hai phn chnh:


Phn I: Gii thiu nhng khi nim chung v v k thut v mt s tiu
chun c bn nht lin quan n trnh by bn v.
Phn II: Gii thiu mt s loi bn v xy dng, gip ngi c lm quen
vi vic c v hiu bn v chuyn mn.
Phn III: Gii thiu mt s kin thc k nng lin quan n cng tc o bc
khi lng thng gp trong cc d n cp x phng.

Phn I
K NNG C BN V
CHNG I: NHNG KHI NIM C BN V V K THUT

I. Mc ch yu cu
- Hiu c tm quan trng ca tiu chun bn v k thut trong h thng
thit k nc ta v trn th gii.
- Nm c cc Tiu chun Vit Nam v thnh lp bn v k thut.
Bn v k thut l ti liu k thut c bn cha ng cc thng tin lin quan
n mt sn phm no . l phng tin thng tin ch yu gia nhng ngi
lm cng tc k thut thuc nhiu lnh vc khc nhau nh: xy dng, kin trc, c
kh, in. . . . . . thc hin c chc nng , bn v k thut phi c thit
lp theo nhng quy tc thng nht c quy nh trong cc tiu chun cp ngnh,
cp quc gia hoc quc t.
Sau y chng ta cng xem mt s quy nh lin quan n trnh by bn v
k thut.

II. Kh giy v cch trnh by bn v


Kh giy c xc nh bng kch thc hai cnh ca t giy v hnh ch
nht sau khi xn. thun tin trong vic lu tr, bo qun v tra cu, cc bn v
k thut phi c thit lp trn cc t giy v c kch thc c quy nh trong
457

TCVN 7285- 2003.


C 5 kh giy chnh, k hiu v kch thc cho trong bng di y
Bng I. 1
K hiu kh giy

A0

A1

A2

A3

A4

Kch thc cc
cnh ca t giy

1189 x 841

841 x 594

594 x 420

420 x 297

297x 210

(mm)

Ch :
- A0 l kh giy ln nht, din tch l 1m2. Cc kh giy cn li nhn c
bng cch chia i theo cnh di ca kh giy ln hn k vi n (theo hnh I. 1).
- i vi cc cng trnh trong kch thc di kh ln so vi kch thc
cao (v d cng trnh thy li) hoc ngc li (cng trnh nh cao tng), cho php
dng cc kh giy ph to thnh t mt kh giy chnh no bng cch tng ln
mt s nguyn ln kch thc cnh ngn ca kh giy chnh v gi nguyn cnh
cn li. V d t kh giy chnh A3 (297x420) c th to ra cc kh giy ph c k
hiu l A3x3(420x981); A3x4(420x1189). . . . .

458

Hnh I. 2 cc loi kh giy

III. Khung bn v v khung tn


Khung bn v l mt hnh ch nht dng gii hn phn giy v hnh, v
bng nt lin m, cch mp t giy sau khi xn 10mm (i vi cc kh giy A0
v A1) hoc 5mm (i vi cc kh giy A2, A3, A4). Nu cc bn v cn ng
thnh tp th cnh tri ca khung bn v cch mp t giy v 25mm.

459

Khung tn
Khung tn

Hnh I. 3 Khung bn v
Khung tn cng c v bng nt lin m v lun t gc pha di, bn
phi ca bn v, st vi khung bn v. T giy v c th t ngang hoc ng v
hng c ca khung tn phi trng vi hng c ca bn v. Ni dung v cch
trnh by khung tn c trnh by trong TCVN 5571 1991 H thng ti liu
thit k xy dng - Bn v xy dng - Khung tn bao gm cc thng tin trong
bng I. 2.

Hnh I. 4 Khung tn

460

Bng I. 2 Ni dung khung tn


S

th

Ni dung cn ghi

t ca
1

Tn c quan n v thit k

Tn cng trnh v c quan u t xy dng

Tn bn v (mt bng, mt ct, mt ng. . . . )

4
5

Loi (kin trc, k cu, in nc. . . ) v s th t bn v


Loi h s (lun chng KTKT, TKKT, bn v thi cng

Ngy k duyt

T l hnh v

T 8

Dnh ghi chc danh, ch k, h tn, ng du. Ty theo loi h

n 14

s, bn v, chc danh ca n v thit k m c th ghi vo cc t 8


n 14 hoc trng mt vi

15

dnh cho n v thit k ghi cc k hiu cn thit

Hnh I. 5 V d khung tn
IV. T l
T l ca bn v l t s gia kch thc o trn hnh biu din v kch thc
tng ng o trn vt th. TCVN 6079 Bn v xy dng v kin trc - Cch trnh
by bn v - T l khuyn ngh cc t l nn dng trong bn v xy dng v kin
trc. Ty theo kh bn v, kch thc v mc phc tp ca i tng cn biu
din m la chn mt trong cc t l trong bng I. 3.
Bng I. 3 T l bn v
T l thu nh

1:5; 1:10; 1:20; 1:50; 1:100; 1:200; 1:500; 1:1000; 1:2000

T l nguyn hnh

1:1

T l bn v c ghi trong khung tn. Nu c mt chi tit no c


461

(chng hn chi tit A) c v vi mt t l khc vi t l chung ca bn v th cn


ghi ch vi kiu sau
A
T.L 1:150
V. Nt v
Trn bn v xy dng cc hnh biu din c v bng nhiu loi nt v
khc nhau. TCVN 5570: 1991 H thng ti liu thit k xy dng - Bn v xy
dng - K hiu ng nt v ng trc trong bn v quy nh cc loi nt v,
chc nng, chiu rng ca nt v cc quy tc nt v trn bn v xy dng.
Bng I. 4 Cc loi nt v trong bn v xy dng

Ch thch:
1.

m ca b ly bng 0, 4 n 0, 8mm;

2.

Quy nh v m ca nt v trong bng I. 4 p dng vi hnh v c t

l t 1/50 tr xung:
3.

i vi hnh v c t l ln hn 1/50 phi cn c theo t l hnh v

chn m nt v tng ng.


4. Khi hai hay nhiu nt v trng nhau th v theo th t u tin sau:
- Nt lin m (ng bao thy, cnh thy)
- Nt t (ng bao khut, cnh khut)
- Nt chm gch mnh (Gii hn mt phng ct c hai nt m hai

462

u)
- Nt chm gch mnh (ng tm, trc i xng)
- Nt lin mnh (ng kch thc)
5. Trong mi trng hp, tm ng trn phi c xc nh bng giao
im ca hai on gch ca nt chm gch; cc nt t, nt chm gch phi giao
nhau bng cc gch.
VI. Ch v s
Trong bn v xy dng khng c vit ch v s mt cch ty tin m phi
dng cc loi ch v s c quy nh theo TCVN 4608: 1988 Ti liu thit k.
Ch v ch s trn bn v xy dng.

Hnh I. 6.a Kiu ch in hoa v

Hnh I. 6.b Kiu ch in hoa v ch s vung, nt

ch s vung, nt u

Cc kiu ch v ch s
theo TCVN 4608: 1988 c th
vit ng hay nghing ty theo
yu cu v tnh cht ca ni
dung cn minh ha (Tn bn v,
tn hnh v, ch thch trn hnh
v, thuyt minh v. v. . . )
nghing ca ch v ch s
khng c ln hn 300 so vi
phng thng ng ca dng
Hnh I. 6. c Kiu ch in hoa v ch s vung, nt u
vit.

463

VII. Ghi kch thc


Trn bn v, hnh biu din ca cc vt th ch cho bit hnh dng v cu to
ca n. th hin ln ca vt th, trn c s c th ch to hoc sn xut,
xy dng c sn phm trong thc t cn phi ghi y cc kch thc ca n.
TCVN 5705 1993 quy nh cch ghi kch thc trn bn v k thut.
VII. 1 Mt s quy nh chung
Kch thc ghi trn bn v l kch thc tht ca vt th, khng ph thuc
vo t l ca hnh biu din.
Ni chung mi kch thc ch ghi mt ln trn hnh biu din no d c
nht.
n v o kch thc di l milimt (mm), khng ghi n v sau con s kch
thc.
n v o cao trnh l m, khng ghi n v sau con s kch thc.
n v o kch thc gc l (0), pht (), giy () v phi ghi n v sau
con s kch thc.
VII. 2 Cc thnh phn kch thc
Mt kch thc ni chung c ba thnh phn l: ng dng, ng kch
thc v con s kch thc. Khi ghi mt kch thc cn thc hin theo th t sau:
v ng dng, v ng kch thc ri ghi con s kch thc.
ng dng: v bng nt lin mnh, dng gii hn mt on (thng hoc
cong) hoc mt gc cn ghi kch thc. Hnh I. 7. a ch r cch v ng dng ca
mt kch thc di ca mt on thng, ca mt cung trn, v kch thc ca mt
gc.
ng kch thc: v bng nt lin mnh, hai u c mi tn chm st vo
ng dng. Mi tn v thun nhn c chiu di (4- 6)b v chiu rng khong 2b
vi (b) l chiu rng ca nt lin m. Thng mi tn c v c chiu di
khong 3mm, rng khong 1mm. Trn hnh I. 7. b th hin hnh mi tn trn bn
v.
Mt s quy nh lin quan n ng kch thc:
+ Khng c dng bt c ng nt no thay cho ng kch thc.
+ Nu c nhiu ng kch thc song song nhau th kch thc ngn t
464

trong, kch thc di t ngoi, cc ng kch thc cch nhau v cch ng


bao ca hnh biu din khong 5- 7mm (hnh I.7. b)
+ Khi ng kch thc ngn qu, cho php a mi tn bng gch cho
v ti giao im ca ng dng v ng kch thc (hnh I.7. a).
+ Khi hnh biu din khng y v l do i xng, ng kch thc
ch c mt mi tn, u cn li v vt qua trc i xng khong 3mm. Trng
hp hnh biu din b ct la, ng kch thc vn v lin tc (hnh I. 7. c)
Con s kch thc: Biu th gi tr thc ca kch thc, thng ghi khong
gia, pha trn ng kch thc khong 1, 5mm. Dng kh ch 2, 5- 3, 5mm.

Hnh I. 7. a. Cch ghi kch thc on thng

Hnh I. 7. b. Cch ghi kch thc khi c


nhiu ng kch thc song song nhau

465

Hnh I. 7. c. Cch ghi kch thc khi hnh biu din khng y hoc b ct la

Hnh I. 7. d v hnh I. 7. e th hin hng ghi con s kch thc di v kch


thc gc, chng ph thuc vo nghing ca ng kch thc. Ring i vi
kch thc gc, cho php vit con s kch thc nm ngang ti ch ngt qung ca
ng kch thc.

Hnh I. 7. d. Hng ghi con s trn bn v

466

Hnh I. 7. e. Hng ghi con s trn bn v


VII. 3 Cc du v k hiu dng ghi kch thc
- Ghi bn knh cung trn < 1800. Dng k hiu R, ghi trc con s ch bn
knh (hnh I. 7. f. ). ng kch thc ch c mt mi tn, hng qua tm cung
trn.

Hnh I. 7. f. Cch ghi bn knh cung trn (hoc ng ni hai on thng)


- Ghi ng knh cung trn hoc cung trn > 1800. Dng k hiu , ghi
trc con s ch ng knh (hnh I. 7. g. ). ng ghi kch thc c th v qua
tm hoc ngoi ng trn.

467

Hnh I. 7. g. Cch ghi ng knh ng trn


- Ghi kch thc hnh vung: dng k hiu
thc cnh hnh vung (hnh

, ghi trc con s ghi kch

).

