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AVALON DIRECT ENGLISH

BOOK 3
Teacher Handbook
UPPER-INTERMEDIATE

© Avalon Book Company Ltd., 1999

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Unit 1
5 Unit 1

v. to behave n. behaviour
Your behaviour is the way you say and do things.
Q. Would you behave politely at a job interview ?

Q. How does people’s behaviour change when they get drunk ?

Q. What kind of behaviour annoys you the most in other people ?

Q. How do people behave when they are angry ?

Q. How do people behave when they are sad ?

Q. How do people behave when they are nervous ?

NB. to behave yourself = behave well
Q. Did you always behave yourself when you were a child ?

Q. Do people always behave themselves at a party ?

adj. arrogant

adj. big-headed (informal)

If you are arrogant/big-headed, you are too confident and your
behaviour annoys people. Arrogant people often think they are better
than other people.

© Avalon Book Company Ltd., 1999

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Q. Do you know any arrogant people ?
A. Yes, I know some arrogant people.
Q. Are very successful people often quite arrogant ?
A. Yes, very successful people are often quite arrogant.

Q. Would I be bigheaded if I said I was the best teacher in the
school ?

v. to boast

adj. modest

When you boast
, you talk about how good you are at something in an
arrogant way.
To be modest is the opposite of to boast.
Q. What kind of things do children often boast about ?

Q. How good is your English ?

Q. Are you being modest or bigheaded?

Q. Do you think it is arrogant for people to boast about how much
money they have ?

Q. If you can do something very well, do you think it is better to
boast or to be modest about it ?

6 Unit 1

v. to share

adj. generous

adj. selfish

If something is shared it is used by more than one person.

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If someone is generous they are happy to share something.
If someone is selfish, they don’t want to share what they have.
eg. Children from large families usually share a bedroom.
Q. Have you ever shared a room with anyone ?

Q. Are children often quite selfish ?

Q. Would you be generous or selfish if you didn’t share your
birthday cake with your friends ?

Q. Would you be happy to share your book with another student ?

Q. Are you generous when you buy presents for your family ?

Q. Would you be more generous if you had more money ?

Q. Give me an example of selfish behaviour.

adj. greedy

n. greed

Q. Do greedy people like sharing things ?

Q. What animals are famous for being greedy ?

Q. Do you think greed is always a bad thing ?

Q. What is the difference between greedy and selfish ?

© Avalon Book Company Ltd., 1999

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e. pigheaded Stubborn people think they are right about something and won’t change their mind. Q.n. People shout and scream when they lose their temper. Pigheaded is an informal way of saying stubborn.g. If you have a bad temper you become angry very easily. People usually smile and laugh a lot when they are in a good mood. How do people behave when they lose their temper ? Q. Do you know anyone who has a really bad temper ? Q. Are you ever stubborn in an argument ? Q. eg. What kind of things put you in a bad mood ? adj. What kind of things put you in a good mood ? Q. If you lose your temper you get angry. temper Your mood is how you feel emotionally. What animal is famous for being stubborn ? Q. stubborn adj. Have you ever lost your temper when driving ? Q. Are you in a good mood today ? Q.. Q. What is the difference between pigheaded and bigheaded? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. mood n. 1999 5 .

My parents encouraged me to study hard at school. 1999 6 . Shy children often need a lot of encouragement. Q.7 Unit 1 v. What kind of things did your parents encourage you to do while you were growing up ? Q. Q. Do your teachers encourage you to speak good English ? Q. cause eg.. encouragement If you encourage someone you help them and try to give them confidence. Would you feel encouraged if I told you that your English was improving ? v. Did you get enough encouragement from your teachers when you were at school ? Q. Do you think unemployment causes crime? Q. Do parents usually encourage their children to smoke and drink? Q. Bad weather often causes road accidents. eg. to encourage n. What kind of problems can be caused by bad weather ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. to cause = to make something happen = to be the reason why something happens n.

The police sometimes have to use force when arresting criminals. Have you ever made someone do something that they didn’t want to do ? Q. you don’t want to do it but you have no choice. to make someone do something If you make someone do something you want them to do it. Do I make you repeat the sentence if you make a lot of mistakes? Q. The bank robber forced the frightened man to give him the money. What kind of behaviour can make you lose your temper ? v. Have you ever been forced to eat food that you didn’t like ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. and so you cause them to do it.Q. What are some of the causes of pollution in your country? v. Did your parents make you eat healthy vegetables when you were a child ? Q. eg. My mother always made me wash my hands before eating dinner. Q. What kind of health problems are often caused by smoking ? Q. If you are forced to do something.. to force someone to do something n. Q. eg. 1999 7 . force To force has a similar meaning to to make someone do something but it is stronger.

eg. to order n. Soldiers give orders.Q. to give orders v expr. The soldiers were ordered to swim across the river NB. eg. What are the armed forces ? Q. What kind of people use force to get what they want ? Q. 1999 8 . Clean your gun! Don’t touch that! Q. v expr. What kind of people give orders ? A. 1. Are you being forced to study English ? 8 Unit 1 Q. to order someone to do something. I f you became very rich and successful. order To order has two meanings. Is it easy to make a stubborn person change their mind ? Q. If you are ordered to do something you must do it. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. would you be more arrogant ? v. Is it better to use force or encouragement when teaching children ? Q. We always use the imperative to give an order. Are young men forced to join the army in your country ? Q. to follow orders To order means to tell someone to do something but it is much stronger..

Have you been to university ? Q. What course did you study ? v. What kind of course are you studying here ? Q. do you have to do it ? Q.. Who takes your order in a restaurant ? Q. punishment Q. Have you ever given an order ? Q. What for ? Q. Q. What is your favourite starter/dessert ? Q. What was your punishment ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. 1999 9 . to punish n.Q. A meal may have three courses : a starter. Has your boss ever ordered you to do something ? 2. Do you usually order more than one course in a restaurant ? Q. Were you ever punished at school ? Q. You can also study a course at university or college. If you are ordered to do something. main course and a dessert. to order something from someone n. course You order food in a restaurant from a waiter or waitress.

to kill v.. What is a common punishment for criminals ? Q. What kind of things do teachers/parents force children to do as a punishment ? n. 1999 10 . Which animals are killed for food ? Q. What does a judge have to decide at the end of a trial ? Q.8 Unit 1 Q. Have you ever killed an animal ? Q. judge n. murderer To murder means to kill someone illegally Q. Do you think teachers should be allowed to physically punish school children ? Q. trial n. Have there been any famous trials recently ? v. Who is the most important person in a court ? Q. What is the punishment for murder in your country? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. to murder n. court A trial is when a court decides if a person is guilty or innocent Q./n.

What kind of evidence do the police look for when there is a murder ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Can you think of any famous murderers ? n. blood n. Why do criminals often wear gloves ? v. The verb to prove means to show that something is true by using evidence.. evidence (uncountable) The facts that show if something is true or not are called evidence . What do you have to carry when you travel abroad to prove your nationality ? Q. What colour is blood ? Q. to prove n. Is there any evidence to prove that aliens have landed on earth ? Q. Q.Q. What does blood carry around the body ?* Q. What is your name ? Q. 1999 11 . How can you prove it ? Q. Do the police take your fingerprints if you are arrested ? Q. fingerprint Q.

Do you have to carry your identity card at all times ? Q.. prediction n. to predict n. I found the word by look it up in my dictionary. 1999 12 . What does an identity card prove ? Q.D. What do we call the people who try to prove that someone is innocent or guilty in court ? 10 Unit 1 v. He has arrived three days ago. What different ways are there of trying to predict the future ?* © Avalon Book Company Ltd. c. How do the police identify criminals ?* Q. When people gamble. Can you identify the mistakes in these sentences ? a. b. v.Q. My friend behaved very bad at the party. weather forecast To predict means to say what you think will happen in the future. eg. identity card Q. Is it easy to predict the result of a horse race ? Q. they try to predict the result of a sporting event. to identify n. n. identity / I. Q.

eg Look at those dark clouds in the sky. Q. we usually use to be going to. Your team is playing very well in a football match. Because we are not sure we often say ‘I think (that) something will happen’ or ‘something will probably happen’. Your friend always drives too fast. Can you think of anyone who was famous for making predictions? predictions using to be going to / will We can use both will and to be going to when we predict the future. I think an African country will win the World Cup in the next ten years. When we make a prediction about the future that expresses our opinions but we are not sure because we don’t have much evidence.Q. 1999 13 . eg. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Predictions using will. Q. You have drunk too much wine. What do they predict on the weather forecast ? Q. it’s going to rain soon.* 2. Predictions using to be going to. but there is an important difference between the two kinds of prediction.* c. Make a prediction about your future. Make predictions using ‘to be going to’ from this evidence: a.. 1. When we make a prediction about the future because of evidence we know or see in the present.* b. we usually use will. I think they’ll probably get here at about 5 o’clock.

Too many people are dancing on the table. Do you think it’s right for parents to punish their children by smacking if they are badly behaved ? v. In what sport do people punch each other ? Q. it is going to break (to break). I think she is going to hit (to hit) that man. What kind of changes will happen in your life in the next ten years ? Exercise Choose wil l or to be going to for these sentences. I think people will go (to go) on holiday to the Moon next century. 1999 14 . Would it hurt if you were smacked in the face by the ball in a game of football ? Q. 2. to smack Q. to slap v. Have you ever slapped someone because you were angry ? Q. to punch n.Q. v. What do boxers wear on their fists ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. What time do you think you’ll get home this evening ? 11 Unit 1 Q. 3.. 4. I think it will be (to be) a really good party tonight. 1. fist Q. That woman is really angry. Do you think every home will have a computer soon ? Q.

Q. why might you make your hand into a fist ? v. 1999 15 . you stop being angry with them and you don’t want to punish them any more. How do you think school bullies ought to be punished ? v. Do you think it’s better to punish criminals or to forgive them ? Q.. Do you think bullying is a common problem in schools ? Q. bully Q. Do older children often bully younger ones ? Q. to bully n.Q. but she forgave me when I bought her a new one. eg. Apart from punching something. Is it always easy to forgive people who have done bad things to us ? 12 Unit 1 Q. My friend was very angry because I broke her toy. Would you forgive me if I laughed at your mistakes in the lesson? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Do people ever get bullied at work ? Q. to forgive forgave forgiven If you forgive someone who has done something wrong.

. Do children make things up when they don’t want to tell the truth? Q. I f your child got their clothes dirty would you smack them or tell them off ? Q. Do you always tell the truth when you are late or do you sometimes make up excuses ? Q. Who could order you to open your suitcase ? Q. Would you forgive someone if they broke an important promise ? phr v. Why might someone slap your face in an emergency ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. to tell (someone) off n. excuse Q. Do parents tell their children off for making a mess ? Q.Q. What kind of excuses do people often give for being late ? Q. Who could order you to get out of your car ? Q. to make (something) up phr v. My mother was the first woman in space. Did your teachers ever tell you off at school for not doing your homework ? Q. 1999 16 . Do you believe me or do you think I am making it up ? Q.

worthless If something costs a lot or is very important. Q. 1999 17 . Q. What kind of jewellery is it traditional to give your husband/wife at a wedding ? Q. Give me an example of a precious stone..Unit 2 13 Unit 2 adj. Worthless is the opposite. What kind of things are made out of stone ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Do you think a good education is valuable ? Q. Give me an example of a precious metal. Q. What kind of jewellery often has precious stones ? Q. Are old stamps always worthless ? Q. it is valuable. stone Q. precious n. Are you wearing anything valuable ? Q. jewellery (uncountable) n. valuable adj. Are your friends valuable to you ? adj.

How much did you pay for your watch? Q. It is not worth washing your car while its raining.. How much do you think it is worth now? Q. If something isn’t worth doing it’s probably a waste of time. My watch cost Ł100 when I bought it but it is only worth about Ł50 now. eg. When did you buy it ? Q. to be worth + gerund If something is worth doing it’s a good idea and there are good reasons to do it. Is it worth learning English ? Q. How much do you think my ring is worth? Q. It is worth looking up new words in a dictionary. 1999 18 . eg. Do you think it’s worth spending a lot of money on good food ? Q. Are holidays always worth the money ? expr. Do you think it’s worth spending a lot of money on an expensive car ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. What kind of things are worth more the longer you keep them ? Q. to be worth If something is worth Ł10. Q. you would get Ł10 if you sold it.v. Q.

How much do you think it is worth spending on a haircut ? linking words and clauses 1. And. 1999 19 . but. because.) between the clauses. = one sentence This sentence has two clauses joined by the linking word ‘because’. you should post the information. I went home. We use linking words to join two sentences together. I was ill.Q. eg. Remember that a clause always has a verb in it. Is it worth learning a foreign language if you are going to work in that country ? Q. ‘And’ can only go in the middle. Not all linking words can go in both places. When sentences are joined together by a linking word we call them clauses. Is it worth learning a foreign language if you are going on a short holiday ? Q. If the fax is not working. when. eg. = two sentences I went home because I was ill. OR You should post the information if the fax is not working. Do you think it is worth having a smoke alarm at home? 14 Unit 2 Q.. there should be a comma (. while and if are all examples of linking words. 2. When the linking word is at the beginning. A linking word can go between the two clauses or at the beginning. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. My brother is called Bruce and my sister is called Sheila.

You have finished all your work so you can go home. Have you ever had a job where your boss treated you like a child? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. after before so while because but if 1. Q. I’ll wait here in the car while you go and buy some cigarettes. 2. to treat n. If you kicked a dog. v. would you be treating it well or badly ? Q. exercise Put the following l inking words into these sentences. I have to take a shower after playing tennis. 3. Q. Do you always treat strangers politely ? Q. Would you leave a good job if you were treated badly? Q. Do they sometimes treat you like a criminal at customs ? Q. My grandparents still treated me like a child when I was 25. Because you are my friend I will lend you the money that you need. I left my job because my boss treated me badly.. 6. you can find me in the office. treatment 1. 5. Before she met me. 1999 20 . 4. the way people treat you is the way they behave towards you eg. to treat someone like + noun eg. If anyone wants me. she was married to a film star.The linking word ‘and’ cannot be moved to the beginning. Do we always treat our friends and family well ? 15 Unit 2 2.

Q. Have you ever been in a really embarrassing situation? Q. rough Q. situation We use the word situation to talk about what is happening in a particular place at a particular time. Have you ever been treated roughly by anyone? Q. Would you treat a baby roughly or gently? Q. to try to cure an illness or an ill person eg. eg. Doctors treat patients in hospital. Paracetamol is a good treatment for a headache. What kind of people have to have a gentle touch?* n. Have you ever been treated in hospital? Q. Who treats patients in a hospital? Q.. What is the best treatment for a hangover ? Q. It was an embarrassing situation when I didn’t have enough money to pay for dinner. gentle adj. Q. 1999 21 . What do we call people who treat sick animals? adj. Have you ever been in a dangerous situation ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd.3. What kind of sports are very rough? Q.

In what kind of situation would you behave very politely ? adj.. Give me some examples of temporary accommodation. we know it will not continue for a long time. 1999 22 . In what kind of situation would you give an order ? Q. Is a summer job temporary or permanent? Q. What can cause permanent damage to your health? Q. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Do you have a permanent job? Q. The opposite of temporary is permanent.Q. what would you do ? Q. If you were unhappy with your situation at work. Q. temporary adj. Are you living in this city temporarily? Q. permanent If something is temporary. What is your permanent address? 16 Unit 2 Q.

Is that where you usually live? Q. effect To affect means to cause a change in something. I live in London. 1999 23 . eg. v. What were you doing at this time last year? Q. I worked for the government for five years. How does alcohol affect your mood? © Avalon Book Company Ltd.continuous tenses for temporary situations We often use continuous tenses for temporary situations. Pollution affects the environment. I am living with my brother (while I look for some accommodation).. Does the weather affect your mood? Q. Tell the class about a dangerous situation you have been in. Q. Q. Is that your permanent job? Q. I was working on a farm last summer. to affect n. Were you living in the same place last year as you are now? Q. Are you working at the moment ? Q. Is it worth recycling things or do you think it is a waste of time? Q. Where are you living at the moment? Q. eg. eg. What you eat has an effect on your health.

Q. He has been working on a farm all summer. (I started waiting half an hour ago and I’m still waiting now. How do they affect our health ? the present perfect continuous The construction of the present perfect continuous is : subject + have been + present participle eg. How long have you been learning English at this school? Q. eg. Q. What kind of things have a bad effect on the environment? Q. 1. We have been working hard. i. There are three kinds of situation when we use the present perfect continuous. I have been waiting here for half an hour.) Q. We use this tense for an action that started in the past and is still happening in the present. To talk about how long something has been happening. particularly with temporary situations. How long have you been living in this city? 17 Unit 2 2. eg. How long have you been sitting in this classroom ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Do smoking and drinking have good or bad effects on people’s health? Q. 1999 24 ..

Her eyes are red. The streets are wet. How long have you been wearing that shirt? ii.. What has he been doing ? c. eg. What hasn’t he been doing ? e. Q. I have been working in the garden.Q. How long have you been studying book 3? Q. eg. What has been happening ? b. He is very tired. Q. Use the present perfect continuous to give reasons for these situations. eg. We use the present perfect continuous for recent habits or repeated activities. He doesn’t understand what the teacher is talking about. Her English is much better than it used to be. His hands are dirty. He has been repairing his bicycle. . Have you been sleeping well recently? Q. Have you been studying hard recently? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. 1999 25 . How long have I been teaching English? Q. Recent actions that cause present effects. My clothes are dirty. What has she been doing ? iii. a. What has she been doing ? d. My wife has been getting home very late from work recently.

Q. Do you think someone’s sense of humour depends on their nationality? Q. Have you been eating healthy food recently? Q. Do you like people with no sense of humour? Q. sarcasm adj sarcastic Your sense of humour is the kind of things that you think are funny. If you have a good sense of humour you often laugh at things and make other people laugh. Give me an example of a very intelligent animal ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. intelligence n. Do you really like them or are you being sarcastic?* adj. genius Q. sense of humour n. Do you think mice are intelligent animals? Q. eg.. If you say the opposite of what you think in order to be funny. “I think English people are always so happy because they have such nice weather. Do you like my clothes/haircut ? Q. intelligent n. 1999 26 . Have you been drinking a lot recently? n. you are being sarcastic. Do you have a sarcastic sense of humour? 18 Unit 2 Q.” Q.

eg. Do you think this really works in practice ? Q. Do you have to be a genius to understand English grammar? Q. practice (uncountable) in practice A theory is the idea that something is possible or true. theory in theory n. Einstein’s theories changed the way we understand the world. but in practice what kind of problems can they cause ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Q. Do you think intelligence is something you can learn or something you are born with ? Q. In theory there is enough food in the world for everyone. Do you think dogs are more or less intelligent than cats? n. Which scientist became famous for his General Theory of Relativity? Q. Give me an example of a famous genius? Q.Q. but in practice many people don’t have enough food. In theory can you teach yourself a foreign language from a book? Q. In theory computers make our lives easier. Do you believe the theory that humans used to be monkeys ? Q.. Practice is doing something in real life. 1999 27 .

19 Unit 2 Q. In theory anyone can become rich if they work hard. I f someone drinks too much. English people sometimes say.Q. but do you think this is true in practice ? Q. stupid adj. can it have an effect on their work? Q. Have you ever tried to do something that was easy in theory but really difficult in practice? adj. If you were late for school because you got on the wrong bus. I failed my exam because I made too many silly mistakes. would you be silly or stupid? © Avalon Book Company Ltd.. Do you think people who get drunk and violent are silly or stupid ? A. Q. These expressions are impolite. I think people who get drunk and violent are stupid. Do your plans usually work in practice ? Q. idiot eg. 1999 28 . Are there any funny people in your country who are famous for being sarcastic ? Q. “Don’t be stupid/silly/an idiot!” when they think something is a bad idea or they don’t agree with someone. Have you been taking exercise recently? Q. silly/daft n.

Q. Q. Give me an example of stupid behaviour. to take something seriously 1. A serious person is someone who usually thinks carefully about things and doesn’t like silly behaviour. However However is a linking word. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Do you take studying English seriously ? Q. There are three differences between however and but. How would you feel if someone called you an idiot? Q. 1999 29 . However is more formal than but and we usually use it in written English. adj. Did you take your education seriously at school ? conj. We do not use it a lot when speaking. It has the same meaning as but. Give me an example of silly behaviour.. If you take something seriously. serious expr. Do news readers usually look serious on television ? Q. Q. Have you ever felt stupid because you couldn’t understand something? Q. you think it is important and worth doing well. 1.

Q. eg. However. Does however join clauses in the same sentence? Q. however. impractical If someone is practical. We were sure that we paid the bill. However. Usually we put it at the beginning of a sentence.. It can also go at the end of a sentence. Or it can go in the middle of a sentence. 1999 30 . We were sure we had paid the bill. I didn’t like him when I first met him but we are very good friends now. I didn’t like him when I first met him. The manager didn’t believe us. 3. However does not link clauses together in one sentence. Which linking word has the same meaning as however? Q. however. after a comma. Is however more common in written or spoken English? Q. 20 Unit 2 adj. they find the easiest and best way to do something. Trains were the first practical way for people to travel very long distances. eg. practical adj. eg. Make a sentence with however. didn’t believe us. Is it practical to live a long way from where you work? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. However can go in different places in a sentence. eg.2. we are very good friends now. Q. The manager. We were sure that we paid the bill. between two commas. the manager did not believe us. eg.

What kind of things hang from the ceiling? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Have you ever been treated like an idiot in a foreign country because you couldn’t speak a foreign language ? Q. In what kind of jobs do you need to be practical? Q. What would be a practical thing to buy if you wanted to visit a famous foreign city? Q. What is one of the most stupid things you have ever done ? v. What kind of things do you think are worth taking seriously ? Q. What would be the practical thing to do if you couldn’t repair something yourself ? Q.Q. hanger v. to fold hung hung Q. 1999 31 . What would be a practical thing to buy if your bedroom was very cold in the winter? Q. Does experience teach you to be practical? Q.. What would be a practical thing to buy if you kept waking up late? Q. to hang (up) n.

What products are made by Pepsi Co.Q. If a product is sold with a guarantee it means the company promises to repair or replace it if it stops working. Would you like to work in advertising? Q. Do you fold jumpers or hang them up ? n. What kind of clothes do you hang on a hanger? Q. ? Q. Where would you hang a wet towel? Q. you put a new one in. Q. Have you ever bought a particular product because you liked the advertisement ? v. product Q. Have you ever advertised anything in a newspaper or magazine? Q.. 1999 32 . What kind of things do you often have to replace ?* © Avalon Book Company Ltd. advertising v. What products are made by Honda? Q. to replace v / n. to advertise n. advertisement (advert/ad) n. guaranteed If you replace an old light bulb. guarantee adj. Where would you hang a picture? Q.

does the shop have to replace it if it doesn’t work ? Q.21 Unit 2 Q. Do all products have a guarantee? Q. How long does the guarantee last? Q. worse etc. better. Is your watch guaranteed? Q. Where is a practical place to hang winter coats in summer? Q. Are very intelligent people sometimes not very practical ? Q. Do you fold your clothes carefully after washing them ? Q. than it really is. to exaggerate n. What kind of products are advertised on television ? Q. exaggeration We exaggerate when we say that something is bigger. Which parts of the body can be replaced? Q. 1999 33 . If you buy something that is guaranteed. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. When you go on holiday are you always guaranteed to have a good time ? v..

because you have done something badly. trouble to be / get in trouble (with someone) If you are in trouble other people are angry. eg. Do you try to avoid traveling during the rush hour? Q. Q. to avoid + gerund / noun If you avoid doing something. Children often try to avoid doing their homework. Lazy people avoid hard work. you find a way not to do it.. Why do you think journalists sometimes exaggerate news stories? Q. Did you use to avoid tidying your room ? Q. What parts of the body often give people trouble? © Avalon Book Company Ltd.Q. Have you ever tried to avoid playing sport at school? Q. Do children sometimes exaggerate when they tell each other stories ? Q. 1999 34 . How can you avoid falling asleep when driving long distances ? n. Q. Have you ever exaggerated an illness so you could have a day off school or work? Q. Are companies allowed to exaggerate about their products in advertisements ? v.

I am having some trouble with my computer. Trouble is usually a singular. eg. Have you ever had trouble finding someone's house? Q. we use the word ‘problem’. uncountable noun. Have you ever had trouble finding accommodation? Q.. What do you think car/engine trouble is? Q. (uncountable) © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Did you ever get in trouble with your teachers at school? Q. Have you ever had back trouble ? Q. Instead.Q. 1999 35 . We don’t describe one particular situation as ‘a trouble’. What would I mean if I said something was ‘no trouble’? Q. Who would you call if you were in trouble with the Police ? 22 Unit 2 to have trouble + gerund If you have trouble doing something. Do you have trouble understanding English people when they speak very quickly? Q. What kind of people have trouble getting clothes that are the right size? NB. you find it difficult to do Q.

There are two problems, the memory and the keyboard. (countable)

v. to own

adj. own

If you own something it belongs to you.
eg. My sister owns a local pub.

We use the adjective own to show that something is used or belongs to
one particular person.
There is always a possessive adjective (my, her etc.) before own, and
never an article.
eg. I didn’t have my own room when I was a child but I shared with my
sister.
Q. Do you own your home or do you rent it?

Q. Do you have your own car?

Q. What do students do if they don’t have their own book?

Q. Do you know anyone who owns two houses?

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Unit 3
23 Unit 2

n. population v. to increase v. to decrease
The population of a country is the number of people in it.
If something increases, it gets bigger or goes up.
If something decreases, it gets smaller or goes down.

Q. What is the population of your country ?*

Q. Is the population of the world increasing or decreasing ?

Q. Is unemployment increasing or decreasing in your country ?

Q. In theory, is there enough food for the whole population of the
world ?

Q. What do children do if they want to avoid going to school ?

Q. If you kept on being late for work, would you get into trouble ?

Q. What else could you get into trouble for ?

Q. Have you ever tried to avoid someone because you were in
trouble with them ?

Q. What would you do if you needed to use a computer and you
didn’t have your own ?

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v. to rise = to go up v. to fall (2) = to go down
rose
risen

n. the cost of living = how much it costs for rent, food, clothes etc.
Q. Does smoke usually rise or fall ?

Q. Are prices rising or falling at the moment ?

Q. Is the cost of living higher in the USA or your country ?

Q. Is the cost of living rising or falling in your country ?

Q. What is the verb form of :
a. to rise ?
b. to fall ?
Q. What is the verb form of to rise ?

Q. What is the verb form of to fall ?

v. to set n. sunrise n. sunset
set
set

eg. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
Q. About what time did the sun rise this morning ?

Q. Does the sun set earlier in winter than in summer ?

Q. What kind of people often get up at sunrise ?

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Q. Do you get beautiful sunsets in your country ?

24 Unit 3

transitive and intransitive verbs

adj. transitive adj. intransitive
When a verb can have an object it is called a transitive verb.
When a verb cannot have an object it is called an intransitive verb.
To take is a transitive verb.
eg. Jane took her dog to the vet.
subject transitive verb object
To rise is an intransitive verb.
eg. Unemployment is rising.
subject intransitive verb NO object
There are some transitive verbs which have a similar meaning to
intransitive verbs.

Transitive:
v. to raise
v. to drop

Intransitive:
to rise
to fall

eg. The glass fell (on the floor).
subject intransitive verb NO object.
I dropped the glass (on the floor).
subject transitive verb object.
The student raised his hand to ask a question.
subject transitive verb object
The sun rose (at six o’clock this morning).
subject intransitive verb NO object.
Q. What is the difference between to raise and to rise ?

Q. Why do students raise their hands in a class ?

Q. What usually happens when a glass falls on the floor ?

© Avalon Book Company Ltd., 1999

39

subject verb object Passive: Romeo and Juliet was written by Shakespeare subject to be + verb object (agent) Active: I fell off my bicycle. to pick someone up phr v. Q. would you pick it up ? Q. What is the intransitive verb with a similar meaning to raise? Q. it is not possible to make the passive voice with them. What is the intransitive verb with a similar meaning to drop? NB. you go and collect them to take them somewhere. Does an intransitive verb have an object ? Q. subject verb no object Passive: not possible 25 Unit 3 phr v. Active: Shakespeare wrote Romeo and Juliet. Because intransitive verbs do not take an object. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. drop ? Q. What is the intransitive verb with a similar meaning to : a.Q. 1999 40 . raise ? b. to drop someone off If you pick someone up.. If you dropped a penny on a dirty street. In what sports can you pick up the ball and run with it ? phr v. What about a £1 coin ? Q. you take it from the floor. to pick something up If you pick something up.

. Q. Pick a number from one to ten ? Q./adj. you take them to a place and leave them there. Did this building exist 50 years ago ? Q. If you are at your home-town station or airport. Is there any evidence to prove that aliens really exist ? adj. Did human beings exist 10 million years ago ? Q. 1999 41 . eg. who usually picks you up ? phr v. Do you think that aliens really exist ? Q. Q. human n. to pick (out) If you pick something (out). extinct n. human being If something exists it is a real or true thing in the world. Religious people believe that God exists.If you drop someone off. Q. dinosaur © Avalon Book Company Ltd. to exist n. you choose one thing from many. Do you take a long time to pick out new clothes when you go shopping ? v. Did your parents use to drop you off at school or did you go on your own ? Q.

About how many years ago did dinosaurs exist ? Q. Do you believe that human beings will become extinct in the future ? Q. What kind of people put their lives in danger when they work ? Q. Which famous bird became extinct in the 19th Century ? Q.Dinosaurs don’t exist any more because they are extinct. Q. What evidence is there to prove that dinosaurs really existed ? n. in danger of + gerund Q.. what illness are you in danger of getting ? 26 Unit 3 Q. 1999 42 . Why not ? Q. Do dinosaurs still exist ? Q. Are human beings extinct ? Q. Which animals are in danger of becoming extinct ? Q. What colour is usually used to warn people about possible danger ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. If you smoke cigarettes. danger expr.

What do we call people who steal things ? Q. thieves) n.v. Why would someone break into an art gallery ? v. an art gallery ? Q. alarm n. Has your house ever been broken into by a burglar ? Q. 1999 43 . protection n. What do you think should be the proper punishment for burglars? Q. Q. thief (pl. A burglar is a thief who steals from houses. What kind of thief breaks into houses and steals things ? Q. to protect (from) n. break-in A thief is anyone who steals things.. to go off We use alarms to protect our houses from burglars. Why would someone break into a bank ? Q. Why would someone break into: a.n. burglar phr. we say it goes off. Q. alarm clock phr v. When an alarm starts. a bank ? b. Who try to protect us from criminals ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. A burglar breaks into a house. to break into n. How do people protect their homes from burglars ? Q.

What do we use to protect ourselves when we ride a motorbike ? v. Q. Do you think that we should try to protect animals which are in danger of becoming extinct ? Q. burnt yourself ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd.. drive a car ? b. What time did your alarm clock go off this morning ? Q. to burn* n. Do you have a fire at home ? Q. Why do people have smoke alarms in their homes ? Q. ride a motorbike ? Q. What do we use to protect ourselves when we : a.Q. burnt People burn wood. fire adj. What kind is it ? Q. coal and gas to keep warm. 1999 44 . What is the best protection against insect bites ? Q. Have you ever a. What do we use to protect ourselves when we drive a car ? Q. What do we burn on a fire ? Q. Are there any protected animals in your country ? Q.

