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Organizational Development (OD)
– A collection of planned interventions, built on humanistic-democratic values, that seeks to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well-being
– – – – – Respect for people Trust and support Power equalization Confrontation Participation
Broad Categories of ODTechniques
Behavior Focused Behavior Focused Career Planning & Career Planning & Development Development Sensitivity training Sensitivity training Process Consultation Process Consultation Team Building Team Building Inter-group development Inter-group development Managerial Grid. Managerial Grid. Structure Focused Structure Focused Survey Feedback Survey Feedback Job Enlargement Job Enlargement Flextime Flextime Management by Management by Objectives Objectives Matrix Organization Matrix Organization Job Enrichment Job Enrichment
1 Career Planning & development
People Tend to work in the organizations which would provide them with the Career Development Opportunities.
Training groups (T-groups) that seek to change behavior through unstructured group interaction Provides increased awareness of others and self Increases empathy with others, listening skills, openness, and tolerance for others
3. Process Consultation (PC)
A consultant gives a client insights into what is going on around the client, within the client, and between the client and other people; identifies processes that need improvement.
4. Team Building High interaction among team members to increase trust and openness.
Team Building Activities: Team Building Activities: • • Goal and priority setting. Goal and priority setting. • • Developing interpersonal relations. Developing interpersonal relations. • • Role analysis to each member’s role and Role analysis to each member’s role and responsibilities. responsibilities. • • Team process analysis. Team process analysis.
5. Intergroup Development OD efforts to change the attitudes, stereotypes, and perceptions that groups have of each other
Intergroup Problem Solving: Intergroup Problem Solving: • • Groups independently develop lists of perceptions. Groups independently develop lists of perceptions. • • Share and discuss lists. Share and discuss lists. • • Look for causes of misperceptions. Look for causes of misperceptions. • • Work to develop integrative solutions. Work to develop integrative solutions.
6. Managerial Grid
It was developed by industrial psychologists Black and Mouton , helps the managers to develop a right leadership style which will take care of both production & people in the organization.
1. Survey Feedback Approach
The use of questionnaires to identify discrepancies among member perceptions; discussion follows and remedies are suggested.
Job Enlargement It refers to the process of adding more tasks to an existing job. Here the employee skill are used more. E.g. : A typist may be given Computer Based Work.
3. Flexi time. Here the employees are allowed to attend their work according to their convenient time slots. 4. Management by Objectives Under this technique the supervisor & the subordinates jointly establish performance objectives for the group. The individual & the Organizational goals are integrated. This OD-Technique provides a framework for resolving interpersonal & intergroup problems in the organization.
Key Elements of MBO
5. Matrix Organization Organizational effectiveness may be improved by changing the organizational structures also. E.g. In to days complex, dynamic business environment new forms of organizations like matrix organization, linking-pin organization may be used which provide scope for team work, group interaction, interpersonal relations, free flow of information & participative decision making. 6. Job Enrichment. It refers to the process of giving more control, responsibility and discretion to the employees in their jobs.
Factors Influencing Choice of OD-Techniques. Selection of an OD Intervention is usually influenced by the following factors:
Potential of a given intervention to yield desired results. 2. Feasibility. Suitability of an intervention to suit to the client system. 3. Acceptability The Intervention needs to be accepted by its client system to yield desired results.
OD-Techniques are targeted toward individuals including skill training, job redesign, role negotiation, and career planning.
www.scribd.com www.slideshare.com Organizational Behavior- by S. S. KHANKA.