Pure Project Organization

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Pure project organization is proposed when an organization has less number of projects but with longer duration. For each project manager is appointed and he is responsible to conduct all the activities associated with the project. The project manager is inturn responsible to the program manager. The project manager has fully authority for the execution of the project and he reports to the program manager in the parent organization. The lines of communication are shortened as the project manager directly communicates with the parent project organization members.

Matrix Organization:
In Matrix Organization, two complementary organization structures, i.e. the project organization and functional organization are merged together in order to create a matrix structure. Matrix organization is compromise between the project and functional organization. The idea of matrix structure originated form aerospace technology in the USA for the construction of a new airport. It is concept useful for successful execution of large projects which require diverse technical enterprise.

Definations of Matrix Organization: According to Kenneth Knight, “Matrix Organization is a balanced compromise between departmentation on the basis of functions and deparmentation on the basis of specific products or projects or project to be complemented. Features of Matrix Organization:
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Matrix Organization is a compromise between functional organization and project organization. The functional heads are given authority as regards the technical aspects of the project. The subordinate employees under matrix organization are under dual control. It is suitable to large projects. Effective communication system is essential for the smooth functioning of matrix organization. Training of managers as well as subordinates is essential for the effective working of matrix structure. Authority flows both down and across.

Advantages of Matrix Organization:
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Better Co-ordination and control: Co ordination is not a serious problem in matrix organization. Due to vertical and horizontal communication, the project manager can coordinate many inter-related aspects of particular project. Higher Motivation: People are satisfied when the project is complemented in time. This feeling of satisfaction raises their morale and motivates them to work for the new project. Excellence in inter- disciplinary specialization: In a matrix organization it is possible to expand the technical excellence into many inters disciplinary activities.

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Fullest use of available resources: A matrix organization handles number of projects simultaneously. As the approach is project oriented, details of the resources required are calculated accurately. Resources are transferable from one project to another. Helps self development and growth: Matrix organization exposes the employees to complex situation and challenges. The process of job rotation facilitates self-development. Improves efficiency: Matrix organization is a time-bound project. The project cannot be completed in time unless the employees display efficiency. Disadvantages of Matrix Organization: Dual Control: Under matrix organization, employees receive order from functional heads as well as from project manager. This leads to multiplicity of authority which lead to confusion. Difficult to Manage: Under matrix organization, internal operations are complicated. This is due to horizontal and vertical lines of authority. The rule and procedures are not followed uniformly in all departments therefore it becomes difficult to manage. Create Communication Gap: There is communication gap between project manager and functional manager. This is may lead to confusion. Complex operation: internal operation of matrix organizations is complex. Too much shifting of staff from one project to another creates more complications Impact of Stress: the appointment of project manager is temporary Therefore he tries to discredit the functional

manager and take his position, as the job of functional manager permanent

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