. If you spend too long in the sun. sunburn Q. Which vegetables need peeling before we eat them ? Q. your dinner ? Q. Have you ever eaten raw fish ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd.b. meat ? Q. fish ? b. Q. 1999 45 . Do you like sunbathing ? Q. it is uncooked. Have you ever eaten raw : a. Have you ever had sunburn ? v. Which vegetables can be eaten raw ? Q. to peel adj. sunbathing n. If something is raw. Do you get a suntan easily ? Q. to sunbathe n. suntan n. raw We need to peel a banana before eating it. Have you ever burnt your dinner ? 27 Unit 3 v. what are you in danger of getting ? Q. Have you ever burnt yourself ? Q.

What kind of animals are often very fat ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Is the food from your country greasy ? Q. greasy Q. Give me an example of food you think is delicious. fat adj. Have you ever eaten raw meat ? Q. What kind of food has a lot of fat ? Q. Give an example of food you think is disgusting. What kind of habits do you think are disgusting ? Q./adj. 1999 46 . delicious adj. What would you do if the fire alarm went off in this school ? Q.. Are some big shops protected by video cameras ? Q. What kind of birds wake people up by singing at sunrise ? Q. disgusting n. What do we use to protect our skin from being damaged by the sun ? adj. Q. Why might your skin peel ? Q.Q. Q.

What does a vegetarian avoid eating ? Q. vegetarian n. diet to be/go on a diet n. Have you ever been on a diet ? 28 Unit 3 Q. a low-calorie diet ? b. What vitamins do we get from fruit ? Q. Do you have a healthy diet ? Q. Why might someone go on : a.. to make sense If something makes sense we understand it or believe that it is right or practical. a high-calorie diet ? Q. What kind of food is very high in calories ? Q. vitamin n./adj. If you don’t have much money it makes sense to buy food at a market. Why might someone go on a high-calorie diet ? v. (because it’s cheaper. calorie* A diet can be special food you eat to lose weight or it can be the kind of food you eat generally Q. 1999 47 . eg. Why might someone go on a low-calorie diet ? Q.) © Avalon Book Company Ltd.n.

1999 48 . The sentence ‘Coffee me good milk. Can you understand something if it doesn’t make sense ? Q.’ makes sense.. letters etc. The sentence ‘I like white coffee. Do you think it makes sense to get insurance when you travel abroad ? Q. There are many forms of communication. speaking.’ doesn’t make sense. The sentence ‘I was so tired that I went to bed very early.’ doesn’t make sense. I hate running out of milk. communication n. Tell me some ways humans communicate with each other ? Q. eg. Does it make sense to come to school if you don’t want to learn? Q. to communicate n. eg.’ makes sense. Q. The sentence ‘I was so tired that I stayed up all night. Q. I had a really nice holiday because the weather was too hot. I am go there. satellite To communicate means to share information with or give information to someone.If a sentence doesn’t make sense we can’t understand it because it is wrong. phone. b. c. What is the most common form of communication ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Do you think it makes sense to study English at home ? Q. fax. e mail. v. Do these sentences make sense ? a./adj.

How do people communicate with each other without using words ? Q. What kind of people have to have very clear voices ? Q. (‘Unless you stop’ = ‘if you do not stop’). clear adv. If you speak clearly. it is easy for someone to understand you. In the first sentence the verb is positive. NB. Is satellite television common in your country ? Q. so it is similar to ‘if’. When are satellite communications needed ? adj. Q. while in the second sentence it is negative.. Do you think that the grammar in this book is explained clearly ? 29 Unit 3 unless Unless is a linking word. clearly If something is clear. Both sentences have the same meaning. We use it to make conditional sentences. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. I will call the police unless you stop shouting. Can you see clearly what is written on the board ? Q. Look at these two sentences: I will call the police if you do not stop shouting. 1999 49 .Q. When would you try to speak slowly and clearly to someone ? Q. it is easy to see or understand.

3. Q.exercise A. proper adv. Would you have trouble communicating in a foreign country unless you spoke the language ? Q. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. 1. Change these sentences using ‘if’ into sentences using ‘unless’. A proper wedding ring is made of gold. 1. Does it make sense to eat in restaurants if you haven’t got much money ? Q. Can you speak English well enough to communicate all your feelings clearly ? adj. If something is done properly. 2. I will hate him forever if he doesn’t apologise. You can’t come in unless you leave your shoes outside. Make a sentence with the word ‘unless’. 1999 50 . My dog won’t bite you unless you provoke it. properly If something is proper it is the right thing to do or use in a particular situation. B. Now finish these example sentences with a clause that makes sense. You will have to leave the hotel unless you pay tomorrow. it is done well and in the right way. What does someone on a fat-free diet avoid eating ? Q.. eg. I will hate him forever unless he apologises. 3. You will have to leave the hotel if you don’t pay tomorrow. Q. 2. They will never win unless Paul Gasket plays. You should wash your hands properly before you start cooking. They will never win if Paul Gasket doesn’t play. I won’t go to the party unless I feel better.

a place or an organization. eg. What is the proper tense to use when: a. Q. we imagine a situation that we don’t think will really happen ?* Q.. and Charles are all proper nouns. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Can you wash your hair properly without shampoo ? Q. Pepsi Co. What is the proper tense to use when we imagine a situation that we don’t think will really happen ? 30 Unit 3 A proper noun is the name of a person. France.Q. What is the proper tense to use when an action happened in the past but is important in the present ?* Q. over the preposition over has three meanings: 1. We must use a CAPITAL LETTER for all proper nouns. There is a mirror over the basin in my bathroom. How long does it take to clean your teeth properly ? Q. 1999 51 . Why is it important to cook pork properly ? Q. an action happened in the past but is important in the present ?* b. prep. above and not touching eg. Give me some examples of proper nouns. What is a proper wedding ring made of ? Q. London.

What kind of animals are often run over on the roads ? Q. He was over a hundred when he died. eg. Q.. sudden adv. How has your life changed over the last five years ? Q. People under 16 cannot get married in the UK. NB. the opposite is under eg. gradually adj. to run over = hit an animal or person in your car phrv. 3. to get over = feel better/normal after a bad experience phrv. 1999 52 . If something happens suddenly. In what sports do we hit a ball over a net ? Q. gradual If something happens gradually. Is it illegal for people under 16 to drive in your country ? Q. Q. more than eg. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. it happens quickly and we are surprised.2. suddenly adj. it happens slowly over a period of time. Her English improved over the year. to go over = look at or study something again. How long does it take to get over a bad cold ? Q. Is it a good idea to go over irregular verbs before an exam ? adv. Do you know anyone who is over a hundred ? phrv. over + period of time usually describes a slow change.

Do your moods change suddenly ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Do people grow up suddenly or gradually ? Q. Can the weather sometimes change suddenly in your country ? Q. Has their been a gradual rise in unemployment over the last ten years ? Q.Q.. 1999 53 . Have you ever had to stop suddenly to avoid running over an animal ? Q.

Q. 1999 54 . natural resource n. oil n. Q. Give me some examples of natural resources ? A. What do you think is the most precious natural resource ? A. What kind of food gives you a lot of energy ? A. Oil. What kind of natural resources are burnt in order to make electricity? A. Does your country have any natural resources ? A. gas A natural resource is anything we take from the environment and use. Do children have a lot of energy ? A. energetic Q. Q. What products do we get from oil? A. coal and gas are common natural resources. Q. Q.Unit 4 31 unit 4 n. Q. Q.. coal n. Q. Give me an example of a very energetic exercise. A. Q. energy adj. What about humans and animals ? A. Where do plants get energy from ? A. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. n.

Q. Do you think nuclear power is safe ? A.. Have you ever been treated unkindly at work ? A. Q. Do you think it is cruel to keep animals in zoos ? A. kind adj.Q. cruel adj. expr. Q. What is the most powerful country in the world ? A. Is sunbathing good for you ? A. 32 Unit 4 adj. 1999 55 . unkind Q. nuclear power n. Q. Q. Q. Why are holidays good for you ? A. Do you feel energetic when you first get out of bed ? A. powerful n. How does your country make electricity ? A. Q. Q. Do you enjoy doing things that are bad for you ? A. power adj. Are people usually kind to their pets ? A. Who is the most powerful person in your country ? A. bad for you = unhealthy Q. n. Is it cruel to punish children physically ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. solar power Q. good for you = healthy expr.

cruel behaviour. v. to shoot v. Why do some football clubs ban alcohol at matches ? A. b. ban Q.. to hunt n. Q. In what kind of buildings is smoking banned ? A.A. Are animals shot if they become dangerous ? A. Give me an example of kind behaviour ? A. Q. Give me an example of cruel behaviour ? A. Give me an example of : a. Q. 1999 56 . What kind of things are banned on flights ? A. to ban n. What kind of people are taught to shoot ? A. Q. v. Q. Q. hunting Q. Q. Do you think hunting is cruel ? A. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Do you think hunting should be banned ? A. What kind of animals hunt and kill other animals ? A. Q. kind behaviour. Q.

If you were unemployed would you feel under pressure to get a job ? A. Q. 33 Unit 4 Q. Q. Do you work well under pressure ? A. but we don’t have much time to do it. In what kind of situations are people under a lot of pressure ? A. I wanted to get a job after finishing school.. eg. Do you feel under pressure when you get a difficult question in the lesson ? A. expr. eg. Do people sometimes put you under pressure to buy things in a shop ? A.n. Q. Q. Have your parents ever put you under pressure to do something? A. to be/feel under pressure We feel under pressure when we have a lot of work to do. to put someone under pressure (to do something) If you put someone under pressure to do something. but my parents put me under pressure to go to university. What kind of people are always under pressure at work ? A. Q. you make them feel that they have to do it. pressure expr. 1999 57 . © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Q. Journalists have to work under pressure.

Q. tense adj. Q. Do you think we should use more solar power instead of burning natural resources ? A. stressed (out) adj. n. Where does solar energy come from ? A. 1999 58 . Q. flat hunting A. Do you think an international ban on nuclear weapons would make the world a safer place ? A. Is traveling during the rush hour stressful ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Q. job hunting A. Q. What do these expressions mean ? a. How does your behaviour change when you feel stressed out ? A. Is stress good for you ? A. stressful Stress is caused when people are very worried about their problems and when they feel under too much pressure. Q. Which natural resources are we in danger of running out of soon? A. What kind of problems can cause a lot of stress ? A.. Are professional athletes under a lot of pressure to win ? A. b. Our bodies often feel tense in this kind of situation. stress adj. Q. Q. Q.Q.

Q. What kind of people have to cope with a lot of pressure at work ? A. How do people help each other to cope with their problems ? A. Q. Q. eg. v.A.. Do you think you would be able to cope in a Book-4 class ? A. Q. Q. How do you try to relax when you are feeling tense ? A. so they came to live with my parents. Have you ever had to cope with a friend who was too drunk to walk home ? A. Do you think smoking helps people to cope with stress ? A. Are you good at coping with pressure ? A. Have you ever been in a stressful situation at work ? A. Q. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. 1999 59 . Q. Q. Q. My grandmother couldn’t cope with looking after my grandfather on her own. Would you be able to cope with looking after a large group of children ? A. to cope with + noun/gerund To cope with expresses your abilty to make the right decisions and behave well in a difficult or stressful situation.

Did your parents bring you up to be polite to strangers ? A. optimistic adj. n. How do parents cope with bringing up their children if they both work ? A. Q. pessimistic n. pessimist © Avalon Book Company Ltd. A. optimist n. A television personality is a famous person who is often on television. 1999 60 . Q.v. Q. Q. confident or kind. How would you describe your personality ? A.34 Unit 4 phr. Q. Who brought you up ? A. Q. Has your personality changed since you were a child ? A. to bring up children = to look after a child until they are grownup.. personality When we describe someone as lazy. Q. Q. we are describing their personality. Who is one of the most famous television personalities in your country ? A. What kind of things can change a person’s personality ? A. Describe your best friend’s personality. adj.

Q. Q. What is a synonym of shut? A.Q. 1999 61 . What is the antonym of : © Avalon Book Company Ltd. What is a synonym of stubborn? A. n. How optimistic are you that you will find a good job ? A. What is an antonym ? A. Q. b. c. An antonym is a word with the opposite meaning of another word. If I said that I didn’t think I would ever be successful would I be an optimist or a pessimist ? A. antonym A synonym is a word with the same meaning as another word. Q. What is a synonym of: a. What is a synonym ? A. What is a synonym of arrogant? A. shut A. Q. Q. synonym n. Would you describe yourself as an optimist or a pessimist ? A.. Are you optimistic about the future of the world ? A. arrogant A. Q. Q. Q. Q. stubborn A.

glad = happy v. What is the antonym of innocent ? A. c. Some common synonyms of words you have studied are: adj. 1999 62 . love A. Q. Q. Q. innocent A. Q./n. What is the antonym of love ? A. afraid = frightened adj. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. rush = hurry Q. 35 Unit 4 Q. Is it good for you to eat your dinner in a rush ? A. clever = intelligent adj. Why would you have to rush to school in the morning ? A. What is the antonym of generous ? A.a. What kind of things were you afraid of when you were a child ? A. Q. generous A. How can you tell that someone is really glad to see you ? A.. b. Q. Who do you think is one of the cleverest people in the history of your country ? A.

Q. Q. The verb ‘to fall’ is transitive. you do it without hurrying. Vegetarians only eat meat. 1999 63 . It can also be an antonym of the word real. The exercise is very difficult. false modesty ? Q. After a long day at work. Q. A. false False is an antonym of true. Why might someone need false teeth ? A. Q. d. true adj. Q. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. What do we mean by: a. It is the antonym of ‘to rush’. What do we mean by a false friend ? A. A. expr. To take it easy is an informal way of expressing the verb to relax.. A. What do we mean by a false modesty ? A. I take it easy at home. so take your time over it.adj. b. eg. c. to take it easy (informal) + gerund If you take your time over something. What kind of people need a false identity ? A. eg. a false friend ? b. A diamond is a precious stone. a. America is the biggest country in the world. A. Say true or false after these sentences. to take your time over + noun expr.

Do you have the kind of job where you can sometimes take it easy ? A. Do you usually take your time over dinner ? A.ness We add the suffix -ness to some adjectives to form nouns. Give me some examples. What letters do we add to some adjectives to make the adverb ? A. adjective happy sad rude kind selfish noun happiness sadness rudeness kindness selfishness © Avalon Book Company Ltd.. quick quickly slow slowly nervous nervously Q. 1999 64 .Q. Q. Q. Q. We use the suffix -ly to make adverbs from common adjectives. Q. n. A. Do people take their time doing something difficult ? A. suffix A suffix is a group of letters that we add to the end of a word to change its form. Q. What kind of things do you do when you are taking it easy ? A. 36 Unit 4 suffix . What kind of work do you need to take your time over ? A. eg.

literature = novels. What characteristics do you look for in a friend ? A. Q. characteristic Character is a synonym of personality. n. Q. Jaws A. Q. n. composition Q. Your characteristics are the different parts of your character. He is a nice man but his laziness causes problems at work. character n.lazy laziness n. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. A character can also be the name of a person in a book or film. eg. Have you ever studied foreign literature ? A. lyrics n. Do you like people with a friendly and honest character ? A. James Bond is a famous film character. Which two lovers are Shakespeare’s most famous characters ? A. 1999 65 . Which actors have played the character of James Bond ? A. We often use nouns with the suffix -ness to describe people’s characteristics. c. eg. title n. Titanic A.. plays and poetry. Q. article n. What are the titles of these films in your language ? a. b. Q. Gone with the Wind A. What is the title of this book ? A. Q.

Q. Q. What are lyrics ? A. Have you ever read someone’s biography or autobiography ? A. Some examples of non-fiction are biography and autobiography. autobiography If a book or film is described as fiction it is not a true story. fair adj. Give me some examples of non-fiction books.Q. fiction n. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Q. unfair If something is fair it is right and proper. Q. Q. 1999 66 . Q. It isn’t fair to cheat at sport so we have referees and umpires to make people play fairly. 37 Unit 4 adj. Can you think of any famous examples ? A. Q. Q. A. Did you have to write compositions at school ? A. biography n. Where do we read articles ? A. Do they often make films from novels ? A. What is the title of a famous Shakespeare play ? A.. n. Is it fair to cheat in an exam ? A. Q. non-fiction n. Do you prefer reading fiction or non-fiction ? A.

Is it vain to always worry about your appearance ? A. Q. Q. Q. How do people check their appearance ? A. © Avalon Book Company Ltd.Q. Do you think men are more vain than women ? A. Q. plastic surgery Q. Q. Would it be fair if I asked the same student all the questions ? A. Do women do more housework than men in your country ? A. Q. What kind of things can affect your appearance ?* A.. Q. vanity Q. Who makes sure that both teams play fairly in a football match ? A. If someone isn’t happy with their appearance what can they do to change it ? A. adj. In what situations do people worry a lot about their appearance ? A. Are bosses always fair at work ? A. 1999 67 . n. Q. Do you think that is fair ? A. appearance = the way you look n. Q. Are all good-looking people vain ? A. vain n.

Q. comfort adj. to dye Q. straight adj. Q. comfortable n. If you were going to dye your hair. fashion adj. Q. Do people in your country usually have curly or straight hair ? A. curly adj. 1999 68 . What else can you dye apart from your hair ? A. Q. n. 38 Unit 4 suffix –able The suffix -able is added to nouns to make an adjective. Do you think it is vain to have pictures of youself on your wall ? A. bald v. These adjectives often describe what something is. Q. what colour would you choose ?* A.. Is it common for men to go bald as they get older ?* A. Do you think vanity is a good characteristic ? A. changeable Q. adj. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. change adj. Q. Is your seat comfortable ? A.Q. Q. What can you do if you want to change your hair colour ? A. fashionable n. Are your clothes fashionable ? A. Is the weather changeable at this time of year ? A. eg.

drinkable Q. What kind of materials aren’t usually washable in very hot water? A. v. they affect the way you think or behave. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Q.. These adjectives mean ‘can be done’. Are pets and babies usually loveable ? A. Q. enjoyable adj. washable adj. v. Q. Do you think you are a likeable person ? A. Are people usually more likeable when they are drunk ? A. Are accidents usually avoidable if people are careful ? A. Is the tap-water drinkable here ? A. likeable Q. adj. influence If something or someone influences you. Who are the people who have the strongest influence on you while you are growing up ? A. Q. to influence n. 1999 69 . to drink adj. What kind of things do you find enjoyable when you're taking it easy ? A.The suffix -able can also be added to verbs to make an adjective. avoidable adj. Q. Does alcohol influence the way people behave ? A. eg. Q. loveable adj. Q.

persuasion If you persuade someone to do something you make them do it by giving them good reasons.Q. If you wanted to persuade someone to go on holiday in your country.. 1999 70 . Q. to persuade someone to do something n. Do you think that someone’s appearance can influence what we think about them ? A. What do we call people who are very difficult to persuade ?* A. Tell me one advantage of living in the countryside ? A. Have you ever been persuaded to buy something by an advert? A. A disadvantage of studying English in Britain is that you are away from your family and friends. Q. 39 Unit 4 n. An advantage of studying English in Britain is that you can practise every day. How do companies try to persuade us to buy their products ? A. v. Q. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. advantage (of) + noun/gerund n. Q. Q. disadvantage An advantage is a reason why one thing is better than another. Have you ever been influenced by a book or a film ? A. what would you tell them ? A. Q. . eg.

although even though Although and even though are linking words. What are the disadvantages of owning a car ? A. A. What are the advantages of: a. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. riding a bicycle to work ? Q. I didn’t pass the exam.. Tell me one disadvantage ? A. eg. Tell me one advantage of being able to speak English. Look at these sentences.Q. plastic furniture ? b. I studied hard but I didn’t pass the exam. camping ? Q. Q. Q. What are the disadvantages of: a. Although I studied hard. Q. Q. 1999 71 . What are the advantages of plastic furniture? A. owning a car ? b. They are similar to ‘but’. Q. car alarms ? c. What are the disadvantages of camping ? A. What are the disadvantages of car alarms ? A. What are the advantages of riding a bicycle to work? A. They have the same meaning. T Q.

Q. Q. Although is followed by a clause (with a verb). he is happy.verb) NB. 1999 72 . Which professional sportsmen/women sometimes have to play despite bad weather ? A. pronoun. Q. Q.She used to love John. Q. Give me an example of something that exists even though you can’t see it ?* A. despite Despite has exactly the same meaning as although. Although she used to love John. Q. eg. However.. he is happy.no verb) Although he has money problems. Despite his money problems. Are some people unhappy despite having lots of money ? A. or gerund (not a verb). Have you ever taken a day off work/school even though you weren’t really ill ? A. Do you ever have to keep working although you are tired ? A. Despite is followed by a noun. (‘his money problems’ . prep. but now she wants to marry Peter. they use different constructions. she wants to marry Peter now. Why would someone avoid eating chocolate even though they liked it a lot ? A. Do you sometimes buy new clothes although you can’t really afford them ? A. Q. We always use although with a clause. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. (‘he has money problems’ . and despite with a noun or pronoun.

When persuasion doesn’t work. Give me an example of vain behaviour. 1999 73 . What kind of animals do you think are the most loveable ? A. Q. eg. what can you do to make people change their minds ? A. Give me an example of things that people do even though they know it is bad for their health. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Q. Q. A. What kind of serious health problems can be caused by too much stress ? A. 40 Unit 4 NB.. Can you give me an example of someone who became rich and famous in spite of being poor as a child ? A. In spite of can be used instead of despite. When might you have to smile despite being in a bad mood ? A. I got the job in spite of my scruffy appearance. Q. Q. Which famous African man became president of his country despite being in prison for 27 years ? A. Do you think it is vain to have plastic surgery ? A. A.Q. Q. Q. Q.

Q. Q. Do you live in an industrial city ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Q. area n. suburbs A region is a particular part of a country.Unit 5 41 Unit 5 n.. Are we in the centre or the suburbs of this city ? A. What region of your country do you come from ? A. Do you live in the suburbs of your city ? A. Q. Q. agriculture adj. Does a farmer work in industry or agriculture ? A. What kind of buildings do we find in city centres ? A. What about a factory worker ? A. Q. Are there any museums/art galleries/good restaurants in this area ? A. n. city centre n. An area is a particular part of a town or city. Q. A. industry n. What is the most expensive area of your city ? A. 1999 74 . region n. Give me an example of a mountainous region. Q. Q. agricultural Q. industrial adj.

We use the adjective social when we talk about relationships between people or groups of people. Do you think society has changed a lot in the last 20 years ? A. Q. Q. Society can also mean people in general. society adj. Q. Q. homeless © Avalon Book Company Ltd. 1999 75 . Give me an example of a social problem in your country ? A. What social problems are common in big cities but rare in the countryside ? A. social Society means everyone who lives in particular country. Give me an example of an agricultural region in your country ? A. 42 Unit 5 Making nouns from adjectives by using the definite article adj. area or city. Q..A. Which is more important to you. Q. Is there a lot of pollution in industrial areas ? A. Drugs are a danger to society. What are some of the biggest dangers to society ? A. n. Q. eg. your work or your social life ? A. A. Give me an example of an industrial region in your country. Q.

Q. Do you think the rich should pay more tax than the poor ? A. Q. tiny = really small adj. What is the antonym of huge ? A. Q. Q. 1999 76 . Q. adjective rich poor unemployed homeless noun the rich = rich people generally the poor = poor people general the unemployed = unemployed people generally the homeless = homeless people in general NB.. eg. Do you ever give money to the homeless ? A. awful = really bad adj. such a + adj. London is such a huge city that I keep getting lost. adj. It was such an easy exam that everyone passed. Would you take a day off if you felt awful ? A. The unemployed are often helped by the government. Do you think the unemployed are given enough help by society ? A. These nouns are always plural. Give me an example of a tiny animal ? A. Q. + noun + that eg. Where did you go ? A. Q. huge = really big adj.We can change some adjectives to nouns by using the definite article. fantastic = really good Q. exercise © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Have you ever had a fantastic holiday ? A.

The film was so boring that I fell asleep. adj. Are there any beautiful valleys in your country ? A. swans and ducks.. It was such a boring film that I felt asleep. What kinds of birds are common in cities ? A. The exam was so difficult that everyone failed. steep n. Q. eg. 43 Unit 5 expr. 3. Q. Q. such as expr.Change so to such in the following sentences. There are many different kinds of birds. Have you ever collected things such as stamps or postcards ? A. such as pigeons. valley n. eg. 2. hilly Q. The exam was so easy that everyone passed. It was such a difficult exam that everyone failed. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Have you ever been to a very cold country like Iceland or Norway ? A. Are there any hilly areas in your country ? A. Q. 1. He is so lazy that he never gets up before midday. 1999 77 . It was such an easy exam that everyone passed. Is a hill bigger or smaller than a mountain ? A. Q. Q. Are there any steep hills in this city ? A. He is such a lazy person that he never gets up before midday. like such as and like have the same meaning as ‘for example’. hill adj.

Q. Q. Q.. Is industry more important than agriculture in your country ? A. What kind of animals are good at climbing trees ? A. Who were the first people to climb Mt. v. What is the difference between steps and stairs ? A. Q. Everest ?* A. Q. Q. Have you ever climbed a mountain ? A. a mountain ? b. 1999 78 . Q. Have they got any disadvantages ? A. What kind of people use a ladder in their work ? A. What are the advantages of computers ? A. Have you ever climbed a ladder ? A. Have you ever climbed : a. Q. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. ladder n. What word do we use to describe someone who is always negative about the future despite there being no reason for it ? A. Have you ever fallen off a ladder ? A.Q. a ladder ? Q. step Q. to climb n. Q.

Q. eg. something you are used to doing. Are penguins used to very cold weather ? A. Give me an example of something you are used to doing. Why is it difficult for many foreign people to drive a car in England ? A. Q. so he is used to getting up very early in the morning. Q. usual or easy because you have done it many times before.. 44 Unit 5 Q. People sometimes feel ill when they go abroad because they aren’t used to (eating) foreign food. Q. Give me an example of: a. Q. What kind of people are used to getting up very early in the morning ? A.v. We often say “I am (not) used to (doing) something” when we want to show that it might be difficult or strange for us to do something new or different. Did you find this way of studying English a bit strange when you first came to this school ? A. 1999 79 . Are you used to it now ? A. What kind of people are used to driving long distances without getting tired ? A. eg. Q. to be used to + noun/ gerund If you are used to (doing) something it is normal. something you are not used to doing. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. b. My father has been a farmer all his life. Q.

We often use to get used to in the present continuous when we are doing something new in the present. Q. My new job was really difficult when I started.A.) Q. 1999 80 . v. Do you think it is difficult to get used to living in a foreign country ? A. to get used to + noun/gerund To get used to something means that we are doing something that was difficult when we started but is becoming easier. Q. A. It is sometimes quite difficult to get used to foreign currency when you go abroad. Are you getting used to speaking English ? A.. Is it difficult to get used to working with computers if you have never used one before ? A. Give me an example of something you are not used to doing. but it is becoming easier. Q. eg. Q. eg. to float v. How long does it take your eyes to get used to the dark if the lights suddenly go out ? A. (It is still quite difficult. but I’m getting used to it. to sink sank sunk © Avalon Book Company Ltd. v. Q. What kind of things do people have to get used to when they start a new job ? A.

Q. it doesn’t happen. Have you ever found a fly floating in your drink ? A. If a train is delayed. Q. If something is delayed it happens later than arranged. Were you on time for the lesson today ? A. Q. to cancel v. What is the verb form of to sink ? A. delayed If something is arranged and then cancelled. Which ‘unsinkable’ ship is famous for sinking on its first journey? A. on time adj. Q. What can cause trains and buses to be delayed ? A. What caused it to sink ? A. cancelled adj. Q. Q. to delay adv. Q. 1999 81 . Why might you have to cancel a holiday ? A. Does stone float ? A.Q. does it arrive on time ? A. Q.. Why are flights sometimes cancelled ? A. Q. v. 45 Unit 5 Q. Does wood float ? A. © Avalon Book Company Ltd.

Q. it is well-run. Do you have a free health service in your country ? A. Q. is the service efficient or inefficient ? A. Q. quick and cheap. Are you ready for fatherhood/motherhood ? A. eg. These adjectives often come from words describing family situations.. motherhood n. fatherhood n. What public services do you pay for with your taxes ? A. Is the postal service efficient in your country ? A. Do you think that some people never get used to motherhood or fatherhood ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. If someone or something is efficient they are able to do things successfully without wasting time. If a service is efficient. Q. Who was the most important person in your childhood ? A. If trains are often delayed or cancelled. inefficient A service is something the public needs such as transport. neighbourhood Q. Q. service adj. 1999 82 . Are trains and buses always on time ? A. efficient adj. Q. n.Q. hospitals and schools. childhood n. n. money or energy. suffix – hood Some nouns can be made by adding the suffix -hood to a noun.

Do we see or hear thunder ? A. storm = strong wind with rain or snow n. Mild Something which is mild does not usually give us problems. Do you get severe winters in your country ? A. mild Severe weather is very bad weather. At what time of year are there a lot of storms in your country ? A. Q. Q. Does your neighbourhood have any social problems ? A. . In what season do you get thunder storms in your country ? A. lightning Q. thunder n. Do we see or hear : a. Do ships ever sink in storms at sea ? A. Q. lightning ? Q. 1999 83 . What happens to flights when the weather is very severe ? A. Q. Q. 46 Unit 5 Q. Q. Q.A.. At what time of year is the weather quite mild in your country ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. n. Do we see or hear lighting ? A. thunder ? b. severe adj. adj. A severe problem is a very serious problem.

1999 84 . What are some of the most common reasons for going on strike in your country ? A. strike struck struck If workers strike (or go on strike). hurricane n. v. disaster n. A. n. What kind of strikes cause the most problems for the public ? A. to strike n. Q..A. Give me some examples of natural disasters. Q. Q. The nurses are striking because they want better pay. Q. Have there been any natural disasters in the news recently ? A. flood n. Have there ever been any strikes in your country ? A. Q. hurricanes and earthquakes are examples of natural disasters. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Is your country ever affected by severe earthquakes ? A. Q. Floods. Q. they stop working temporarily because they are not happy with their situation at work ? eg. earthquake A disaster is something very bad that happens and usually affects many people. What kind of things can cause severe health problems ? A.

Q. Q. What is the similarity between these words ?* A. Has your country ever been struck by a natural disaster ? A. What does a subway go under ? A. We often use it when talking about natural disasters and illnesses. Which countries are often struck by severe floods ? A. submarine n. eg. Q. 47 Unit 5 n. Do you think most of the pollution in cities is due to cars ? A. Has your journey ever been delayed due to bad weather ? A. Where does a submarine travel ? A.The verb to strike can also mean to affect something in a negative way. The flight was cancelled due to severe weather. Do you think that people should get paid for days off due to illness ? A. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Q. The North of Scotland has been struck by severe storms and floods. due to (+ noun) = because of eg. What else is it due to ? A. 1999 85 . prep.. Q. Q. Which part of the USA is often struck by earthquakes ? A. Q. Q. subway Q. Q.

subtitle im + possible . Q.n. Q. Why are headlines so large ?* A. Which do you prefer ? A. Q. n. it happens often and at similar times. impatient illegal unavoidable uncommon inefficient unlikely impractical unfriendly unusual adj.unkind exercise Make the antonyms for these words using the correct prefixes. Is there a regular train service from your station ? A. Are sub-headings above or below the headline ? A.. How regularly do you eat in restaurants ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Do you take/do regular exercise ? A. prefix A prefix is a number of letters we add to the beginning of a word to change its meaning. dubbed n. e. Are foreign films usually dubbed or subtitled in your country ? A. headline adj. Q. regular adv. Q. sub-heading adj. 1999 86 .impossible negative prefixes un + kind . regularly If something happens regularly.g. Q. subtitled Q.

