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Lecture 2

Process Diagram Instrumentation

Process Diagram

Process Diagram

– Process Flow Diagram (PFD)
  

Also called System Flow Diagram (SFD) or Flowsheet Describes Primary flow path through operating unit Provides quick snapshot of operating units Also called Piping and Instrument Diagram Is a graphical representation of
• Equipment • Piping • Instrumentation

– Process and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)
 

Process Diagram Standards

International/Regional/National Standards

– International Organization for Standardization or Organisation Internationale de Normalisation widely known as (ISO) – Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. or German Institute for Standardization (DIN) – US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) – – American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society (ISA), originally known as Instrument Society of America – Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, Inc. (TEMA) – Process Industry Practices (PIP) by Construction Industry Institute (CII) at The University of Texas at Austin

 

Government Regulation


Process Diagram Standards

Industry Codes and Standards
– American National Standards Institute (ANSI) – Standards Australia (SA) or formerly Standard Association of Australia (SAA)

Proprietary Standards
– – – – Standard Process Design Criteria (Fluor) Design Engineering Practices (Shell) Snamprogetti (Italy) Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (Japan)

Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

PFD includes:
– – – Process stream names Process piping Major equipment symbols, names and identification numbers – Control valves and valves that affect operation of the system – Interconnection with other systems
– Major bypass and recirculation lines – System ratings and operational data such as minimum, normal and maximum flow, temperature and pressure, etc., often with reference to a mass balance – Composition of fluids

Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

PFD excludes:
– – – – – – – – – – Pipe class and/or line numbers Process control instrumentation Secondary or Minor flows Minor bypass lines Isolation and shutoff valves Maintenance vents and drains Relief and safety valves Flanges Code class information Seismic class information

Process Flow Diagram Standards
ISO 10628: 1997 Flow Diagrams For Process Plants – General Rules  ANSI Y32.11: Graphical Symbols For Process Flow Diagrams (withdrawn 2003)  SAA AS 1109: Graphical Symbols For Process Flow Diagrams For The Food Industry  DIN

Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

Block Flow Diagram (BFD)

a.k.a. as Schematic Flow Diagram PFD of multiple units as schematic illustration of major processes

Block Flow Diagram (BFD) Guidelines
     

Unit operations are usually denoted by a simple block or rectangle and labeled Groups of unit operations may be noted by a single block or rectangle Process flow streams flowing into and out of the blocks are represented by neatly drawn horizontal or vertical lines Direction of flow of each of the process flow streams must be clearly indicated by arrows Flow streams should be numbered sequentially in a logical order Diagram should be arranged so that the process material flows from left to right, with upstream units on the left and downstream units on the right

Block Flow Diagram (BFD)

Process and Instrumentation Diagram (P & ID)

Pictorial representation of
– – – – Key piping and instrument details Control and shutdown schemes Safety and regulatory requirements Basic start up and operational information

– To have a common language for instrument technicians, process engineers and suppliers – To properly document plant designs for installation in graphical form – To help in maintenance, failure analysis and troubleshooting

Process and Instrumentation Diagram (P & ID)

– Process Lines from Instrument Lines – Location of the instrument – Function of the instrument

Provide other relevant information

Elements of P&ID
Flow Diagram  Equipment Location  Elevation Plan  Electrical Layout  Loop Diagram  Title Block and Legends  Foundation Drawings

P&ID Types
Process and Utility  Utility Distribution  Interconnecting Lines  Auxiliary  Special Controls

Process and Instrumentation Diagram (P & ID)

P&ID includes:

– Instrumentation and designations – Mechanical equipment with names and numbers – All valves and their identifications – Process piping, sizes and identification – Miscellanea – vents, drains, special fittings, sampling lines, reducers, increasers and swaggers – Permanent start–up and flush lines – Flow directions – Interconnections references

– Control inputs and outputs, interlocks – Interfaces for class changes – Seismic category – Quality level – Annunciation inputs – Computer control system input – Vendor and contractor interfaces – Identification of components and subsystems delivered by others – Intended physical sequence of the equipment

Process and Instrumentation Diagram (P & ID)

P&ID excludes:
– – – – – – – – Instrument root valves Control relays Manual switches Equipment rating or capacity Primary instrument tubing and valves Pressure temperature and flow data Elbow, tees and similar standard fittings Extensive explanatory notes

ISA Standard for P&ID
ISA 5.1 – Instrumentation Symbols and Identification  ISA 5.2 – Binary Logic Diagrams for Process Operations  ISA 5.3 – Graphic Symbols for Distributed Control / Shared Display Instrumentation, Logic and Computer Systems  ISA 84.01 – Application of Safety Instrumented Systems for the Process Industries

ISA Standard
[ Sec 5.1 – 1984 (Rev 1994) ]

Common Connecting Lines*
Process or Instrument Line Undefined Signal Pneumatic Signal Electric Signal Hydraulic Signal Capillary Tube Electromagnetic or Sonic Signal (Guided)

ISA Standard
[ Sec 5.1 – 1984 (Rev 1994) ]

Common Connecting Lines*
Electromagnetic or Sonic Signal (Not Guided) Internal System Link (Software or Data Link) Mechanical Link *Following abbreviation used to denote type of supply
IA – Instrument Air AS – Air Supply PA – Plant Air GS – Gas Supply NS – Nitrogen Supply ES – Electric Supply HS – Hydraulic Supply SS – Steam Supply WS – Water Supply

ISA Standard
[ Sec 5.1 – 1984 (Rev 1994) ]

Graphical Elements
– Discrete instruments
[Circular Element]