Hnh I. 7. h. Cch ghi kch thc hnh vung

- Ghi dc: dng k hiu


, t trc tr s Tang ca gc dc, u nhn
ca k hiu hng v chn dc (hnh ). i vi cc dc nh, cho php dng k
hiu l ch i ghi trc tr s ca dc di dng % ( dc i=1% ca y
mng).
- Ghi cao. Trn mt ng hoc hnh ct ng ca cng trnh xy dng,
ghi cao ngi ta dng k hiu

, nh ca tam gic chm vo ng dng

v qua ch cn ghi cao. Con s ch cao c n v l mt vi chnh xc hai


468

s l, (hnh I. 7. i).
- Khi cn ghi cao trn mt bng con s ch cao c ghi trong mt
hnh ch nht v bng nt lin mnh v t ti ch cn ghi cao (kch thc 2, 00
hnh I. 7. i. )

Hnh I. 7. i. Cch ghi dc v kch thc trn mt bng

Hnh I. 7. j. Cch ghi dc

- Ghi di cung trn: Dng k hiu


thc ch di cung trn (hnh I. 7. k. )

469

, t pha trn con s ghi kch

Hnh I. 7. k. Cch ghi di cung trn


I. K hiu ng trc
a. ng trc ca hnh v c ghi bng s hoc bng ch trong vng trn
n nh hnh I. 7. a. vi:
- S ghi theo s Rp.
- Ch ghi theo ch ci, kiu ch in vit hoa, tr hai ch I v O v d ln vi
ch s.
- m ca nt ch v ch s bng b/2.
b. ng knh ca vng trn k hiu ph thuc vo t l ca hnh v v c
quy nh:
- 6 mm cho hnh v vi t l nh hn 1: 200;
- 8 mm cho hnh v vi t l t 1: 200 n 1: 100;
- 10 mm cho hnh v vi t l ln hn 1: 100;
- m nt vng trn bng t b/4 n b/3
c. Th t ghi ch, ch s k hiu ng trc nh trong cc v d di y.
d. Trng hp dng k hiu bng ch ci m s ch khng th tip tc k
hiu bng hai ch ci ghp v li bt u t AA, BB. . .
e. i vi cc b phn nm gia cc trc chnh, khi cn t trc trung gian
th k hiu trc ny theo mu ghi trong hnh I. 7. b.

470

Hnh 1. 7. Cch biu din trc


CHNG II: BIU DIN VT TH
I. Cc hnh chiu c bn
TCVN 5:1978 - H thng ti liu thit k - Hnh biu din, hnh chiu,
hnh ct, mt ct quy nh dng su mt ca mt hnh hp ch nht lm su mt
phng hnh chiu c bn, vt th cn biu din c t trong lng hnh hp.
Trong bn v xy dng ta thng dng php chiu trc giao trc tip th hin
cc vt th. Php chiu trc giao trc tip l vic th hin mt vt th bng cc
giao im ca cc tia chiu vung gc vi mt mt phng. Mt nhn th hin pha
ca vt th i din vi mt ngi thit k. Cc hnh chiu c bn c t v tr
nh trn hnh II. 1. v c t tn nh sau:
- Hnh chiu ng (cn gi l hnh chiu t trc hay hnh chiu
chnh);
- Hnh chiu bng (cn gi l hnh chiu t trn);
- Hnh chiu t cnh (hay cn gi l hnh chiu t tri);
471

- Hnh chiu t phi;


- Hnh chiu t di;
- Hnh chiu t sau.

Hnh II. 1
S lng hnh chiu phi gii hn mc cn v biu din vt th r
rng, chnh xc, trnh s biu din trng lp. Trong xy dng do cc vt th c
kch thc ln nn cc hnh chiu khng c t theo v tr nh hnh II. 1 v
chng cn c t tn di d phn bit.
II. Hnh ct v mt ct
Khi biu din cc vt th, b phn rng trong lng vt th c th hin
bng nt t trn cc hnh chiu. Nu cc b phn rng ny c cu to phc tp
(nht l trong xy dng) th s lng cc nt t ny s nhiu v trung vi cc nt
thy v gy rt nhiu kh khn cho vic c v hiu bn v. lm r cc cu to
rng ny, ngi ta dng mt loi hnh biu din c tn l hnh ct v mt ct.

472

Hnh II. 2. a.

Hnh II. 2. b.

Chng hn c mt vt th c cu to rng (hnh II. 2. a. ). Tng tng dng


mt mt phng (R) ct ngang qua phn rng ca vt th , nhc b phn vt th
nm gia mt phng (R) v mt ngi quan st ri chiu phn cn li ln mt
phng hnh chiu c bn song song vi mt phng (R) (hnh II. 2. a). Hnh biu
din thu c bng cch ni trn gi l hnh ct.
Hnh phng gii hn bi giao tuyn ca mt phng ct vi b mt ca vt th
gi l mt ct. Ni cch khc mt ct l phn c ca vt th b mt phng (R) ct
qua, l hai min phng c gch cho.
Nhn xt rng mt ct ch l mt b phn ca hnh ct, ni cch khc i hnh
ct bao gm mt ct bn trong n. Hnh II. 2. b. cho thy hnh chiu ng c p
dng hnh ct ca vt th cho.
a) Hnh ct
* Phn loi hnh ct: c hai cch phn loi hnh ct:
- Theo v tr ca mt phng ct: thng gp ba loi hnh ct sau (hnh
II.3.):
+ Hnh ct ng: l hnh ct dng mt phng ct song song vi mt
phng hnh chiu ng (hnh ct A- A);
+ Hnh ct bng: l hnh ct dng mt phng ct song song vi mt phng
473

hnh chiu bng (hnh ct B- B);


+ Hnh ct cnh: l hnh ct c c bi mt mt phng ct song song vi
mt phng hnh chiu cnh (hnh ct C- C).

Hnh II. 3 Hnh ct n gin

- Phn loi theo s lng mt phng ct:


+ Hnh ct n gin: l hnh ct ch dng mt mt phng ct (hnh II. 2 v
hnh II. 3);
+ Hnh ct phc tp: l hnh ct thu c khi dung nhiu hn hai mt
phng ct.
Nu cc mt phng ct song song vi nhau th gi l mt phng ct bc (hnh
II. 4).
Nu cc mt phng ct khng song song vi nhau th sau khi ct phi xoay
(quay quanh trc) mt phng ct c v tr bt k ti v tr song song vi mt phng
hnh chiu c bn ri mi chiu v hnh ct thu c gi l hnh ct xoay (hnh
II.5).
474

Hnh II. 4 Hnh ct phc tp

Hnh II. 5 Hnh ct xoay


* Mt s quy c v hnh ct:
- Trn hnh ct, ng bao quanh mt ct (tc l phn c ca vt th b
475

mt phng ct ct qua) c v bng nt lin m ng bao phn thy


ca vt th nng sau mt phng ct c v bng nt lin mnh.
- Trn hnh ct, phn c ca vt th b mt phng ct i qua c gch
bng cc nt lin mnh song song, cch u nhau v nghing 450 so vi
ng nm ngang, khi cn thit th phi v k hiu vt liu (hnh II. 6).

Hnh II. 6 Mt s k hiu vt liu theo TCVN 7- 1993

Khi dng k hiu khng c trong tiu chun phi thm ch dn nh sau:

476

- ch r v tr ca mt phng ct ngi ta dng nt ct. Nt ct bao gm


cc on thng v bng nt lin m t ti u, cui v cc ch chuyn tip ca
cc mt phng ct v ni gia chng l nt lin m t ti u, cui v cc ch
chuyn tip ca cc mt phng ct v ni gia chng l nt gch chm mnh. Nt
ct ngoi cng khng c chm vo ng bao ca vt th. ch hng nhn
ngi ta dng mi tn m u nhn hng ti v chm vo nt ct, gn mi tn ghi
ch hoa t tn cho hnh ct.
- i vi mt phng ct bc, khng cn th hin cc mt phng chuyn tip
gia cc mt phng c v tr song song vi mt phng hnh chiu (hnh II. 4)
b) Mt ct
Mt ct l phn c ca vt th b mt phng ct ct qua. Ni cch khc, mt
ct l hnh phng gii hn bi giao tuyn ca mt phng ct vi b mt ca vt th.
Mt ct c hai loi: mt ct ri v mt ct chp.
Mt ct ri l mt ct t ngoi hoc ti ch ct la ca hnh chiu c bn
tng ng (Hnh II. 7). ng bao ca mt ct ri v bng nt lin m.

Hnh II. 7 V d mt ct ri

Mt ct chp l mt ct v ngay trn hnh chiu c bn tng ng ti v tr


ct (Hnh II. 8). ng bao ca mt ct ri v bng nt lin mnh.
Mt ct cng phi ghi ch ging nh trn hnh ct v gm c: nt ct ch v
tr ca mt phng ct; mi tn chnh hng nhn; ch ci ch tn gi ca mt ct.

477

Trong cc trng hp sau y vic ghi ch c n gin ha:


- Mt ct chp v mt ct ri t ng v tr ca mt phng ct hoc ti ch
ct la ca hnh chiu: ch cn v nt ct km mi tn ch hng nhn (hnh II. 7. a,
b).
- Nu mt ct c trc i xng th khng cn v mi tn ch hng nhn
(hnh II. 7. c v hnh II. 8. b)

Hnh II. 8 V d mt ct chp


III.

Hnh chiu phi cnh

Hnh chiu phi cnh l hnh biu din ni, c xy dng bng php chiu
xuyn tm v thng dng trn cc bn v xy dng m t cc i tng c
kch thc kh ln nh nh ca, cu ng, cng trnh thy li. . . Hnh chiu phi
cnh thng v km vi hnh chiu thng gc, n cho ta hnh nh ca cng trnh
ging nh khi ta quan st trong thc t, gip cho ngi c bn v d dng hnh
dung ra cng trnh .

478

Hnh II. 9. Hnh chiu phi cnh

Hnh II. 9. Hnh chiu trc o

ca cng trnh

ca mt chi tit my

CHNG III: BN V NH
I. MC CH YU CU
- Nm c ni dung c bn ca mt bn v nh dn dng (cc hnh chiu
thng gc ca mt ngi nh);
- Nm c cc quy nh v nt v, v cch ghi kch thc v mt s k
hiu quy c dng cho bn v nh.
- c v hiu c bn v nh dn dng n gin.
II. KHI NIM CHUNG
Bn v nh l bn v m t hnh dng bn ngoi, b cc bn trong v th
hin cc kt qu tnh ton v kh nng chu lc ca cc b phn ngi nh t mng
cho n mi nh: mng nh, nn nh, cc ct, tng, dm, sn, cu thang, cc loi
ca, mi nh . N l hnh thc th hin ch yu trong kin trc cn c vo
ngi ta c th xy dng c ngi nh.
Trn bn v nh, thng dng ba loi hnh biu din: hnh chiu thng gc
479

nh: mt ng, mt bng ca cc tng v cc hnh ct ca ngi nh. Ngoi ra, c


th v hnh chiu phi cnh ca ngi nh tng thm tnh trc quan v tnh thm
m ca bn v; hnh chiu trc o ca mt s b phn ca ngi nh nhm gip cho
ngi thi cng, ch u t d hnh dung v hiu r hn cu to ca cc b phn .
Ty theo cc giai on thit k, c th chia cc bn v nh ra cc loi sau:
- Bn v thit k c s (v trong giai on lp d n u t xy dng cng
trnh cho cc d n c gi tr trn 15 t ng tr ln);
- Bn v thit k k thut (v trong giai on thc hin d n u t xy
dng cng trnh vi cc d n phc tp, c quy m cp hai tr ln);
- Bn v thit k thi cng (v trong giai on thc hin d n u t xy
dng cng trnh vi cc d n thit k hai bc, ba bc hoc d n ch lp bo
co kinh t k thut c gi tr di 15 t ng);
- Bn v hon cng (v trong giai on thc hin d n u t xy dng
cng trnh v giai on bn giao a d n vo khai thc s dung) th hin thc t
thi cng cng trnh.
Trong mt h s bn v nh, thng c cc bn v sau:
- Bn v mt bng ton th;
- Bn v cc hnh chiu ca ngi nh;
- Bn v cc chi tit kt cu ca ngi nh.
Ngoi ra cn c cc bn v thit k v in, cp thot nc, thng hi, cp
nhit. . .
tin cho vic lu tr, tu theo tnh cht ni dung bn v ngi ta li phn
ra:
- Bn v kin trc (thng k hiu K. T) ch yu th hin hnh dng bn
ngoi v cch xp xp cc tng, cch b cc cc bung trong tng tng. i khi
trong bn v kin trc cn th hin c vic b tr ni tht trong ngi nh;
- Bn v kt cu (K. C) trn th hin cc kt qu tnh ton kh nng
chu lc ca cc b phn ch yu ca ngi nh nh: mng, cc ct, cc dm, sn
nh, bn cu thang.... ;
Cc bn v th hin h thng cp in (); h thng cp nc (Nc); h thng
thot nc (Nt). . . Cc k hiu ny c ghi khung tn;
480

Di y trnh by bn v mt bng ton th v cc hnh chiu ca mt ngi


nh dn dng.
III. MT BNG TON TH
thit k mt ngi nh thng phi c:
- Mt bng quy hoch: l bn v hnh chiu bng mt khu t, trn ch r
mnh t c php xy dng. Mt bng quy hoch thng l bn v trch ra t
bn a chnh ca thnh ph (H. III. 1). T l ca n thng nh (1: 5000 1:
10. 000).