. Do you have a daily routine ? A. Do you think having a routine makes people more efficient ? A. How many national daily newspapers are there in your country ? A. I get up at about 7 o'clock. hayfever n. Q. 48 Unit 5 Q. Do you read one regularly ? A. daily then after that later (on) A routine is the things we do at the same time every day.A. After that I go to work and later on I have a drink with friends. I get up at about 7 o’clock. Describe what you did yesterday. Why would someone’s daily routine change ? A. Which one ? A. Do you like having a routine ? A. eg. Q. . Q. Then I have a shower and have breakfast. We use the present simple when we describe our routine. then I have a shower and have breakfast. to suffer (from) n. Describe it. Q. routine adj. migraine © Avalon Book Company Ltd. A. After that I go to work and later on I have a drink with friends. 1999 87 . n. Q. Q. Q. v. Q.

I can trust my best friend with my secrets. Q. v. irritated = annoyed Q. Most people trust their bank to look after their money. to irritate = to annoy adj. If you drink too much.Q. to trust adj. What kind of things do you find really irritating ? A. What kind of things can irritate you on a train journey ? A. a migraine ? b. do you suffer a lot the next day ? A. Have you ever suffered from a migraine ? A. Q. Q. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Q. eg. Q. trustworthy If you trust someone. What kind of materials can irritate people’s skin ? A. Do you feel irritated when trains or buses are delayed ? A. 1999 88 . Have you ever suffered from : a. Q. you believe that they are honest and they will keep their promises. What is a migraine ? A. Have you ever suffered from hayfever ? A. hay fever ? Q. Do people sneeze a lot when they suffer from hayfever ? A. v.. Q. irritating = annoying adj.

Q. Q. Do you rely on public transport to get to work ? A. Q. 49 Unit 5 Q. If you can rely on someone you trust them to to do what they promise to do. v. Q. you often need it in order to do something. Q. Do you trust your bank to look after your money ? A. eg. I can rely on my friend to keep my secrets. to rely (on) adj. Q. eg. What kind of people are used to coping with looking after noisy children ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. If a machine often breaks down. Q. Who can you trust with your secrets ? A. Q. 1999 89 . Can you always rely on people to keep their promises ? A. Who can you rely on to keep a secret ? A. Are you a reliable person ? A. Q.Q. is it reliable or unreliable ? A.. reliable If you rely on something. What machines do people who work in offices rely on ? A. Are children always trustworthy ? A. Can you trust people who sell things in the street ? A. People rely on public transport to get to work.

to believe in n.. v. Buddha ? Q. Q. Q. Q. Do you believe in : a. Q. What would your religion be if you believed in : a. How would you feel if you were in a small boat during a storm ? A. religion adj. religious If you believe in something you are sure that it exists or you think it is right and good. Do you believe in life after death ? A. Do you believe in God ? A. Q. What would your religion be if you believed in Allah ? A. what parts of your body get irritated ? A. God ? c. What would your religion be if you believed in Buddha ? A. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. If you suffer from hay fever.A. Q. What would your religion be if you believed in Christ ? A. Allah ? b. Q. 1999 90 . Q. Christ ? c. aliens ? b. Do you believe in aliens ? A. life after death ? Q.

Give me an example of a very religious country ? A. Q. Parents should provide food and the good home for their children.. Yes. What should parents provide for their children ? A. some hospitals provide their patients with free treatment. Q. Q. Do some hospitals provide their patients with free treatment ? A. mosque n. v. What should a good hotel provide you with ? A. temple n. Q. synagogue Q. to provide (someone with something) (something for someone) If you provide someone with something. to pray n. 1999 91 . you give them the things they need. v. a mosque ? b. Q. What religion are you if you pray in a synagogue ? A. Q. What religion are you if you pray in a church ? A. What religion are you if you pray in a mosque ? A.Q. a synagogue ? Q. What religion are you if you pray in : a. Q. Q. a church ? c. What kind of food provides you with vitamin C ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. A good hotel should provide you with a clean room and good service. What kind of things do people pray for ? A. Do you think that praying can help people cope with their problems ? A.

Which is usually more efficient. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Q. Did you have a state education ? A. What should the state provide for the population ? A. Do you think the public transport system is efficient in your city ? A.A. system Q. Q. The opposite of a state industry is private industry. NB. 1999 92 . Do you have an underground system in your city ? A. Q. Q. state The adjective state is used to describe anything run by the government. the state = government adj.. Does your home have an alarm system ? A. state industry or private industry? A. Q. Q. Who is the head of state in this country ? A. 50 Unit 5 n. Do all countries have the same education system ? A. Q. Q. n. Does the state own any industries in your country ? A.

Q. Have you ever suffered from prejudice ? A. prejudice adj. you give your opinion about it. racism n. Q. multi-cultural n. Q. prejudiced If you are prejudiced against someone. racist adj. sexism n. Do you think it is fair to make judgements about people because of their nationality ? A. Do you think you can judge someone’s character from their appearance ? A. Do you think we can judge someone’s intelligence from their qualifications ? A. Is it better to judge someone by their words or their actions ? A. you judge them negatively without knowing them or having any evidence for your judgement. What races of people lived in America before the Europeans arrived ? A. Q. judgement If you judge something. Q.. Q. n. race n. sexist © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Do you think the police are sometimes prejudiced ? A. . Q. 1999 93 .v. n. to judge n.

Q. A. Give me an example of sexist behaviour.. Q. What do we mean by multi-cultural society ? A. Q. Q.Sexism is a prejudice against someone’s sex. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Do you think that society in your country is sexist ? A. Q. What is the best way to fight racism ?* A. 1999 94 . A. Do you think that most men are still sexist ? A. Racism is prejudice against someone’s race or colour. Give me an example of a city where society is multi-cultural. Q.

Do you have any long-term plans ? Q. what is the short-term answer ? adj. long-term adj. Are you certain ? Q. the school and university year is divided into three terms. Long-term means for a long period of time.Unit 6 51 Unit 6 n. If you have problems with money. certainty + about + noun If you are certain about something. Is there anyone in your house at the moment ? Q. eg. Q. you are 100% sure about it. Q. What is the capital of your country ? Q. certain + that + clause n. and short-term is for a short period of time. 1999 95 . term adj. Are you certain ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. I am certain that he is here. I am certain that Tokyo is the capital of Japan. I saw him five minutes ago. short-term In Britain. How long is a university term in your country ? Q..

the sun will rise tomorrow ? b. We use must and can to say we are certain about something because we have evidence. What positive effects does regular exercise have on your body ? Q. Do you have any habits that irritate other people ? Q. I will teach you tomorrow ? Q. Have you ever suffered from a severe hangover ? Q. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. We use must to say that something is true. Peter can’t be ill because I saw him playing football this morning. If you practice a lot. (ie. Can we ever be certain what the weather will be like ? Q. Is it a certainty that I will teach you tomorrow ? Q. We use cannot or can’t to say that something isn’t true.. 1999 96 . eg. Is it a certainty that: a. i. Peter has been off work for a whole week. eg. Do you work better when you have a routine ? modal verbs (3) Using must and can to express certainty. Is it a certainty that the sun will rise tomorrow ? Q.Q. He must be quite ill. I am certain he is quite ill. is your English certain to improve ? Q.) ii.

= I am not certain but it is a possibility. modal verbs in the past . He slept for twelve hours last night. Q. He is very late. I haven’t eaten since yesterday evening.52 Unit 6 Q.. i. This chicken is raw on the inside. I haven’t got my wallet. i. My father is younger than me. construction: must + have + past participle can’t + have + past participle eg. His car might have broken down. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. eg. eg. You can’t have left your wallet at home because you had it in the restaurant. I stayed up all night last night. ii. He is very late. I left my bike outside the school but it has gone. You must be really hungry. You must have been very hungry. eg. iii. There is smoke coming from the kitchen. modal verbs in the past – might Might + have + past participle expresses possibility instead of certainty. iv. iii. I ate three pizzas last night.must / can’t We can use must and can’t to express certainty about the past. ii. = I am certain. He must have got lost. Say something about these sentences using must or can’t. Use must have or can’t have to explain these situations. My brother owns a large successful company. 1999 97 . I must have left it at home.

Say what you think might have caused these situations. He is sneezing. iii. You shouldn’t have tried to move it on your own.Q. A. Q. You shouldn't have eaten so many sweets. A. 53 Unit 6 Q. I hurt my back lifting that wardrobe. eg. I didn’t understand how to do that exercise. Q. 1999 98 . All my plants have died. The easiest way to emphasise something is to say it louder. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. He is sneezing. eg. eg. I can’t find my wallet. ii. His train might have been delayed.. iii. eg. I am sunburnt. Tell me what I should or shouldn’t have done in the following stuations. You should have used suntan lotion. She might have hurt herself. to emphasise n. Q. I can’t find my wallet. A. You might have left it at home. He is late. emphasis If a word or phrase is important we often emphasise it so that the reader or the listener will pay attention to it. modal verbs in the past – should When someone did something badly or in the wrong way in the past. ii. You should have asked your teacher. I told you to meet me at FOUR o’clock. I lost £300 at a casino last night. i. I have to have two bad teeth taken out. i. v. He might have caught a cold. we use should + have + past participle to tell them a better or correct way to do it. He is late. She is crying.

We can also use already to show that something has happened suprisingly quickly. we can emphasise words by putting them in : bold italics CAPITALS or by underlining Q. Q.. i. just . still . Tell me what word or phrase is being emphasised in these sentences.We use already to emphasise that something has happened before now. it does not change the meaning but it emphasises that a situation has not changed. The photocopier is still broken. so/such eg. just adv.) In written English. ( Friday is too late) There are some particular words that we use for emphasis. already v. I can’t read Japanese.We use just to emphasise that an action happened very recently. Thank you for such a lovely present. only eg. Haven’t you finished yet? iv. I like it so much. yet eg.) ii. Which words have you just studied ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. I haven’t read the letter yet because I have just received it. (It has not been repaired yet. eg.(I am angry because you came at five) Don’t sit THERE. eg. I can’t show you the letter because I have already sent it. i. 1999 99 .When we add still to a sentence or clause. She only started her business two years ago and she is already a millionaire. (But I can speak it. adv. eg. already . iii. I’ve only got £10. it’s not enough.) ii. vi. You need to buy a ticket before Friday. eg. (That’s the teacher’s chair.

come into the classroom ? b. Q. What have I just done ?* Q. Has anyone just come into the classroom ? Q. b. What idea am I emphasising when I say 'I’ve done it already' ? v. I’ve done it already. What idea am I emphasising when I say 'I’ve just done it' ? Q. Who has just answered a question ? Q. had breakfast/lunch ? Q. Has anyone just: a. What idea am I emphasising when I say : a. whereas conj. while © Avalon Book Company Ltd.Q. to compare conj. Has anyone just had lunch ? 54 Unit 6 Q. 1999 100 . Why would someone take an exam again even though they had already passed it ? Q. Can you think of anyone who is already famous even though they are very young ? Q.. I’ve just done it.

Q. Compare my shoes with your shoes. Can we control the weather ? Q. Compare your country with England. you think about how they are similar or different and their advantages or disadvantages. What is a remote control ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Who controls your country ? Q. control Q. Q.. I think that coffee is better in the morning because it helps me to wake up. to control n. what is the biggest difference ? Q. I bought the red one because I preferred the colour. Compared to the past. eg. whereas wine is nicer in the evening because it makes me feel relaxed. Q. When I compare coffee to wine. If you compare smart shoes to trainers what are their advantages and disadvantages. eg. We often use whereas/while when we compare two things. In what situations is it hard to control your feelings ? Q. 1999 101 . Q. do you think people treat each other better or worse ? v.If you compare two things. After comparing the two shirts. If you compare English with your language.

main adv. When gambling. Do you think examinations are mainly a test of memory ? Q. Q.expressions with control to be in control to be out of control to take control to lose control Q.. What might happen if you lost control of a car ? adj. mainly Main means the most important or the biggest. Do you live on a main road ? Q. When did China take control of Hong Kong ? Q. What is the main meal of the day in your country ? Q. Do you think that crime is out of control in some cities ? Q. Who is in control of a trial ? Q. 1999 102 . do you think winning depends mainly on luck or ability ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. What is the name of the main street in your city ? Q. What is your main reason for learning English ? Unit 6 55 Q.

. If you follow someone you go after them. Do you think teachers are partly to blame if a student doesn’t make any progress ? v. complete adv. to lead n. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. completely Q. Would it be a complete waste of time if you tried to learn English from a dictionary ? Q. Were you a complete beginner in English when you came to this school ? Q.v. leader v. Have you ever met a foreigner who was completely fluent in your language ? Q. Are parents completely or partly responsible for what their children do ? Q. Have you completed your education yet ? Q. to complete adj. When will you complete your course at this school ? adv. partly Q. 1999 103 . to follow led led If you lead someone you go before them.

What can very heavy rain lead to ? Q. Why would the police follow someone ? Q. would you be able to guide me around ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Have you ever had to follow an order ? v.Q. Q. If I visited your city. you show them where to go or the best way to do something. guide n. When you visit a foreign country do you buy a guide book ? Q. Q. to lead to = cause Q. Do you believe that hard work leads to success ? Q. 1999 104 . Which day follows Monday ? Q. Give me the names of three world leaders. Who leads the team onto the field in sport ? Q.. What kind of people have to follow orders ? Q. What kind of habits often lead to illness ? 56 Unit 6 v. guide book If you guide someone. to guide n.

If you pass a car moving slower than you. When passing a shop. to pass adj. What is the opposite of ahead ? When you are walking in the street you pass shops and people. Do you pass a supermarket on your way home ? Q. Q. Do you think that you have a wonderful future ahead of you ? Q. what kind of things make you stop to take a look ? Q.. Do you always look at yourself when you pass a mirror ? The verb to pass also means to give something to someone. Is your English moving ahead fast enough ? Q. 1999 105 . Why is it dangerous to pass another car on a corner ? Q. you move ahead of it. Q.v. Did you ever pass notes to your friends at school ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Is your country ahead of or behind London time ? Q. it is in front of you. Have you ever passed someone you knew in the street without saying hello ? Q. Q. ahead If something is ahead of you.

how to do something eg. This letter was written by my lawyer. What kind of things are often sold by the side of the road ? Q.to introduce the agent eg. 1. next to / near eg. He lost weight by going swimming every day. What about by a main road ? Q. When they retired they went to live by the sea. passive voice . 3. 57 Unit 6 Here are some other uses of the preposition by. How is information passed around the world ? by The preposition by has many different meanings. 4. Would you like to live by the sea ? Q. You already know some of them.Q. ways of traveling eg. You can go to America by plane from England but you can’t go by train. What kind of things do people keep by the telephone ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. 1999 106 . 2. Q.. What do football players pass to each other ? Q. You can practise your English by watching TV.

We often use by with verbs of movement with a similar meaning to pass. the past perfect (1) construction: subject + had + past participle We use the past perfect to talk about an action that happened further in the past than another action. 1999 107 . We often use the past perfect with time expressions such as before and already. Do you like sitting in cafes and watching people rush by ? 6. second action first action I knew her name because I had met her before. Are you younger than me ? Q. Q. second action first action © Avalon Book Company Ltd. NB.. What is the difference between these two sentences ? a. We always use the past perfect with another tense (usually the past simple). Unemployment went up by 10%. Q.5. eg. Unemployment went up to 10%. Last year my salary went up by 20%. Talking about the difference in numbers. I walked by that old Church yesterday. When I arrived at the station. By about how many years ? Q. Would you be happy if your salary went up by 10% ? Q. the train had already left. b. eg. Do you walk by any interesting buildings on your way home ? Q. eg.

1. 3. Do you know anyone who had driven a car before they were sixteen ? 58 Unit 6 exercise Put the verbs in brackets ( ) into the right tenses. eg.Q. n. He knew (to know) the city very well because he had visited (to visit) many times before. 1999 108 . 4. I was (to be) half an hour late so when I went (to get) to the cinema. to result in/from = to cause A result is the effect of an action. result v. What would the result be if my country played your country at football ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. our friends had left (to leave) already. 2.. I didn't want (not to want) to go to the cinema because I had seen (to see) the film twice before. Give me an example of some grammar you had never studied before you came to this school. Q. When we went (to get to) the pub. Had you ever spoken English to an English person before you came to this school ? Q. Had you ever heard of this book before you started studying here? Q. What kind of natural disasters are the result of bad weather ? Q. the film had started (to start) already . The accident was the result of bad driving. Q.

. 1999 109 . What did you finally decide to buy ? Q. Have you had the results yet ? Q. We can also use finally to show that an action is the last thing to happen. eg. Q. usually later than we wanted it to happen. finally We use finally to show that an action happened after a long period of time. Have you taken any exams recently ? Q. eg. Have you ever had to wait for over half an hour for your food in a restaurant ? Q. Do you think that hard work always results in success ? adv.Q. Who finally became the president of South Africa after being in prison for over twenty years ? Q. When did it finally arrive ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. I finally passed my driving test after failing it twice. First. boil the vegetables and then add pepper and finally put in the meat. Have you ever taken a really long time to choose a present for someone ? Q. The train was delayed. but it finally arrived an hour late.

you express an idea or a plan you have. is it a good idea to make a list beforehand ? Q. I found out about his mistake only after he sent the fax. Make a suggestion. compare: I telephoned him before he went on holiday. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Shall I close the window ? A. When you eat a big meal do you feel sleepy afterwards ? Q. When you take exercise do you feel relaxed afterwards ? shall n.adv. Yes. It’s cold.. suggestion to make a suggestion When you make a suggestion. that’s a good idea. beforehand adv. He sent the fax and I only found out about his mistake afterwards. When doing the shopping. Q. However. We often use shall I/we.? when we make a suggestion.g Q. Q. When you go on holiday do you always book your hotel beforehand ? 59 Unit 6 Q. We all want to go out for dinner this evening but we don’t know what kind of restaurant to go to. Make a suggestion. e.. Q.. It is very hot in here. He was going on holiday so I telephoned him beforehand. beforehand and afterwards are not followed by a clause and usually come at the end of a sentence. afterwards Beforehand and afterwards are similar to the prepositions before and after. 1999 110 .

however.Making a suggestion. Q. 1999 111 . What time shall we meet this evening ? (I’m asking you to make a suggestion. will and shall We use shall I/we to make suggestions when we can influence the situation.Q. phr v. we can say I’m looking forward to it.) We can only use will I/we when another person is in control and we can’t influence the situation. I’m looking forward to the party next weekend. Ask him/her to make a suggestion. eg. eg. Ask him/her to make a suggestion. Do you still look forward to your birthday every year ? Q. Will I get paid weekly or monthly ? .. Q. A passenger on a plane might ask: ‘What time will we land in London? (The situation is already decided and the passenger has no influence. to look forward to + noun/gerund When we know something will happen in the future and we are happy or excited about. We don’t know what time to meet.) compare these two sentences: Shall I bring some wine to the party ? .Asking for information. We don’t know where to meet before dinner. I can agree or disagree with you. Do people usually look forward to the weekend ? Q. Are you looking forward to going back to your country ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. eg.

Q. b. Give me an example of something you are: a. 1999 112 . Give me an example of something you're not looking forward to. Q.. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. looking forward to. What kind of things do children look forward to every year ? Q. Give me an example of something you are looking forward to. not looking forward to.Q. Are you looking forward to finishing Book 3 and starting Book 4? Q.

I would have forgotten her birthday. eg. What is the most amazing place you have ever been to ? 3rd Conditional construction = if + past perfect + would have + past participle 1. 1999 113 .Unit 7 60 Unit 7 adj. Who is the most wonderful person in your life ? Q. the truth is that I didn’t forget her birthday because you reminded me. However. If I had studied harder. eg. Have you ever had a fantastic holiday ? Q. 2.) © Avalon Book Company Ltd. wonderful ! adj.. fantastic ! adj. if you hadn’t reminded me. In this sentence we imagine that the past was different (if you hadn’t reminded me). Where did you go ? Q Would you be amazed if your country won the World Cup ? Q. and also imagine the result (I would have forgotten). Q. I would have passed the exam. amazed/amazing NB. We can use the 3rd conditional to express regret. We use the 3rd conditional when we imagine past actions and their results. We never use the word very with these adjectives. (But I didn’t study hard and I failed the exam.

I wouldn’t have been late if my car hadn’t broken down.. If you had felt ill this morning.) Q. How did you come to school this morning ? Q. I was late this morning because my car broke down. if you had failed all your exams at school ? Q. how would you have come to school ? 61 Unit 7 exercise Use the information to make a third conditional sentence. 1999 114 . I would have bought the red one. eg. If there had been a train / bus strike this morning. She hit me because I was so rude.3. If I hadn’t bought the green dress. would you have come to school ? Q. 1. (I bought the green dress instead of the red dress. If you had drunk a bottle of whisky last night. eg. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. would you have met me / him / her ? Q. If you hadn’t studied English. which language would you have studied instead ? Q. If you hadn’t come to this school to study English. Would your parents have been pleased. We can also use it to show that we chose to do one thing instead of another. how would you have felt this morning ? Q.

What happens to soldiers who don’t follow orders ? Q. If you had to make one prediction about the world in 20 years’ time. I decided to study Geography instead. The plane would have been delayed if the weather hadn't been so bad. Can you think of a famous invention ? Q. Although I thought about studying Art. We would have gone on the walk if the weather hadn't been awful. The weather was so bad that the plane was delayed. inventor Q. There wouldn't have been a break in if we hadn't left the window open. Do you think he/she is optimistic or pessimistic ? v. Who invented it ? Q. There was a break in because we left the window open. Q. 1999 115 .She wouldn't have hit me if I hadn't beeen so rude. to invent* n. 2. We didn’t go on the walk because the weather was awful. invention n. If you were on holiday would you look forward to going back to work ? Q. Do you think the computer is the most important invention of the Twentieth Century ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. 5. Do you think it would be wonderful if we never grew old or do you think it might become boring ? Q. I would have studied Art if I hadn't decided to study/studied Geography. what would it be ? Q. 3.. 4.

Q. 1999 116 . Which is the most famous computer software company in the world ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. What kind of people use a word processor in their job? Q. How would you have traveled very long distances if the aeroplane had never been invented ? v. hardware / software Q. How many words per minute can you type ? 62 Unit 7 v. What did people use to type with before computers were invented ? Q. Is the keyboard in your country the same as the English one ? Q. to type n. How did people use to communicate with each other before the telephone was invented ? Q. What is the difference between hardware and software ? Q.. to store n. Can you type ? Q. keyboard Q.

Computers will never be more intelligent than humans. NB.. 1999 117 .Q. a cupboard ? c. eg. We will have to use different kinds of energy when the world eventually runs out of oil. What kind of things do we store in: a. In the negative we can say‘will never/not ever. eventually Eventually has a similar meaning to finally : we use it to say that an action happens after a period of time. Where does a computer store information ? Q. What kind of things do we store in a cupboard ? Q. What kind of things do we store in a bottle ? Q. Will we eventually finish book 3 and start book 4 ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. What kind of things do we store in a cardboard box ? adv.’ eg. After looking for my keys for over 2 hours. Q. we also use eventually to talk about something that we think will happen in the future but we aren’t sure when it will happen. I do not think doctors will ever find a cure for cancer. If he keeps coming to work late. a carboard box ? Q. a bottle ? b. However. We can’t use eventually in negative sentences. What kind of animals store food for the winter ? Q. I eventually found them under the sofa. he’ll eventually get in trouble with the boss. eg.

Q.Q. eg. Give me some examples of modern technology.. to keep up with n. What kind of things do you try to keep up with ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. 1999 118 . I keep up with new fashions by reading all the popular magazines. Is it easy for old people to keep up with the changes in technology ? Q. Do you think doctors will eventually be able to cure all health problems ? Q. Will you eventually be rich enough to buy your own private plane? phr v. What kind of things do you hope you will eventually do in your life ? Q. Q. such as Vogue and Cosmopolitan. Do you think humans will eventually become extinct ? Q. Do you think changes in technology have made our lives better or worse ? Q. technology (uncountable) If you keep up with a particular subject you know all the most recent information about it. Do you think your English will eventually be good enough for you to become an English teacher ? Q.

changes in computer technology ? Q. How do people keeep up with changes in computer technology ? the future continuous construction = will + to be + present participle We use the future continuous for an action that will be happening at a particular time in the future. What will you be doing at this time tomorrow ? Q. eg. to receive n. How do people keep up with the news ? Q. Q. How do people keep up with : a. What will you be doing at 10 o’ clock tonight ? Q.63 Unit 7 Q. ring me at 9 o’clock instead.. Will you keep up with the lesson if you don’t pay attention ? Q. I will be having dinner then. message sent sent © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Do you know what you’ll you be doing at this time next year ? Q. the news ? b. Will you still be studying English in two years’ time ? v. Shall I ring you at 7 o’clock ? No. I will be lying on the beach this time next month. 1999 119 . to send v.

An elephant can be as heavy as a car. Lions aren’t as rare as tigers. What are some of the different ways we can send messages ? Q. it is more common to use these constructions in the negative to show how two things are different. eg. Can you think of an animal which is as common as pigeons in big cities ? Q. Q. 1999 120 . What do people receive on their birthday ? Q. Q. What do people send to their friends and family when they are on holiday ? Q. eg. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. You should answer questions in an exam as carefully as possible. However. A Ford is not as fast as a Ferrari.To receive means the same as to get but it is more formal. What do we call messages that are sent through the internet ? Q. 2. as + adjective + as If something is as heavy as something else. Have you ever received a card on Valentine’s Day ? comparatives using as 1. Do you think that adults sometimes behave as badly as children? 3. they are both the same weight. as + adverb + as eg..

1999 121 . Have you ever really looked forward to something and then been disappointed by it ? Q. Q.. Can you speak English as well as you speak your own language? Q. Have you ever spent a lot of money on a holiday which was a disappointment ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Is a car as heavy as a lorry ? Q. Give me an example of an animal that is not as common as it used to be. it is not as good as you had hoped. v.64 Unit 7 Q. Are children sometimes disappointed by their birthday presents? Q. you are not happy with their behaviour. to disappoint n. Is your country as big as China ? Q. Are you as tall as a basketball player ? Q. Would it be disappointing if you studied really hard for an exam and then failed ? Q. If you are disappointed by someone. disappointment If something disappoints you.

Q. it means they have the necessary qualifications and experience. children ? Q. What kind of sports are unsuitable for old people ? Q. men ? b. unsuitable If something is suitable. old people ? b. women ? Q. What kind of job would be suitable for you ? Q. Are there any jobs that are unsuitable for men ? Q. it means it is the right thing to use. Are there any jobs that are unsuitable for women ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. suitable adj. What kind of films are unsuitable for children ? Q. If someone is suitable for a job.adj.. What about a summer holiday on the beach ? Q. What kind of sports are unsuitable for old children ? Q. What kind of sports are unsuitable for : a. What kind of clothes are suitable for a winter holiday in the mountains ? Q. 1999 122 . Are there any jobs that are unsuitable for: a.

Will your English eventually be perfect if you practice enough ? Q.v. would you boast about them? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. If a customer is not satisfied with something they have bought. Q. 1999 123 . un/satisfactory adj. Are you usually satisfied with just a snack for lunch ? Q.. satisfaction n. Are jobs in factories usually satisfying ? Q. you are happy with it because it is good enough. Q. what do they do ? 65 Unit 7 adj. Which do you find more satisfying. a good book or a good film ? Q. perfect If something is satisfactory. If something is excellent it is very good. it is good enough. Do you think customer satisfaction is important for all businesses ? Q. If your exam results were excellent. If something is perfect it is as good as it could possibly be. excellent adj. Can you tell the name of a really excellent film ? Q. Is your English perfect ? Q. to satisfy n. customer If you are satisfied with something.

a hotel ? b. No. Have you ever had unsatisfactory service at a hotel ? A. Do you have a job ? Q. What kind of work do you plan to do ? Q.. Have you ever had unsatisfactory service at: a. Q. Have you planned your career ? Q. I had unsatisfactory service at a government office last week. eg. Have you ever had unsatisfactory service at a government office? A. Your career is the kind of work you plan to do in your working life. I've never had unsatisfactory service at a hotel. whereas work is the general idea of doing something to earn money. 1999 124 . n. career expr. out of work The difference between a job and work is that a job is the particular thing you do to earn money. What kind of things can you do if you are looking for work ? Q. Yes. if my exam results were excellent. work (uncountable) n. look for work expr. Is it hard work ? Q. Q. Q. Are a lot of people out of work in your country ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd.A. Do you enjoy the work ? Q. I would boast about them. a government office ? Q. Yes. A career in law or a career in medicine.

What kind of companies employ a lot of people ? v. For what reasons are people sacked ? Q. employee Q. If you resign from a job. are you an employer or an employee? Q. would you sack them ? 66 Unit 7 v.v. If you were the owner of a company and you caught an employee stealing. employer n. Have you ever been employed in a factory ? Q.. to retire n. pension © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Is it illegal to sack someone without having a good reason ? Q. If you work for a company. 1999 125 . to employ adj. self-employed n. to resign (from a job) If you are sacked. Who do you work for if you are self-employed ? Q. to sack (someone) v. you are forced to leave your job. you choose to leave. retirement n. Q. Have you ever resigned from a job ? Q.

A pension is the money you receive from the government or a private company when you retire. What is the retirement age for men and women in your country ? Q. Give me an example of an English word you find difficult to pronounce. pronunciation Q. usually about 60 or 65. Q. to pronounce n. Do you have a government pension ? Q. voice n. Q. What accent do you speak English with ? Q.People retire from work when they get to a particular age. Has your pronunciation improved since you came to this school? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Q. What do you think early retirement means ? Q. accent v. Give me an example of a singer who has a wonderful voice. Do people from your region have a particular accent ? Q. At about what age does a boy’s voice change ? Q. 1999 126 . Is a government pension enough to live on ? n..

you don’t intend to do it. accidentally If you do something by accident or accidentally. What is the one thing that eventually happens to everyone ? Q. What kind of career do you intend to have ? Q. Why do you think some people decide to change their careers after many years in the same job ? 67 Unit 7 expr. by accident adv. you plan to do it.v. I intend to travel around the world. How long do you intend to continue ? Q.. eg. What construction do we use to express a future intention ? Q. Is modern technology changing so fast that you can’t keep up with it ? Q. How long have you been studying English ? Q. intention If you intend to do something. 1999 127 . Do you intend to learn English perfectly ? Q. When I finish university. I took the wrong train by accident. Q. eg. to intend (to do something) n. Are some people never satisfied ? Q. © Avalon Book Company Ltd.

eg. clumsy If you are clumsy. Have you ever made someone angry on purpose ? Q. I got to work late on purpose in order to miss the meeting. to do something on purpose To do something on purpose is the opposite of to do something by accident. Q. Q. Have you ever thrown something useful away by accident ? Q. Did you get there eventually ? Q. 1999 128 . Have you ever done something on purpose and then pretended it was by accident ? adj. Have you ever accidentally drunk someone else’s drink at a party? v..He accidentally took someone else’s suitcase from the airport. Where were you trying to go ? Q. Q. you often drop or break things accidentally. Have you ever missed a meeting on purpose ? Q. Have you ever hurt someone’s feelings by accident ? Q. Have you ever accidentally taken the wrong train ? Q. Are you a clumsy person ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd.

common sense (uncountable) If you are a sensible person it means you make the right decisions and you can be trusted with important things.. Could you use your common sense to choose a suitable present for a very young child ? Q. Would you trust a clumsy person to carry a very valuable vase ? Q. Do clumsy people usually break things on purpose ? Q. What is it sensible to do before sunbathing ? Q. Are children always sensible ? Q. What is it sensible to do before crossing a busy street ? Q. Are you more sensible now than when you were a teenager ? Q. Q. going abroad on holiday ? c.Q. What would you buy ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. 1999 129 . Your common sense is your natural ability to make practical decisions. What is it sensible to do before: a. sensible n. crossing a busy street ? b. Do you know anyone who has always been clumsy ? adj. What is it sensible to do before going abroad on holiday ? Q. sunbathing? Q.

