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Purpose: At the conclusion of this activity, students should be able to identify phase changes, calculate

energies involved in phase changes and be able to anticipate consequences associated with those phase

changes.

Part 1: Phase changes

There are four common states or phases of matter (solid, liquid, gas and plasma). Conversion between

phases almost always requires an input (when going to a more disordered state) or release of energy

(when going to a more ordered state). For our purposes, we will focus on the most common phase

changes, illustrated in the diagram below:

Figure 1.

Sublimation

SOLID

Melting (Fusion)

LIQUID

Freezing (Solidification)

Boiling (Vaporization)

GAS

Condensation

Deposition

1. Organize the four states of matter in order from least energetic to most energetic.

2. Identify the phase changes that will result in a release of energy. Identify those that will require

an input of energy in order to occur.

3. Of the processes identified in Figure 1, which would be considered warming and which would be

considered cooling processes?

4. Evaporation and Boiling are both processes that involve liquid changing to gas. Are the two

processes identical? If so, explain why. If not, differentiate between the two.

5. A person taking a shower will often remain in the shower stall while drying off, even though the air

temperature inside the stall and in the bathroom are the same. Why do you tend to feel more

comfortable drying off in the shower stall?

6. Explain why a 85 0F day in the bayous of Louisiana feels sticky hot, while a 85 0F day in Arizona

feels cool and comfortable in comparison.

Understanding internal energy plays a vital role in the analysis of the energies associated with substances

undergoing phase changes. For instance, consider the plot below, showing the phase changes of water

and the corresponding temperature changes as heat is added:

Figure 2:

Note that there are several locations where the addition of heat results in no net temperature change.

This hidden heat is known as latent heat, and is symbolized by a capital Lphase change. During these phase

changes, all of the heat energy being absorbed or released by water is being used to change the phase of

water, and not alter the waters temperature. Latent heat can be calculated using the following equation:

q = mL

Where q = heat, m = mass, L = latent heat

It is also worth noting that once all of the substance is in a single phase, heat released or absorbed can

be calculated using the familiar equation q=mcT. Thus the amount of energy required to change both

the phase and temperature of a sample of water can be deduced by the incorporation of both equations.

Look at the following sample problem:

Determine the amount of heat necessary to warm a 50g sample of 0 0C ice to 22 0C. The specific

heat capacity of liquid water is 4.184 J/g 0C. The latent heat of fusion of ice is 335 J/g.

Solution:

In order to calculate the correct answer, we need to understand that in this problem, two things are

occurring:

1. The ice will melt to liquid water at 0 0C.

2. The liquid water will warm from 0 0C to 22 0C.

Our solution can be calculated by taking into account the energies required for both processes. Simply:

qtotal = mLfusion + mcT

qtotal = (50)(335) + (50)(4.184)(22) = 21,352 J

Key Concept Questions, Part 2:

8. Which requires more energy, melting 1 gram of ice or boiling one gram of liquid water? Explain

how you determined your answer.

10. How can the heat required to melt a certain quantity of ice be determined? Answer in words not

with an equation.

Helpful information:

For Water

Lfusion = 335 J/g

Lvap = 2255 J/g

Specific heat capacity for ice = 2.08 J/g C

Specific heat capacity for steam = 2.05 J/g C

11. Which requires a greater amount of energy, melting 100 grams of ice at 0 0C or completely boiling

20 grams of water? Explain.

12. Why will spraying fruit trees with water before an expected frost help to protect the fruit from

freezing?

Mr. Cook drops five 7g chunks of 0 0C ice into his morning cup of coffee. After they melt, the

temperature of the coffee is determined to be 58 0C

13. Write the mass of water (m) indicated in the passage.

15. Write the correct mathematical set-up for the calculation of heat (q total )? (Substitute the

appropriate values for m, L, C and T in the equation.)

16. What is the heat quantity exchanged between the coffee and ice in this process? (Include correct

unit label)

17. A 50 g sample of ice at -12 0C is placed in a glass beaker that contains 200 g of roomtemperature water (20 0C).

a. How much heat is needed to melt the ice into 0 0C liquid water?

b. By how much would the temperature of the water change if it released this much heat to

the ice?

c.

What will be the final temperature of the mixture? (Disregard any heat absorbed by the

glass or given off by the surrounding air.)

Conclusion

In a concise paragraph, thoroughly address the following:

Differentiate between the phases of matter in terms of energy.

In terms of energy, how do warming processes differ from cooling processes?

When water freezes, is energy released or absorbed?

Which requires a greater quantity of energy, changing 1 g of 00C ice to 1 g of 100 0C liquid water

or 1 g of 100 0C liquid water to 100 0C steam? Explain

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