Hnh III. 1 Mt bng quy hoch

- Mt bng ton th: l bn v hnh chiu bng cc cng trnh trn mnh t
xy dng.
Hnh III. 2 trnh by mt bng ton th mt nh my thc phm. Trn ta
thy s th t ca cc cng trnh c vit bng ch s La- m, cnh c cc du
chm biu th cao ca cng trnh (v d II l nh hai tng).
Trn mt bng ton th c v hng bc nam v hoa gi. T l thng dng
v mt bng ton th l 1: 200; 1: 500; 1: 1000; 1: 2000.
IV. CC HNH BIU DIN CA MT NGI NH
th hin hnh dng, c cu ca mt ngi nh, ngi ta thng dng cc
481

hnh biu din sau:


- Hnh chiu ng v hnh chiu cnh (thng gi l mt ng);
- Hnh ct bng (trong xy dng thng gi l mt bng);
- Hnh ct ngang v dc;
- Hnh phi cnh, hnh chiu tr o (nu cn).
Trong cc hnh biu din ny, mt bng l quan trng nht.

Hnh III. 2 Mt bng ton th


4.1 MT NG
Mt ng ca ngi nh l hnh chiu th hin hnh dng bn ngoi ca ngi
nh, n c th l hnh chiu tr trc, t sau, t phi hoc t tri. N th hin v
p ngh thut, hnh dng, t l cn i gia kch thc chung v kch thc tng
b phn ngi nh v. v. . . Thng thng bn v mt ng hng ra pha nhiu
ngi qua li c v k hn. N c v bng t l ln hn so vi cc mt ng
khc v c gi l mt ng chnh. i vi cc ngi nh bit lp, c th v mt
ng t nhiu pha

482

Hnh III.3

483

1/ Mt ng v bng nt lin mnh (s/3 s/2) v ch th hin cc b phn


trng thy c ca ngi nh nh cc bc thm, ca ra vo, ca s, bn hoa, ban
cng, tm chn ht, mi... Ring ng mt t v bng nt lin m.
2/ Trn mt ng khng cn ghi kch thc, nu cn thit th c th v v
ghi tn cc trc tng bin ph hp vi cc trc ghi trn mt bng.
3/ Nu mt ng v trn t giy khc vi t giy c v mt bng th ngi ta
phn bit cc mt ng bng cch ghi thm cc ch hoc ch s ng vi cc trc
tng trn mt bng. Nhng ch v ch s ny cho ta bit hng nhn vo mt
ng cn v. Th d: Mt ng trc 1-10 (Hnh III.3).
4/ giai on thit k s b, trn mt ng khng ghi kch thc m thng
v thm ni sng, cy ci, ngi, xe c. . . vi t l ph hp (cho php t mu v
v bng tng tnh trc quan v tnh thm m ca bn v) ngi xem bn v
thy c tng th khu vc xy dng v c iu kin so snh ln ca cng trnh
vi khung cnh xung quanh.
5/ giai on thit k k thut trn mt ng c ghi kch thc chiu ngang
v chiu cao ca ngi nh, nh du cc trc tng, trc ct. . .
4.2. MT BNG CC TNG
Mt bng ngi nh chnh l hnh ct bng ca cc tng vi cc mt phng ct
tng tng nm ngang v cch mt sn khong 1, 50m nhm th hin cch b tr
cc bung mi tng, v tr, kch thc cc tng vch, ca i, ca s, hnh lang,
cu thang, ban cng. . . .
y l hnh biu din quan trng nht ca ngi nh, khi thit k ngi ta
thng dnh s quan tm hng u ti vic b cc mt bng cc tng.
1/ Mi tng nh c mt mt bng ring. Nu nh hai tng c trc i xng,
cho php v mt na mt bng tng 1 kt hp vi na mt bng tng 2. Nu cc
tng c c cu ging nhau, ch cn v mt mt bng chung cho cc tng .
2/ Mt bng thng v theo t l 1:50;1:100. Nu bn v c t l nh (<
1:200), tng nh cho php t en.
3/ Nt lin m trn mt bt bng s =0, 6 0, 8mm dng v ng bao
quanh ca tng, ct v vch ngn b mt phng ct ct qua. Dng nt lin mnh

484

Hnh III.4

(s/2 s/3) v ng bao ca cc b phn nm di mt phng ct (nh bu ca


s) v v cc thit b c trong nh.
Trn mt bng cn v cc nt ct biu th vt ca mt phng ct nu bn
485

v t l ln. Ct b tng ct thp c th t en phn bit vi tng xy gch.


4/ Xung quanh mt bng thng c cc dy kch thc sau:
- Dy kch thc st ng bao ca mt bng ghi kch thc cc mng
tng v cc l ca.
- Dy th hai ghi kch thc khong cch cc trc tng, trc ct. . .
- Dy ngoi cng ghi kch thc gia cc trc tng bin theo chiu dc hay
ngang ngi nh (xem H. III.4).
Cc trc tng v trc ct c ko di ra ngoi v tn cng bng cc vng
trn ng knh khong 810mm, trong ghi s th t 1, 2, 3 cho cc tng
ngang, tc l theo chiu di ngi nh, t tri sang phi, v ghi cc ch in hoa A, B,
C. . . theo chiu rng ngi nh k t di ln trn.
5/ Bn trong mt bng c ghi:
- Kch thc chiu di, chiu rng (thng thy) mi phng;
- Cc kch thc xc nh v tr v chiu rng cc l ca nm trn cc
tng hoc vch ngn trong nh, chiu rng cc cnh thang ......
- Kch thc v chiu dy cc tng, vch ngn, kch thc mt ct cc
ct;
- Kch thc ghi din tch tng phng dng n v din tch l m2 nhng
khng ghi n v sau con s kch thc v c nt gch di con s ch
din tch.
i khi cn ghi cao ca sn nh (ct sn) so vi cao mt sn tng mt
quy c l 0,00. Dng n v o l mt v t ngay ti ch cn ch cao y.
6/ Trn mt bng c v k hiu quy c cc c v thit b v sinh nh
(H. III.3): ging, bn, gh, t, i vng, chu ra, h x, bn tm vv.
7/ Trong cc b phn ca ngi nh th cu thang l b phn cn c lu .
Hnh III.4 trnh by mt mt ct v cc hnh ct bng ca cu thang hai cnh,
tng ba.
Trn mt bng cu thang c ch hng i ln bng mt ng gp khc.
ng ny c mt chm ghi bc u tin ca tng di, v tn cng bng mi
tn ch bc thang cui cng ca tng trn. Dng ng gch cho th hin cnh
thang b mt phng ct i qua. Trn mt bng tng mt v tng trung gian cnh
486

thang th nht b ct. mt bng tng trn cng khng c cnh thang no b ct.
Ch thch:
a- i vi mt s cng trnh yu cu cao v m thut, bn cnh mt bng
thng thng, cn v mt bng ca mi, sn v trn nh th hin cc trang tr
kin trc.
b- Trn mt bng thit k k thut v thi cng cn ghi y cc kch thc
cn thit cho vic thi cng, lp t thit b. xy cc mng tng v ct cn v
mt bng ca mng.
c- Nhng iu trnh by trn p dng cho mt bng kin trc. Khi thit k
h thng cp thot nc, hoc in. . . ngi ta cng v mt bng. Nhng khi
mt bng thng c v n gin bng nt mnh, tp trung th hin cc thit b
lp t bn trong ngi nh.
TCVN 6081 - Bn v nh v cng trnh xy dng - Th hin cc tit din
trn mt ct v mt nhn - Nguyn tc chung quy nh cc k hiu thng dng
trong bn v nh TCVN 6083: 1995 - Bn v k thut - Bn v xy dng Nguyn tc chung v trnh by bn v b cc chung v bn v lp ghp, hnh III.
th hin mt s k hiu kt cu theo tiu chun ny.
TCVN 4609: 1998 H thng ti liu thit k xy dng - dng trong nh
- K hiu quy c th hin trn bn v mt bng ngi nh, trn hnh III. th hin
mt s vt theo tiu chun ny.
i vi cc ngi nh nh, c hnh khi n gin th ch cn v mt bng v
mt ng l . Nhng i vi cc cng trnh ln c c cu phc tp, ngoi mt
bng v mt ng, cn cn v thm cc hnh ct.