What kind of people have a lot of responsibility ? Q. What are the most sensible shoes for: a. Are you responsible enough to be trusted with a lot of money ? Q.Q. you are sensible and you can be trusted with important things. Do you think some people have no common sense ? 68 Unit 7 We can also use sensible to describe clothes that are suitable for a particular situation. What are the most sensible shoes for walking long distances? Q.. What are the most sensible clothes to wear in very cold weather? adj. responsibility If you are a responsible person. Are adults more responsible than children ? Q. irresponsible n. responsible adj. Q. 1999 130 . What are the most sensible shoes for playing tennis ? Q. walking long distances ? Q. Could you cope with the responsibility of looking after a very young child ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. playing tennis ? b. Q.

She hit me because I was rude to her. I broke into my house because I had lost my keys. eg. Who is responsible for running your country ? Q. 1999 131 . My teacher shouted at me because I dropped my coffee. I cried because the film was very sad. Who do you think is more responsible for a child’s education. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. compare: 1.Q. Do you think the government should be responsible for helping the unemployed ? Q. We often use the past perfect when an action causes or influences another action but the effect does not happen very quickly and there is a time gap between the actions. Who is responsible for keeping law and order ? Q. their parents or their teachers ? past perfect (2) cause and effect When we want to show the effects of an action in the past we can usually use past simple + past simple if the effect happened very quickly after the cause. Would it be irresponsible to let a young child play with a knife ? v.. Q. eg. to be responsible for (someone / something) (gerund) If you are responsible for something you are in charge of it. the first action (losing the keys) causes the second action (breaking into the house) but there is a time gap between the two actions. so we use past simple + past perfect and not past simple + past simple. second action first action In the example above.

2. 69 Unit 7 exercise Choose the past simple or the past perfect for the verbs in brackets. Yesterday I finished work at 5 o’clock and then I met my friend at a restaurant. We don’t use the past perfect when actions happen one after another without influencing each other.. 1999 132 . I had eaten breakfast so I wasn’t hungry when I got to school. Would you resign from a well-paid job if you were treated badly by your employer ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Remember. Q. I was (to be) very tired after work yesterday because I had slept (to sleep) badly the night before. 3. My teacher punished (to punish) me because I hadn't done (to not do) my homework. 2. we use the past simple. My teacher shouted at me because I hadn’t done my homework properly. We went to the cinema and saw a good film I didn’t go to the cinema because I had already seen the film. 1. Q. Have you ever bought anything because you had seen it advertised on television ? NB. Compare these sentences : I ate breakfast before I came to school. each sentence has one verb in the past simple and one in the past perfect. After dinner we went for a drink and after that we saw a play at the theatre. I wasn't ( not to be) hungry when I got to school because I had eaten (to eat) breakfast. Have you ever had to break into your house because you had lost your keys ? Q. and later on we went to a nightclub and danced until sunrise. Instead. eg.

Have you ever opened someone else’s letter by accident ? Q. What is the opposite of doing something on purpose ? Q. Do you think it is worth having a private pension ? Q.Q. Did you read it ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. 1999 133 . Why ? / Why not ? Q.. What do you intend to do when you finish studying English ? Q.

Yes. If you were looking after a young child what could you do to amuse them ? Q. adj. eg. 1999 134 . No. Yes. Q. What kind of films amuse you ? Q. you do something to stop yourself getting bored. On a long flight I amuse myself by reading.Unit 8 70 Unit 7 v. comedian If something is amusing it is quite funny. Do you think he/she is funny ? A. What kind of things do people do to amuse themselves on long journeys ? Q. Give me an example of an amusing film ? A. Bean The Movie is an example of an amusing film. If something is hilarious it is very funny. to amuse yourself If something amuses you it makes you want to laugh or smile. If you amuse yourself. comedians are not always amusing. Q. I would be amused if you fell off your chair. Benny Hill is one of the most famous comedians in my country. Would you be amused if I fell off my chair ? A. Q. Q. Who is one of the most famous comedians in your country ? A. Are comedians always amusing ? A. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. hilarious n. amusing adj. to amuse v. I think he's very funny.. Q.

Q. I like watching soap operas. 1999 135 . Documentaries about wildlife are often shown on television. Do they sometimes have an amusing story at the end of the news ? A. What do we use to change channel ? A. n. Q. Q. they sometimes have an amusing story at the end of the news. channel Q. 1999 Unit 8 71 © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Yes. What kind of documentaries are shown on television ? A. current affairs n. Which is your favourite ? A. sit-com n. programme n. Yes. Q.. BBC1 is my favourite. television in my country shows a lot of foreign programmes. Yes. How many channels are there in your country ? A.Q. What kind of television programmes do you like watching ? A. Q. I've seen a hilarious film. Q.. What is the main subject of current affairs programmes ? A. There are 5 channels in my country. We use a remote control to change channel. No. reality TV n. soap opera Q. The main subject of current affairs programmes is recent news. Does television in your country show a lot of foreign programmes ? A. documentary n. there aren't any channels which only show cartoons. Q. I would laugh if someone told me a hilarious joke. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. n. What would you do if someone told you a hilarious joke ? A. Are there any channels which only show cartoons ? A. Q. Have you ever seen a hilarious film ? A.

sight n. Do you like the sound of your alarm clock in the morning ? A. I think the sun rising over the mountains is a beautiful sight. Q.wear paid . sound A sight is something you see. What can’t a blind person do ? A. I don't like the sound of my alarm clock in the morning. Q. A deaf person cannot hear. blind adj. Q. Q. No. A blind person can't see. A deaf person can't hear.n. Q. Q. Dogs are often used to guide blind people. deaf A blind person cannot see. How do deaf people communicate ? A. adj. A dog goes woof. What sound does a dog make ? A. life .wife cough . 1999 136 . A sound is something you hear. v. rhyme When two words rhyme. Q.shoe © Avalon Book Company Ltd. to rhyme n.. Deaf people communicate by using sign language. not all birds make a nice sound. What kind of animals are often used to guide blind people ? A. No. Do you think the sun rising over the mountains is a beautiful sight ? A. they end with the same sound. Do all birds make a nice sound ? A.bore chair .made through .off law . Yes. Q. What can’t a deaf person do ? A.

walk – fork 6. word – bird 7. Yes. No. No. No. through – zoo n. rhythm Q. law – bore 5. No. eyes – size A. Do lyrics usually rhyme ? A. g.. her – hair A. Yes. Do you have to have rhythm to be a good dancer ? A. you have to have rhythm to be a good dancer. h. sheep – steep 4. feet – fit A. poems don't always rhyme. exercise Write words which rhyme with : 1. 1999 137 . Yes. said – paid A. Yes. Q. What kind of music usually has a fast rhythm ? A. f. Do these words rhyme ? a. book – shook 3. Dance music usually has a fast rhythm. d. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. fill – bill 2. beer – here A. c. 1999 © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Yes. the rhythm of a train makes me sleepy. Does the rhythm of a train make you sleepy ? A. b. angry – hungry A. Q. cough – off 8. No. Q. What about poems ? A. e. lyrics ususally rhyme. No. food – stood A. Yes.Q. zoo – through A.. Q.

to beat n. heart n. The drums are beaten. The lungs get damaged by smoking. Q. Q. Which musical instruments are beaten ? A. n. to win eg. 2. Is it legal for teachers to beat children at school in your country ? A. Q. score beat beaten The verb to beat has three meanings. to hit someone / something very hard Q. it's illegal for teachers to beat children at school in my country. What kind of things make your heart beat faster ? A. The heart beats about 60 times in a minute. What was the score ? A. How many times does the heart beat in a minute ?* A. Q. phr v. to beat up If someone beats you up they hit and punch you a lot. Brazil was the last country to beat mine in football. Q.. Q. No. 1999 138 . 1. What kind of children beat up smaller children ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd.72 Unit 8 v. What parts of the body get damaged by smoking ?* A. lungs 3. Running makes your heart beat faster. 3:0 (three: nil) to Brazil. England usually beat Scotland at football. the action of the heart Q. Which was the last country to beat yours in football ? A.

Q. People are paid to beat each other up in boxing. Q. No. I've never seen a ghost. n. Yes. Yes. monster n. Yes.. Q. King Kong is an example of a famous monster. paranormal n. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. 1999 139 . Q. Do you believe that it really exists ? A. I don't think people who say they've seen a UFO are telling the truth. Q. Would you like to see one ? A. A UFO is an Unidentified Flying Object. No. Q. Yes. I think people are more interested in the paranormal than they used to be. Q. No. Give me an example of a famous monster ? A.A. most children are afraid of monsters. Are children afraid of monsters ? A. I believe in the paranormal. Do you think people are more interested in the paranormal than they used to be ? A. Do you believe in the paranormal ? A. Bullies beat up smaller children. Q. Q./adj. I don't believe that it really exists. Q. U. I would like to see one. If we talk about the paranormal or describe something as paranormal we mean ideas or things that might exist but which can’t be explained or proved by science. Do you think people who say they have seen a UFO are telling the truth ? A. Have you ever seen a ghost ? A. In what kind of sports are people paid to beat each other up ? A.O. ghost/spirit n. What is a UFO ? A.F.

Can criticism sometimes be really useful ? A. What are the different areas of the media ? A.© Avalon Book Company Ltd. v. television and radio. Q. The different areas of the media are newspapers. 1999 140 . In television. 1999 Unit 8 73 n. Who is often criticised in the newspapers ? A. I think newspapers and television have the most influence. Politicians are often criticised in the newspapers. No. Yes. criticism If you criticise someone. A criticism is usually a negative judgement. Which part of the media do you think has the most influence ? A. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. you make a negative judgement about them. Yes. Do you think criticism is good for children ? A. Q. Q. Why is it worth listening to criticism ? A. I don't think criticism is good for children. Q. It's worth listening to criticism because you might learn something. newspapers are controlled by the government in my country. I would like to work in the media. Q. Q. Are any parts of the media controlled by the government in your country ? A. Q. criticism can sometimes be really useful. the media (uncountable) Q.. v. Q. to review n. critic / reviewer To review means to give a professional judgement about a book film or play.. to criticise n. Would you like to work in the media ? A. In what area ? A. Yes.

Q. Do you prefer sensible or fashionable clothes ? A. Do even rich people want to win the lottery ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Q. Q. He didn’t even say thank you when I gave him his present. Yes. my radio can receive foreign language programmes. Do they influence your choice of films ? A. I prefer sensible clothes. even Mark who didn’t get any right. Yes. Board games are so simple that even children can play them. Q. Do you read film reviews ? A. Q. Nobody likes my cooking.A critic writes reviews. Can your radio receive foreign language programmes ? A. Q. adv. Yes. 1999 141 . even + subject / object + verb We use even for emphasis. I sometimes read film reviews. eg. Q. If you could be a critic. they influence my choice of films. Yes. Do you know any films which have been successful despite bad reviews ? A. The basic responsibilities of parents are to look after their children. All the children got a prize in the spelling competition. Q. Titanic has been successful despite bad reviews. Even English teachers sometimes make spelling mistakes. I would review new films. Q. Sit-coms amuse me the most. Which kind of television programmes amuse you the most ? A. He is so rude. It often expresses the fact that something is unusual or a surprise. Q.. If I could be a critic. What are the basic responsibilities of parents ? A. not even my dog. Which games are so simple that even children can play them ? A. what kind of things would you review ? A.

Can you think of anyone who is even richer than the Queen of England ? A. 74 Unit 8 Q. 1999 142 . Can you think of a country that is even hotter ? A. even rich people want to win the lottery. Are you worried that there will be even more unemployment and crime in the future ? A. What is the hottest country you have ever been to ? A. I think that even computers sometimes make mistakes. Egypt is even hotter than Brazil. Bill Gates is even richer than the Queen of England. Yes. Brazil is the hottest country I've ever been to. Q. 0 conditional: I never drink alcohol even if it’s my birthday. I'm worried that there will be even more unemployment and crime in the future. even if We use even with conditional constructions to show that we will do something despite having a reason not to do it. Yes. We usually use even if with negative conditions to show that we won’t do something despite having a reason to do it. I would always help my friends even if they were in trouble with the police. Q. Q. even + comparative London is a very big city. Yes. Yes. eg. We can use even if with all the conditional constructions you have studied. but some Asian and South American cities are even bigger. Yes. Do you think that even computers sometimes make mistakes ? A. Q. eg. We will go on a picnic even if it is cold and wet. © Avalon Book Company Ltd.A..

No. I think it is better not to criticise your friends’ taste in clothes even if it's really bad. adj. 2nd conditional: I wouldn’t buy a Rolls-Royce even if I could afford one. If something is ordinary. Yes. Q.1st conditional: I won’t pass the exam even if I study all night. Yes. you can have a good time at a party even if you don’t know anyone. Yes. Do you think it is better not to criticise your friends’ taste in clothes even if it is really bad ? A. Do you try to keep up with the news from your country even if you are living abroad ? A. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. more important or better than usual. I would go to your best friend’s wedding even if I felt really ill. I would dye my hair if I started going grey.. Would you dye your hair if you started going grey ? A. even if I'm living abroad. it is normal and no different from usual. Q. An ordinary English house has two floors and a small garden. Even if you paid me. special If something is special it is different. Q. I wouldn't pay more for my lessons even if the furniture were more comfortable. use even if in your answer. 1999 143 . I wouldn't clean your shoes. Q. Would you pay more for your lessons if the furniture were more comfortable ? A. Q. Would you go to your best friend’s wedding even if you felt really ill ? A. I try to keep up with the news from your country. English people eat special food at Christmas. Would you clean my shoes if I paid you ? A. ordinary adj. Q. Can you have a good time at a party even if you don’t know anyone ? A. If you answer negatively to these questions. eg. Q. Yes. 3rd conditional: I wouldn’t have hit him even if he had hit me. Yes.

Q. Yes. Q. ordinary houses in my country don't have more than one bathroom. Do you wear ordinary clothes to a party ? A. No. No. ordinary houses in my country have an attic. a garage ? b. Are you doing anything special this weekend ? A. a job interview ? Q. Do ordinary houses in your country have: a. I don't wear ordinary clothes to a party. Q. Do ordinary houses in your country have an attic ? A. Yes. Do you wear ordinary clothes to school ? A. No. Christmas Day and my birthday are special days of the year. Q. I'm not doing anything special this weekend. ordinary houses in my country have a garage. No. school ? c.Q. adj. Do you wear ordinary clothes to : a. Do ordinary houses in your country have a garage ? A.. Which days of the year are special ? A. Young children need special care and attention. simple © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Unit 8 75 Q. Do ordinary houses in your country have more than one bathroom ? A. more than one bathroom ? Q. Q. Q. What kind of people need special care and attention ? A. complicated adj. I wear ordinary clothes to a school. I don't wear ordinary clothes to a job interview. Do you wear ordinary clothes to a job interview ? A. Q. Yes. an attic ? c. a party ? b. 1999 144 .

Yes. Q. director n. a game with complicated rules b. Q. Complicated is the opposite. Q.If something is simple it is easy to understand or do.. Is running a business more complicated in practice than in theory ? A. a complicated construction in English Q. Give me an example of a simple meal. I agree that the best ideas are often the most simple. n. The Tird Conditional is an example of a complicated construction in English. noughts and crosses is a game that's so simple that even young children can play it. film industry n. Yes. Q. Give me an example of: a. Give me an example of a complicated construction in English. Cheese on toast an example of a simple meal. Do you agree that the best ideas are often the most simple ? A. computers are complicated machines. Give me an example of: © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Which place in the USA is famous for its film industry ? A. Yes. Give me an example of a game with complicated rules. Do you think they are simple to use ? A. running a business is more complicated in practice than in theory. A. Hollywood is famous for its film industry. Chess is an example of a game with complicated rules. 1999 145 . Are computers complicated machines ? A. special effects Q. Q. Q. Q. Yes. plot n. A. Q. I think they're quite simple to use. A. Can you think of a game that is so simple that even young children can play it ? A. Q. Yes.

Have you ever planted any trees or flowers ? A. Q. Yes. Football and cricket are played on a pitch. Q. pitch Q. a film director from your country Q. Q. Give me an example of a film with a complicated plot. The Usual Suspects is an example of a film with a complicated plot. If they made a film of my life. Give me an example of a film with a simple plot. A. Rocky is an example of a film with a simple plot. Q. 1999 146 . Q./n. would it have a simple or a complicated plot ? A. Q. In what season do farmers plant their crops ? A. v. a famous film director. Luc Besson is an example of a film director from my coutry. Give me an example of a film director from your country. b. Do action films usually have a complicated plot ? A. it would have a complicated plot.a. Q. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Yes.. If they made a film of your life. Q. Q. Steven Spielberg is an example of a famous film director. Do most gardens have lawns in your country ? A. a complicated plot. a simple plot. plant n. I've planted some flowers. most gardens have lawns in my country. crop n. Farmers plant their crops in spring. What kind of films have a lot of special effects ? A. lawn n. What sports are played on a pitch ? A. Give me an example of a famous film director. No. Action ans sceince-fiction films have a lot of special effects. Give me an example of a film with : a. b. A. A. A. Q. action films don't usually have a complicated plot.

I'm strong enough to lift that table. Is it worth using a lift to go up one floor ? A. 76 Unit 8 n. Q. 1999 147 . Potatoes grow in the ground. Carrots and onions are common crops in my country. This building has 3 floors. I wish this building had a lift. escalator Q. What can usually be found on the ground floor of a hotel ? A. How many floors does this building have ? A. What are some common crops in your country ? A.. What kind of animal is strong enough to lift a tree ? A. ground floor Q. The difference between the floor and the ground is that the floor is inside and the ground is outside. We are on the second floor. Q. Moles live under the ground. Do you wish this building had a lift ? A. Department stores often have escalators. Q. No. it isn't worth using a lift to go up one floor. to lift n. Q. Q. Yes. The reception can usually be found on the ground floor of a hotel. ground n. Yes. Q. Which one are we on ? A. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. lift n. Q. What kind of buildings have escalators ? A. Are you strong enough to lift this table ? A. Where do potatoes grow ? A. Q. An elephant is strong enough to lift a tree. Q. floor n. v. Which animals live under the ground ? A. What is the difference between the floor and the ground ? A.Q.

Q. I've never slipped over in the street. We call a meal we eat outdoors a barbecue. If I asked you for a lift. If you asked me for a lift. I don't know a good place for a picnic near here.. What is the difference between slip and slide ? A. n. Q. Are we upstairs or downstairs ? A. to slip* adj. Q. We call a meal we eat outdoors a picnic. The difference between slip and slide is that slip is by accident and slide is on purpose. What kind of animals feel slippery ? A. Q. Bedrooms are usually found upstairs in a house. Have you ever slipped over in the street ? A. what would I want ? A. slide Q. No. No. Q. Q. Frogs feel slippery. Q. 1999 148 . The ground is slippery when it's very icy.Q. Where would you find a children’s slide ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. What kind of rooms are usually found upstairs in a house ? A. When is the ground slippery ? A. We're upstairs. What do we call a meal we cook outdoors ? A. you would want me to take you somewhere in my car. Snakes slide along the ground. What do we call a meal we eat outdoors ? A. What kind of animals slide along the ground ? A. Q. slippery v. Q. Do you know a good place for a picnic near here ? A. barbecue n. v. to slide n. picnic = outdoor meal upstairs downstairs indoor(s) outdoor(s) Q.

to position A position is the place where someone or something is. Q. do you position your guests carefully ? A. level We use the word level to describe the measurement of something. Q. Someone might be in a kneeling position if they were praying. Q. Q. 1999 149 . 77 Unit 8 n. Q. you put it in a particular place. Q. The police can check the level of alcohol in your blood. I'm studying intermediate level English. Yes. Rome has dangerous levels of air pollution. you would've finished in the second position. n. Yes. eg. When you have a dinner party. when I have a dinner party. You would find a children’s slide in the playground. In what sport do you position the ball carefully before hitting it with a club ? A. Q. Why might someone be in a kneeling position ? A.A. position v. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Yes. If you won a silver medal in a race. Are there any cities in your country that have dangerous levels of air pollution ? A. I position my guests carefully. What level of English are you studying ? A. If you position something. what position would you have finished in ? A. You position the ball carefully before hitting it with a club in golf. my level of English has improved since I started studying at this school. If you won a silver medal in a race. Has your level of English improved since you started studying at this school ? A. You are studying intermediate level English..

Yes. level As an adjective. 1999 150 . Level-headed means sensible or calm. Q. Q. Yes. I'm usually in bed by midnight. Michael Jackson was already rich by the age of twenty. but not later. sea level A. pavements aren't usually level with the road. Sea level means the average level of the sea. Are you usually awake by 8 o’clock ? A. Q. eg.. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. I'm usually awake by 8 o'clock. Yes. No. most people have stopped growing by the age of twenty. Q. What do these expressions mean ? a. Who wins if the scores are level at the end of a football match ? A. by (2) When we say that an action happened by a particular time. Yes.) Q. Noone wins if the scores are level at the end of a football match. b. Can you think of anyone who was already rich by the age of twenty ? A. (It might get there before Monday. Eye-level means the level of the eyes. c. level-headed A. Are you usually in bed by midnight ? A. eye-level A. Q.) By the age of ten. Mozart was a famous musician. it will get there by Monday. Q. If you send the letter today. Are pavements usually level with the road ? A. level means at the same height or position.adj. (When he was ten he was already famous. it will happen no later than that time. Have most people stopped growing by the age of twenty ? A.

We normally use by or by the time with this tense. Q. (Your dinner will be ready at about the same time you finish your homework. Q.. Are most people married by the time they are forty ? A. Yes. it'll be dark by the time I get home. I haven’t finished that letter yet but I will have posted it by this evening so they will have received it by this time next week. the future perfect construction : subject + will + have + past participle We use the the future perfect to say an action will finish or happen before a particular time in the future. Yes.) We were late so by the time we got to the cinema.by the time + clause eg. Q. Have most babies learnt to talk by the time they are two ? A. most babies have learnt to talk by the time they are two. Yes. most people are married by the time they are forty. the film had already started. 18 b. 78 Unit 8 Q. eg. most people are too old to enjoy their freedom ? A. dinner will be ready. 30 © Avalon Book Company Ltd. By the time you finish your homework. 1999 151 . Give me an example of something most people will have done by the time they are : a. Will it be dark by the time you get home ? A. Yes. Q. Do you think that by the time they retire. most people are too old to enjoy their freedom. If you don’t hurry up the film will have started by the time we get to the cinema. I think that by the time they retire.

bricks ? b.. I think we will have finished this book by the end of next month. Q. 2. Q. Will you have completed your course by the end of the year ? A. 3. exercise Fill in the gaps using the future perfect. If we don’t leave now. Give me an example of something most people will have done by the time they are 70. so they will have received (to receive) it by early next week. phr v. Give me an example of something most people will have done by the time they are 18. I will have completed my course by the end of the year. the film will have started (to start) by the time we get there. brick n. The company is doing very well. A. A. iron n. we won't have finished this book by the end of the week.c. Yes. Give me an example of something most people will have done by the time they are 30. 4. concrete n. Q. I’m sending the information tonight. A. Q. 70. steel Q. What kind of things are made out of: a. to be made out of n. concrete ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. We will have made (to make) a large profit by the end of the year. We are planning a big party in July because Paul will have finished (to finish) his exams by then. What about by the end of next month ? A. 1999 152 . Q. No. Most people will have tried alcohol by the time they are 18. Most people will have retired by the time they are 70. Most people will have had a job by the time they are 30. Q. Will we have finished this book by the end of the week ? A. 1.

How many locks do you have on your front door ? A. Q. I have two locks on my front door. Houses are made out of bricks. What is the difference between a wall and a fence ? A. What are traditional houses in your country made out of ? A. Traditional houses in my country are made out of bricks. Q. What kind of things are made out of bricks ? A. What kind of things are made out of steel ? A. I find that most concrete buildings are ugly. fence n. bar Q. This building is made out of bricks. lock n. gate n. What kind of things are made out of concrete ? A. Prisons are usually protected by a high fence. 79 Unit 8 Q. n. 1999 153 . What kind of buildings are protected by a high fence ? A. Q. Bridges are made out of steel.. Q. Do you find that most concrete buildings are ugly ? A. Q. What is the difference between a door and a gate ? A. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Q. What is this building made out of ? A. Q.c. The difference between a wall and a fence is that a wall is usually made of bricks or concrete and a fence is usually made of wood or metal. What kind of buildings have bars across their windows ? A. The difference between a door and a gate is that a door is usually in a wall and a gate is usually in a fence. steel ? Q. Prisons have bars across their windows. Roads are made out of concrete. Q.

Q. Ring doughnuts and cheese have holes in them. What kind of food has holes in it ? A. I wouldn't run away from a cat. hole If you block a hole up.v. In what kind of films are there often car chases ? A. Q. No.. If you said that a loud noise made you jump. What kind of animals chase cats ? A. you put something in it to close it. Dogs chase cats. There are often car chases in action films. Q. You hit a ball into a hole in the ground in golf. to run away v. I would run away from a tiger. What kind of animals are chased by cats ? A. Q. what would I mean ? A. Yes. Would you run away from a cat ? A. In which sports is the ability to jump an advantage ? A. The ability to jump is an advantage in basketball. If I said that a loud noise made me jump. eg. 1999 154 . Q. a blocked up sink ? b. Q. you would mean it frightened you. to jump Q. Q. Q. In which sport do you hit a ball into a hole in the ground ? A. Would you run away from a tiger ? A. a tiger ? Q. Mice are chased by cats. to block n. Q. v. block n. a blocked up nose ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. What can cause: a. to chase phr v. a cat ? b. They blocked up the hole in the wall with concrete. Would you run away from : a.

Q. What can cause a blocked up sink ?
A. Hair and pieces of food can cause a blocked up sink.
Q. What can cause a blocked up nose ?
A. The flu can cause a blocked up nose.
Q. Why would someone block out a bad experience or memory ?
A. Someone would want to block out a bad experience or memory
because they don't want to remember it.
Q. What are the following:
a. an office block ?
A. An office block is a building full of offices.
b. a block of flats ?
A. A block of flats is a building full of flats.
c. a mental block ?
A. A mental block is when you can't remember something for a short
time.

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Unit 9
80 Unit 9

n. agreement n. contract
An agreement is a decision made between two people, companies or
countries.
A contract is a written agreement which has to be signed.
Q. Has your country made any agreements with other countries ?
A. No, my country hasn't made any agreements with other countries.
Q. Have you ever made an agreement that you regretted
afterwards?
A. No, I've never made an agreement that I regretted afterwards.
Q. Do people usually sign a contract when they start a new job ?
A. Yes, people usually sign a contract when they start a new job.
Q. Do you always read a contract carefully before you sign it ?
A. Yes, I always read a contract carefully before I sign it.
v. to deal in n. dealer
dealt
dealt
If you deal in something, you buy and sell it.
Some people deal drugs or arms illegally.
Q. Which famous computer company deals in software ?
A. Microsoft deals in software.
Q. What would be a good thing to deal in if you wanted to make
money fast ?
A. If you wanted to make money fast, stocks and shares would be a
good thing to deal in.
Q. Do you think drug dealing is a serious crime ?
A. Yes, I think drug dealing is a serious crime.
Q. What is suitable punishment for drug dealers ?
A. I think imprisonment is a suitable punishment for drug dealers.
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Q. What do people deal in at a stock exchange ?
A. People deal in stocks and shares at a stock exchange.

n. deal v. to make a deal
v. to do a deal
Q. Do you think all business deals are honest ?
A. No, I don't think all business deals are honest.
Q. What do business people sign after doing a deal ?
A. Business people sign a contract after doing a deal.
Q. If you paid £10,000 for an old computer, would it be a good deal
or a bad deal ?
A. If you paid £10,000 for an old computer, it would be a bad deal.

phr v. to deal with
If a situation needs attention and you give it your attention, you deal with
it.
eg. A lawyer deals with legal problems.
Q. Who would deal with your legal problems ?
A. A lawyer would deal with your legal problems.
Q. Would you enjoy a job where you had to deal with the public all
day ?
A. No, I wouldn't enjoy a job where I had to deal with the public all day.
Q. How would you deal with:
a. a baby that wouldn’t stop crying ?
A. I would deal with a baby that wouldn’t stop crying by singing to it.
b. a friend who was depressed ?
A. I would deal with a friend who was depressed by buying them a drink.
c. a person who suddenly felt ill ?
A. I would deal with a person who suddenly felt ill by phoning for an
ambulance.
81 Unit 9
Q. Are you good at dealing with problems when you are in a bad
mood ?
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A. No, I'm not good at dealing with problems when I'm in a bad mood.
Q. Is it better to deal with bad experiences instead of blocking them
out ?
A. Yes, it's better to deal with bad experiences instead of blocking them
out.

n. speech n. lecture
Q. Have you ever made a speech ?
A. Yes, I have made a speech.
Q. What was it about ?
A. American history.
Q. How many people were listening ?
A. About 50 people were listening.
Q. Who traditionally makes a wedding speech in your country ?
A. The best man and the father of the bride traditionally make a wedding
speech in my country.
Q. Where would you go to hear a lecture ?
A. I would go to university to hear a lecture.
Q. Have you ever fallen asleep during a boring lecture ?
A. Yes, I have fallen asleep during a boring lecture.
n. subject
The subject of a conversation or an article is the thing we are talking or
writing about.
Q. What kind of subjects are popular in women’s magazines ?
A. Fashion and relationships are popular in women’s magazines.
Q. Have you ever written an article ?
A. Yes, I've written an article.
Q. On what subject ?
A. On the problem of homeless people in London.

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Did you ever have debates at school ? A. Q. Are you as enthusiastic now as you used to be about your birthday ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Do you think political debates are boring ? A. discussion n. I don't think political debates are boring. Q. I prefer amusing articles. enthusiasm If someone is enthusiastic about something. Fashion and relationships are discussed in teenage magazines. Yes. Yes. Do you prefer amusing articles or ones that deal with serious subjects ? A. Someone might change the subject of a conversation because they are very bored. I discuss my most private problems with my best friend. No. A debate is like a formal argument about a particular subject. Q. Q. Q. Q. Q. Q. enthusiastic n. often ending in a vote or a decision. I think that students learn faster if they have enthusiasm for the subject. Do you think that students learn faster if they have enthusiasm for the subject ? A. to discuss n. they show that they find it very interesting and enjoyable. we often had debates at school. adj. What kind of subjects are discussed in teenage magazines ? A. 1999 159 ..Q. Yes. they have political discussions on television. Who do you discuss your most private problems with ? A. v. Do they have political discussions on television ? A. Why might someone change the subject of a conversation ? A. debate A discussion is talking or writing about a particular subject.

