Materials AS Unit 2

Density
= density (kgm-3) = mass (kg) = volume (m3)

=
Hooke’s Law

... is that the force applied to a spring is proportional to the extension of the spring, provided it is within its elastic limit.

=−
Stress, σ (“sigma”)

= force applied (N) = stiffness constant (Nm-1) = extension (m)

... is the average force exerted per unit area. Note that it is measured in Pascals (Pa); the same units as pressure. = stress (Pa) = force applied (N) = cross sectional area (m2)

=
Strain, ε (“epsilon”)

... is the change in length (i.e. extension) per unit natural length (i.e. original length) of a sample. It is positive if a material has been stretched and negative if it has been squashed.

=
Young’s modulus, Y

= strain (dimensionless) = extension (m) = natural length (m)

... is a measure of the stiffness of a material within the limit of proportionality, and is defined as the ratio of stress to strain. Note that it is not always the same in all orientations of a material. = Young’s modulus (Pa) = stress (Pa) = strain (dimensionless)

=

=

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Materials AS Unit 2
Apply Young’s modulus to Hooke’s law to find the stiffness constant, k, in terms of Y, A and L.

elastic region

plastic region, extension uniform along length

plastic region, necking has begun

400

300

200

+ fracture
100

0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5 0.6 strain ε/%

0.7

39.0

39.1

39.2

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