487

Hnh III.5

488

Hnh III.6 Mt s k hiu theo TCVN 6083

Hnh III.7 Mt s k hiu theo TCVN 4609

489

Hnh III.8

490

Hnh III.9
Hnh III.10

4.3. HNH CT NG
Hnh ct ngi nh l cc hnh ct thu c khi dng mt hay nhiu mt
phng ct tng tng thng ng song song vi cc mt phng hnh chiu c bn
ct ngang qua khng gian trng ca ngi nh t tng mt n tng thng. Nu
491

mt phng ct b tr dc theo chiu di ngi nh thi ta c hnh ct dc, nu b tr


theo chiu ngang ngi nh th ta c hnh ct ngang. V tr ca mt phng ct c
nh du trn mt bng tng mt bng nt ct km tn gi bng ch in hoa.
1. Hnh ct th hin khng gian bn trong ngi nh. N cho ta bit chiu cao
cc tng, cc l ca s v ca ra vo, kch thc ca tng, v ko, sn, mi, mng,
cu thang. . . v tr v hnh dng chi tit kin trc trang tr bn trong cc phng. V
vy, mt phng ct phi ct qua nhng ch c bit cn th hin (qua gia mt
cnh thang, qua ca ra vo, dc theo hnh lang. . . ). Khng c mt phng ct
i qua dc tng, trc ct hoc khong h gia hai cnh thang. . .
2. Tu theo mc phc tp ca ngi nh m hnh ct c th v theo t l
ca mt bng hoc t l ln hn.
3. ng nt trn hnh ct cng c quy nh nh trn mt bng.
4. cao ca nn nh tng 1 quy c ly bng 0,00. cao di mc
chun ny mang du m. n v cao l mt v khng cn ghi sau con s ch
cao. Con s kch thc ghi trn cc gi nm ngang nh trn hnh III.9.
5. Ch thch: Ngi ta cn phn ra hnh ct kin trc v hnh ct cu to.
Trong giai on thit k s b, thng v hnh ct kin trc, trn ch yu th
hin khng gian bn trong cc phng. Ch n cc chi tit trang tr kin trc cn
mng, mi, v ko trn bn v khng th hin, hoc v n gin. Tri li hnh ct
cu to ch yu c v giai on thit k k thut (Hnh III.9, v hnh III.10)
trn th hin r mng, v ko, cu to mi, sn v. v. . . Cc kch thc cn ghi
y thi cng.
Ngoi cc khi nim v hai loi hnh ct trn, cn c hnh ct phi cnh.
4.4. HNH PHI CNH (NU CN)
Hnh phi cnh ca cng trnh gip cho ngi c c th nhn thy cng
trnh xy dng trong tng lai, hin nay cng ngh tin hc pht trin cho php
ngi ta dng hnh phi cnh ging nh mt bc nh chp cng trnh tng lai
(hnh III.11)
V. TRNH T C BN V NH
Thng ta c bn v nh theo trnh t sau:
Trc ht c bn v tng mt bng xem mi lin h gia cc hng mc
492

trong d n vi nhau, v vi khng gian chung quanh.


c cc bn v phi cnh (nu c) c th d dng hnh dung v tng th
cng trnh trong tng lai.
c cc bn v mt ng s b hnh dung ra hnh dng kin trc bn
ngoi ca cng trnh.
Ln lt c cc bn v mt bng cc tng hiu cc b tr cc khu chc
nng bn trong ngi nh: hnh lang, cc phng chnh, cc loi ca, cu thang, khu
ph.....
Theo v tr ca mt phng ct ghi trn mt bng tng mt, kt hp vic c
bn v trn mt bng tng mt, kt hp vi c bn v mt bng mi tng vi hnh
ct ng hiu r hn khng gian mi tng bn trong nh.
c cc bn v kt cu mt s b phn ch u ca nh nh: mng, cc ct,
cu thang, sn, cc bc v lan can cu thang, cc loi ca .....

Hnh III.11 Hnh chiu phi cnh s dng cng ngh 3D

493

CHNG IV: BN V KT CU B TNG CT THP


I. KHI NIM CHUNG
Btng ct thp l loi vt liu hn hp di dng btng lin kt vi ct
thp chng cng lm vic vi nhau trong cng mt kt cu.
Btng l mt loi nhn to, chu nn tt nhng chu ko km nn ngi
ta t ct thp vo nhng vng chu ko ca kt cu khc phc nhc im trn
ca b tng.
Btng ct thp c s dng rng ri trong xy dng.
II. CC LOI CT THP.
Ngi ta phn ra hai loi ct thp
- Ct thp mm: gm nhng thanh thp c mt ct trn.
- Ct thp cng: gm cc thanh thp hnh (ch I, ch U)
Loi ct thp mm c s dng nhiu hn loi ct thp cng. Ct thp
mm li chia ra: ct thp trn v ct thp gai: cc gai ny lm tng s lin kt gia
btng v ct thp ( H. IV.1).

Hnh IV.1 Cc loi ct thp mn


Ct thp gai c dng trong cc cng trnh chu rung v chn ng nhiu.
Tu theo tc dng ca ct thp trong kt cu, ngi ta phn ra:
- Ct thp chu lc: Trong cn phn ra ct chu lc ch yu, ct chu lc
cc b, ct phn b.
494

- Ct ai: dng gi cc ct thp chu lc v tr lm vic, ng thi cng


tham gia chu lc.
- Ct cu to: c t thm theo yu cu cu to, tit din ca chng khng
xt n trong tnh ton.
Cc ct thp thng c lin kt thnh li hoc thnh khung. Ngi ta
thng dng dy thp nh hoc dng hn lin kt cc ct thp. tng cng
lin kt trong btng, ct trn c un thnh mc hai u. Nu ct thp khng
di, ngi ta ni ct thp bng cch buc hay hn (hnh IV.2).
Hnh IV.2
Lin kt hn,

Lin kt buc thp

III. CC QUY NH V K HIU QUY C DNG TRN BN V KT


CU BTNG CT THP.
th hin mt kt cu btng ct thp ngi ta thng v:
a) Bn v hnh dng kt cu: (hay bn v vn khun m t hnh dng bn
ngoi ca kt cu

495

Hnh IV.3 Bn v hnh dng kt cu

Hnh IV.4 Bn v trin khai ct thp

b)Bn v ch to kt cu: ch yu nhm th hin cch b tr cc thanh ct


thp bn trong kt cu, khi btng coi nh trong sut. (hnh IV.3, hnh IV.5).

Hnh IV.5 Bn v trin khai ct thp

Hnh IV.6 Cch trin khai bn v ct thp nm trong mt phng ng


496

Di y l cc quy nh v bn v btng ct thp.


1. Trn bn v ch to kt cu phi chn hnh chiu no th hin nhiu c
trng nht v hnh dng lm hnh biu din chnh.
2. Nt v dng trn bn v kt cu btng ct thp:
- Ct chu lc v bng nt lin m ( s 2s )
- Ct phn b, ct ai v bng nt lin m va (2s)
- ng bao quanh cu kin v bng nt lin mnh (3s)
3. thy r cch b tr ct thp, ngoi hnh chiu chnh, ngi ta dng cc
mt ct nhng v tr khc nhau, sao cho mi thanh ct thp c th hin trn
t nht mt ln. Trn mt ct khng ghi k hiu vt liu.
4. Trn hnh biu din chnh v trn cc mt ct, cc thanh thp u c ghi
s k hiu v ch thch nh trn hnh IV.2.
S k hiu c ghi trong vng trn ng t 7 n 10mm
S k hiu trn hnh biu din chnh, hnh ct, hnh khai trin ct thp v
trong bng k vt liu phi nh nhau.
5. Vic ghi ch km vi s k hiu ct thp c quy nh nh sau:
- Con s ghi trc k hiu ch s lng thanh thp. Nu ch dng mt
thanh th khng cn ghi.
- di on ng dng nm ngang, con s ng sau ch L ch chiu di
thanh thp k c on un mc u nu c. Con s ng sau ch a ch khong
cch gia hai trc thanh thp k tip cng loi.
- Ch cn ghi y ng knh, chiu di ca thanh thp ti hnh biu
din no gp thanh ct thp ln u tin. Cc ln sau gp li, nhng thanh ct
thp ch cn ghi s k hiu m thi, v d thanh s 2 trn mt ct v trn hnh
IV.3.
6. din t cch un cc thanh thp, gn hnh biu din chnh, nn v tch
cc thanh thp vi y kch thc (hnh khai trin ct thp). Trn cc on un
ca thanh ct thp cho php khng v ng dng v ng kch thc. (Hnh
IV.5)

497

7. Trn hnh biu din chnh, cng nh trn hnh khai trin ct thp, nu s
lng mt loi ct no kh ln, th cho php ch v tng trng mt s thanh
(v d thp s 3 trn hnh IV.5 v thp s 1, 2 trn hnh IV.4)

8. Trn bn v mt bng ca sn hay mt cu kin no c nhng thanh


ct thp nm trong cc mt phng ng, d hnh dung quy c quay chng i
mt gc vung sang tri hoc v pha trn (hnh IV.4).

. 4. CCH C V V BN V BTNG CT THP.


Khi c bn v btng ct thp, trc tin phi xem cch b tr ct thp trn
hnh chiu chnh (hnh IV.7). Cn c vo s hiu ca thanh thp, tm v tr ca
chng trn cc mt ct bit v tr ct thp cc on khc nhau ca kt cu.
Mun bit chi tit th xem thm hnh khai trin ca ct thp, hay hnh dng ct
thp trong bng k (hnh IV.8).
Cc mt ct nn b tr gn hnh chiu chnh. Nu mt ct v theo mt t l
khc vi t l ca hnh chiu chnh th cn ghi r t l ca mt ct .
Thng bn v kt cu btng ct thp v theo t l: 1:20; 1:50
Sau khi v xong cc hnh biu din, lp bng k vt liu cho cu kin. Bng
k vt liu (hnh IV.9) t ngay pha trn khung tn thng gm cc ct c ni
dung sau:
- S th t
- Hnh dng thanh thp
- ng knh ( mm )
- S lng thanh
- Tng chiu di;
- Trng lng thp.
Cc k hiu quy c dng trn bn v btng ct thp c trnh by trong
bng IV.1.

498

Bng IV.1. Cc k hiu quy c dng trn bn v b tng ct thp


Tn k hiu

K hiu

Ch thch

1. Ct thp thng khng

- Nm trong mt phng

mc, khng chn

bn v
- Mt ct thanh ct thp

2. Ct thp c u un

- Nm trong mt phng

mc na vng trn

bn v
- Nm vung gc vi
mt phng bn v

3. Ct thp c u un
mc nhn
4. Ct thp c du un

- Nm song song vi mt
phng bn v
- Nm vung gc vi
mt phng bn v

5. Ct thp c du ren
(bu lng)
6. u thanh ct thp

- Th hin u thanh ct

khng c mc

thp khng mc, b cc


thanh khc che khut do
trung nhau trn hnh
chiu

7. Hai thanh ct thp hn

- Nm trong mt phng

ni nhau

bn v

8. Hai u thanh ct thp

- u thanh c mc trn

buc ni nhau

nm trong mt phng
bn v
- u thanh c mc nhn
nm trong mt phng
bn v
- u thanh c mc
vung nm trong mt
499

phng bn v
9. Mi ni hn ghp, hn
in mt bn
10. Mi ni hn ghp,
hn in hai bn
11. Mi ni hn in hai
bn c thanh cp
12. Mi ni hn in bn
bn c thanh cp
13. Mi ni hn in i
u
14. Mi ni hn mng
15. Hai thanh ct thp

- Khng hn, khng buc

giao ct nhau

- C buc
- Hn in

Di y gii thiu mt s bn v b tng ct thp:


Hnh IV.7 trnh by bn v mt bng kt cu tng 2. y th hin s
cc kt cu trn tng hai, quy nh r tn, v tr v k hiu cc kt cu.
Hnh IV.8 V trin khai ct thp trn dm D2-2 hnh IV.7. Hnh biu din
chnh cho ta thy cch b tr tng qut cc thanh thp. Cc ct thp ai v ch
c th hin bng cc mt ct I- I, II- II, III- III. Trn hnh khai trin ct thp, cc
thanh thp c t v tr lin h ng dng vi hnh chiu chnh.
Hnh IV.9 V trin khai ct thp ch ct v bng thng k thp. Hnh biu
din chnh cho ta thy cch b tr tng qut cc thanh thp. Cc ct thp ai v ch
c th hin bng cc mt ct.