Location Categories*
– Primary location
[Single Horizontal Line Across Graphical Element]

– Shared control/display
[Circle circumscribed by a square]

– Auxiliary location
[Double Horizontal Line Across Graphical Element]

– Computer function

– Field mounted
[No Horizontal Line Across Graphical Element] *Inaccessible Devices (Mounted Behind Panel Board) [Dashed Horizontal Line]

– Programmable logic controller (PLC)
[Triangle inside a square]

ISA Standard
[ Sec 5.1 – 1984 (Rev 1994) ]

General Instrument or Function Symbols
– Symbol size may vary according to the user's needs and type of document – Abbreviations of the user's choice may be used when necessary to specify location – Inaccessible (behind the panel) devices may be depicted using the same symbol but with a dashed horizontal bar

ISA Standard
[ Sec 5.1 – 1984 (Rev 1994) ]

Letter and Number Combinations
– Appear inside each graphical element – Numbers are user assigned schemes vary
Some companies use of sequential numbering  Some tie the instrument number to the process line number  Others adopt unique and sometimes unusual numbering systems

ISA Standard
[ Sec 5.1 – 1984 (Rev 1994) ]

Instrument Identification or Tag Number
– 1st letter defines the measured or initiating variables – Succeeding letters defining
   


(2) (3)

Measured Process Variable Output Function Function Modifier 2 3

Readout Passive function Output function Modifier



– Number refers to loop number where instrument Balloon (or Bubble) belongs

ISA Standard
[ Sec 5.1 – 1984 (Rev 1994) ]
(1) (2) (3)

(4,5) (6) (2)

(2) (7) (8,9,10) (11)

(13) (8,9,10) (8,9)

M easured or
(8) (2,12) (2) (14)

ISA Standard
[ Sec 5.1 – 1984 (Rev 1994) ]

(2) (15) (16) (18) (5) (20) (21) (19) (6) (6) (17)


M easu red

L tte C d e r oe A B C D E F G H I J K L M O P Q R S T U V W Y Z F t L tte irs e r Aa s n ly is B rn r u e C n u tiv o d c ity D n ity es V lta e o g F w lo Gg ae C rre t u n P wr oe T e im L vl ee M is re o tu P su re s re Q a tity un R d a tiv a io c ity Sed pe T m e tu e p ra re M ltiv ria le u a b V cs is o ity W ig t e h Ps n o itio S c n L tte eod e r A rm la Cn l o tro P a E mn rim ry le e t G s (s h tu e la s ig t b ) Hh ig In ic to d a r C n l S tio o tro ta n L h ig t O e rific P in o t R c rd eo S itc w h T nm ra s it M ltifu c n u n tio V lv ae W ll e R la e y D e riv

PRC 101

PRC means
– – – Pressure Recording Controller

101 means that instrument belongs to Loop # 101

P&ID Symbols
[ Sec 5.1 – 1984 (Rev 1994) ]
Pipe Insulated Pipe Jacketed Pipe Cooled or Flexible Pipe Heated Pipe


Manual Valve Butterfly Valve

Control Valve

Ball Valve

Globe Valve

Needle Valve

Diaphragm Valve

Pressure Reducing Valve Filter

Steam Trap

Covered Gas Vent

Curved Gas Vent


Dust Trap

P&ID Symbols
[ Sec 5.1 – 1984 (Rev 1994) ]
Pump Vacuum Pump or Compressor


Axial Fan

Radial Fan


Gas Bottle

Viewing Glass

Back Draft Damper





Cooling Tower

Pressurized Horizontal Vessel

P&ID Symbols
[ Sec 5.1 – 1984 (Rev 1994) ]

Pressurized Vertical Vessel

Tray Column

Packed or Fluid Contacting Column

Autoclave or Jacketed Mixing Vessel

Half Pipe Mixer Heat Exchanger Heat Exchanger or Reactor w/ no crossflow w/ crossflow

Fixed Straight Tube Heat Exchanger

Double Pipe Heat

U–Tube Heat

Spiral Heat Exchanger

Plate and Frame Heat Exchanger

P&ID Symbols

P&ID Symbols

P&ID Symbols

P&ID Symbols

Example of P&ID

Example of a P&ID
A Heat Exchanger Control System
Steam in
TY 343

Reactant in
FI 344 FT 342

TT 343

TC 343

Reactant out

FRC 342 FR 342

Steam out

Example of P&ID

Constructing An Instrument Flow Sheet
     

Identify the process Define the control objective/s Create a process flow diagram Identify the equipment and process lines Determine the instrument and connecting lines Use of standard symbology like ISA codes to identify instrument and functions


Hughes, Thomas A. Measurement and Control Basics, 3rd ed. Research Triangle Park, NC: The Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society, 2002. Madsen, D. A. et al. Engineering Drawing and Design. 4th ed. New York: Delmar Cengage Learning , 2006. Perry, R. H. and D. W. Green (ed.) Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook. 7th ed. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1997. PIP PIC001 Piping and Instrumentation Diagram Documentation Criteria. Austin, Texas: Process Industry Practices, Construction Industry Institute, TheUniversity of Texas at Austin, Apr 2008. Seborg, Dale E. et al. Process Dyanmics and Control. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2004. Thomas, C. Process Technology Equipment and Systems. 2nd ed. New York: Delmar Cengage Learning , 2007.






Internet Sources

BFD – Block Flow Diagram. Harrold, Dave. How To Read P&ID. Slides/HowToReadP&ID.htm, Aug 1, 2000. P&ID Piping and Instrumentation Diagram. PFD – Process Flow Diagram.