© Avalon Book Company Ltd. Which drugs and medicines can people become addicted to ? A. People can become addicted to alcohol and nicotine. Q. Yes. keen expr. Q. We call someone who follows a particular team or sport with enthusiasm a fan. you want to do it as quickly as possible.. If you are keen to do something. Childen are keen on cartoons. Q. I'm keen to finish this book. If you are addicted to smoking you can’t give it up even if you really try. What kind of books are you keen on reading ? A. I'm most keen to visit Australia. 1999 160 . Are you keen to finish this book ? A. n. What kind of television programmes are children keen on ? A. I'm not as enthusiastic now as I used to be about my birthday. Which country are you most keen to visit ? A. addicted (to) eg. What places in your country are tourists usually keen to visit ? A. Q. Q. Q. 82 Unit 9 adj. Tourists are usually keen to visit the Eiffel Tower. Q.A. to be keen on something expr. What do we call someone who follows a particular team or sport with enthusiasm ? A. to be keen to do something If you are keen on something. addict adj. addiction n. An alcoholic is addicted to alcohol. Q. you really enjoy doing it. No. I'm keen on reading biographies. What is an alcoholic addicted to ? A.

Q. Teenagers obsessed with relationships and fashion. What do we call someone who is obsessed with their appearance? A. Do you know anyone who is addicted to : a. Do you think drug addiction causes serious social problems ? A. If someone is very enthusiastic and keen on something we can say they are addicted. you can’t stop thinking about it. I'm addicted to computer games.. Yes. n. computer games A. No. Yes. obsession adj. Yes. I don't know anyone who is obsessed with money. Yes. obsessed (with) If you are obsessed with something. 1999 161 . Q. Do you know anyone who is obsessed with money ? A. my brother is addicted to television. Q. A very jealous person is obsessed with an idea that their girlfriend or boyfriend is having an affair. Q. would you try to help them ? A. If you found out that someone you knew was a drug addict. to wish (2) Remember. What idea is a very jealous person obsessed with in a relationship? A. chocolate A. Yes. b. my young sister is addicted to chocolate. I would try to help them. v. Q. Q. We call someone who is obsessed with their appearance vain. television A. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. What kind of things are teenagers obsessed with ? A. c. Q. we use wish + subject + past tense to express a regret about a present situation. I think drug addiction causes serious social problems. if I found out that someone I knew was a drug addict.

I wish I had studied French instead of German at school. I wish my father would stop smoking. Q. there isn't anyone I wish I had never met. I wish I hadn’t bought this watch. 83 Unit 9 Q. No. Do you wish your friends would call you more often ? A. I hope my boss will give me a pay rise. I wish you were coming with me.. Someone who has failed an exam wishes that they had studied harder. 1999 162 . Do you wish your teachers would speak more slowly ? A. Yes. I will miss you when I move to America. Is there anything you wish you had done when you were younger? A. I wish I had studied harder at school when I was younger. Yes. I wish it would stop raining. it is always stopping. wish + subject + would We use this construction when we want something to change but we know it probably won’t soon. I wish my friends would call me more often. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. we use : wish + had + past participle eg. I wish I had enough time to go on holiday. What does someone who has failed an exam wish ? A. Q. What is the difference between these two sentences : a. Which team do you wish had won the last world cup ? A. Yes. I wish you would clean the bath after you use it.eg. I wish my teachers would speak more slowly. eg. Q. Is there anyone you wish you had never met ? A. Tell us about someone’s annoying habit using the construction ‘wish + would’. Q. Q. I wish Brazil had won the last world cup. To talk about situations in the past that you regret. A. Q. Q.

Q. Why do people smoke even though they are aware of the dangers ? A. Q. I wish my boss would give me a pay rise. Q. The government is aware of the problem of unemployment. Q. A. Should a computer screen be positioned above the level of your eyes ? A. a computer screen should be positioned at eye-level. Foxes and rabbits run away when people go near them. Q. Q. eg. young people are aware of my country’s traditions. Are you aware of the rules of this school ? A. People smoke even though they are aware of the dangers because they are addicted. 'I hope my boss will give me a pay rise' means that there is a chance that he will but 'I wish my boss would give me a pay rise' means it probably won't happen. 1999 163 . What kind of people have to get used to making regular speeches ? A. Politicians have to get used to making regular speeches. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Q. Yes. Famous people's houses have large gates outside. What kind of animals run away when people go near them ? A. I don't think English people are aware of how difficult English is for foreigners. Yes. adj. Do you think that English people are aware of how difficult English is for foreigners ? A.. What kind of buildings have large gates outside ? A. Are young people aware of your country’s traditions ? A. aware to be aware of something to be aware that + clause If you are aware of something.b. No. No. Q. I'm aware of the rules of this school. He was aware that driving without a seat belt was illegal. you know that it is happening.

Who represents your country abroad ? A. Q. It gives us information. eg. ambassador eg. Our company was represented by Andrew Forbes at the meeting. Have you ever represented your school or university in a competition ? A. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Yes. eg. it's a red hexagon with STOP written in white letters. A sign can be found in the street or on a wall in a building. An ambassador represents his/her country abroad. eg. Who would represent your country at a very high-level international meeting ? A. Dark clouds are usually a sign of rain. 1999 164 . sign A symbol is a simple picture which represents a word. An ambassador represents my country abroad. The Olympic symbol is five colored circles linked together. an idea. Q. The President would represent my country at a very high-level international meeting. Q.. to represent is often used in the passive voice. 84 Unit 9 n. an organization or a religion. Q. A no-smoking sign is usually a cigarette in a red circle with a line through it. Can you describe the road sign which tells you that you must stop at a main road ? A. NB. symbol n. to represent n.v. Yes. I represented my school at cricket. A sign can also be anything that shows us something is going to happen. New leaves on trees is usually the first sign of spring.

1999 165 . perfume A. c. The chemical symbol for water H2 O. love ? A. c. Yes. spring ? A. Q. Do you prefer any particular brand name when buying: a. Q. Which companies have famous trademarks ? A. beer A. The first signs of someone getting angry are a read face and a loud voice. What is the chemical symbol for water ? A. b. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. the Christian religion ? A. Yes. Q. What are the first signs of : a. Yes. Q. MacDonald's and Mercedes Benz have famous trademarks. c. Deaf people communicate using sign language. I think it's worth paying more for famous brand names. The first signs of flu are a sore throat and a blocked nose. I prefer Budweiser when buying beer. A heart is the symbol of love. flu ? A. What kind of people communicate using sign language ? A. What is the symbol of: a. Ford or Coca-Cola. I prefer Levis when buying clothes.. peace ? A. I prefer Calvin Klein when buying perfume. clothes A. b. b. Q. brand name A trademark is a symbol or words that represent a company. A cross is the symbol of the Christian religion. A dove is the symbol of peace. The first signs of spring are blossom on the trees and the weather getting warmer. trademark n. n. Q. Yes.Q. Do you think it is worth paying more for famous brand names ? A. someone getting angry ? A. A brand name is a particular company name such as Levis.

. hardly Hardly is a negative adverb. (He works a lot. Have you got any CD’s you hardly ever play ? A. Would you lend money to someone you hardly knew ? A. I wouldn't lend money to someone I hardly knew. (He almost never works. No. No. We use it to mean almost not or almost nothing. this school has a trade mark. Q. Yes. it isn't the best way. Does this school have a trade mark ? A. if I went to a party and there was hardly anyone there. Q.) Q. Q. (almost never) Hardly anyone bought a ticket for the party. some people try to lose weight by hardly eating anything. (almost no one) NB. compare: He works hard. The film was so boring that I hardly remember anything. Have you got any clothes you hardly ever wear ? A. Hardly is not the adverb of the adjective hard.) He hardly works.Q. No. I hardly ever play my Celine Dion CD. Q. No. 1999 166 . Give me an example of a place where it hardly ever rains. Yes. Do some people try to lose weight by hardly eating anything ? A. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. (almost nothing) We hardly ever eat in restaurants. It hardly ever rains in Africa. would you stay ? A. eg. If you went to a party and there was hardly anyone there. Yes. It's a big letter A. adv. Q. A. I haven't got any clothes that I hardly ever wear. 85 Unit 9 Q. Is that the best way ? A. I wouldn't stay.

Yes. I would smile back. Remember. They had been waiting ten minutes when the bus finally arrived. totally These words are synonyms of complete and completely. Q. absolutely adv. I've never promised to do something and then totally forgotten about it. my best friend's kitchen is an absolute mess. No. 2. I had been looking for a job for 6 months when I finally found that job at MacDonald’s. total adv. Do you know anyone whose kitchen is an absolute mess ? A. If a total stranger smiled at you on a bus. Do you think that it is absolutely necessary to know how to use a computer in an office job ? A. You have already studied the present perfect continuous construction : have + been + present participle We use this tense to talk about a continuous action that starts sometime in the past and continues to the present. Q. Q. Q.. eg. Have you ever promised to do something and then totally forgotten about it ? A. I’m really tired because I have been playing football all afternoon. if a total stranger smiled at me on a bus. perfect continuous tenses 1. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. absolute adj. Yes. we always use past perfect tenses with another action in the past. eg. the past perfect continuous construction : had + been + present participle This tense is used in the past in the same way as the present perfect continuous is used for the present. 1999 167 . I think it's absolutely necessary to know how to use a computer in an office job. They have been waiting for ten minutes. would you smile back ? A. Yes.adj. NB.

1999 168 . I had been waiting for about 10 minutes when my bus arrived. Q. We use the future perfect continuous with time expressions such as when or by the time + clause. Q. 86 Unit 9 Answer these questions using the past perfect continuous. he will have been working there for a year by the end of September. 3. 4.. the future perfect continuous Construction : will + have + been + verb + ing We use this tense for an action that continues until a time in the future. I’ve been here since 9 o’clock so I will have been working for 8 hours by the time I leave tonight. I was very late and my friend had been waiting for an hour when I arrived.exercise Finish these sentences using the past perfect continuous. eg. How long had you been waiting when your bus/train arrived ? A. They had been going out/had been living together for a month when they got married. How long had you been studying English before you came to this school ? A. 1. 3. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. How long had you been looking for a school when you found this one ? A. The streets were wet because it had been raining. Q. I came to school by bus today. I had been studying English for about 2 years before I came to this school. How did you come to school today ? A. Q. He was sacked because he had been stealing money from his company. 2. I had been looking for a school for 2 weeks when I found this one. 1. exercise Give some information using the future perfect continuous. My son is getting a lot of good experience at the factory.

. What kind of things can spoil a : a. 1999 169 . Bad service at a hotel can spoil a holiday. I hope he is not tired. c. Q. Q. How long will you have been studying at this school when your course finally finishes ? A. Q. holiday ? A. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Spoilt children are selfish and impatient because their parents give them everything they want. v. My grandmother will have been waiting for her operation for two years when she finally goes into hospital next week. Q. I will have been studying at this school for 2 years when my course finally finishes. Q. My sister has been working in Japan for 11 months. he will have been working for ten hours by the time he arrives. A fight can spoil a party. Do you usually have a big appetite or a small one ? A. appetite spoilt spoilt If you spoil something you make it unsatisfying or unsuccessful.2. to spoil adj. party ? A. She will have been working there for 1 year by this time next month. 3. Q. I usually have a big appetite. Bad weather can spoil a picnic. eg. so how long will she have been working there by this time next month ? A. The argument between Glen and Paul spoilt the party. Have you ever spoilt a meal by putting too much salt on it ? A. I think rich children are more likely to be spoilt than ordinary ones. picnic ? A. spoilt n. Do you think rich children are more likely to be spoilt than ordinary ones ? A. b. Yes. I have spoilt a meal by putting too much salt on it. Yes.

Do children often fall out with each other and then make up again? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. An immature or childish person behaves like a child sometimes. What kind of things can you eat between meals without spoiling your appetite ? A. I've never fallen out with a good friend. Give me a synonym for adult. Grown-up is a synonym for adult. No. to sulk adj. Children ask grown-ups to help them with their homework. Q. I never sulk when I lose an argument. Q. Q. phr v. Q. No. Do you think that teenage girls are more mature than teenage boys ? A./adj. childish A mature or grown-up person always behaves like an adult. Have you ever fallen out with a good friend ? A. 1999 170 . I think sulking is immature. Q. What kind of things do children ask grown-ups to help them with? A. I think you can eat fruit between meals without spoiling your appetite. immature adj. Yes. Do you ever sulk when you lose an argument ? A.Q. 87 Unit 9 adj. To sulk means to behave like an angry child because you can’t get what you want. grown-ups sometimes sulk. Q. to make up with someone Q. Yes. Do grown-ups ever sulk ? A. mature n. I think that teenage girls are more mature than teenage boys. Q. A. to fall out with someone phr v. grown-up v. Yes.. Do you think sulking is immature ? A.

A. v. Q. to serve n. have a rest and also get something to eat. Yes. What is usually included in the price of a package holiday ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. 1999 171 . b. Room service means food and drinks brought to your hotel room. I don't think they've made up yet. If I were unsatisfied with the service in a restaurant. Q. to include adj. I visited a lot of famous places including Disneyland and the Grand Canyon. Chips are often served with hamburgers. What kind of food is often served with hamburgers ? A. No. Q. Motorway services mean places on a motorway where you stop. room service ? A. prices in supermarkets include tax. Q. v. service Q. Mick Jagger and Jerry Hall have fallen out recently. Q.. Yes. Q. Who serves food in a restaurant ? A. children often fall out with each other and then make up again. What do we mean by: a. motorway services ? A. I've helped two friends make up after they'd had an argument. Q. included adj. Q. Yes. The price of your hotel room includes breakfast. Waiters and waitresses serve food in a restaurant. including eg. I would complain to the manager. Have any famous couples fallen out recently ? A. Have you ever helped two friends make up after they had had an argument ? A. Yes. Have they made up yet ? A. When I went to the USA. Do prices in supermarkets include tax ? A. If you were unsatisfied with the service in a restaurant who would you complain to ? A.

What should you do as soon as you hear a fire alarm ? A. immediately If you do something immediately. As soon as you hear a fire alarm. No. No. Do you always pay bills as soon as you get them ? A. 88 Unit 9 expr. No. Have you ever done something then immediately wished you hadn’t ? A.. I don't always pay bills as soon as I get them. Tell me something you would like to do as soon as possible ? A. 1999 172 . Q. I don't get out of bed immediately. Accommodation and travel are usually included in the price of a package holiday. when I wake up in the morning. Yes. Q. as soon as As soon as is an expression we use to link two clauses together. When you go to bed. batteries aren't usually included when you buy children’s toys. Q. you forget to take it. you do it without delay. Are batteries usually included when you buy children’s toys ? A. Q. Q. you should look for the nearest exit. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. It means ‘immediately after’ or ‘without delay’. to leave behind If you leave something behind. When you wake up in the morning do you get out of bed immediately ? A. I kissed my best friend's girlfriend last week. adv.A. do you always fall asleep immediately ? A. when I go to bed. No. Q. Q. I'd like to go on holiday as soon as possible. I don't always fall asleep immediately. phrasal verbs and expressions with leave phr v.

. company If someone is in a bad mood it is better to leave them alone. Australia and Argentina. Umbrellas and wallets are often left behind on buses and trains. I would feel left out. expr. phr v. would you prefer to have some company or to be left alone ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. I would phone them and ask them if anyone has found it. there weren't classes at school where I was left behind by the other students. they should change their level. 1999 173 . China and Italy and leave out France. to leave out expr. Q. What should a student do at this school if they are being left behind by the rest of the class ? A. Q. If all your friends had a party and didn’t invite you. If you were feeling depressed. What kind of things are often left behind on buses and trains ? A. it is not included. If I were planning a trip around the world. Q. Q. If you were planning a trip around the world. Q. No. which countries would you include and which would you leave out ? A. I would include Brazil. If a student is being left behind by the rest of the class. to leave (something/someone) alone n. People want company when they're feeling lonely. If all your friends had a party and didn’t invite me. Q.Q. to feel left out When someone or something is left out. would you feel left out ? A. to be left behind sometimes means to be slower or less able than someone else. Were there any classes at school where you were left behind by the other students ? A. What would you do if you left your wallet behind in a restaurant ? A. What do people want when they are feeling lonely ? A. If I left my wallet behind in a restaurant. Q.

Q. Q. Q. 3 are left. If I were in a bad mood. If you go on holiday abroad. If I were feeling depressed. Is there usually food left over from a dinner party ? A. I would prefer to have some company. People like to have company when they go to the pub. leftovers If something is left. adj. to be left (over) n. Do you usually throw away leftover food ? A. Q. If you make 10 cakes and 7 are eaten. how many are left ? A. Q. I would prefer to be left alone. it is not used. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. there is usually food left over from a dinner party. What about if you were in a bad mood ? A. Yes. if I go on holiday abroad. I usually throw away leftover food. Q.. left expr. do you usually have some foreign currency left over afterwards ? A. If you make 10 cakes and 7 are eaten. the extra food is left over. Yes. In what kind of situation do people like to have company ? A.A. 1999 174 . Yes. I usually have some foreign currency left over afterwards. If you make too much food for dinner.

There are ten English players in the team. as a pronoun). Q. Yes. Can you speak another foreign language ? A. 1. would you buy another ? A. I'm left-handed. Q. I can speak Japanese. I've never studies at another English school. Q. pronoun A. If you lost your book. Q. Use this phone. No. pronoun (after the or a possessive adjective ) eg. Q. No thank you. 2. b. the other isn’t working. before a noun eg. Which countries are on the other side of the world from your country ? A. Have you ever studied at another English school ? A. I can't write with the other hand. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Q. if I lost my book. the other is used when there is only one more choice or possibility. I don’t think I could eat another. Q. I would buy another. Yes. No. 1999 175 . Are you left-handed or right-handed ? A. the other player is Swedish. Australia and New Zeland are on the other side of the world from my country. before a noun (after the or a possessive adjective) eg. (the) other and the others We can use these words before a noun or instead of a noun (ie. Can you write with the other hand ? A.. another is usually used with singular nouns a.Unit 10 89 Unit 10 other another. a. Would you like another piece of cake ? b.

myfeet are the same size.. Q. No. eg. Is it cheaper in the long term to rent or buy a house with a mortgage ? A. Belgium and Germany. you have to pay a deposit before you rent a flat. I have met Michael and Angela but I don’t know the others. England is a European country. Do you have to pay a deposit before you rent a flat ? A. Yes. A. It's cheaper in the long term to buy a house with a mortgage. Q. who are the others ? A. You also have to pay interest when you have a credit card. NB. I only answered three questions in the exam. Q. the others were too difficult. In what other situations do you have to pay interest ? A. We can say ‘the others’ when we are a talking about the other people in a group. No. you have to pay interest when you borrow money from a bank. Q. Q. Q. mortgage n. Some of the others are Italy. Yes.Q. Is one of your feet bigger than the other ? A. n. I don't own my own house. 3. others plural pronoun only (after the or possessive adjective) eg. you buy a house with a mortgage in my country. tell me some of the others. Do you own your own house ? A. The others are Helen and Martin. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. France. deposit A loan for a house is called a mortgage. I am one of your teachers. Yes. 1999 176 . 90 Unit 10 Q. Can you buy a house with a mortgage in your country ? A. interest n. Do you have to pay interest when you borrow money from a bank ? A. Q.

Are people usaully conscious or unconscious when they have an operation ? © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Q. Unconscious means asleep or unaware of what is happening around you. I've never hit my head so hard that I lost consciousness. People are superstitious about the number 13 and black cats in my country. Have you ever hit your head so hard that you lost consciousness? A.n. What animals or numbers are people superstitious about in your country ? A. adj. Yes. superstition adj. The number 13 is unlucky. superstitious If you are superstitious. Q. Are you superstitious ? A. I'm conscious of the danger every time I fly. Q. eg. conscious n. I'm conscious. Q. Are you conscious or unconscious ? A. unconscious Conscious means awake. you are aware of it. Give me an example of a popular superstition from your country? A. An example of a popular superstition from my country is that it's unlucky to walk under a ladder. consciousness adj. Yes. No. Q. Are you conscious of the danger every time you fly ? A. you believe that certain things happen that cannot be explained by science or that certain things are lucky or unlucky. I'm very superstitious. If you break a mirror it will bring you seven years bad luck. Q. 1999 177 . Q. If you are conscious of something..

Yes. I have an artistic mind. Q. Do you have an artistic or a scientific mind ? A. Q. to change your mind = to make a decision then to change it. I feel self-conscious when I've just had my hair cut. Do you think that the brain is the most complicated part of the body ? A. n. Do you feel self-conscious when you have just had your hair cut ? A.. I think the brain is the most complicated part of the body. 91 Unit 10 Here are some expressions with the word mind: expr. The mind is the conscious part of your brain. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. to make up your mind = to make a decision expr. the mind adj. 1999 178 . Q. Q. People are usaully unconscious when they have an operation. Yes. brain n. Would you feel self-conscious if you had to make a speech ? A. self-conscious If someone feels self-conscious they feel embarrassed or nervous in front of other people. Drugs can cause mental problems. mental The brain is a physical part of your body. Q. Do you think we completely understand how the mind works ? A. I don't think we completely understand how the mind works. Q. What kind of things can cause mental problems ? A. Yes. adj. I would feel self-conscious if I had to make a speech. No. A spot on my nose makes me self-conscious. What kind of things make you feel self-conscious ? A.A. Q.

Q. Do you mind if I open the window? 3. ‘Yes. eg. Q.. to mind if We use to mind if to ask someone if a particular situation is a problem for them. I've never made an important decision and changed my mind afterwards. to mind 1. Have you ever made an important decision and then changed your mind afterwards ? A. Q. you must answer: ‘No. Do you think the public would mind if the government put taxes up by 10% ? A. No. Would your parents mind if you married a foreigner ? A. Do you mind if people smoke while you are eating ? A. I think the public would mind if the government put taxes up by 10%. If someone asks you a question using to mind. No. to mind if (polite question) We use the verb to mind if when we ask someone politely if we can do something. Q. Q. A. eg. my parents wouldn't mind if I married a foreigner. Would you mind if I opened the window ? Do you mind if I smoke ? Q. No. Ask me a polite question using to mind + if. 2. v.’ if you disagree. I mind if people smoke while I'm eating. I (do) mind. Yes. I don’t mind. I haven't made up my mind about what career I want. Do you mind if people smoke while you are eating ? Would you mind if your teacher was late for class every day ? NB. to mind doing (polite question) © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Yes. 1999 179 . Have you made up your mind about what career you want ? A.’ if you agree.

If someone has a guilty conscience. please ?) Would you mind smoking outside? Q. Tell me the name of a famous psychologist. Q. would you suffer from a guilty conscience ? A.) n. Ask me a polite question using to mind + gerund. I don’t care. Would you mind opening the window? (Could you open the window. 92 Unit 10 n. psychologist adj.We use to mind + gerund to ask someone to do something in a polite way. eg. Sigmund Freud is a famous psychologist. Q. I would suffer from a guilty conscience. Psychological Psychology is the study of the mind. A psychologist studies the mind. No.) I don’t care. People suffer from paranoia and depression. eg. Q. I haven't got a guilty conscience at the moment. Have you got a guilty conscience at the moment ? A. Q. psychology n. impolite (I’m not interested in doing anything. Yes. Would you mind helping me with my homework? expr. I don’t mind. A. What kind of psychological problems do people suffer from ? A. A. We call someone who studies the human mind a psychologist. What would you like to do tomorrow ? I don’t mind. conscience Your conscience is the part of your mind that tells you if what you are doing is right or wrong. if I stole something. If you stole something. expr. Q. they feel guilty about something they have done. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. What do we call someone who studies the human mind ? A.. 1999 180 . polite (I am happy to let you choose.

. word order Some questions begin with verbs (eg. Exercise To practise reported speech again. However.” she said. “Where are the keys?” she asked. she etc. to ask we use this verb instead of to say or tell 2. ♦we do not use speech marks (“ ”) ♦we often change the tense of the sentence ♦pronouns (I. are you .). the subject goes before the verb.” the girl told her mother. change these sentences from direct to reported speech.) often have to change ♦expressions of time often have to change eg. He said that he was very angry. have they . When we report questions. “No one has spoken to me today. as in a normal sentence. 3. reported questions When we are reporting questions we have to make other changes.. Breaking other people's things can give you a guilty conscience. (not: where were the keys. The girl told her mother that she would be there the next day. it is worth looking again at the rules for how to change direct speech into reported speech. She told me that no one had spoken to her that day. Remember: ♦we use said or told as reporting verbs.. “I am very angry. She asked me where the keys were.. 1. 1. “She has eaten all the food again!” he said. reported speech (2) We have already studied reported speech. 1999 181 . He said that she had eaten all the food again.. eg. “I will be here tomorrow.. What kind of things give you a guilty conscience ? A.” he said.Q.) © Avalon Book Company Ltd. 2.

“Do you like tomato soup?” he asked. A. etc. we use if.“Where would you like to sit?” he asked. do/did We do not use do or did eg. 6. He asked if the photocopier was working. “What is the time?” she asked them. exercise Report these questions. if When there is no question word (such as when. 4. His mother asked him if he had ever read the newspaper. Q. 3.. “Are you going to San Francisco?” he asked. “Where do you live?” He asked me where I lived. 5. He asked me if I was going to San Francisco. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. He asked me what my name was. Roger asked me what I was doing. He asked me if I liked tomato soup. how. “What are you doing?” asked Roger. 4. What is your name? Q. (to student A) Ask him/her a question with the word what. “Do you want to dance?” she asked. 2. She asked them what the time was. She asked me if I wanted to dance. eg. He asked me where I would like to sit. “Is John in?” the man asked. “Have you read the newspaper?” his mother asked him. “Is the photocopier working ?” he asked. what. 93 Unit 10 3. where. 1999 182 . (to student B) What did he/she ask you ? A.). The man asked if John was in. 1.

. A. Q. (to student A) Ask him/her a question with Do you. What kind of animals are people often terrified of ? A. Where is you bag? Q. Q. A terrorist is a person who uses violence and terror. A. fear (of something) adj. (to student A) Ask him/her a question with the word where. terrorism Terror means great fear. (to student B) What did he/she ask you ? A. He asked me where my bag was. Q. (to student A) Ask him/her a question with Are you . I've never felt real terror. Q. terror n. He asked me if I liked French films. 1999 183 . No. (to student B) What did he/she ask you ? A..Q. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. I've never had a terrifying experience. n. (to student B) What did he/she ask you ? A. you are really frightened of it. especially for political reasons. terrorist n. No... Have you ever had a terrifying experience ? A. 94 Unit 10 n. A. Have you ever felt real terror ? A. Are you going back to your country soon? Q. My greatest fear is the dark. terrifying Fear is the noun of afraid If you are terrified of something. What is your greatest fear ? A. Q. Q. terrified adj. He asked me if I was going back to my country soon.. Do you like French films? Q. People are often terrified of spiders and snakes.

They are fighting for their freedom. explosion To explode is intransitive. there are some terrorist organisations in my country. The bomb exploded at 9 o’clock. To blow up is transitive. Yes. Yes. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Why do old buildings get blown up in a city ? A. eg. If the person I was going to marry changed their mind. Q. to explode phr v. What is the difference between to blow up and to explode ? A. eg. Q. I think that the people from the countryside are more superstitious than the people from the city. Q. The bomb blew up the building it was hidden in. Q. 1999 184 . And an immature way ? A. A mature way to deal with criticism of my work would be to listen to the criticism and then try to do better. Q. Terrorists use bombs to get what they want. Yes. Do you think that the people from the countryside are more superstitious than the people from the city ? A. Q. An immature way would be to ignore the criticism.Q. What do terrorists use to get what they want ? A. How would you feel if the person you were going to marry changed their mind ? A. Q. Old buildings get blown up in a city because they are unsafe. ETA and the Tamil Tigers are the names of some foreign terrorist organisations. to blow up n. Q. Do you know the names of any foreign terrorist organisations ? A. What are they fighting for ? A. Are there any terrorist organisations in your country ? A. What would be a mature way to deal with criticism of your work ? A. I would feel really sad and disappointed. The difference between to blow up and to explode is that blow up is a transitive verb and explode is an intransitive verb. Q. v..

People’s hands shake when they are frightened or nervous. People scream when they are really frightened. to shake hands Q. What does it mean when someone shakes their head ? A. Is it normal to shake hands when you meet someone new in your country ? A. Yes. I have woken up screaming from a nightmare. is it better to shake hands or sign a contract ? A. When do people’s hands shake ? A. v. Yes. When does a dog shake itself ? A.. peaceful Q. Q. Q. A dog shakes itself when it's wet. Q. It means 'no' when someone shakes their head. When do people scream ? A. What is the opposite of war ? A. When does the ground shake ? A. The opposite of war is peace. peace adj. to shake your head v. Q. to shake shook shaken Q. it's normal to shake hands when you meet someone new in my country. Q. When doing a business deal. I think it's better to sign a contract. to scream v.v. Q. When doing a business deal. 1999 185 . Have you ever woken up screaming from a nightmare ? A. The ground shakes when there's an earthquake. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. 95 Unit 10 n.

Which is more difficult.Q. Q. to go to war or to make peace ? A. Terrorists have exploded bombs in London. a quiet park is really peaceful. To make peace is more difficult than to go to war. Yes. Have you ever screamed during a film at the cinema ? A. Q. No. Do you think there will ever be a time when the whole world will be at peace ? A. Do you know a place that is really peaceful ? A. Do you shake your head to say “no” in your country ? A. What organisation tries to find peaceful answers to international problems ? A. The United Nations tries to find peaceful answers to international problems. Q. Q. In which cities have terrorists exploded bombs ? A. we shake our head to say “no” in my country. I've never screamed during a film at the cinema. No.. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Q. 1999 186 . Yes. I don't think there will ever be a time when the whole world will be at peace. Q.

.Irregular Verbs infinitive simple past past participle beat beat beaten blow (up) blew (up) blown up break broke broken burn burnt burnt fall fell fallen forgive forgave forgiven lead led led rise rose risen send sent sent set set set shake shook shaken shoot shot shot sink sank sunk slide slid slid spoil spoilt spoilt strike struck struck © Avalon Book Company Ltd. 1999 187 .

deal with If you deal with a situation. blow up To blow up means to damage or destroy something with an explosion. you collect them and take them somewhere. you are getting over it. you don’t like each other any more. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. you look after them until they are grown up cope with If you cope with a situation. pick (someone) up If you pick someone up. 1999 188 . after falling out. fall out (with) If you fall out with a friend. tell (someone) off If you criticise someone in an angry way. drop (someone) off If you drop someone off. go over To go over means to look at or study something again. it leads to that thing. pick (something) up If you pick something up. be used to If you are used to something. you keep up with it. run over If you hit someone in a car. you leave them alone. you tell them off. it is not used. leave behind If you leave someone behind. run away People run away from things they are frightened of. you give it your attention. you look forward to it. make up (with) If you become friends with someone again. make (something) up If you invent a story or an excuse. you deal with it well. you do it often so it is normal or easy for you. you don’t take them with you. leave out If you leave someone out.. he forces his way in. keep up with If you go at the same speed as another thing. it starts off being difficult but becomes easier. you don’t include them. look forward to If you know there is something in the future that you really want to do. we understand it or belive it is right. leave alone When someone wants to be on their own. lead to If something causes another thing to happen. bring up If you bring up a child.Phrasal Verbs and Verb Expressions be left over If something is left over. make sense If something makes sense. you make up with them. feel left out You feel left out if people are doing something that doesn’t include you. get over When you start to feel better after some bad news or an illness. it goes off. break into If a burglar breaks into your house. get used to If you get used to something. go off When an alarm starts ringing. you make it up. beat up To beat someone up means to hit and punch them a lot. you run them over. you take them to a place and leave them there. you take it from the floor.