500

Hnh IV.7

501

Hnh IV.8

DM D2-2

502

Hnh IV.8 Trin khai thp ch ct v bng thng k khi lng thp
CHNG V: BN V KT CU G
I. KHI NIM CHUNG.
Kt cu g l tn chung ch cc loi cng trnh lm bng vt liu g hay
ch yu bng vt liu g. u im ca vt liu g l nh, d gia cng, cch nhit
v cch m tt, c kh nng chu lc kh cao so vi khi lng ring ca n V
th kt cu g c dng rng ri trong nhiu ngnh xy dng c bn, v d lm
503

ct, v ko, sn, khung nh trong cc nh dn dng v cng nghip, dn cu, cu


phao trong cc cng trnh giao thng;cu tu, bn cng, ca u thuyn, ca van,
p nc nh trong cc cng trnh cng v thu li
Trong xy dng, g c th dng dng cy g trn hoc g x. Cn c vo
c tnh k thut ca g ngi ta thng chia g thnh nhm: mi nhm g thch
ng vi mt phm vi s dng nht nh. V kch thc, g dng trong xy dng c
ng knh t 150mm tr ln v di t 1m ti 4, 5m. Ring i vi g x (gm g
hp v g vn), kch thc mt ct c tiu chun ho thun tin trong khu
gia cng v tit kim trong s dng.
K hiu thanh g v mt ct ca chng c trnh by trong TCVN 4610: H
thng ti liu thit k xy dng kt cu g k hiu quy c th hin trn bn
v.
II. CC HNH THC LP NI CA KT CU G
G thin nhin cng nh g qua gia cng ni chung c kch thc hn
ch c v mt ct ln chiu di. tng kh nng chu lc ca cu kin v lin kt
cc cu kin thnh cc dng kt cu c hnh dng v kch thc tho mn yu cu
thit k ngi ta dng nhiu hnh thc lin kt khc nhau nh: lin kt mng, lin
kt cht; lin kt chm; lin kt bng keo dn. Ngoi ra cn dng vt ghp ni ph
nh bulng, inh, vt, inh a, ai thp, bn thp v. v
Mt s k hiu quy c cc hnh thc ghp ni ca kt cu g c trnh by
trong TCVN 4610: H thng ti liu thit k xy dng kt cu g k hiu quy
c th hin trn bn v.
Di y chng ta lm quen vi mt s hnh thc lin kt mng gp nhiu
cc kt cu g.
II.1. MNG MT RNG HOC HAI RNG:
Thng dng lin kt cc thanh g u v ko.
Trn hnh V.1 trnh by loi mng mt rng lin kt hai thanh g trn.
Trn hnh V.2 trnh by loi mng hai rng lin kt hai thanh g hp.
Khi v cc loi mng ny cn lu :
- Trc ca hai thanh v phng ca phn lc gi ta ng quy ti mt
im. Trc ca thanh xin i qua im gia ca mt ct chu lc ca n v loi
504

mng hai rng th trc ny i qua nh ca rng th hai.


- Chiu su rnh h1 2cm i vi g hp: 3cm i vi g trn v khng
c ln hn 1/3 chiu cao h ca mt ct thanh ngang. Nu l mng hai rng th
rnh th hai phi su hn rnh th nht 2cm.
- Khong cch t u mt thanh ngang ti chn rnh rng th nht ly
khong 1. 5h 1 10h1.
hai loi mng ny thng t bulng nh v cc thanh.

Hnh V.1 Mng mt rng

Hnh V.2 Mng hai rng

II.2 MNG T U: Hnh V.3 trnh by loi mng t u thng gp nt


nh v ko.

Hnh V.3 Mng t u

Hnh V.4 Mng ni g dc

II.3 MNG NI G DC: (H. V.5) v ni g gc ( H. V.4a, b, c ).


II.4. MNG GHP THANH G XIN VI THANH G NM
NGANG: (H.V.7) loi ny thng gp v ko nh.
II.5. MNG GHP VUNG GC HAI CY G TRN: loi mng ny
trnh cho g khi ln v trt: n thng c tng cng bng mt bulng. (H.
505

V.7)

Hnh V.5 Mng ni g dc

Hnh V.6 Mng ghp vung gc

Hnh V.7 Mng ni thanh g

hai thanh g trn

xin vi thanh g nm ngang

III. NI DUNG V C IM CA BN V KT CU G
Mt bn v kt cu g ni chung gm c: s hnh hc: hnh biu din cu
to ca kt cu; hnh biu din ca cc nt: hnh v tch cc thanh ca tng nt v
bng k vt liu. i vi cc kt cu n gin ch cn v hnh biu din cu to m
khng cn v tch cc nt ca kt cu . i vi cc nt n gin th khng cn
phi v tch cc thanh ca nt.
III.1. S HNH HC CA KT CU: Thng c v v tr lm
vic dng t l nh (1: 100: 1: 200) v t mt ch thun tin trn bn v u tin

506

ca kt cu. Trn s c ghi kch thc hnh hc ca cc thanh.


III.2. HNH BIU DIN CU TO CA KT CU: Thng v vi t
l 1: 10: 1: 20: 1: 50. Nu kt cu i xng th cho php v hnh biu din cu to
mt na kt cu. Trc ca cc thanh trn hnh biu din cu to phi v song song
vi cc thanh tng ng trn s . th hin r cc ch ghp ni c th dng
hnh chiu ph, hnh chiu ring phn v mt s mt ct. Trn hnh biu din cu
to phi ghi cc kch thc chi tit ca kt cu: cc thanh g u c ghi s k
hiu bng ch s rp trong cc ng trn ng knh 710(mm).

Hnh V.8 Mng ni thanh g


Trn hnh V.8, trnh by biu din cu to ca mt dn v ko g c nhp di
7. 800m. Ngoi hai hnh chiu chnh ra, trn bn v cn c s hnh hc ca dn
v ko: hnh chiu ring phn th hin cch ng inh u ko v cch ni cc
thanh x g bin v nc. Trong bng k vt liu c v tch cc thanh ca dn vi
y kch thc.

507

III.3. HNH V TCH CC NT CA KT CU.


th hin r hn s ghp ni ca cc thanh ti cc nt ca kt cu, ngi
ta v tch cc nt cu kt cu vi t l ln hn (1: 5; 1: 10 ). i vi cc nt c cu
to n gin, ch cn v hnh chiu chnh ca nt; vi cc nt phc tp cn v thm
hnh chiu bng; hnh chiu cnh v nu cn th c th dng c hnh chiu ph,
hnh ct v mt ct. i khi ngi ta cn v hnh chiu trc o ca nt.

Hnh V.9 Bn v tch nt A ca mt dn g.


thun tin cho vic gia cng cc thanh g, ngi ta thng v tch cc
thanh ca nt. Hnh v tch cc thanh c t gn cc hnh chiu c bn ca nt;
trc ca cc thanh thng c v nm ngang.
Trn hnh v tch ca cc thanh cn ghi y kch thc chi tit v mi
thanh u phi ghi s k hiu, ph hp vi s k hiu ghi trn hnh v tch ca
nt hoc trn hnh biu din cu to ca kt cu.
Nt cn v tch c nh du trn s bng mt ng trn km theo
ch in hoa (A) ch tn gi ca nt . y ch cn v hnh chiu ng ca nt.
Ngoi hnh v tch thanh s 2 v s 3 cn v hnh chiu trc o ca nt.

508

III.4. BNG K VT LIU


Bng k vt liu thng t ngay trn khung tn v dng thng k vt
liu cho mt kt cu. Ni chung bng k vt liu thng gm cc ct vi ni dung
nh sau: s k hiu cc chi tit, hnh dng cc chi tit, kch thc ca mt ct, chiu
di, s lng v ghi ch. i vi cc kt cu n gin, th hin r hnh dng v
kch thc cc thanh, cho php v tch cc thanh ngay trong bng

Hinh V.10 Bng k vt liu


k vt liu. Hnh v tch thng gm hnh chiu chnh v mt mt ct trn c
ghi y kch thc (H. V.10)
i vi bn v thi cng cc b phn bng g trong nh dn dng v cng
nghip th khng cn thit phi c y cc ni dung nh nu trn.
Hnh V.11.a, V.11.b gii thiu bn v thi cng mt cnh ca knh v mt
509

khun ca bng g. Cc bn v ny gm hnh chiu chnh v mt s mt ct.

Hinh V.11.a Bn v thi cng

Hinh V.11.b Bn v thi cng

khun ca g

khun ca knh

Cc mt ct ny c v vi t l ln hn v c ghi y kch thc chi


tit gia cng v lp rp.
Mi kt cu g phi c mt bng k vt liu ring. Nu kt cu c th
hin trn nhiu bn v th bng k vt liu t bn v cui cng ca kt cu .
Cng trn bn v cui cng ny cn ghi ch thch nhm g dng trong kt cu v
cc hnh thc ngm, tm, x l mi, mt.
Kch thc ghi trn bn v kt cu g ly n v l mm. Cho php dng n
v l cm khi phi ghi ch thch.
IV. TRNH T C BN V KT CU G.
Mt bn v kt cu g thng c c theo trnh t sau:
510

1. c s hnh hc cu kt cu
2. c hnh biu din cu to ca kt cu.
3. c cc nt ca kt cu.
5. Xem bng k vt liu
K hiu cc loi g v mt ct (Trch TCVN 4610- 88)
TT

Tn gi

K hiu

1 Thanh g trn

2 Na thanh g trn

G hp

G hp vt cnh

G tm

Ch thch cho cc mc 1v 2:
n - s lng thanh g ( y n =2)
D - tr s ng knh thanh g
l - tr s chiu di thanh g
511

Ch thch cho cc mc 3, 4 v5
n - s lng g hp hay g hp vt cnh
h - tr s kch thc ln ca mt ct
- k hiu chung cho cc loi g tm
b - tr s kch thc nh ca mt ct
l - tr s chiu di g hp
Ch thch: Cc k hiu trn y dng cho cc bn v c t l ln hn 1: 50
i vi cc bn v c t l 1: 50 hoc nh hn, trn mt ct v cc ng
gch gch nghing 450 so vi ng bao v cch nhau khong 0, 5- 1, 5mm.
K hiu cc loi ghp ni g (tip) (TCVN 4610- 88)
TT

Tn gi

K hiu

Tm g m
Ch thch:
B, l, s ln lt l tr s chiu rng chiu
di v chiu dy tm g m.

Cht g ngang hnh nm

Cht g dc t thng

Chm g t nghing

512

Ch thch: Cht trn bng g cng hoc


bng thp
n - s lng ci cht
b, s - tr s ng knh ci cht
l - tr s chiu di ci cht
Trn cc bn v c t l nh hn 1:50,
hnh chiu ng cht c th hin bng
mt chm en v hnh chiu bng l
mt gch m

Ch thch: Cht bn xuyn sut


n - s lng ci cht
b, s - tr s chiu rng v chiu dy ci
cht

Ch thch: Ni bng bulng, ai c v


vng m
n - s lng bulng
M - k hiu ng knh nh ren
D - tr s ng knh nh ren
l - tr s chiu di bulng

Ch thch: Ni bng inh a


n - s lng inh a
D - tr s ng knh thn inh
l - tr s chiu di inh k c mc.

513

Ch thch: Ni bng inh


n - s lng inh
D - tr s ng knh thn inh
l - tr s chiu di inh

10

Ch thch: ni bng vt
n- s lng vt
D - tr s ng knh vt
l - tr s chiu di vt
Trn cc bn v c t l nh hn 1:50,
hnh chiu ng vt c th hin bng
mt chm trn.

Phn II
K NNG O BC KHI LNG THEO HNG DN
CA B XY DNG

I. Mc ch, yu cu
- Hc vin nm c cc nguyn tc, cn c, trnh t o bc khi lng.
- Hiu c phng php o bc khi lng v s dng kt qu o bc khi
lng trong cng tc nh gi xy dng.
II. Gii thiu chung
II.1 Tng quan
Trong nhng nm qua, hot ng xy dng c s pht trin mnh m,
nhiu cng trnh xy dng ln c hon thnh v a vo s dng em li nhng
hiu qu kinh t - x hi to ln gp phn vo thnh tu chung ca t nc. Tuy
nhin so vi tc pht trin ngy cng cao ca hot ng xy dng th vic hon
514

thin cc vn bn php quy cng nh vic o to nhn lc cho cng tc lp, kim
sot v qun l chi ph xy dng bc l nhng bt cp cn c s quan tm, iu
chnh thay i cho ph hp
Vi ch trng pht trin kinh t th trng ngy mt hi nhp su rng vi
nn kinh t ton cu th mi lnh vc ca nn kinh t cng phi ng iu vi s
pht trin chung. Trong thi gian va qua Chnh ph c Ngh nh s
112/2009/N-CP ban hnh ngy 14/12/2009 v qun l chi ph u t xy dng
cng trnh. Ngh nh cp ti cc ni dung quan trng v qun l chi ph u
t xy dng cng trnh: tng mc u t, d ton xy dng cng trnh, nh mc
v gi xy dng, thanh quyt ton vn u t... V vy cng tc lp d ton xc
nh chi ph u t xy dng cng trnh cho cc giai on u t l v cng quan
trng. o bc khi lng l mt trong nhng mt xch quan trng trong cng tc
nh gi xy dng v cng l mt bin php khng ch chi ph u t xy dng
cng trnh.
Chnh v vy trong lnh vc kinh t xy dng, cng tc o bc khi lng
cng trnh cn c nghim tc nhn nhn mt cch khch quan, nh gi ng
tm quan trng c bit ca n. V tm quan trng ca cng tc ny B Xy dng
ra Quyt nh s: 737/Q-BXD nm 2009 v Quyt nh s 788/Q-BXD nm
2010 v vic hng dn cng tc o bc khi lng trong hot ng xy dng.
Phn ny s gii thiu vi bn c mt s ni dung chnh v phng php o bc
khi lng.
I.2 Khi nim o bc KLXDCT
din t y nht v vic o bc khi lng xay dng ph hp cc
quy nh hin ti ca Vit nam v thit k v qun l chi ph u t xy dng cng
trnh, c th xem xt khi nim sau: "o bc khi lng xy dng cng trnh, hng
mc cng trnh l vic xc nh khi lng cng tc xy dng c th c thc
hin theo phng thc o, m, tnh ton, kim tra trn c s kch thc, s lng
quy nh trong bn v thit k (thit k c s, thit k k thut, thit k bn v thi
cng), hoc t yu cu trin khai d n v thi cng xy dng, cc ch dn c lin
quan v cc tiu chun, quy chun xy dng Vit Nam".
Chng ta cng c bit mt vi khi nim thng gp.
Tin lng l tnh trc khi lng c th ca cng vic. Tin lng l
cng tc quan trng v l khu kh khn, phc tp, tn nhiu cng sc, thi gian v
515

rt d b st. Nu tin lng cng tc xy lp xc nh khng chnh xc s dn n


sai lch gi tr xy lp cng trnh v dn n sai v nhu cu vt liu, nhn cng,
my thi cng khi gi tr cng trnh s b sai.
Bng tin lng l cn c ch yu v ht sc quan trng khi xc nh gi tr
cng trnh bao gm cc chi ph xy lp, nhn lc, xe my thit b thi cng cng
trnh.
Khi lng cng trnh c hiu nh sau: Khi lng cng trnh l biu th
cc hng mc, b phn cng trnh xy dng hoc s lng thc ca chi tit cu to
kt cu bng n v khi lng vt l hoc n v khi lng t nhin.
I.3 Vai tr ca vic o bc khi lng trong cng tc nh gi xy dng
- Mc a) khon 1 iu 5 ti Ngh nh 112/2009/ N-CP ca Chnh ph
ban hnh ngy 14/12/ 2009 v Qun l chi ph u t xy dng cng trnh, quy
nh:
- Chi ph xy dng c tnh theo khi lng ch yu t thit k c s, cc
khi lng khc d tnh v gi xy dng ph hp vi th trng; chi ph thit b
c tnh theo s lng, chng loi thit b ph hp vi thit k cng ngh, gi
thit b trn th trng v cc yu t khc (nu c)..."
Khon 2 iu 8 v ni dung d ton xy dng cng trnh cng nu:
"...D ton cng trnh c lp cn c trn c s khi lng cc cng vic
xc nh theo thit k k thut hoc thit k bn v thi cng, nhim v cng vic
phi thc hin ca cng trnh ....
Nh vy c th ni rng, tng mc u t hay d ton xy dng cng trnh
(v lin quan ti n l gi gi thu, gi hp ng, gi thanh ton v quyt ton vn
u t xy dng cng trnh...) ch c hnh thnh hoc xc nh c th khi xut
hin yu t khi lng xy dng (cc cng tc xy lp, b phn cng trnh, hng
mc cng trnh...) m yu t khi lng chnh l sn phm ca vic o bc khi
lng. Nh vy cng tc o bc khi lng l yu t quan trng u tin v c
s dng nhm:
- o bc khi lng xy dng t bn v thit k c s xc nh tng mc
u t xy dng cng trnh.
- o bc khi lng xy dng t bn v thit k k thut, thit k bn v thi
cng : xc nh d ton, lp bng khi lng trong h s mi thu, xc nh gi
516

gi thu (Ch u t), gi d thu (Nh thu), xc nh gi hp ng trong trng


hp ch nh thu, xc nh gi thanh ton trong trng hp ch nh thu v
phng thc hp ng trn gi.
- o bc khi lng xy dng t bn v hon cng xc nh gi thanh
ton vi hp ng n gi c nh, n gi iu chnh.
III. Phng php o bc khi lng xy dng cng trnh
3.1 Quy nh chung v o bc khi lng xy dng cng trnh
1. Khi lng xy dng cng trnh, hng mc cng trnh c o bc l c
s cho vic xc nh chi ph u t xy dng cng trnh v lp bng khi lng
mi thu khi t chc la chn nh thu.
2. Khi lng o bc cng trnh, hng mc cng trnh khi lp tng mc u
t, xc nh khi lng mi thu khi la chn tng thu EPC, tng thu cha kha
trao tay cn c th c o bc theo b phn kt cu, din tch, cng sut, cng
nng s dng... v phi c m t y v tnh cht, c im v vt liu s
dng lm c s cho vic xc nh chi ph ca cng trnh, hng mc cng trnh
.
3. i vi mt s b phn cng trnh, cng tc xy dng thuc cng trnh,
hng mc cng trnh khng th o bc c khi lng chnh xc, c th th c th
tm xc nh v ghi ch l khi lng tm tnh hoc khon tin tm tnh. Khi
lng hoc khon tin tm tnh ny s c o bc tnh ton li khi quyt ton
hoc thc hin theo quy nh c th ti hp ng xy dng.
4. i vi cc loi cng trnh xy dng c tnh cht c th hoc cc cng
tc xy dng cn o bc tin lng nhng cha c hng dn hoc hng dn
cha ph hp vi c th ca cng trnh, cng tc xy dng th cc t chc, c
nhn khi thc hin o bc khi lng cc cng tc xy dng c th t a
phng php o bc ph hp vi hng dn o bc khi lng xy dng cng
trnh theo cng b ny v c thuyt minh c th.
5. Trng hp s dng cc ti liu, hng dn ca nc ngoi thc hin
vic o bc khi lng xy dng cng trnh, hng mc cng trnh cn nghin cu,
tham kho hng dn ny bo m nguyn tc thng nht v qun l khi
lng v chi ph u t xy dng cng trnh.
3.2 Yu cu i vi vic o bc khi lng xy dng cng trnh
517

1. Khi lng xy dng cng trnh phi c o, m, tnh ton theo trnh t
ph hp vi quy trnh cng ngh, trnh t thi cng xy dng cng trnh. Khi
lng o bc cn th hin c tnh cht, kt cu cng trnh, vt liu ch yu s
dng v phng php thi cng thch hp m bo iu kin xc nh c
chi ph xy dng.
2. Ty theo c im v tnh cht tng loi cng trnh xy dng, khi lng
xy dng o bc c th phn nh theo b phn cng trnh nh phn ngm (ct 00
tr xung), phn ni (ct 00 tr ln), phn hon thin v phn xy dng khc hoc
theo hng mc cng trnh. Khi lng xy dng o bc ca b phn cng trnh
hoc hng mc cng trnh c phn thnh cng tc xy dng v cng tc lp t.
3. Cc thuyt minh, ghi ch hoc ch dn lin quan ti qu trnh o bc cn
nu r rng, ngn gn, d hiu v ng quy phm, ph hp vi h s thit k cng
trnh xy dng. Khi tnh ton nhng cng vic cn din gii th phi c din gii c
th nh cong vm, tnh cht ca cc cht liu (g, b tng, kim loi...), iu
kin thi cng (trn cao, su, trn cn, di nc...).
4. Cc kch thc o bc c ghi theo th t chiu di, chiu rng, chiu
cao (hoc chiu su); khi khng theo th t ny phi din gii c th.
5. Cc k hiu dng trong Bng tnh ton, o bc khi lng cng trnh,
hng mc cng trnh phi ph hp vi k hiu th hin trong bn v thit k.
Cc khi lng ly theo thng k ca thit k th phi ghi r ly theo s liu thng
k ca thit k v ch r s hiu ca bn v thit k c thng k .
6. n v tnh: Tu theo yu cu qun l v thit k c th hin, mi mt
khi lng xy dng s c xc nh theo mt n v o ph hp c tnh ti s
ph hp vi n v tnh ca cng tc xy dng trong h thng nh mc d ton
xy dng cng trnh. n v tnh theo th tch l m3; theo din tch l m2; theo
chiu di l m; theo s lng l ci, b, n v ...; theo trng lng l tn, kg...
Trng hp s dng n v tnh khc vi n v tnh thng dng ( Inch,
Foot, Square foot) th phi c thuyt minh b sung v quy i v n v tnh
thng dng ni trn.
1.7. Tn gi cc danh mc cng tc o bc trong Bng tnh ton, Bng khi
lng cng trnh, hng mc cng trnh phi ph hp vi tn gi cng tc xy lp
tng ng trong h thng nh mc d ton xy dng cng trnh.

518

3.3 Trnh t trin khai cng tc o bc khi lng XD cng trnh


Bc 1
- Nghin cu, kim tra nm vng cc thng tin trong bn v thit k v ti
liu ch dn km theo. Nghin cu t tng th n b phn ri n chi tit hiu
tht r b phn cn tnh. Hiu s lin h gia cc b phn vi nhau gip ta quyt
nh cch phn tch khi lng mt cch hp l, ng n.
- Phn tch khi lng: L phn tch cc loi cng tc thnh tng khi lng
tnh ton nhng cn phi ch phn tch khi lng phi ph hp vi quy cch
quy nh trong nh mc v trong n gi d ton. Cng mt loi cng tc
nhng quy cch khc nhau th phi tch ring.
Hiu r tng b phn, quan h gia cc b phn. Phn tch khi lng gn
tnh n gin, cc kin thc ton hc nh tnh chu vi, din tch ca hnh phng,
tnh th tch ca cc khi. Cc hnh hoc khi phc tp ta c th chia thnh nhiu
khi n gin.
- Tm hoc tnh kch thc tnh ton: Khi phn tch ra cc hnh hoc khi ta
cn phi tm cc kch thc tnh ton. Kch thc c khi l kch thc trn bn
v, cng c khi khng phi l kch thc ghi trn bn v. Ta cn nm vng cu to
ca b phn cn tnh, quy nh v kch thc xc nh kch thc cho chnh
xc.
Bc 2
- Lp bng tnh ton, o bc khi lng xy dng cng trnh, hng mc
cng trnh. Bng tnh ton ny phi ph hp vi bn v thit k, trnh t thi cng
xy dng cng trnh, th hin c y khi lng xy dng cng trnh v ch
r c v tr cc b phn cng trnh, cng tc xy dng thuc cng trnh.
- Tnh ton v trnh by kt qu: Sau khi phn tch khi lng hp l v
tm c kch thc ta tin hnh tnh ton v trnh by kt qu.
Bng tnh ton, o bc khi lng cng trnh, hng mc cng trnh cn lp
theo trnh t t ngoi vo trong, t di ln trn theo trnh t thi cng (mng, phn
ngm, khung, sn bn trn, hon thin lp t).