I went to a good restaurant last night. With buildings. When we are talking about a single thing but we are not counting. I would like a cup of coffee. eg. and medical services. When we say what someone’s job is. When we have already identified the noun we are talking about. My parents have a dog and a cat. 1999 189 . This is very common in English. He spent an hour doing his homework. A potato is a vegetable that grows underground.* eg. 2. 3. Man first landed on the moon in 1969. pubs.. When we talk about things generally we often use plural nouns without an article. It was a difficult examination. eg. 3. He is a doctor and his wife is a policewoman. compare: My sister works in a bank. My parents have a dog and a cat. 4. I often go to the cinema. 1.Articles We use the indefinite article (a/an) in the following situations. banks. I want to buy a pair of trousers. NOT I would like one cup of coffee please. but I never go to the opera. Often because there is only one possibility. Do you know a good restaurant near here ? I passed my driving test a week ago. The dog is called Fido and the cat is called Tom.* eg. such as supermarkets. 1. *see Avalon Book 2. When we are talking about someone or something for the first time or when we are not talking about a particular thing. There is a spider in the bath. appendix 3 We don’t usually use articles in the following situations. 2. eg. My brother is frightened of spiders. eg. Can you turn off the light ? I’ve put the milk in the fridge. We use the definite article (the) in the following situations. I am going shopping in the city centre. please. I am going to the supermarket. I’ve run out of money so I need to go to the bank. shops and services which we visit regularly. 1. My daughter doesn’t feel well so she is going to see the doctor. In definitions. eg. A tiger is a rare animal. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. My father has bought a new car. Airports are very busy places. I think the library is closed on Saturdays. Young people are more likely to take drugs than old people. eg. Compare : Dogs are usually bigger than cats. When it is clear from the situation which thing or person we mean.

eg. seasons or years. I am going to Lake Garda in Italy. we use the definite article. the United Kingdom We aslo use the definite article with the names of seas. Monday. We don’t usually use articles with the days of the week. Spring. countries. eg. February. 1997 However. the 20th Century © Avalon Book Company Ltd. islands or people’s names. the Nineties. eg. months. oceans and rivers. the Atlantic (Ocean).2. the Bahamas. eg. 3. mountains. when talking about decades or centuries. eg. Mount Rushmore is in America. the People’s Republic of China. eg. jealousy and death. 1999 190 . Criminals are sent to prison. we do use the definite article with groups of mountains or islands and countries with extra words in their name. we don’t use articles. regions. However. the Mediterranean (Sea). When I leave school I want to go to university. the (River) Nile 4. When we are talking about something as a general idea. cities. With proper nouns such as continents. Art often deals with subjects such as sex. love.. the Himalayas. Education is an important part of growing up.

) Modal verbs to express certainty in the past . construction: must + have + past participle can’t + have + past participle eg.) ii. eg. (I am certain he is not ill. You shouldn’t have tried to move it on your own. We can use must and can’t to express certainty about the past.) Modal verbs to express obligation in the past .Modal Verbs Expressing Certainty Modal verbs to express certainty in the present . i. (I am certain he is quite ill. We use must to say that something is true. we use construction should + have + past participle to tell them a better or correct way to do it. eg. I haven’t got my wallet. Peter has been off work for a whole week.must and can’t. He is very late. His car might have broken down.should.must and can.might. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. (I am not certain but it is a possibility.. He must be quite ill. When someone did something badly or in the wrong way in the past. eg. I didn’t understand how to do that exercise. = I am certain. Peter can’t be ill because I saw him playing football this morning. I must have left it at home. He must have got lost. He is very late. I hurt my back lifting that wardrobe. 1999 191 . You can’t have left your wallet at home because you had it in the restaurant. Might + have + past participle expresses possibility instead of certainty. eg. You should have asked your teacher. Modal verbs to express possibility in the past . We use cannot or can’t to say that something isn’t true. We use must and can to say we are certain about something because we have evidence.

There are other verbs that follow these rules: understand eg. I heard what he just said. No. Yes. Q. see eg. Q. Yes.. Do you know where the library is ? NOT: Do you know where is the library ? A. Q. Yes. explain eg. … ?’. Do you understand why we are studying this grammar ? A. Q. How can you find out what someone’s phone number is ? hear eg. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Can you explain what the difference between the past simple and the present perfect is ? A. I don’t know where the library is. Q. I understand why we are studying grammar. find out eg. I can’t see what is in her bag. 1999 © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Did you hear what he just said ? A.. Yes. I can explain what the difference between the past simple and the present perfect is. I know where the library is. the rest of the sentence follows the rules for reported questions: eg. Q. No. Can you see what is in her bag ? A.Embedded Questions Questions after ‘Do you know … ?’ When we ask a question that begins ‘Do you know what/where/how many etc. 1999 192 .

If I didn’t have to work very hard.” she said. 4. If I were you. 2nd 10. 3.g. we won’t have any dinner. Unit 1 102 Unit 1 A. You make the boss angry when you are late for work. I wish I didn’t have to work very hard. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. If I don’t catch any fish. Reported Speech Change from direct speech to reported speech. 0 2. you wouldn’t get flowers from her. I would invite my family for a dinner party. 2nd 5. then write a sentence in the second conditional to show how it might be different. 1st 8. 6.” he said. “I will call you when I get home. She said that her sister had written her a lovely letter . “I know that I’m too old. I wish I wasn't so poor. 1.” she said. 1st 6. 1st 3. 1999 193 . He said that his car had been damaged. I wish I could cook well. Unit 1 103 2.” she said. If I could cook well. I am very poor. First make a sentence with wish. My dad will kill me if he sees this mess.. I wouldn’t feel guilty if I cheated in an exam. I won’t lend you my car again if you damage it. If I were you. 1. Join the separate parts to make conditional sentences and say which conditional they are (0. If she didn’t love you.1st/2nd ). I can’t cook well. 2. She said that her parents didn't want to buy her a car . 0 4.” they said. I have to work very hard.. She said she would call me when she got home. 2nd 7. 1999 Exercises. Andy said that he didn't think England would win the game . “My sister wrote me a lovely letter. He said that he knew that he was too old. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. 5.” he said. eg.Exercises.” said Andy. I would spend more time with my family. eg. “I don’t think England will win the game. Dancers lose their abilities if they don’t practise. they get hangovers. 1. 0 B. C. “My parents don’t want to buy me a car. if I cheated in an exam. e. People put on weight if they eat too much. 0 9. They said that they were very happy that we could come to the event. “My new car has been damaged. I would talk to a lawyer . If people drink too much. “We are very happy that you can come to the event.

. mood 4.. 5. She said that she would meet me later if she wasn't busy. stupid b. She said she hadn’t seen my keys and didn’t have any idea where they were. I would go for a walk with my friend... That jacket is so expensive... The stereo was broken two weeks ago. because she thinks she’s more important... temper 2. behaviour d. to tell b. 2..... I would go on a trip around the world. 4.. 7. He said that he wasn't feeling well. 5... I would buy it. so he couldn't come to work. He said that he couldn't help me but his friend would be able to.. I wish that jacket wasn't so expensive. “I will meet you later if I’m not busy. This room is cleaned every day. boasting c.... selfish b. “My sister has lost her job and is living with me.. Sometimes... eg. He thinks he’s the most intelligent person in the world... Someone stole my bicycle last Saturday... Two people were bitten by the dog.. If I didn't have a bad cold. 1999 194 .” she said..If I wasn't so poor.. 3. I have a bad cold... If that jacket wasn't so expenssive..” he said... an idiot 5... Change these sentences from passive to active. a.. situation b. The dog bit two people. big-headed d... Someone cleans this room every day....” she said. “I’m not feeling very well. to boast d. or from active to passive. She always behaves so . telling 3. a. 8.. boast c. “I can’t help you but my friend will be able to.. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. The car will be repaired next Friday.. 6.. 1... ..... 2.” he said. . E..... My bicycle was stolen last Sunday.. that I have to laugh. Change from direct to reported speech.. or from reported to direct speech. “I don’t understand why they haven’t told you.. He said that his sister had lost her job and was living with him....... 3..... 4. 1.. She said that she didn't understand why they hadn't told me. “I haven’t seen your keys and don’t have any idea where they are..... he’s such . feeling c. Someone cleans this room every day...... D.. They make a lot of wine in this country. My bicycle was stolen last Sunday. about how much money he has.. Choose the best word(s) 1. This room is cleaned (by someone) every day. 4.. They will repair the car next Friday. Someone stole my bicycle last Saturday.. F....” he said...... He never stops . I wish I didn't have a bad cold... so I can’t come to work..” she said. a.. He’s so ... It isn’t a good time to ask him because he’s in a horrible . a stupid c.... silly d. Someone broke the stereo two weeks ago.. a. 3. A lot of wine is made in this country.

.............. subject 3.. 5. 2...... when I lied.... encourage me I... mind d. (causes) Unemployment is one of the causes of crime.. a...... (job) I think he will lose his job/will be sacked.. I lost my temper because he was so arrogant. tells b.................. animals..... Choose the right word........... I didn’t want to play sport.. but my teacher said that I had to. lied c..... a. speaks c..... selfish d. She ..... that he doesn’t share anything with anyone.. It’s going to rain.............. said d.............. greedy b... pigheaded d. He keeps getting to work late.... (competition) I think the Australians will win the competition.. 2.. Crime is sometimes caused by unemployment... a.......... 1... My teachers didn’t encourage me enough at school.. modest b.... big-headed b.... generous 5.. lost her temper d. 1. (get) I didn’t get enough encouragement from my teachers at school... (behaviour)His arrogant behaviour made me lose my temper... arrogant c. mood b... 105 H............... Sometimes my ...... arrogant c...... lied 6... gets angry b.. planes and warships to that country... stupid 8.. a story that it had been stolen. The journalist ............. eg.. Make a prediction with going to or will depending on the evidence. 3...... ... selfish d............ (war) There is going to be war.... that he shared the money with his friends. the news story.. boasted b... modest c.... with the students and left the room a......... People say that pigs are .......... generous 4.... exaggerated d.. about his well-paid job... selfish c.... The Australian cricket team is really good at the moment....... I think an African team will win the next World Cup... My mother used to .......... (force) My teacher used force to make me play/forced me to play sport. arrogantly d....... a......... © Avalon Book Company Ltd....... He is very modest and never ..... He’s so . He was so ...... big-headed 2............... boasts d. temper c..... I lost her book and ....... greedy 7........ people don’t think enough about other people...... There are a lot of dark clouds in the sky.. The weather was so bad that there were a lot of accidents.. 1999 195 ... boast 6. shouted a lot c.a................... told b. punch me b. a....... selfish d... The Americans are sending soldiers...... bully me c....... 4... (were) A lot of accidents were caused by the bad weather... The Africans are getting really good at football. tell me off d... stubborn b...... broke her mood 7.... pigheaded c. greedy b.... a..... Sentence Transformations 1... made up c....... a... changes with the weather..... a........ 3.... a................. said G..

.............. (lawyer) He is going to be/become a lawyer........ The police often look for ....4..... Unit 2 107 Unit 2 © Avalon Book Company Ltd. The old woman ... said c...... ... a.......... punished b........... judge d. The most important person in a court is the .. policeman 2.. made d. a. Jack The Ripper was of the most famous ... ordered b. murderers 3.. evidence c..... a.... 1.... My best friend has decided to study law. The policeman . criminal b..... J. criminal c..... My parents always . shouted 7..... apologised © Avalon Book Company Ltd.. 1999 Exercises... me eat vegetables........ a.... predicted 5. 1999 196 .. him.. signs 4... Choose the right words.... such as blood and fingerprints. forced b....... killer c... my future by studying my hand.. proof d.. a.. I was angry with him for a few days but then I . made d.. a.......... said d. murders d... gave c. identity b... in England........ told 6....... forgave c. a..... wanted c. lawyer b. guessed b.. him to get out of the car and put his hands in the air..... excuse d.......

They have never treated us kindly. She gets changed after getting home. 1. Use these linking words to join the two clauses together.) It's worth treating her well because she's a very important woman. B. 5. 7. He treated me politely. 4. She’ll get angry if you are rude to her. feel nervous. She wants to find a job and make a lot of money. She is never impolite to them. (Take our coats. They are quite good to me. I would complain if something I bought was faulty. and because while if when so before after 1..) It's not worth bringing our books because we will have a conversation class. I’m sure everything will be fine. We will have a conversation class.) It's not worth trying to change her mind because she's very stubborn. They treat me quite well. She’s very stubborn. (Treat her well. I will always treat you well. It will help you a lot. To be worth + gerund Make sentences with ‘to be(not) worth + gerund because…’ about these situations. treat + someone + adverb / be + adjective + to someone Change these sentences from one form to the other. I would lose my temper if my students weren't listening to me. 1999 197 . 4. She never treats them impolitely. (Worry about it. She always treats me kindly. She was always kind to me. He was very bad to his wife. He treated his wife badly. eg. I’ve heard it’s a really lovely place. 4. She cleans her teeth before going to bed. eg. 5. 2.) It's not worth taking our coats because it's always hot there. 3.) It's worth buying a good English-English dictionary because it will help you a lot. 3. 7. She called me while I was having a bath.) It’s worth going there because I’ve heard it’s a really lovely place. She doesn’t like her job so she is looking for another one. In what situation would you . I would get treated in hospital if I suffered from an illness. 1. 2. (Bring your books. 3. 5. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. 2. She’s a very important woman. It’s always hot there. 5. They have never been kind to us. 2. 3. D. C. (Buy a good English-English dictionary. feel frightened. (Go there.A. complain. 1. 8. (Try to change her mind.) It's not worth worrying about it because I'm sure everything will be fine. She is always polite to them. 6. get treated in hospital. I would feel nervous at an important job interview.. lose your temper. She’s really tired because she stayed up really late last night. She met an old friend when she was in the supermarket. I will always be good to you. I would feel frightened if I saw a ghost.. He was polite to me. She always treats them politely. 4. 6. 6.

4. We used to have to stay behind after school as a punishment. She went to bed four hours ago. He told me that the painting was completely worthless. How long has this teacher been teaching you ? I have been taught by this teacher for half a year. We bought this computer over a year ago.E. TREAT 7. (wait) She’s been waiting there for ten minutes. PUNISH 5. (work) He has been working for Nolava Services for two months. 2. Change ‘but’ to ‘however’ in these sentences. 4. 5. Finish these questions and write answers about yourself. but we had to wait an hour and a half for it. 3. I got a lot of encouragement from my parents. 2. (live) They have been living in this country for six months. John lives in London. 2. Your qualifications and experience affect what job you get. SELF 3. I'm working at a petrol station this summer. H. J. Present Perfect Continuous. The food was lovely. Remember to use the right punctuation. 1999 198 . I work in an office. BEHAVE 2. ENCOURAGE 4. (swim) They have been swimming in the pool for twently minutes. eg. Making words 1. They got into the pool twenty minutes ago. (use) We have been using this computer for over a year. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. INTELLIGENT I. 5. Pollution affects the environment.choose the right word. Dogs can be useful because of their intelligence. 4. My sister’s sarcastic sense of humour annoys me. He got a job with Nolava Services two months ago. Make sentences in the Present Perfect Continuous about these situations: eg. 1. John is living in Cardiff from June until September. 2. These drugs have some bad effects. G. 3. Drinking too much can have a bad effect on your health. I’m going to hospital for some treatment on my knee. 3. 1. Affect/Effect . They came to this country six months ago. How long have you been studying at this school ? I have been studying at this school for 2 years. WORTH 6. Not sharing your Easter egg was very selfish. 1. Everyone was annoyed by his arrogant behaviour. (sleep) She has been sleeping for four hours.. 1. The death of his father affected him badly. Write two examples of a temporary situation and two examples of a permanent situation using the right tense. How long have you been sitting in this classroom ? I have been sitting in this classroom for 1 hour. She arrived at the bus-stop ten minutes ago. 3. F. SARCASM 8.

However. sarcastic c.... 4... However.. I tried to look intelligent. Don’t 12. and visited three 3.. He has been watching TV for too long. L.. advert c... She has been drinking alcohol....... Rome.... sarcasm b.. shown d.............. 1.. 2.. My dream is to be go 9.. way to travel to work. 1999 199 .. stupid c.. I would be have memories of this trip for ever.. no one bought their product.. of cities.... sarcastic d. Choose the right word. My cat has lots of cuts on its face. I saw the product .. but we can’t afford it... She is very drunk. exaggerate c. of the wine........ fast 5... She always behaves badly...... I tried to look intelligent. Someone has been watering the plants a lot....... K.... We would like to have a three month holiday. intelligent 3.. a. . However.... a.... advertised b.......... we had to wait an hour and a half for it.... effects d. I was stayed there for two weeks.... She always behaves badly.. 1........ a.. with drinking a bottle 10... I really like her . a....... quickly c.. they have ever been to...... eg... Since then. 1.. a. I’ve told you a million times not to .. reported 6.... 2.... She always makes me laugh.. The plants don’t need any more water.. They spent £5... lots of my friends they 6. but... she never gets into trouble......... it would be expensive but 11... Find one unnecessary word in each line........ she never gets into trouble........ Einstein had many .. intelligent c......... sense of humour d....... Unfortunately 4... Write the causes of these effects using a verb in the Present Perfect Continuous..... lie b. exaggeration d. The last time when I went on holiday..... count © Avalon Book Company Ltd..... 2.... as he read the report... but no one bought their product. you think so it would be worth it ? M... intelligence b..... Florence and Pisa.. He has been running. in a magazine. 1... have told me that Venice is the most beautiful a city 7. However.. The newsreader looked very .. about science.... a... enough time. and so that I would like to go 8.. best b. serious b.. 3...The food was lovely..... 4.. theory 2. but nobody took me seriously..000 on advertising.. I went to Italy.. there one day in the future.. I couldn’t go to the Venice because there was not 5. practical d.. His legs are aching......... His eyes feel tired... 3... Public transport is often the most ... Of course. through the canals in a gondola... ...... We would like to have a three month holiday...000 on advertising.. theories 4....... However... we can’t afford it. It has been fighting with my neighbour’s cat. nobody took me seriously. They spent £5....

.....7.. promise b... have trouble doing pronoucing certain words in English 5... My new computer has a one-year ... want to own lots of money/a garden with a swimming pool © Avalon Book Company Ltd. a. guaranteed d.......... 1999 Exercises..... hang (up) a coat/phone 3.... . advertisement c..... 1999 200 . try to avoid doing smoking/drinking alcohol 4....... guarantee N.. 1... Write an example of something you ... own a house/a car 6... Unit 3 112 © Avalon Book Company Ltd. fold paper/clothes 2..

. 2.. She is drunk. My mother and I have a very good communication.. is c. sudden b... I have been eating too much greasy food recently.. suddenly c....... happens d....... properly d.. age d. She’s angry with him because he has been using her toothbrush.... Present Perfect Continuous (recent habits or repeated activities) Finish the sentences using a verb in the Present Perfect Continuous... set / rise b. a... but she . He’s very tired because he has been working hard at the office.. in the West. a..... eighteen to see that horror film... He isn't strong enough to carry the table... My daughter has been learning French and Russian at school.... (T) D.. over c. It was very hard for her when her husband died... in the East and . © Avalon Book Company Ltd....... Find the six sentences that don’t make sense and change them. I’m in a really bad mood.. I’ve failed all my exams. died b.. The sun . 6. (T) 2. 4.. (T) 7.. goes up / comes down... The government has raised taxes again... Many scientists think that dinosaurs became .. rise / set d.................... look up d.. 1999 201 ...... gradual d... You have to be ............. (T) 5........... extinct d.... my brother...... a............ 2. I drove to the station to . increase b.. 1.... If the population keeps . Choose the right word 1.... exists b.. (I) 8.. 1.. He dropped the glass on the floor.... Transitive and intransitive verbs Which of these sentences has a transitive or intransitive verb (T/I)... more than b. pick up c.... 1. B. dead 4... Many people believe that life ... so I’m a bit fat.. (I) 3.... comes up / goes down c.. exist c...... 5..... I’ve never fallen off my bicycle. got over it . increasing c.. Unemployment is rising fast in France.......... nicely 6. You haven’t washed it ... I think she’ll pass the exam because she has been studying very hard....... ........ This plate isn’t clean...... correct 3. a.. a..... well b.. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. a.... there won’t be enough food for everyone in the world...... on other planets.. She put her book on the table.. decrease d.. under 7.. (I) 6. cleanly c...A.......... (I) 4.. He walked to the chair and sat down. He is too strong to carry the table. 3....... because of their small brains....... stay up C. gradually 8.. give up b.. a.. My young son has been having nightmares recently. does 5... decreasing 3.. 4... 2... She is drink...... a..............

. 3... I won’t play football if I don’t feel well.. protect 3......My mother and I are in a good relationship.. a...... diet c... The party was so bad that she went home. raw 7. He won’t pass the exam unless he studies hard.. broke in 4......... a..... A healthy .... started b.. burn 8... correct 6.. I don’t think that ....... protection 5..... at seven o’clock this morning. The burglar . 4... easy G. fire c........... I won’t eat chicken if it isn’t cooked properly... . People often . She asked the teacher to go over the exercise.. I never borrow money if I don’t really need it... 7........ got up c........ This fish is still ..... a......... dead d.. a. Choose the right word. a... alarm d... the gallery and stole a valuable painting... The party was so good that she went home................. I usually cook myself. go on d...... I usually cook by/meals/the dinner myself... do 10... have b. people b.... 2. You have to ........ 1999 202 ... I won’t eat chicken unless it is cooked properly....... Unless We will go to the park if it isn’t raining. taste d........ help c............ People wear helmets to .... fat b..... food b.. Madonna.... peel b. should have all the right vitamins... I never borrow money unless I need it.... 1...... Toshiba..... save b.. Wrangler © Avalon Book Company Ltd.. Microsoft......... orange 9.... Change these conditional sentences using ‘unless’... F...... 1. so that students will understand. Write six examples of proper nouns. 1. because it was so cold. cook c. a.... 5............. 5.. a.. went off d... Teachers should explain grammar .... human d... clear d. He won’t pass the exam if he doesn’t study hard... oranges and bananas before eating them. easily c.......... woke up 6... light b....... are on c......... beings 2. humans c..... He turned on the ............. E.. = We will go to the park unless it’s raining. The computer won’t work if we don’t have it repaired.. will ever become extinct... dinosaurs d..... 8.. I will go my country when I finish English. broke into b. their heads..... a....... a... it hasn’t been cooked properly..... My alarm clock ... clearly b.. a. bad c. Tony Blair 2....... I go my country when I will finish English.. John Smith.... broke c.... The computer won’t work unless we have it repaired.. I won't play footaball unless I feel well... warn d....... broke down d.. a diet to lose weight.

the Red Sea. 4. that is greasy. the Lake District. Lublin. K. Your teacher will go over the answers to this exercise. 3. 1. Warszawa 4. Write an example of something . I won’t play football. spinach 2. You must be over seventeen to drive in England. Life has gradually got worse for poor people in England. but it gradually got better over the two weeks. a telephone/letters 4. getting over an illness/shock L. I don’t know why she suddenly lost her temper and hit him. 5. Monday. the Dodo bird 3. There has been a sudden rise in unemployment since 1985. 8. My parents will kill me if I fail my exams. Finish the sentences by using a verb in the past simple and a verb in the past continuous. If I am tired after work tonight. It can take a week to get over a bad cold. 1. the Vistula River 5. 7. 6. that people use to communicate with each other. We flew over London in a helicopter. Choose a verb and then put it in the right tense. The weather has been hot and sunny recently.. that you wear when sunbathing. a fire/storm/flood 6. a head/a house/forests 5. that tastes disgusting. dinosaurs. What will your boss say if you take the day off ? 6. sunglasses/swim suit 6. I stopped suddenly to avoid running over a cat. The flowers will get some water if it rains tonight. 7. that doesn’t exist any more. His English has gradually improved over the last five months. the Taj Mahal. Write an example of something. 6. meat/potatoes 5. 1. The weather was really bad at the beginning of our holiday. 2. 5. 4. There are over ten thousand Chinese people living in London. 1. 1. Finish the sentence with a phrasal verb or expression with ‘over’. 5. 4. 2. New York. the Eiffer Tower. © Avalon Book Company Ltd.. 2. but yesterday it suddenly changed. Choose sudden/suddenly/gradual/gradually to finish these sentences. Her English has improved over the last year. beef 3. cakes/chocolate I. a road sing 2. 1999 203 . Who will you ask for help if you ran out of money ? M. 3. December. happens gradually. Everyone was surprised by the sudden noise.3. that tastes delicious. that a burglar would steal. J. that warns us of danger.. that is protected. 8. happens suddenly. I would read the instructions before putting it inside if I were you. In tennis you have to hit the ball over a net. the Trynitarska Tower 6. that should be cooked properly.. a valuable paining/a hifi system 4.. Easter H.

Unit 4 © Avalon Book Company Ltd.. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. 3. It was snowing (to snow) when the children got up (to get up) on Christmas morning.. 4. I was working (to work) in the garden when my husband told (to tell) me the news.1. They were sleeping (to sleep) when the man upstairs started (to start) shouting. 1999 Exercises. 1999 204 . They met (to meet) each other while they were studying (to study) German History. The bird was eating (to eat) a worm when the cat saw (to see) it. 5. 2.

stress b..... It’s very ........ A .... a.......... Journalists have to work .... stressful c............ Choose the right word. cruel c.. a.. D.. energy d... by his grandmother because both his parents were in prison.. Oswald ........ kind d.. It is very . grown up b. Most people think that L.... power 2.. a..... take You can take your time over doing this exercise........ Raise rise drop/fall 7... Moving house can be a very . Rare uncommon common C... 4... a..... in d............ a. over 6. resource 4. 6......… with stress by taking exercise...... to keep looking at yourself in a mirror. bad b...... brought up 2..........… to hurt animals.. Choose the right words 1..... This flat is my temporary home....… instead of petrol........... synonym c........ do c. vanity 3....... grown c....... It annoys me that he is always so pessimistic.... hunted b.. a. a. useful c. shot c... bought up d.........… President Kennedy... This car uses solar . under c... It’s not .. cope b. Right correct incorrect/wrong 5. with b....A...... pronoun B........… pressure... energy b.... © Avalon Book Company Ltd... resources c...... I try not to drive through the centre of town on Saturdays... avoid I avoid driving through the centre of town on Saturdays. antonym b.... stressed d.. He was not tall enough to be in the army.… is a word with a similar meaning as another word. bully 3..... young You are too young to see this film..... 3..... short He was too short to be in the army.......... 2. Fast quick slow 3...... products b. makes His being so pessimistic makes me annoyed. stressing 8.... died 5...... Synonyms and antonyms Write a synonym and an antonym for the following words... Big large/huge small/little 4.. help 7.....… .....… experience.. cause d.. Coal is one of Britain’s most important natural .. nice b. live I live in this flat temporarily......... 1. banned d.... Some people ...... force c. Happy glad unhappy 2................ that men earn more money than women.. There is no need to rush when you do this exercise.......... power d. a..... You are not old enough to see this film. a........H. 1999 205 . Unkind impolite kind/polite 6... 5.. a... Sentence Transformations 1....... synonym antonym 1........... He was .. same d........ vain d.........

Punish slap/smack forgive 6. Bright light dark F. Probably possibly improbably 3. dye c.... Nervous worried relaxed 6..... I can’t believe his rudeness... 1. we must finish this work tonight.. Greedy selfish generous 4....... People can change their .a.. 4. John Smith’s . a. Stressed tense relaxed 3.. 1...... Write a synonym and antonym for the following words... 5. Loud noisy quiet 5..... Strange weird normal 7. Despite his laziness we finished all the work on time.. a.. by having plastic surgery.... 3.. in his thirties... he really should apologise... 2........ I can’t believe you’re going to .. Synonyms and Antonyms. ugly E. My friend is very worried about going . biography 6.... life d. Enjoy like dislike 2. cut b... good c. change 8. Clever wise stupid 2.. Thank you for your kindness during this difficult time for my family............ in a person... curly d.. a. 4. 6. 2... personality b. It was with great saddness that I heard about his death.. your hair green..... Even though you are tired.... influences 5... Tall high small 4. G. a.. Make nouns from the following adjectives and then use them to finish the sentences... Although my train was half an hour late it arrived on time in Manchester. characteristics 7... I love children but I’m often surprised by their selfishness.. appearance d..... Shout scream whisper H... Synonyms and Antonyms.... Delicious tasty disguisting 7. characteristics d...... his vocabulary is huge.... 3. true d. personality c...... 5.... I’d like to see it again..... book b.. Big-headed arrogant modest 5.. Your happiness is the only thing that is important to me.. mind b. © Avalon Book Company Ltd..... happy sad rude kind selfish lazy 1..... Although he knows very little grammar. autobiography c...... 1999 206 .. a.. Write a synonym and antonym for the following words... out c....... effects c. was written by Tony Blair. 1.. nice 4... Even though we were playing quite badly we still won the game.. fair b...... colour d. Jealousy and greed aren’t good . bald b.......... Although I have seen that film. Although and even though Finish these sentences with although or even though by using a verb in the right tense....

4.. Living in a big city (disadvantage) A disadvantage of living in a big city is that you might have problems travelling to work. He didn’t give a very believeable excuse for being late. 3. Newspaper reports have an influence on public opinion. J. 3. You must boil the water to make it drinkable. 6. 7.clause. The hot weather has an effect on my mood. he couldn’t persuade her. People’s appearance has an effect on what we think about them. The hot weather has affected my mood. People’s appearance affects what we think about them. The information didn’t have an effect on my opinion. Drinking isn’t very enjoyable if you don’t feel well. It’s understandable that the bus is late because the traffic is so bad. People’s moods can be very changeable when they are drunk. Make adjectives from the following nouns and verbs by adding the suffix ‘able’ Then use them to finish the sentences. Very fashionable clothes aren’t always the most comfortable. in spite of. 4. 4. The new laws won’t have an influence on our future plans. 1999 207 . 5. K. Although. Newspaper reports influence public opinion.to affect/have an effect Change from a verb-clause to a noun-clause or a noun-clause to a verb. Even though he asked really nicely. despite Write a second sentence which means the same as the first. 1. 2. eg. Advertising influences the products people buy. The information didn’t affect my opinion. Computers (advantage) An advantage of computers is that that make our lives easier. Fax machines (advantage) An advantage of fax machines is that you can send messages quickly. The new laws won’t influence our future plans. Studying English in England (disadvantage) A disadvantage of studying English in England is that it's quite expensive. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Advantages and disadvantages of (+ noun/gerund) Write an advantage or disadvantage of the following things. 1. 2. eg. Most of the problems are avoidable if we plan carefully. Driving to work (disadvantage) A disadvantage of driving to work is that it can be difficult to find somewhere to park. Advertising has a huge influence on the products people buy. 5. 2. 5. Travelling first class (advantage and disadvantage) An advantage of travelling first class it that it's comfortable whereas an disadantage of it is that it costs more. even though. to influence/have an influence . L. 3.I. fashion change comfort drink understand believe enjoy avoid 1. eg.

Despite asking her really nicely. 1. They went fishing despite the bad weather. Despite his terrible temper. Despite being optimistic/her optimism. Despite the disadvantages. Although he has terrible temper. he wants to go mountain climbing in Holland. he is a very bad cook. Exercises. he loves good food. 4. In spite of being a bad cook. they went fishing. Although he loves good food. Even though the weather was bad. he's usually very kind. Unit 5 © Avalon Book Company Ltd. he’s usually very kind. she's a bit worried about her driving test. he wants to go mountain climbing in Holland. Even though there are many disadvantages. 2. he couldn’t persuade her. 1999 208 . 3.. 5. she’s a bit worried about her driving test. Even though she is optimistic.

...... © Avalon Book Company Ltd..... 3..... a. region b..... i... can be seen in that region.. computers have made many jobs quicker and easier. 5.. being one of the most popular presidents ever.. to be + used to + noun/gerund What are/aren’t these people used to + noun/gerund ? eg...... like spirits. centre d.. 6.. like France....... 7.... so b.... She is used to (eating with) a knife and fork... factory b... change c...... a.... region b. 1999 209 ............ such as bananas. region........ with a lot of pollution and environmental damage........ . despite b. An English woman who eats with chopsticks for the first time. He was such an idiot that we had to sack him after only a week on the job... are always peeled before eating. Many countries produce wine..... many homeless people in the area that the government has decided to build special accommodation for them.......... Britain changed from an agricultural to an industrial . very d.. She isn’t used to (eating with) chopsticks. such as Titanic and Gone With The Wind...A.. They sell a lot of alcoholic drinks. alcoholism and drugs.. I used to be so lazy that I never got out of bed before midday. 5. oranges and apples..... 6..... so b.. very d...... 2. however c. however c. ... agricultural d... although B. My country has a lot of social problems. It was such as easy exam that I finished an hour early.. C.. industrial c...... 1...... even d.. ii.. a............. a... 2.. schabowy and bigos.... He has a lot of films on video................ The hill was so steep that we had to get off and push our bikes.... changed 2.. they still have disadvantages. It was . My country has many famous dishes...... Some fruit and vegetables. There are . like unempoloyment...... society c.. lovely day that we decided to go walking in the mountains....... He grew up in a very poor . area d.. .. wine and beer.......... Portugal and the USA. a.. Choose such as or like and add some examples to finish these sentences. The weather in early spring can be very . although 3....... It’s a very ... a... society c...................... A lot of interesting animals.. She was such a dangerous criminal that the judge ordered her to be put in a special prison... Choose the right words.... Bill Clinton was always getting into trouble.... 4. 4. such a 7. changeable d. The region around Chernobyl is so polluted that no one lives there any more.... such a 6... nature 5. During the Nineteenth Century. a...... a..... area 4.. of the city... foxes and wolves... even d.. 1... despite b.. like deer.... really c...... really c.. such as gołąbki. D...... changing b.... 1.. 3. Choose so or such+a/an for the following sentences.. in the UK.. population 8..

A little girl who is having her first day at school is used to being with her parents. Despite the bad weather. Make sure you use the correct tense. A new student in this school. I'm sure I will never get used to this place.. 3. ii. 4. but life here will seem normal to me soon. I’ve only been in this city for a week.000 a week ago isn't used to having so much money. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. eg. the ship left on time. i.000 a week ago is used to having little money. A new student in this school isn't used to being asked questions. F. (over) I need to go over the present and past perfect before the exam. E. he passed the exam. You must use the word in brackets. 1999 210 . and I’m sure I will never like it. A poor man who won £10.000 a week ago. but it was easier after a few weeks. A poor man who won £10. (used to) He's getting used to feeling comfortable in his new job. A little girl who is having her first day at school isn't used to being on her own. She’s getting used to her new timetable. ii. When you get married you have to learn to make decisions with your partner. ii. I hate this place. A little girl who is having her first day at school. I'm getting used to understnding this computer software. 5. Slowly. Sentence Transformation Change the sentence to another form . 2. i. She has started her new university course in Spain where the timetable is different. Although he was lazy. Use get used to to rewrite these sentences. A new student in this school is used to studying grammar and making exercises. 2. i. I will get used to life here soon.1. (run) I was run over by a car while I was walking home. A tiger which has just been caught and put in the zoo isn't used to living in a cage. 2.000. (despite) Despite being lazy. At the beginning he had trouble sleeping alone. 4. A tiger which has just been caught and put in the zoo is used to living free. he passed the exam. A tiger which has just been caught and put in the zoo. I need to revise the present and past perfect before the exam.000. 3.000. Get used to + noun/gerund means that something which is new or difficult for us becomes easier or more normal (we learn how to cope with it). 4. eg. the ship left on time. Slowly. i. ii. He’s starting to feel comfortable in his new job. He got used to sleeping alone. (although) Alhough the weather was bad. 1. A poor man who won £10. A car hit me while I was walking home. I’m starting to understand this computer software. 3. 1. When you get married you have to get used to making decisions with your partner.

. sinking c... the bad service b....... a. person b.. so falling d...... 1....... but c.. a..... Many people were made homeless because of an earthquake struck the area..... sank 2.... Underline the extra words . characteristic c.. the food in that place is very nice.. 6..... a............ vain he always thinks he’s the most fashionable....... 1.... routine c..... G.. One of the main ... organisation © Avalon Book Company Ltd.. due d. Many scientists believe that a ................... centre d......... . Choose the right words....................... too 5..... character d.. so c.. region b. One of the advantages of this diet is that it’s as delicious as a normal food.......... 1.... a............................. temperature killed the dinosaurs. in the film ‘Star Wars’ is Darth Vader. During the Second World War thousands of ships were . being bad service 8...... a.... habit b... a..... difficulty d... ......... a... My favourite ............ 3.. if d...... such a low 6... 1999 211 .. He is .. trouble b..... fall) There was a sudden fall in the temperature while they were climbing the mountain... a. even though ... Although ....... the rain 7. to flooding......... as 4. it is important to have a daily ....... such a b.. he works hard c......... Despite ... a. a. The temperature dropped suddenly while they were climbing the mountain........... The . working hard d........ ...... He lost his job.... 7..... The film was so boring me that I left the cinema before it finished... 4.. suddenly fall of c. (n.... 8. Extra words ? These sentences are wrong because they have one extra word..... they worked in the garden all afternoon. Choose the right word(s)........ sunk b.5.......... The gradual rise in the number of car accidents is often exaggerated about on TV 5....... of the rain d. because b. I grew up in was famous in the city for being poor and dangerous. I.... personality 2..... The unemployed people get help from the government in some European countries. regular d.. you promise to clean it after you use it... unless b......... sudden drop in b...... The Titanic sank down in less than two hours after it hit an iceberg...... except 4. by submarines.. then he had to move out of his flat and now he’s a homeless. disadvantages c.... eg. a...... ... the service is bad c....... his hard work. neighbourhood c. of bad service d..... In this job. hard work b....... H.... like kangaroos and koalas are some examples. part 3. a.... Many strange animals can be found in Australia...... raining b.......... 2..... sink d............ all trains have been cancelled... problem 3.. You can’t borrow my car . .. reason c. The food was so a delicious that I ordered two main courses..... of cities is that there is so much pollution. He never has any money.... it was raining c. such as d.

..... sure c..... steep b... a......... unless c. provides d.. but I . a.. trust b.. There are eight important daily newspapers in the UK....... believe 6......... 1999 212 ....... pen . The burglar .... a.. This new job is very different from my last one. trustworthy c... He is used to .......... TRUST 6........... society c.. despite d............. high c... lose weigh Li.... It was 8) .. evening during the 3) .... a..... on him to do a good job... Choose the right words from the list below to finish this article... two thousand were 7) . Don’t worry... hospital.. evidence 5. but not very practical.. put off weight d..... lets c..... a so tiny d.......... IRRITATE K....... such as a tiny 3...... so optimistic b. believe b...... lose weight b....................... he does the work properly.. The boss will get angry with him ....... . you can rely on him to keep that information secret...... am getting up b.. Choose the best words.. take off calories c... a.......... the city in the 2) . so pessimist d.. If you go on the Cambridge Diet.......... a. irritated 7. if b................ a... suffered c. a................ you will .... but famous for her vanity........... stole b............ When I was a teenager I used to argue with my parents a lot........ moved 7...... prejudice b................ but there are some who aren’t. such pessimist 6. a. 1. so small a b... thousands of people were travelling home after work. rely 8.......... huge disaster that © Avalon Book Company Ltd............ I’ve never seen ............. pain b............... DAY 10......5.... DISASTER 8.......... hour 4) . height d.. I have .......... PRACTICE 5.......................... VAIN 4............ A lot of TV programmes are subtitled for deaf people........ TITLE 9. a.. She always imagines the worst possible future... you can ...... Most lawyers are .... SERIOUS 2. I find most TV adverts really irritating.... that more than a hundred people died and 6) ....... He left his last job because it was too stressful.. broke into d......... The government ................... to it...... the house while we were on holiday..... except 8........... because he comes from the mountains........ The war had a disastrous effect on the economy............. Don’t worry......... 1...... hurt d.. STRESS 7.......... rely d. robs c... free hospital treatment for the unemployed.................... such a pessimist c. She is .. There are many different kinds of ............ used d.............. very quickly... The earthquake 1) ........... he is completely trustworthy..... from migraines ever since I started this job... a.... such a tiny c............... It is 5) .......... such as racism and sexism.................... USE 3........ trust d.. gives b.. gives J.. She wanted her parents to take her ambitions more seriously... hills....................... steeply 2.... get used c.......... Make a different word using the one in capitals to finish these sentences............. She was a beautiful woman....... His big red sports car is good fun..... am getting used 4..... a.... judgement d...

.... also 14) ............. made b... further 7) a.. full 13) a. As a result of the earthquake 11) ...... daily life came to a 12) . sudden b....... however d. late c........ trust b.. When the sun 17) .................... early 3) a.. severely b....... was d. The government had to 19) . then c..... a very d......... need 20) a........ each 12) a. later b.... the next morning it was clear that thousands of homeless people would need to be provided 18) ...... to d....... quick c.... rely d... homeless in the 10) ...... ... Choose the right words from the list below to complete this article.. get over d.......... taken to d..... damaged c..... country b. The city would take a long time to 20) ...... rush b...... during b.. believed c...crowded c. so b.. over c. more b....... near d... cancelled and all flights from the international airport were 16) .. run over Exercises..... stop. did b....... delayed c........ such d.. had d. hits b.. a lot c... go over c.. came up b.......... affected 2) a.. busy d. have been 16) a.... such a 9) a........................ Unit 6 © Avalon Book Company Ltd......... was 14) a...... needed the b.. while 5) a..... fast d.. emergency accommodation. region Lii.. Friday d....... became c.... six o’clock b... 1) a.... guessed b. part d........with b.. 1999 213 .. normal d. Public transport 13) ............. were c.. got d.. of c.... had c... bad 15) a... 11) a... rise d............ carried into c........ were b... on international organisations to bring in food and medicine.. believing d....... area c.. got used to 10) a...thousands of people were 9) ..... ask c. the disaster........... rises c.... every c...................... struck d..... for 19) a... suffered in 8) a......... .. be over b. hurry 4) a.... got up 18) a........... usual b..... affected... such as c..... slow 17) a........... thinking 6) a.. cancel d....... All train services 15) .............

3.0. He’s always in a good mood on his way to work. (passive) 5. He’s always completely tired when I see him on the train in the evening. he might be listening to some loud music. So. He can't have an easy job. 4. but they’re always clean when I get up. 2. 5. 6. He’s homeless. 4. I might have left (leave) them in the kitchen. 6. 2. to make judgements from the evidence. but it can't be made of gold because it’s too light. 4. He might have been (be) tired or ill. 5. He’s got four houses and ten cars. It looks like gold. B. They must have played (play) really well. 1. can’t or might(not) from the evidence. 7. Must / can’t / might(not) + present Make judgements about the present using must. It’s 4. He isn’t answering the phone but I know he’s at home. Their team won the game 10 .. 1999 214 .I’m not sure. because it died recently. he must be sleeping now. That book is sold in over one hundred different countries. So.A. It can't have been (be) David’s dog. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Choose must. Someone must clean the streets at night. That can't be her husband because he’s on a business trip. He must have lots of money. I saw a dog this morning which looked just like David’s. He didn’t go to the party. 1. eg. 3. C. depending on how sure you are.00 in the morning in his country. She migh be worried about something. She might have forgotten (forget). Why do they want to look inside my suitcase? They might be looking for drugs. 2. 1. 8. She might be ill. So. He can't have been (be) very happy. His car broke down and he had to walk 10 miles. He can't be at work. he must work very hard. It must be read by millions of people every year. He can't have a hard job. 3. can’t or might(not). Why is he so late? He left home on time. She’s very quiet today. Use must have. He must be very unhappy. He can’t have studied (study) very hard. She must be so happy. eg. or he might not want to talk to anyone. 7. She has always wanted a son and now she has one. He can’t be poor. Where did I leave my keys? . The streets are dirty when I go home. I’m not sure. She isn’t at school today. He only got 15% in the exam. Where is my car? It must have been moved (move) by the traffic police. can’t have or might have and put the verb in the right form. It must be someone else. My wife didn’t say happy birthday to me this morning.

I think this one is better.. e..... because I tried calling him there.. comparing d. certainty 2.... 1. control of the car. 1..... A car hit her while she was crossing the road. (advertised) 4........ He can't be at home. I was told off by my boss for arriving late. a. so I’m sure he isn’t there. You should have been here a few minutes ago. Sentence Transformation Rewrite the first sentence. Choose the right words.... I can’t afford that dress. such already still only just yet so 1. preferring 3. ..... The price might have influenced her choice. I’m really tired... G. F. He’s already gone out. You should have put on some suntan oil. Suggest what should/shouldn’t have been done in these situations. 1999 215 . He was driving too fast and . I am really sunburnt..true d. Use a maximum of five new words...... 3. drinking b.. Choose an emphasising word and write put it in the spaces.. (due) 5... I ran out of petrol on my way to work yesterday. couldn’t © Avalon Book Company Ltd. (got) 6. sure b.. (be) 3... and keep the meaning the same.. 2. eg...g. I only have £150. 6............ She was run over a car while she was crossing the road.. took d. No one can say with .. a. Haven’t you finished yet ? You told me it would only take a few minutes....I don’t know. Are you still here ? I thought you went home an hour ago.. opinion c... a.... but his train might have been delayed (delay) because of the snow.... I tried calling him at home. You shouldn’t have drunk so much last night... lost b. the two wines. (off) 1.. You should have checked petrol before driving to work.. I’m still finding my new timetable a bit strange. There was an advertisement for a teaching job in the newspaper yesterday... (run) 2.. (passive) D. 2. I’m late for work...... You shouldn't have stayed up late last night...... My boss got angry with me for arriving late. 3. A teaching job was advertised in the newspaper yesterday. out of c.. He started working in the company two months ago but he is already a manager. including the word in brackets.. It is possible that the price influenced her choice... That is such a lovely present......... truth c. 4.... Thank you so much! 5. I’ve got a terrible hangover... I haven't got used to my new timetable yet. 4.. (might) E.. You shouldn't have worked so much.... All the trains were delayed due to drivers’ strike. who killed JF Kennedy. All the trains were delayed because the drivers went on strike.

... 3. a. pass b............ results c..... each other during the race. follow d..... a. They had already sold (to sell) all the tickets when we got (to get) to the concert.... result J... degrees b........................ I feel really relaxed ...... earlier d......4. 2. She is very excited about her trip to Thailand.... after b. He came first in the 100m race ..... later c.. a... followed 6.. Sentence Transformations 1......... 1%........ Choose the best word(s) 1........................... cheese......... a...... heading b... I am sure he did not pay for the coffee because he didn’t have any money.. subtitle 2................... Choose the past simple or the past perfect for the verbs in brackets in these sentences... (us) The local people brought us food............... (forward) She is looking forward to her trip to Thailand. future c............ early 8..... on the front page of the newspaper said ‘Ireland wins complete independence...... She thought (to think) that he was (to be) the most amazing man she had met (to meet)........ in August................. 4..... evening 5.. already b..... main c.. cause d. mild b. at c... beforehand b... When children go out alone....... to b...... soft c. title c.. despite c.. a....... This one is too strong... a... guide c.. they should always tell an adult where they are going . afterwards d.... due b.... I.... although d... The . distance 5.. because c... We were provided with food by the local people............ a. lead 7...... I had seen (to see) such high mountains until I went (to go) to Nepal...... When I take exercise............ a... the guide around the museum... The tourists .. The government has increased taxes ... 1999 216 ..... of thick fog...... plan is to take control of the whole market.. his bad ankle... .... just d....... 1........ a.. He had failed his driving test three times when he . time b...... He had been (to be) a professional boxer for only one year when he won (to win) the competition..... pass H....’ a. .......... showed d. 3... term d. We hadn't eaten (to not eat) jellyfish before we visited (to visit) China..... qualifications d.. light 3.. Dinner is the ........... Our long-..... then 7.... Racing-car drivers try to .. passed last month...... 5.. 2. English university students usually take their exams in June and get their ...................... before c....... only 4............ headline d.......... weak d.... © Avalon Book Company Ltd. by 8........ I prefer . The police said that the accident was the ... however b.. meal of the day for most English families. even 6.. finally c....... for d............ lead b..... a.. important d. asked c....... mainly b. a..... a......

eg... This pub is really boring........ . (have) He shouldn't have cooked for a group of vegetarians.. Make suggestions using shall I / we 1.. meal daily 4... system 5.. course 8. I don’t know how to use this ticket machine. We don’t have enough money to get a taxi.. horse . They / go to France/next month... . weather light 3.. alarm . 5. 1.. I'm not looking forward to talking to my bank manger this afternoon.. I’m looking forward to seeing you again next summer. Shall we take a bus? 3. © Avalon Book Company Ltd... Shall we go to another pub? 4.. 3.. Shall I help you? 5. Shall we ask the way? 6. It was a bad idea for him to cook sausages for a group of vegetarians... power 1. We / the party /Saturday. The fire resulted in $3 million worth of damage. routine .. .. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. I'm not looking forward to getting up at 6. (was) $3 million worth of damage was the result of the fire. 4.. 1999 Exercises.. lose . political .. get . Shall we go to that new restaurtant? 2. 5.. newspaper .00am / tomorrow morning. There is a very good new restaurant near here. We are not looking forward to the exam Friday morning. money .. over (phr v... They are looking forward to going to France next month... I not / talk to my bank manager/ this afternoon. in . transport ... winter . run . go .. solar ...(have) He can't have paid for the coffee because he didn’t have any money. race 6. cheese ... We not / the exam / Friday morning.. 1999 217 . problem 2. 1999 K. meal . Look forward to + noun / gerund eg.... car .. out of . I not / get up/ 6. social . 2.00 am tomorrow morning. road . We are looking forward to the party on Saturday. I / see you again/summer.... 4. control 7. Unit 7 © Avalon Book Company Ltd. nuclear ... We have lost our way.. human .. back . Shall we ask what time the party starts? L. We don’t know what time the party starts..) M. Choose one word that can go with the three words.. education .

...... will b......... finally b.. dinner a six o’clock tonight.... will be having b..... have d... 5.A... a. that d.. in the future 3...... will have c...... bought d..... The police wouldn't have been able to arrest the murderer if they hadn't found any important evidence...... 1.......... 4...... 1999 218 ..... a... She wouldn't have been (not be) so angry if you had apologised (apologise)......... She wasn’t allowed to use a calculator.. eventually c. C...... It wouldn't have taken her a really long time if she had been allowed to use a calculator... 2.. I was very careful. Choose the right words. The best way to ..... shall c.. I wouldn't have missed the start of the film if I had arrived on time.... final d........ eg... we go and see a film tonight ? a. so he had to break a window. eventually c.... I would have made some mistakes if I hadn't been very careful.... 1................ stay up d.. imagining that things were different from what really happened. inventor c... I ... If no one had told (tell) me about the party.. 2.. if we had played (play) better.. inventions b.. as c..... We would have missed (miss) the train.... He would have enjoyed the party if he had known someone.. a. B.. A lion cannot run as fast .. so I didn’t make any mistakes. would buy c.. Our team would have won (win).. 1999 7. a cheetah. move up 5. keep up b......... why not d.. 5......................... won’t © Avalon Book Company Ltd.......... invent d.. If you ...... I don’t think doctors will ........ of © Avalon Book Company Ltd......... 1.. ever 4. had bought 8.. He didn’t enjoy the party because he didn’t know anyone............. 3.... with new fashions is to read fashion magazines.... 4.... I wouldn't have known (not know) about the party if my sister hadn't told (not tell) me. finally b....... One of Eddison’s most famous ....... so it took her a really long time......... The police were able to arrest the murderer because they found some important evidence... a. a.. Some scientists are optimistic that they will .. than b. invents 2.. was the electric light...... I would have stayed (stay) at home..... going to have 6. that computer last year it would have cost you twice as much... never d. have bought b. He lost his key. a.... Make sentences with the third conditional... I missed the start of the film because I didn’t arrive on time... Complete these sentences in the third conditional... a. He would have had to break a window if he hadn't lost his key. if we hadn't run ( not run).... ...... find a cure for AIDS...... 3. find a cure for cancer... get up c....

) 3.. up (phr v.. (as) A Jaguar is is not as fast as a Ferrari.. E. 1999 219 . 4. get . 4... keep .. F. 3. generous . on purpose 9... 1. message 2.. 3. university . English is not as difficult as most other European languages. A Ferrari is faster than a Jaguar.. 1... 5. a synonym of ‘by accident’. suitable shoes for walking in the mountains... out of . greedy . Nuclear power is more dangerous than people used to think. 3.. an antonym of ‘by accident’... a really excellent film/play you have seen recently. accidentally 8. tourist guide 6.. find a well-paid job 7. Most of the workers/emplyees decided to strike. Choose one word that can go with the three words.. make . 1. a perfect job for you. Britain is not as big as France. 2. a word you find difficult to pronounce in English. 5. It is quicker to send messages by e-mail than by fax. Choose either the future simple. It’s not worth going to the cinema. selfish . (as) It isn't as quick to send messages by fax as by e-mail. 1. industrial .. look for .. Most people don’t really know what they will be doing (do) in a year’s time. Write an example of . hard . the future intention (be going to) or the future continuous for these sentences. I will be starting (start) my new job this time next week. term 6.. a famous book or film you found disappointing... new technology. Write the right word in the space.. boots 2... iPods 4. long-... receive a . © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Children Of Men 5. basement/attic 3.. regular .D. area 5. War And Peace H. agricultural . (than) France is bigger than Britain. work 4. transitive . verb G. He planned his career carefully and by the time he was 45 he had become a famous doctor. He looked for work for six months before he found a job in a hotel. (than) English is easier than most other European languages.. take a . 4... send a . I think that we will have to (have to) use solar power when the oil runs out. (as) Nuclear isn't as safe as people used to think.... 2. hilly . intransitive ... 2. The film will start (start) about now.. short-.. 5. a suitable place to store old furniture... This product is excellent.. Sentence transformations.. He resigned from his job because his boss treated him so badly. While he was out of work he learnt Chinese. It is going to make (make) a lot of money for the company. person/behaviour 7. immediately 10. something you intend to do when you finish studying. 1..

6. ..... disappointing d..... the J. .. suitable c..... I won’t go with you to the cinema tonight.... because he had been (be) busy all day..... idiot b.. When my father retired.. He doesn’t feel hungry any more because he has eaten (eat) three bowls of soup... I had slept (sleep) really well the night before. I have known (know) her for a really long time......... eg. because I had always used (always/use) an automatic one before. a.. People from Scotland have got a very strong .. She was angry with me. I....... 2.. 3... disappointed b...... I am responsible .. K... a.. am looking forward 5. a... a... you often drop or break things accidentally.. responsible d.. so I felt fine the next day..... employment d... sport for old people.. Complete these sentences with the Present Perfect or Past Perfect.......... He was late so often that his boss finally decided to sack him. so I didn’t enjoy it very much... My brother planned to have a .. so I was quite frightened.. sensible 7... 8.......... I was really looking forward to that film but when I finally saw it I found it really . 1. 4...... 5.... 3.. If you are going on holiday.... it is ........ 7..... voice b.... to get insurance before you go.. 1..... to travel around the world... 6..... © Avalon Book Company Ltd.. perfect d..... satisfying 3. When I finish studying..... sensible c. stupid b. he decided to retire early and spend time with his family.. 4..... but I remember your face from a magazine.. I had trouble understanding how to use his camera. to d.... We didn’t see the concert because they had already sold (already/sell) all the tickets when we arrived at the concert hall... 5.... disappointment 2...... intend d... job b... career 4. 7. She knew my name because she had seen (see) me many times on TV. If you are . 2. a. a.... a.. They had been (be) in the café for an hour and a half when I arrived... accent d.. pronunciation 6.6. I had never flown (never/fly) before.. She’s an old friend. satisfactory b... 1....... I had seen (see) the film before... work c. clumsy d... arms c.. They couldn’t get into the concert because they had lost (lose) their tickets. of b. disappoint c.... for c..... Use the Past Perfect to show causes/influences of later actions... a... because I have seen (see) that film before. We rushed to the station. eg. Skiing is not a .... irresponsible 8. wish b..... At the age of fifty. because I had behaved (behave) stupidly the night before.... Choose the right words. going c.... he received a monthly pension from his old company.. I have never met (never/meet) you before. 1999 220 ... but the train had left (leave) when we got there. advertising.. She had invited so many people to the party that there wasn’t anywhere to sit down. He failed the exam because he hadn’t studied very hard.... In my new job... silly c.. in law but failed the exams... When I met him after work he was tired........... I ....

(result) 8. The guide led us across the mountains. 4. Your backpack isn’t as heavy as mine. so can't have been ill. Dear Justin This is just a short note for to say how much we enjoyed 1 that staying with you in Brighton. and would like to thank you for you looking 3 after us so well. One line is correct. (not) as + adjective/adverb + as eg. There were hundreds of deaths due to the disaster. If he had been paying attention. (were) 3. No! I’m not lending you my car to drive home! You have drunk (drink) more than ten beers ! L. (already) 4. I’m more pessimistic than him. Your backpack is lighter than mine. He doesn’t usually drive as quickly as me. 5. He burnt the cat with his cigarette because he wasn’t paying attention. Sentence Transformation. M. We both had a really 2 nice time. (by) 7. I hope the one of you with 5 the seagull on your lunch-box comes out but even if it 6 doesn’t. I missed the beginning of the film at the cinema last night. (deaths) 1. This restaurant is cheaper than that one. I am amazed by this hot weather because it’s normally quite cold at this time of year. We’re very exited about the party on Saturday.7. (forward) N. There is one unnecessary word in 9 of these lines. 2. I danced better than everybody. 1999 221 . We were led across the mountains by the guide. eg. I don’t cook as well as he. he would not have burnt the cat with his cigarette. 1.. I won’t never forget the expression on your face! 7 © Avalon Book Company Ltd. (would) 6. 3. 6. Use the word in brackets to rewrite these sentences. the film had already started. His careless driving nearly caused a serious accident. I saw her dancing at a nightclub. I find this hot weather really amazing because it’s normally quite cold at this time of year. The disaster killed hundreds of people. When I arrived at the cinema last night. He usually drives more slowly than me. I’m sure she wasn’t ill because I saw her dancing at a nightclub. When we get the photos back I will be 4 send to you some of them. (can’t) 2. I’m younger than her. Nobody danced as well as I. I’m not as optimistic as he. I cook worse than him. His careless driving nearly resulted in a serious accident. We’re really looking forward to on Saturday. This restaurant isn’t as expensive as that one. I’m not as old as she.

1999 222 . Thanks again and see 10 you soon . you are welcome to come and visit to us in Perth 8 any time when you want.hopefully ! Geraldine. Unit 8 © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Exercises.Anyway.. Brian and I would love to have 9 a chance to repay your all kindness.

A. Word transformations
Change the word at the end to fit the sentence.
1. You got an excellent mark in your exam ? That’s wonderful! WONDER
2. I can’t understand people who kill animals for amusement. AMUSE
3. She handed in her resignation the day after the meeting. RESIGN
4. This work is not satisfactory . It will have to be done again. SATISFY
5. There is no problem with your work. It is perfectly satisfactory. PERFECT
6. In an interview, they are trying to judge your suitableness for the job. SUITABLE
7. We found the film very disappointing. DISAPPOINT
8. After looking for her flat for two hours, we eventually went to a hotel. EVENT
B. Choose the right words.
1. In the UK there are five normal ......................... and more than forty on satellite
television.
a. channels b. programmes c. documentaries d. media
2. The word ......................... rhymes with shoe.
a. though b. through c. goes d. thorough
3. Yesterday, I ......................* early because I had to go to the station to pick up my
daughter.
a. have got up b. got up c. had got up d. was got up
4. The police are ................................ for keeping law and order.
a. responsible b. sensible c. responsibility d. purpose
5. England were ................................. by Germany in the European Cup semifinal.
a. lost b. scored c. won d. beaten
6. The heart ..................................... between 60 and 80 times in a minute.
a. hits b. beats c. rhythms d. scores
7. Ghosts and spirits are examples of the ..................................... .
a. paranormal b. strange c. unusual d. monster
8. If you are on a backpacking holiday, it is best to wear .....................................
shoes.
a. fashionable b. sensible c. silly d. responsible
C. Some of these sentences need the verb ‘to be’.
Make sure you use the right tense where necessary.
1. The police is/are aware of the problem.
2. I’m sure it will – rain tonight.
3. We were allowed to take two weeks holiday last year.
4. They are often late for school.
5. Two brothers – own the company.
6. If you put the ladder there, it will – fall down.
7. We were irritated because we had to wait a long time.
8. There was a man who came to the party – wearing a green suit.
9. We are disappointed by the students’ results in the exam.
10. People are often influenced by the media.
D. Write words that rhymes in the spaces.
1. walk talk 2. heart part
3. word third 4. house mouse
5. might fight 6. flood blood

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7. through shoe 8. hair chair
E. Complete these conditional sentences with even using the words in
brackets.
eg. I won’t forgive her ......................................... (apologise).
I won’t forgive her even if she apologises.
1. I never wear gloves, even if it is (cold).
2. I wouldn’t buy a Rolls-Royce, even if I could afford it (afford).
3. They still want to go to the park, even if it is raining (rain).
4. You’ll never pass the exam, even if you study (study).
5. I wouldn’t have gone to the party, even if he had invited me (invite).
F. Give two examples of ...
1. special food people eat at Christmas/New Year. fish, barszcz
2. occasions when you wear special clothes. fancy-dress party, job interview
3. ordinary food from your country. scrambled eggs, toast on becon
4. complicated grammatical constructions. The Third Conditional, Past Perfect
Continuous
5. simple games noughts and crosses, hangman
6. common birds pigeon, sparrow
7. films with a lot of special effects Armageddon, Next
G. Choose the right words.
1. The rules of chess are very ................................... .
a. complicated b. simple c. ordinary d. special
2. Tennis is sometimes played on a ................................... .
a. lawn b. grass c. pitch d. plant
3. The main ................................... on my farm is corn.
a. plant b. plot c. crop d. food
4. A barbecue is a meal cooked ................................... .
a. idoors b. indoor c. outdoors d. outdoor
5. The roads can be very ................................... when it’s cold.
a. slide b. slippery c. ice d. slip
6. The exam was so easy that ................................... the worst students passed.
a. some b. even c. so d. although
7. I ................................... hit anyone, even if they hit me first.
a. would b. will c. won’t d. wouldn’t
8. We went to the cinema and ................................... a good film.
a. have seen b. had seen c. saw d. were seeing
H. Put the verbs below into the correct tense.
1. He usually looks (look) forward to his birthday but he isn't looking forward
(look forward) to it this year because he will be (be) 40.
2. She has worked/has been working (work) here since last February and I think
(think) she will be (be) here for the next two or three years.
3. When I was travelling (travel) home yesterday, I met (meet) an old school friend
on the bus. I am going to see (see) him again tonight for a chat.
4. The train had already left (already/leave) when we got (get) to the station and
while we were waiting (wait) for the next one, we had (have) dinner in a nearby
restaurant.