Bc 3
519

Thc hin o bc khi lng xy dng cng trnh theo Bng tnh ton o
bc khi lng cng trnh, hng mc cng trnh
Yu cu tnh ton phi n gin, trnh by sao cho d kim tra. Cn ch
cc im sau:
- Khi tnh ton nn trit s dng t tha s chung. Cc b phn ging
nhau, rt tha s chung cho cc b phn c kch thc ging nhau gim bt s
php tnh.
- Phi ch n cc s liu c lin quan dng tnh cho phn tip theo.
- Khi tm kch thc v lp cc php tnh cn ch mi php tnh lp ra l
mt dng ghi vo bng tnh tin lng.
Bng tnh ton o bc khi lng xy dng cng trnh
TT

Ni dung cng vic

Hng mc

b tng cc mc 300

Di

Rng

Cao

Khi

Ghi

lng

ch

M3

II

Hng mc

Bc 4
Tng hp cc khi lng xy dng o bc vo bng khi lng xy dng

cng trnh sau khi khi lng o bc c x l theo nguyn tc lm trn cc


tr s.
Bng tng hp khi lng xy dng cng trnh
TT

Ni dung cng vic

Hng mc

b tng cc mc 300

n v

M3

II

Hng mc

520

Khi lng

Ghi ch

3.4 Mt s quy nh c th khi o bc khi lng xy dng cng trnh


Ty theo yu cu, ch dn t thit k m cng trnh, b phn cng trnh,
hng mc cng trnh c th gm mt s nhm loi cng tc xy dng v lp t.
Khi o bc cc cng tc xy dng v lp t cn ch ti cc quy nh c th i
vi cng tc sau.
3.4.1 Cng tc t
i vi khi lng o, p mng cng trnh nh cao tng, cng trnh thy
cng, tr cu, m cu, hm, cc cng trnh theo tuyn, nn t yu th khi lng
o, p cn bao gm c khi lng cng vic do thc hin cc bin php thi cng
nh lm c chng st l..., nu c.
- Khi lng o, p khi o bc khng bao gm khi lng cc cng trnh
ngm chim ch (ng ng k thut, cng thot nc...).
Bt c cng trnh no khi xy dng cng c cng vic lm t thng l:
* o mng, o mng, p nn, p ng
a) n v tnh: Tnh tin lng cho cng tc t phn ra
+ o v p t cng trnh bng th cng - m3
+ o v p t bng my - 100m3
b) Quy cch:
* Vi cng tc o cn phn bit:
+ Nhm, loi cng tc;
+ Loi vt bn, t, ;
+ iu kin thi cng, bin php thi cng;
+ Kch thc h o.
* Vi cng tc o cn phn bit:
+ Nhm, loi cng tc?
+ Cp t, ?
+ Loi vt liu (t, , ct..)?
+ dy ca lp vt liu p?
521

+ cht theo yu cu?


+ iu kin thi cng, bin php thi cng;
+ Kch thc h o
c) Phng php tnh
Khi khi lng cng tc o, p t thng gp cc trng hp sau:
-

o, p t c thnh thng ng

Trng hp ny thng gp cng trnh o mng khng su, t tt t st


l hoc thnh c chng st l bng vch ng.
Ch c o vi vch ng t nguyn th, c m t nhin, khng c
mch nc ngm v xa cc ngun chn ng vi chiu su gii hn.
Theo qui phm k thut an ton trong xy dng TCVN-5308-1991 th chiu
su h, ho o vch ng trong cc loi t c qui nh nh sau:
- Khng qu 1m i vi t ct v t ti xp,v t mi p;
- Khng qu 1,25m i vi t pha ct ( ct);
- Khng qu 1,50m i vi t pha st ( st) v t st:
- Khng qu 2,0m i vi t rt cng khi o phi dng x beng hoc cuc
chim.
Trong cc trng hp khc th h, ho su phi o vi vch dc, nu o
vch ng th phi chng vch vi sut chiu cao. Khi o h, ho su bng my
ni t dnh c cht cao th cho php o vch ng su ti 3m nhng khng
c c ngi di. Nu cn c ngi lm vic di th ch c ngi phi
chng vch hoc o thnh mi dc.
Cc trng hp ny tnh theo hnh khi ch nht. Khi tnh ta ch :
+ Kch thc h o c xc nh da vo kch thc mt bng v mt ct
chi tit mng.
+ Nu mng hp, do yu cu thi cng cn phi m rng th phi tnh theo
y mng m rng.
+ Nu mng hoc nn nh c khi lng b tng gch v hoc ct lt ph
kn y mng hoc nn nh th nn tnh din tch y mng hoc nn nh trc khi
tnh ra khi lng li dng s liu tnh cho ph hp
522

o, p t c thnh vt taluy

Trng hp o t ti ni t xu, t d st l, o xong lu cha thi


cng mng, h o c su ln. gii quyt chng st l cho vch h o
ngi ta dng phng php o thnh t vt taluy. Trng hp p t cng vy
trnh st l ngi ta cng p t c thnh vt taluy. vt ca thnh taluy ty
theo tnh cht ca t, nhm t.
tnh khi lng t o, p ta c th p dng cng thc 3 mc cao nh
sau:
V= h/6( S1+S2+S3)
S1, S2: L din tch y trn v y di
S3: L din tch tit din cch u 2 y
Hoc p dng cng thc sau

h
( a * b (a a1 ) * (b b1 ) a1 * b1 )
6

Trong :
- a, b cnh y di
- a1, b1 - cnh y trn
- h - chiu cao

Gc nghing t nhin ca mt s loi t ()


t
Si, dm
Ct ht to
Ct ht trung bnh
Ct ht nh
St pha
t hu c
t bn khng r cy

Kh

40Loi
30
28
25
50
40
40

m
1,20
1,73
1,88
2,15
0,84
1,20
1,20

Trng thi
m

m
40
1,20
32
1,60
35
1,43
30
1,73
40
1,20
35
1,43
25
2,15

* Tnh tin lng o t ca h thng mng


523

35
27
25
20
30
25
14

m
1,43
1,96
2,15
2,75
1,73
2,15
4,00

Ta tnh theo chu vi ca tim trc to thnh chu vi khp kn


* Tnh tin lng t p mng
Ta tnh theo cng thc: V(lp) = V(o) V(c/trnh)
V(lp): Khi lng t lp mng
V(o): Khi lng t o
V(c/trnh): Bng khi lng b tong lt mng+ khi lng xy (hoc khi
lng b tng)
3.4.2 Cng tc xy
- n v tnh: m
- Quy cch
Ta cn phn bit cc yu t sau:
+ Vt liu xy;
+ Loi va, mc va;
+ Chiu dy khi xy;
+ Chiu cao cng trnh;
+ B phn xy;
+ iu kin thi cng.
- Phng php tnh
Khi tnh cn ch :
+ p dng cch t tha s chung cho chiu cao v chiu dy tng
+ Khi lng c o bc bao gm c phn nh ra v cc chi tit gn
lin vi khi xy th hin trong thit k v phi tr i khi lng cc khong trng
khng phi xy trong khi xy c din tch > 0,5m2, ch giao nhau v din tch
phn b tng chm trong khi xy.
+ Khi lng cng tc xy c th bao gm cng tc trt.
3.4.3. Cng tc b tng
Trong cng trnh xy dng b tng v b tng ct thp l nhng khi lng
chim kh ln trong cng trnh
524

a) n v tnh: mt khi (m)


b) Quy cch
Trong cng tc b tng v b tng ct thp quy cch cn c phn bit bi
cc im sau:
- Phng thc sn xut;
- Loi b tng;
- Kch thc vt liu;
- Mc xi mng, mc va b tng;
- Theo chi tit b phn kt cu;
- Theo chiu dy khi b tng;
- Theo chiu cao cng trnh;
- Theo cu kin b tng;
- Theo iu kin thi cng;
- V theo bin php thi cng;
- Vi mt s b phn cn theo c kch thc cu kin (nh ct).
c) Phng php tnh
Trong cng trnh xy dng cc khi b tng c th nm xen k trong cc
khi lng cng ttc khc v vy khi tnh ton ta cn nghin cu k bn v tnh
ring cc khi lng c quy cch khc nhau. Ta c th phn thnh tng khi
tnh theo phng php th tch ca cc hnh khi hnh hc.
Trng hp khi lng b tng ca mt b phn nm trong tng xy ta c
th tnh tch b phn thnh hai khi: Phn b tng trong tng, phn b tng
ngoi tng. Khi tnh khi lng xy tng ta phi tr i phn b tng trong
tng.
- Khi tnh khi lng b tng thng khng phi tr i khi lng khng
tr cc kt cu kim loi dng lp th, ct thp, dy buc, cc chi tit tng t v
phi tr i cc khe co gin, l rng trn b mt kt cu b tng c th tch > 0,1m3
v ch giao nhau c tnh mt ln.
- i vi khi lng b tng xi mng, khi lng o bc c th tng hp
525

theo n v tnh ph hp bao gm c khi lng ct thp v vn khun. V d: B


tng ct 40cm x 40cm, n v tnh: 1md ct b tng.
- Nhng yu cu c bit v cc bin php m, bo dng hoc bin php
k thut x l c bit theo thit k hoc tiu chun quy phm cn c ghi r
trong Bng tnh ton, o bc khi lng cng trnh, hng mc cng trnh.
- Ch cn tnh cho 1 n v cu kin ri nhn vi tng s lng cu kin
ging nhau.
3.4.4. Cng tc vn khun
-

n v tnh: m (hoc 100m)

Quy cch: ta cn phn bit:


+ Vn khun cho b tng ti ch;
+ Vn khun cho b tng lp ghp;
+ Yu cu ca thit k;
+ Cht liu lm vn khun;
+ Loi cu kin;
+ Chiu cao cng trnh

Phng php tnh

+ Khi lng vn khun b tng c tnh theo din tch b mt tip xc b


tng vi vn khun (k c cc phn nh ra theo tiu chun k thut hoc ch dn).
+ Tr i cc khe co gin, cc l rng trn b mt kt cu b tng c din tch
> 1m, Ch giao nhau c tnh mt ln.
+ Vn khun tm ln (1,5mx2m) th khng phi tr din tch vn khun trn
cc l rng.
3.4.5 Cng tc ct thp
Ct thp trong kt cu b tng ct thp: thng dng thp trn trn, thp gai
a) n v tnh: trong cng tc thp n v tnh l cn (kg)
b) Quy cch: Cn phn bit theo cc im sau:
- Loi thp;
- Mc thp;
526

- Nhm thp;
- ng knh ct thp;
- B phn kt cu
- Theo iu kin thi cng;
- V theo bin php thi cng;
- Chiu cao cu kin (vi mt s cng tc c bit)
c) Phng php tnh ton
Khi lng ct thp c o bc bao gm c mi ni chng, ni ren, ni
ng, ming m, con k, bu lng lin kt v khi lng ct thp bin php thi cng
(nu c).
- Cc thng tin cng tiu chun, hnh dng b mt v cc c im v
nhn dng khc cn c ghi ch.
Tnh tin lng ct thp trong kt cu b tng ct thp ta thng s dng
bng thng k ct thp. Ta cn ch : Khi cng chung, cng cc loi thp c cng
ng knh ca cc cu kin c cng quy cch trong cng trnh.
Bng thng k ct thp trong bn v thit k do ngi thit k tnh ton
nhng ta cng cn phi kim tra bng cch lp ra 1 bng thng k ct thp khc
da trn c s bn v thit k.
Chiu di dui thng ca ct thp = chiu di cu kin - lp bo v hai u +
chiu di hai mc cu. Chiu di mc cu c th tham kho mt trong hai bng sau
tnh.