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5. ‘How long have you been waiting (you/wait) to see the doctor ?’
‘I have been sitting (sit) here for an hour and a half.’
6. While I was sleeping (sleep), someone broke into (break) into the house and
stole (steal) my stereo. I have only been living (only live) here for three days.
I. Word Transformations.
1. Sometimes criticism is good for people. CRITIC
2. Ghosts and UFO’s are examples of the paranormal. NORMAL
3. Snakes are very slippery animals. SLIP
4. The comedian was so amusing that the audience were all laughing. AMUSE
5. A picnic is a meal you eat outdoors. DOOR
6. Margaret Thatcher wrote her autobiography soon after she lost power.
BIOGRAPHY
7. The President of the USA is the most powerful person in the world. POWER
8. He was very irresponsible with the money he won and he spent it in a year.
RESPONSIBLE
J. Use one of the time expressions below to make these sentences make
sense.
by by the time when
1. If I post this letter today, it should arrive by Monday.
2. Mozart was famous all over Europe by the age of ten.
3. Mozart was famous all over Europe by the time he was ten.
4. We were so late for dinner that when we got there they were already eating
dessert.
5. I will tell her when I see her tomorrow.
6. By the time I am forty, I will be a millionaire.
7. I will have finished this job by this time next week.
K. Future Perfect Will + have + Past Participle
Put the verbs into the Future Perfect and add a time expression where necessary.
eg. He / be / married / 25 years / next Wednesday.
They will have been married for 25 years by next Wednesday.
1. The film / finish / we / arrive.
The film will have finished by the time we arrive.
2. They / not / finish / the work / Sunday.
They won't have finished the work by Sunday.
3. She / be / here / a year / this December.
She will have been here for a year by this December.
4. He / save / over £10,000 / the end of the year.
He will have saved over £10,000 by the end of the year.
L. Some lines in this text have an extra, unnecessary word. Find the extra
words and
underline them.
Dear Sir or Madam,
1. I am writing to you about the advertisement for a job as
2. a tourist-guide, showing to visitors around the great temple.
3. Despite of being out of work at this moment, I am used to
4. be employed in a castle for twelve years. I was such as a

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5. good employee that my wages went up to 20% at the end
6. of each year. Finally, I decided to leave and look for the another job,
7. although that the money was good. After that, I found a job as
8. a waiter in a restaurant, where I worked for over the six months.
9. While I was there I had to control of all the food which was served.
10. I have just resigned from that job because of I was ill, but I saw
11. the ad for the temple job yesterday and I felt it was too perfect for me.
12. I am looking forward to hearing about from you very soon,
Yours faithfully,
Y. Knot
M. Rewrite the underlined sentences using the word ‘even’.
eg. His dog ate everything in the kitchen. It ate the plants, too.
His dog ate everything in the kitchen, even the plants.
1. Everybody danced at the party. My grandfather danced, too.
Everybody danced at the party, even my grandfather.
2. Nobody liked the dinner. My dog didn’t like it either.
Nobody liked the dinner, even my dog.
3. The thieves took everything. They took the carpets, too.
The thieves took everything, even the carpets.
4. Everybody helped to clean the car. My two-year-old son helped, too.
Everybody helped to clean the car, even my two-year-old son.
5. Nobody in the classroom knows the answer. The teacher doesn’t know, either.
Nobody in the classroom knows the answer, even the teacher.
6. When we were on holiday he used a lot of my things. He used my toothbrush too.
When we were on holiday he used a lot of my things, even my toothbrush.

Exercises, Unit 9
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A. Choose the right words.
1. Most tall buildings are made out of ....................................... .
a. brick b. iron c. steel d. concrete
2. There was a wooden .................................. around the garden.
a. wall b. gate c. fence d. bar
3. She used to live in a ................................... of flats but she has moved to a cottage
in the country.
a. group b. building c. block d. floor
4. Cats love to ................................... mice.
a. run away from b. jump c. chase d. fight
5. We have agreed on the deal but we haven’t signed the .......................................
yet.
a. agreement b. dealer c. contract d. paper
6. I had to make a ....................................... at the wedding.
a. speak b. talk c. lecture d. speech
7. After the ....................................... on the new law, the MP’s voted.
a. discussion b. talk c. agreement d. debate
8. They were very keen ................................ sign the contract.
a. on b. to c. for d. when
B. Write two examples of ...
1. things you are keen on doing. riding a bicycle, listening to classical music
2. something you are keen to do in the future. to visit Portugal, to climb Rysy
mountain
3. sports you are enthusiastic about. football, volleyball
4. things people are often addicted to. alcohol, drugs
5. things that people deal in. cars, furniture
6. problems politicians have to deal with. strikes, unemployment
7. things teenagers are often obsessed with. fashion, relationships
C. Use the correct tense after the verb ‘wish’ in these sentences.
1. I wish I had (have) more money, then I could afford that holiday.
2. I wish I hadn't bought (buy) this watch, it doesn’t work properly.
3. I wish you had told (told) yesterday, I could have helped you then.
4. I wish I had studied (study) harder for the exam, I only got 10%.
5. I wish I was (be) taller.
6. I wish you would clean up (clean up) after you use the kitchen.
7. I wish it would stop (stop) raining, then we could go for a picnic.
8. I wish I had booked (to book) that holiday earlier, all the hotels are full now.
D. Write a sentence with ‘wish’ to express a regret about the following
situations.
eg. I spent too much money on holiday last month.
I wish I hadn’t spent so much money on holiday last month.
1. He left his wallet on the train.
He wishes he hadn't left his wallet on the train.
2. We really didn’t like Sanya, it was a horrible place for a holiday.
We wish we hadn't gone to Sanya for a holiday.
3. He signed the contract without reading it.

© Avalon Book Company Ltd., 1999

227

..... Write the answer to these questions. never 8. They are very unhappy about their new school but they have already paid for a full term.... 6.... a... 4. The lecture was so boring that I . . What are the first signs of spring ? The first signs of spring are blossom on the trees and the weather getting warmer...........’ E... hardly c... He is still . What do we call the person who represents your country abroad ? We call the person who represents your country abroad an ambassador. seeing 5................ A star is the .. have planned c....... They wish they had known that they weren't allowed to park in that road....... plan 3... 1. The Olympic symbol is five coloured circles linked together.... 5..... What kind of people might use sign language? Deaf people might use sign language.. trademark c.... addicted 2..... A mother is annoyed with her son becuase he keeps throwing dirty clothes on the floor.He wished he had read the contract before signing it..... enthusiastic c......... my appetite.... symbol d.. a... aware d.. almost b........... Choose the right words..... Three examples of a companies with world-famous trademarks are Coca-Cola.. brand names d.... 1.... 8....... to heroin and lost his job... Puma and Levis....... They didn’t know that they weren’t allowed to park in that road and they got a fine.. Describe a no-smoking sign.. What is the chemical symbol for water ? The chemical symbol for water H2 O.... They wish they hadn't paid for a full term at their new school...... Coca-Cola and MacDonald’s are famous ... sign b. The lambs weren’t ..... obsessed b.. a..... a......... of the wolf as it hid in the grass licking its lips... enthusiastic c.......... I wish I . signs c... a.. Levis....... sure c. a. © Avalon Book Company Ltd.. it was awful. (What does she say to him?) ‘ I wish you would stop throwing dirty clothes on the floor ....... 3... Give three examples of companies with world-famous trademarks....... planned b...... keen d..... nearly d......... He became . A no-smoking sign is usually a cigarette in a red circle with a line through it.. addicted 4.... 2... represent 6.. with her even though their relationship finished two years ago......... known b... What is the symbol for the Christian religion ? A cross is the symbol for the Christian religion? 7................. F.. of the Jewish religion.......... remember anything..................... shops 7.. The smell of burnt food . 1999 228 ........ obsessed b....... 4... had planned d... keen d....... that speech more carefully....... 5. Describe the symbol of the Olympic Games ? ..... symbols b.. 6. a.

. . Most people are quite mature by the age of twenty. 7. symbol 4. Call me as soon as you get home.. ii. I want this fax sent to the ambassador as soon as possible. 4. 4... Choose the right words. star ..... Olympic . it should arrive by next Wednesday. If he had studied harder. We will have been writing (write) this book for over a year by the time we finish (finish) it.... he wouldn't have been addicted to it. H. of flats office . fell over c..... Choose one word that goes with the three words.. She missed her job interview... i.. she wouldn't have spoilt her appetite. a. (wake up) She wishes she had woken up earlier... By the time he was 30. 2.. took G... cut b.. If he hadn't started smoking.... 3.. ii.. fell out d. They .. 6... She spoilt her appetite. a contract . i. make a ... eg. block 5. He will have been dealing in antique furniture for 40 years by the time he retires next year.. 1.. director ... (start) He wishes he hadn't started smoking. .. chemical . he wouldn’t have failed his exams. J. If she hadn't eaten a bar of chocolate. 3. 5. 1.. sign 3.. as soon as by by the time 1. tourist . a deal no-smoking .. gave d.. 1999 229 . If you post the letter immediately... because Simon was so selfish. 5. 2... i. Simon will have been living (live) in Tooting for three years by this time next year. I had been waiting (wait) for 45 minutes when the dentist finally told (tell) me to come in. 3.. My eyes are really hurting because I have been working (work) at a computer all day. he had already been to prison twice.. mental . (study) He wishes he had studied harder.. Perfect continuous tenses...a.. . He was totally drunk by the time he left the pub.. If she had woken up ealier.. guide I. K. religious . she wouldn't have missed her job interview.. with deal 2.. industry film 6......... ii. Choose one of the right time clauses below for these sentences. write a sentence using wish to express regret and then another sentence in the third conditional.. fell down © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Put the verbs in brackets in the right tenses. . The leaders of the two countries had been discussing (discuss) the problem for ten hours when they finally decided (decide) to sign the agreement. (eat a bar of chocolate) She wishes she hadn't eaten a bar of chocolate.. spoilt c. He failed all his exams... 1. 1... book museum .. . He is addicted to smoking. 2.... in .. From the first sentence. fell off b.

take off that stupid hat ..... a.......... Complete the sentences with an expression or phrasal verb using the verb to leave....... out b......... a.. as soon as b................ 4.. in the price of the room... Some people want to be left alone when they are in a bad mood.. Simon always feels left out at parties because nobody talks to him. Angela always ........... including c...... immediately c........... Unit 10 © Avalon Book Company Ltd. included c.... as b. Umbrellas are often left behing on buses and trains.. ! a............... including 8. Exercises.. spoils d............ Don’t throw away that leftover food.... to d.. You will be left behind by the other students unless you come to school more regularly.... I’m going to give it to the rat..... a.... with each other.. in d... had been b.. the Great Wall and the Forbidden City.2...... quickly d. free d........... When I went to China I saw many beautiful places...... a.. will have been d...... stop sulking..... was 7.......... 6.............. a.... 3.... such d...... up c. 1. Peter........ Simon... sulks 4...... ...... has been c.. 1999 230 .... After the fight they made ... Everyone was suprised that David Beckman was left out of the football team....... of L...... a.... immature c. 7..... were 6. I wish you ............ sailing for three weeks when he dicovered the Island..... included b. There is some beer left from the party last night. Captain Aubrey .. 5. 2.. could b... would c..... Breakfast is ............ childish b... when her parents tell her off... already 5.. served 3........

I tidied up my room because my mother told me to. B. a house 2. 2. and the other one was quite fat. My mother made me tidy up my room. 1. Our other car is not as big as this. You are not allowed inside a mosque unless you take off your shoes. 8. 8. He stayed up to watch the film even though/although he had seen it twice before. 1999 231 . a superstition from your country. read car magazines 7. 6. 4. but it’s more comfortable. There is another one next to the table.* 5. The criminal was forced into the car by the policeman. My other teacher said that you were ill. The river has become polluted due to factory waste. 10. Don’t sit on that chair. The film was so sad that it made me cry. 6. 4. however. There will be another train in 10 minutes.. You are nicer than other people in this office. Your message made me happy. 3. Write an example of .A. something you need a mortgage to buy. walking under a ladder 3. I rang the bell many times. One of the men was tall. It was such a sad film that I cried. I was angry because the teacher shouted at me. a synonym of the word immature childish C. 1. This one is better than all the others. 7. a black cat. a reason why someone might feel self-conscious. Russia 4.. something you hardly ever do. The police made the criminal go into the car. Transformation exercises. a country even bigger than the USA. The North Pole 5. Use the right linking word in the following sentences. I’m going to eat this chocolate cake despite/in spite of the calories. 7. I ordered a pizza but I wasn’t hungry. I was really happy when I got your message. We can win this match. The teacher made me angry when he shouted at me. 5. 1. it’s broken. other/another/the other/the others 1.. Captain Aubrey shouted the order and the sailors fired the big guns. 5. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. Rewrite the sentence using a construction with make. 6. Factory waste has made the river polluted. nobody answered the door. D. 9. job interview 6. 4. meat often served cold. 2. There is a newsagent on the other side of the street. They had been waiting all day to see the President drive by despite/in spite of the freezing cold. so don’t be frightened of the other team. a place even colder than Alaska. beef 8. 2. I’m on a diet but. Bangladesh often suffers from floods whereas in countries such as the Sudan and Ethiopia there is hardly ever enough rain. There are no other words you can use. 3. 3. only this one.

” She said that they were going to discuss the subject of drug addiction. He took a long time to make up his mind but finally he decided to study German. 1. Are these Underlined verbs transitive or intransitive ? If they are transitive. 2. “I have never been to Scotland. 1. Complete the following sentences with an expression using the word ‘mind’. “What are you doing tonight?” He asked me what I was doing tonight. “Does this photocopier work ?” the young man asked ? The young man asked if the photocopier worked.E. G. The taxi driver asked me if I knew the way to Liverpool street. 1. I was brought up by my grandmother in a small town in Utah. 3. “I was talking with my friends when my mobile phone started to ring. “Is this the way to get to London ?” the tourist asked. The tourist asked if that was the way to get to London. 1999 232 . The surgeon operated on the patient’s brain. © Avalon Book Company Ltd. H. 4. rewrite the sentence in the passive voice. “Where are the keys?” asked the manager. The President was forgiven for his bad behaviour. 5. I am hot.” She told me that I would never the exam unless I worked hard. 2.. The Parliament has raised the taxes by 10%. rewrite the sentence using a transitive verb with a similar meaning. He knew he had made a bad decision but it was too late to change his mind. 2. My grandmother brought me up in a small town in Utah. The patient's brain was operated on. “You will never pass the exam unless you work hard. ‘to be used+noun/gerund’ or ‘to get used to+noun/gerund’ and put them in the right tense. The manager asked where the keys were. F. 4. Rewrite these questions in reported speech. Rewrite these sentences in reported speech. do you mind closing the window? 4. I. It’s very cold in here. Would you mind if I opened the window? 3. Taxes have risen by 10%. The public forgave the President for his bad behaviour. 2. 4. Choose ‘used to’. 1. If they are intransitive. 5. “Do you know the way to Liverpool street?” the taxi driver asked me.” He said that he had never been to Scotland.” He said that he had been taking to his friend when his mobile phone had started to ring. It took me a long time to get used to Chinese food when I lived Hong Kong. 1. 3. Do you mind if I smoke ? No.’ She said that she still hadn't made up her mind what job to do. I don't. 3. 5. ‘I still haven’t made up my mind what job to do. “We are going to discuss the subject of drug addiction.

....... a....... You usually have to pay a 10% ..... a.. Although the secretaries have been using the new computer software for over a month.. deposit d.. 4. after the accident... This chicken is still raw inside. though 7....... psychologist c............ psychological d.. K. She got used to driving (drive) on the left when she worked as a taxi driver in London.. 6.......... you should have cooked it properly.............. 3... unconscious d.. a. My mother used to be (be) a secretary before she got married.. He lost .. Dinosaurs might have died because the world’s weather completely changed........... unconscious d...... Modal verbs in the past... shook d...... 5. 1999 233 . a.... level 2.. surgeon... fear b. consciousness 4.. but I can’t remember because I was so drunk. before you rent accomodation. blew up 6.. My father has been a farmer all his life so he is used to getting up (get up) early every day..... care b... The huge bomb went off in the basement and ........ someone must have stolen it.. 6.. you should have told me earlier... mind d....... exploded b. loan b..... through c..... I was treated by a . Choose the right word 1..... know c.. self-conscious b.... self-conscious b........ .... for my fear of heights. if I lived or died.. a.... When I was a child. think Book 3 Spelling Exercises Unit 1 © Avalon Book Company Ltd. People don’t feel pain during an operation because they are ... of spiders... scream d.. a.. 5. terrorist 3.......... 1......... I had my wallet just now so I can't have left it at home. they still haven't got used to it.. interest c...... a..... Complete the following sentences by using a suitable modal verb in the past..... conscious c........... 2. I used to go (go) fishing with my father..... The word ‘brought’ rhymes with .. she told me she didn’t .... or something else might have killed them.... 3. 8.. My sister has always had a .... psychology b....... After our huge argument... J.. explosion c... the building... .. I might have spoken to Simon at the party.. a.... sport d...... I have been doing this job for only a week so I haven't got used to it yet.......... It’s too late now. coughed b. 4..... consciousness 5.2.. frightened c.. 7. She’s got a fear of heights so she must have been terrified when you took her up the Eiffel Tower. conscious c.............

behaviour generous stubborn encouragement evidence prediction identity forgive excuse punishment pigheaded big-headed Unit 2 valuable precious jewellery situation temporary permanent intelligence impractical advertisement guaranteed exaggeration serious Unit 3 population increase exist extinct protection sunbathe delicious disgusting vegetarian communication gradually suddenly Unit 4 natural resource nuclear pressure stressful personality optimistic pessimistic appearance avoidable influence persuasion Unit 5 industrial agriculture inefficient earthquake submarine routine irritating trustworthy synagogue prejudiced multi-cultural system Unit 6 certainty emphasise completely suggestion guide finally whereas control mainly ahead Unit 7 wonderful invention eventually technology receive disappointing unsuitable satisfactory excellent career pronounce pronunciation Unit 8 resign intention accidentally responsibility hilarious documentary literature rhyme rhythm criticise special complicated Unit 9 position agreement discussion enthusiastic addiction obsessed represent appetite including immediately absolutely immature Unit 10 deposit superstition conscious conscience psychiatrist psychological terrifying explosion peaceful paranormal purpose calorie © Avalon Book Company Ltd. 1999 234 .. 1999 © Avalon Book Company Ltd..

(the) other and the others 89 antonym 34 appearance 37 appetite 86 area 41 armed forces 8 arrogant 5 article 36 as soon as 88 autobiography 36 avoid. 1999 235 . to 16 afraid 34 after that 48 afterwards 59 agreement 80 agricultural 41 agriculture 41 ahead 56 alarm 26 alarm clock 26 already 54 although 39 amazed 60 amazing 60 ambassador 83 amuse.Index A absolute 85 absolutely 85 accent 66 accidentally 67 addict 82 addicted 82 addiction 82 advantage 39 advertise. to 70 amusing 70 another.. to 20 advertisement 20 advertising 20 affect. to 21 avoidable 38 aware 83 awful 42 B bad for you 31 bald 37 ban 32 ban. to 32 bar 78 © Avalon Book Company Ltd. to 70 amuse yourself.

to 79 blood 9 blow up. to 13 be worth. to 72 beat up. to 26 burnt 26 by (2) .barbecue 76 battery 87 be in control. to 94 boast 5 bold 53 brain 90 brand 84 brand name 84 break into. to 43 be worth + gerund. to 55 be keen on.different uses 57 by accident 67 C calorie 27 cancel. to 68 be used to. to 82 be keen to do. to 11 burglar 26 burn. to 72 beforehand 59 behave.different meanings 77 by . to 82 be left (over). to 55 be responsible for. 1999 236 . to 49 big-headed 5 biography 36 blind 71 block 79 block. to 88 be made out of. to 7 certain 51 certainty 51 change your mind. to 26 break-in 26 brick 78 bring up. to 45 cancelled 45 CAPITALS 53 career 65 cause 7 cause. to 34 bully 11 bully. to 78 be out of control. to 21 beat. to 91 © Avalon Book Company Ltd. to 13 be/get in trouble.. to 5 behaviour 5 believe in.

to 73 criticism 73 crop 75 cruel 32 curly 37 current 70 current affairs 70 customer 65 D daily 48 © Avalon Book Company Ltd. to 43 clumsy 67 coal 31 comedian 70 comfortable 38 common sense 68 communicate. to 33 cost of living 23 course 8 court 9 critic 73 criticise. to 54 complete 55 complete. to 28 communication 28 company 88 comparatives using as 64 compare.changeable 38 channel 70 character 36 characteristic 36 chase. to 55 completely 55 complicated 75 composition 36 concrete 78 conscience 92 conscious 90 consciousness 90 continuous tenses for temporary situations 16 contract 80 control 55 control. to 55 cope with. 1999 237 . to 79 chemical 84 chemical symbol 84 childhood 45 childish 87 city centre 41 clauses 14 clear 28 clearly 28 clever 34 climb..

to 80 dealer 80 debate 81 decrease. to 64 disappointment 64 disaster 46 discuss. to 66 employee 66 employer 66 encourage.. to 80 deal with.danger 25 deaf 71 deal 80 deal in. to 45 delayed 45 delicious 27 deposit 89 despite 39 dessert 8 diet 27 dinosaur 25 director 75 disadvantage 39 disappoint. 1999 238 . to 81 discussion 81 disgusting 27 do a deal. to 53 employ. to 25 dubbed 47 due to 47 dye. to 80 documentary 70 downstairs 76 drinkable 38 drop 24 drop someone off. to 7 encouragement 7 energetic 31 energy 31 enjoyable 38 enthusiasm 81 enthusiastic 81 escalator 76 even 73 even if 74 even though 39 eventually 62 © Avalon Book Company Ltd. to 23 delay. to 37 E earthquake 46 effect 16 efficient 45 emphasis 53 emphasise.

to 94 explosion 94 extinct 25 F fair 37 fall out. to 87 fall. to 25 explode..evidence 9 exaggerate. 1999 239 . to 56 force 7 force. to 88 fence 78 fiction 36 film industry 75 finally 58 fingerprint 9 fire 26 fist 11 float. to 11 future continuous. to 23 false 35 fantastic 42. to 30 get used to 44 get used to. to 21 exaggeration 21 excellent 65 excuse 12 exist. to 44 ghost 72 glad 34 go off. to 26 go over. to 20 follow. to 30 good for you 31 gradual 30 © Avalon Book Company Ltd. 60 fashionable 38 fat 27 fatherhood 45 fear 93 feel left out. to 7 forgive. to 45 flood 46 floor 76 fold. the 63 future perfect 78 future perfect continuous 86 G gas 31 gate 78 generous 6 genius 18 gentle 15 get over.

to 32 hunting 32 hurricane 46 I I don’t care 91 I don’t mind 91 I. 1999 240 . to 87 included 87 © Avalon Book Company Ltd..D. to 56 H hang up. 47 in danger of 25 in spite of 40 include.gradually 30 greasy 27 greed 6 greedy 6 ground 76 ground floor 76 grown-up 87 guarantee 20 guarantee. 10 identify. to 20 hanger 20 happiness 36 hardly 84 hardware 62 have trouble. to 10 identity 10 identity card 10 idiot 18 illegal 47 immature 87 immediately 87 impatient 47 impractical 20. to 20 guaranteed 20 guide 56 guide book 56 guide. to 22 hayfever 48 head of state 50 headline 47 heart 72 hilarious. to 70 hill 43 hilly 43 hole 79 homeless 42 however 19 huge 42 human 25 human being 25 hunt.

to 79 just 54 K keen 82 keep up with. to 38 intelligence 18 intelligent 18 intend. 1999 241 . to 50 judgement 50 jump. to 23 indoor 76 industrial 41 industry 41 inefficient 45. to 56 leader 56 leave alone. to 88 lecture 81 left 88 leftovers 88 level 77 © Avalon Book Company Ltd. 47 influence 38 influence. to 67 intention 67 interest 89 intransitive 24 invent.including 87 increase. to 9 kind 32 kindness 36 L ladder 43 later 48 lawn 75 laziness 36 lead. to 88 leave out. to 88 leave behind. to 63 keyboard 62 kill. to 62 invention 62 inventor 62 iron 78 irresponsible 68 irritate.. to 56 lead to. to 48 irritated 48 irritating 48 italics 53 J jewellery 13 judge 9 judge.

to 76 lightning 46 like 43 likeable 38 linking words and clauses 14 literature 36 lock 78 long-term 51 look for work. to 28 make someone do something. the 73 mental 90 message 63 migraine 48 mild 46 mind doing. to 87 make up your mind 91 mature 87 media.. to 80 make a suggestion. to 91 mind.lift 76 lift. 1999 242 . to 7 make up. to 91 mind if. to 60 lose control. to 91 modal verbs in the past 52 modest 5 monster 72 mood 6 mortgage 89 mosque 49 motherhood 45 mountainous 41 multi-cultural 51 murder. to 9 murderer 9 N natural resource 31 neighbourhood 46 non-fiction 36 nuclear power 31 © Avalon Book Company Ltd. to 59 make sense. to 65 look forward to. to 55 loveable 38 lover 36 lungs 72 lyrics 36 M main 55 main course 8 mainly 55 make (something) up. to 12 make a deal.

to 8 ordinary 74 out of work 65 outdoor 76 over 30 own 22 own. to 56 past perfect (2) cause and effect 68 past perfect continuous 85 peace 95 peaceful 95 peel 27 peel. to 27 pension 66 perfect 65 permanent 15 personality 34 persuade. to 25 pick something up. 1999 243 .. to 25 pick someone up.O obsessed 82 obsession 82 oil 31 on purpose 67 on time 45 optimist 34 optimistic 34 order 8 order. to 77 power 31 powerful 31 practical 20 practice 18 pray. to 49 © Avalon Book Company Ltd. to 75 plastic surgery 37 plot 75 population 23 position 77 position. to 38 persuasion 38 pessimist 34 pessimistic 34 pick (out). to 22 P paranormal 72 partly 56 pass. to 25 picnic 76 pigheaded 6 pitch 75 plant 75 plant.

. to 49 remote control 55 replace. to 26 protection 26 prove. to 9 provide.reported questions 92 represent. to 20 reported speech (2) . to 11 punish. to 10 prediction 10 Predictions using to be going to 10 Predictions using will 10 prefix 47 prejudiced 50 present perfect continuous 16. to 8 punishment 8 put someone under pressure. to 66 pronunciation 66 proper 29 proper nouns 30 properly 29 protect. to 66 responsibilty 68 responsible 68 result 58 result in/from. to 83 resign. 85 pressure 32 product 20 programme 70 pronounce. to 32 R racism 51 racist 51 raise. 1999 244 . to 63 referee 37 region 41 regular 48 regularly 48 reliable 49 religion 49 religious 49 rely. to 50 psychological 91 psychologist 91 psychology 91 punch. to 58 © Avalon Book Company Ltd.precious 13 predict. to 24 raw 27 receive.

to 65 score 72 scream. to 79 run over. to 87 service 45. to 23 rough 15 routine 48 rudeness 36 run away. to 94 self-conscious 90 self-employed 66 selfishness 36 send. 87 set. to 94 shake your head. to 66 retirement 66 review.. to 94 shall 59 share. to 73 reviewer 73 rhyme 71 rhyme.retire. to 11 © Avalon Book Company Ltd. to 6 shoot. to 34 S sack. to 71 rhythm 71 rise. to 45 situation 15 slap. to 94 shake. to 32 short-term 51 sight 71 sign 84 silly 18 simple 75 sink. to 66 sadness 36 sarcasm 17 sarcastic 17 satellite 28 satisfaction 65 satisfactory 65 satisfy. to 23 severe 46 sexism 51 sexist 51 shake hands. to 30 rush 34 rush. 1999 245 . to 63 sense of humour 17 sensible 68 serious 19 seriously 19 serve.

the 50 steel 78 steep 43 step 43 still 53 stone 13 store. to 48 suffix 35 suggestion 59 suitable 64 sulk. to 46 stubborn 6 stupid 18 sub-heading 47 subject 81 submarine 47 subtitled 47 suburbs 41 subway 47 such a + adj. to 62 storm 46 straight 37 stress 33 stressed 33 stressful 33 strike 46 strike. 1999 246 . to 87 sunbathe. to 27 sunbathing 27 sunburn 27 sunrise 23 © Avalon Book Company Ltd. to 86 spoilt 86 starter 8 state 50 state. to 76 slippery 76 smack. to 11 smoke 23 soap opera 70 social 41 society 41 software 62 solar power 31 sound 71 special 74 special effects 75 speech 81 spirit 72 spoil.slide 76 slide. + noun + that 42 such as 43 sudden 30 suddenly 30 suffer.. to 76 slip.

to 55 take it easy. to 62 U U. 72 umpire 37 unavoidable 47 © Avalon Book Company Ltd. to 35 take your time.F. to 35 technology 63 tell (someone) off. to 12 temper 6 temple 49 temporary 15 tense 33 term 51 terrified 93 terrifying 93 terror 94 terrorism 94 terrorist 94 the mind 90 the past perfect (1) 57 then 48 theory 18 thief 26 third conditional 60 thunder 46 tiny 42 title 36 total 85 totally 85 trademark 84 transitive 24 transitive and intransitive verbs 24 treat. 1999 247 . to 14 treatment 14 trial 9 trouble 21 trouble and problem compared 22 true 35 trust..O.sunset 23 suntan 27 superstition 90 superstitious 90 symbol 84 synagogue 49 synonym 34 system 50 T take control. to 48 trustworthy 48 type.

. to be 32 underlining 53 unfair 37 unfriendly 47 unkind 32 unless 29 unlikely 47 unsatisfactory 65 unsuitable 64 unusual 48 upstairs 76 V vain 37 valley 43 valuable 13 vanity 37 vegetarian 27 vitamin 27 voice 66 W washable 38 weather forecast 10 whereas 54 while 54 will and shall .uncommon 47 unconscious 90 under pressure. 1999 248 .making suggestions 59 wish (2) 82 wish + subject + would 83 wonderful 60 word processor 62 work 65 worthless 13 © Avalon Book Company Ltd.