ng knh ct thp d (mm)

Chiu di tng ln ca mt mc cu (1800)

8d

7d

6d

8-10

5d

12-16

5,5d

18-22

5d
527

25-32

4,5d

Bng tnh chiu di mc ca thanh thp trn trn (mm) (un 1800)

1 mc 2 mc 1 mc 2 mc

1 mc 2 mc 1 mc 2 mc

30

60

50

100

24

110

220

180

360

40

80

60

120

25

120

230

190

380

10

50

90

80

150

26

120

230

200

400

12

60

110

90

180

28

130

260

210

420

14

70

130

110

210

30

140

280

220

440

16

80

150

120

240

32

150

290

240

480

18

80

160

140

270

34

160

300

250

500

20

90

180

150

300

36

170

330

270

540

22

100

200

170

330

40

180

360

300

600

gin di ca thp khi un (mm)


ng knh ct thp
(mm)
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
25
28
30
32

30

45

60

90

135

3,5
4
5
5,5
6,5
7
8
9
10
10,5
11

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12,5
14
15
16

8,5
10
12
13,5
15,5
17
19
21,5
24
25,5
27

12
16
20
24
28
32
36
40
44
50
56
60
64

15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
62,5
70
75
80

3.4.6 Cng tc lm ng
a) Quy cch: Cn phn bit theo cc im sau:
528

- Loi ng (b tng xi mng, b tng t phan, lng nha, cp phi...);


- Trnh t ca kt cu (nn, mng, mt ng);
- Chiu dy ca tng lp
- Theo bin php thi cng.
b) Phng php tnh
- Khi lng lm ng khi o bc phi tr cc khi lng l trng trn mt
ng (h ga, h thm) v cc ch giao nhau.
- Cc thng tin v cng tc lm ng nh cp k thut ca ng, mt ct
ngang ng, l ng, va h, di phn cch, lan can phng h, sn k, din tch
trng c, h thng cc tiu, bin bo hiu, h thng chiu sng...cn c ghi r
trong Bng tnh ton, o bc khi lng cng trnh, hng mc cng trnh.
- Cc cng tc xy, b tng, ct thp...thuc cng tc lm ng, khi o bc
nh hng dn v o bc khi lng cc cng tc phn trn.
3.4.7. Cng tc hon thin :
- Khi lng cng tc hon thin c o bc, phn loi theo cng vic cn
hon thin (trt, lng, p, lt, sn, lm ca, lm trn, lm mi...), theo chng loi
c tnh k thut vt liu s dng hon thin (loi va, mc va, loi g, loi ,
loi tm trn, loi mi...), theo chi tit b phn kt cu (dm, ct, tng, tr, trn,
mi ...), theo iu kin thi cng v bin php thi cng.
- Khi lng cng tc hon thin khi o bc phi tr i khi lng cc l
rng, khong trng khng phi hon thin c din tch >0,5m2 v cc ch giao
nhau c tnh mt ln.
- Khi lng cng tc hon thin c th c o bc theo khi lng tng
hp theo nhm cng vic nh 1m2 hon thin gm trt v sn, trt v p, lng v
lt
- Cc thng tin v c tnh k thut ca vt liu cn c ghi r trong Bng
tnh ton, o bc khi lng cng trnh, hng mc cng trnh.
a) Cng tc trt, lng
Khi lng c o bc l khi lng b mt cn hon thin ca kt cu
bao gm c khe ni trn, cc g, cc b, cc gc v ch giao ct phng, cc phn
lm vo, li ra v cc g l rng.
529

- n v tnh: m cho cng tc trt v m di cho hm ca, pho


- Quy cch: Cn phi phn bit cc yu t sau:
+ Cu kin c trt, lng, v tr
+ Loi va
+ Chiu dy lp trt, lng
+ Bin php
+ Yu cu k thut
- Phng php tnh
+ Tnh theo din tch mt cu kin c trt, lng
+ Khi tnh trt, lng cho ton b cng trnh ch tch ring cc b phn,
cc khu vc trt va khc, b dy cc lp khc
b) Cng tc lt, p
- Khi lng c o bc l khi lng b mt cn hon thin ca kt cu
bao gm c ch ni, cc g, cc gc, lt to ng mng v rnh, lt trn ng
ng dn ngm v np h thm, lt vo cc khung v lt xung quanh cc ng ng,
dm cha v tng t...
- Khi lng c o bc bao gm c cc vt liu trang tr g, gc v ch
giao nhau ...
- n v: m
- Quy cch:
+ B phn cn lt, p v v tr
+ Chng loi vt liu
+ Loi va, b dy
- Phng php tnh
+ Tnh theo din tch mt c p, lt
c) Cng tc lp mi
- n v tnh: Theo m mi
- Quy cch cn phn bit:
530

+ Vt liu dng lp
+ Chng loi
+ Chiu cao v phng tin thi cng
d) Cng tc ca
Khi lng c o bc theo loi ca v b phn kt cu ca ca nh khung
ca, cnh ca, cc thanh np, cc tm np trang tr, hp ca, cc loi kha, cc loi
ph kin t ng, m
Khi lng ca cn c o bc tng hp theo cc b phn kt cu ni trn
ng vi tng loi ca.
Trong cng tc ny ch tnh khi lng ca mua m khng tnh nhn
cng lm ca. Ch tnh nhn cng lp dng ca.
- n v tnh: m cho ca v m di cho khun ca
- Quy cch: cn phn bit:
+ Loi cnh ca
+ Loi g
+ iu kin k thut
- Phng php tnh
Da theo kch thc mt bng v mt ct hoc bng thng k ca ta tnh
khi lng ca tng loi theo quy cch ca chng.
e) Cng tc trn
Khi lng c o bc theo loi trn (bao gm c tm trn, h dm trn,
khung treo, cc thanh ging, ming m ...) v khng bao gm ming thi, ming
ht, n chiu sng, bo khi thuc h thng k thut cng trnh c gn vo
trn.
f) 3.10.5 Cng tc mi
- Khi lng c o bc theo loi mi, b mt cn lp mi ng vi tng
khi lng theo kt cu ca mi nh v ko, ging v ko, x g, cu phong, lp
mi theo vt liu s dng (gm c lm p nc, b chy).
- Khi lng cng tc lm mi cn c o bc tng hp theo cc b phn
531

kt cu ni trn ng vi tng loi mi.


g) Cng tc sn
- n v tnh: m
- Quy cch cn phn bit:
+ B phn c sn
+ S lp cn sn
+ Dng th cng hay dng my phun
- Phng php tnh
+ Tnh theo din tch ton b b mt cn sn
h) Cng tc b ma tt
- n v tnh: m
- Quy cch cn phn bit:
+ Loi kt cu cn b
+ Vt liu b
+ Yu cu v k thut
3.4.8 Cng tc lp t in, cp thot nc
a) Cng tc lp t in
- Cn phn bit theo tng loi:
+ Lp t cc loi n, qut in
+ Lp t ng bo v cp, dy dn v ph kin ng dy
+ Lp t cc ph kin ng ngt, o lng bo v
+ Lp t h thng chng st
b) Cng tc cp thot nc trong nh
- Cn phn bit:
+ Lp t cc sn phm v ph kin phc v sinh hot v v sinh
+ Lp t h thng thot nc trong nh.
Phng php tnh: tnh c tin lng ca nhng cng vic ny phi
532

da vo bn v tng ng trong h s thit k, cc ch dn k thut, cc loi thng


k v quy cch, chng loi, s lng vt liu.
3.4.9 Cng tc dn gio phc v thi cng
- Khi lng Cng tc dn gio phc v thi cng bao gm c Cng tc lp
dng v tho d c o bc theo chng loi dn gio (dn gio tre, g, thp v
dn gio cng c), theo mc ch s dng (dn gio trong, dn gio ngoi, dn gio
hon thin tr, ct c lp...) v thi gian s dng dn gio.
- Chiu cao dn gio l chiu cao t ct mt nn, sn hin ti ca cng trnh
n cao ln nht bo m iu kin thun li thi cng.
- o bc khi lng dn gio thp cng c phc v thi cng th ngoi cc
nguyn tc ni trn cn lu mt s quy nh c th nh sau:
+ Dn gio ngoi c tnh theo din tnh hnh chiu ng trn mt ngoi
ca kt cu.
+ Dn gio trong c tnh theo din tch hnh chiu bng ca kt cu v ch
c tnh i vi cc cng tc c chiu cao > 3,6m theo nguyn tc ly chiu cao
dn gio 3,6m lm gc v c mi khong tng thm 1,2m tnh thm mt lp
cng dn, khong tng cha 0,6m khng c tnh khi lng.
+ Dn gio hon thin tr v ct c lp c tnh theo chu vi mt ct ct,
tr cng thm 3,6m nhn vi chiu cao, ct, tr ...
TI LIU VIN DN
1. TCVN 7286:2003
2. TCVN 6079:1995s
3. TCVN 5571:1991
4. TCVN 5896:1995
5. TCVN 6080:1995
6. TCVN 6081: 1995
7. TCVN 8-30: 2003
8. TCVN 8-40:2003
9. TCVN 8-50:2005

Bn v k thut - T l
Bn v xy dng v kin trc - Cch trnh by bn v
- T l
H thng ti liu thit k xy dng - Bn v xy dng
- Khung tn
Bn v xy dng - Cc phn b tr hnh v ch thch
bng ch v khung tn trn bn v
Bn v xy dng - Phng php chiu
Bn v nh v cng trnh xy dng - Th hin cc tit
din trn mt ct v mt nhn - Nguyn tc chung
Bn v k thut - Nguyn tc chung v biu din Phn 30: Quy c c bn v hnh chiu
Bn v k thut - Nguyn tc chung v biu din Phn 40: Quy c c bn v mt ct v hnh ct
Bn v k thut - Nguyn tc chung v biu din 533

10. TCVN 8-20: 2002


11. TCVN 5570: 1991
12. TCVN 7: 1993
13. TCVN 5897: 1995

14. TCVN 6003: 1995


15. TCVN 4614: 1988
16. TCVN 6084: 1995
17. TCVN 4609: 1988

18. TCVN 4455: 1987

19. TCVN 5898: 1995

Phn 50: Quy c c bn v biu din cc din tch


trn mt ct v hnh ct
Bn v k thut - Nguyn tc chung v biu din Phn 20: Quy c c bn v nt v
H thng ti liu thit k xy dng - Bn v xy dng
- K hiu ng nt v ng trc trong bn v
K hiu vt liu
Bn v k thut - Bn v xy dng - Cch k hiu cc
cng trnh v b phn cng trnh - K hiu cc phng
v cc din tch khc
Bn v xy dng - Cch k hiu cng trnh v cc b
phn cng trnh
H thng ti liu thit k xy dng - Cc b phn cu
to ngi nh - K hiu quy c trn bn v xy dng
Bn v nh v cng trnh xy dng - K hiu cho ct
thp btng
H thng ti liu thit k xy dng - dng trong
nh - K hiu quy c th hin trn bn v mt bng
ngi nh
H thng ti liu thit k xy dng - Quy tc ghi kch
thc, ch tiu , cc yu cu k thut v biu bng
trn bn v
Bn v xy dng v cng trnh dn dng - Bn thng
k ct thp

20. Gio trnh v k thut xy dng - Nguyn Quang C - Nguyn Mnh Dng
21. Gio trnh v k thut xy dng - i hc Bch khoa Nng
22. Ti liu o to k s nh gi - Hc vin Cn b qun l xy dng v th
23. Quyt nh 788/Q-BXD nm 2010 v vic hng dn cng tc o bc khi
lng trong hot ng xy dng.

534