Home work solution MONO LAKE problem(Hydrology)

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Home work solution MONO LAKE problem(Hydrology)

© All Rights Reserved

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1.

2006 Hydrogeology

Due 3/14/2006

At a water elevation of 6391 ft, Mono Lake has a volume of 2,939,000 ac-ft, and

a surface area of 48,100 ac. Annual inputs to the lake include 8 in. of direct

precipitation, runoff from gauged streams of 150,000 ac-ft per year, and

ungauged runoff and groundwater inflow of 37,000 ac-ft per year. Evaporation is

45 in. per year.

(A) Make a water budget showing inputs, in ac-ft per year and outputs in ac-ft

per year. Does the input balance the output?

(B) Will the average lake level rise or fall from the 6391-ft elevation over the

long term?

(C) What would be the lake surface area when the inputs balance the

outputs?(Assume that the volume of gauged and ungauged runoff and

ground-water inflows remain constant with a change in lake surface area. )

(D) What is the residence time* for water in Mono Lake when the water surface

is at 6391 ft?

*The residence time of a body of water is the average time that is would take for

the volume of water to be exchanged once.

Solution:

First convert all measurements to units of acre-feet per year

Precipitation = 8 in/yr 0.083 ft/in = 0.67 ft/yr

= 0.67 ft/yr 48,100 ac = 32,067 ac-ft/yr

Evaporation = 45 in/yr 0.083 ft/in = 3.75 ft/yr

= 3.75 ft/yr 48,100 ac = 180,375 ac-ft/yr

(A)

INPUTS(ac-ft/yr)

Precipitation

32,000

Streamflow

150,000

Total

37,000

219,000

OUTFLOWS (ac-ft/yr)

Evaporation

180,000

Total

180,000

(B)

The lake level will rise over the long term, as inputs are greater than the only output,

which is evaporation.

(C)

-1-

Homework 1 Solution

2006 Hydrogeology

Due 3/14/2006

In order for the inputs and outputs to be equal, the lake will rise so that the surface

area is greater and more water evaporates as evaporation as well as the precipitation

input is a function of lake surface area.

The excess input at an area of 48,100 acre surface area is 219,000 ac-ft/yr 180,000

ac-ft/yr or 39,000 ac-ft/yr

The net evaporation is total evaporation less precipitation

Net evaporation = 45 in/yr 8 in/yr = 37 in/yr = 3.08 ft/yr

Increase in area = (39,000 ac-ft/yr) / (3.08 ft/yr) = 12,649 ac

Total area of lake = 12, 662 ac + 48,100 ac = 60,762 ac = 61,000 ac

(D)

The residence time = (2,939,000 ac-ft) / (180,000 ac-ft/yr) = 16.3 yr

2.

Figure 2.28 is the hydrograph of a river with a long summer baseflow recession.

Compute the volume of annual recharge that occurs between runoff year 1 and

runoff year 2.

Solution:

Qo in year 1 is 280 ft3/s

0.1 Qo in

-2-

Homework 1 Solution

2006 Hydrogeology

Due 3/14/2006

Vtp = Qo t1 / 2.3026

Vtp = (280 1.4256 107) / 2.3026 = 1.73 109 ft3

Total recession in year 1, t, is 6.4 months.

Vt = Vtp / 10t(t/t1)

Vt = 1.73 109 ft3 / 10(6.4/5/5)

Vt = 1.19 108 ft3 Where Vt is the volume of water that could contribute to

baseflow at the end of the first years recession.

Qo in year 2 is 320 ft3/s

0.1 Qo is reached in 5.9 mo

t2 is 5.9 mo or 1.53 107 s

Vtp2 = (320 ft3/s 1.53 107s) / 2.3026 = 2.13 109 ft3

The amount of recharge between recessions is Vtp2 -Vt

Vtp2 -Vt = 2.13 109 ft3 - 1.19 108 ft3

Vtp2 -Vt = 2.00 109 ft3

3.

is 23 cm long. At a head of 3.4 cm, the permeameter discharges 50 cm in 38s.

(A) What is the hydraulic conductivity in centimeters per second and feet peer

day?

(B) What is the intrinsic permeability if the hydraulic conductivity was measured

at 15?

(C) From the hydraulic conductivity value, name the type of soil.

Solution:

(A)

K=

VL

Ath

Where V = 50 cm 3

L = 23 cm

A = 78.5 cm 2

t = 38 s

h = 3.4 cm

-3-

Homework 1 Solution

K=

2006 Hydrogeology

Due 3/14/2006

50cm3 i23cm

= 0.11 cm s = 316.8 ft d

78.5cm 2 i38s i3.4cm

(B)

k=

K

k=

= 1.3106 cm 2

3

2

g

0.999099 g / cm 980cm / s

(C)

An aquifer has a specific yield of 0.19. During a drought period, the following

average declines in the water table were noted:

Area

Size (km)

Decline (m)

A

15

2.34

B

7.5

1.22

C

18.3

0.76

D

22.5

3.44

E

9.44

1.89

F

22.7

0.35

What was the total volume of water represented by the decline in the water table?

Solution:

4.

Vw = SAh

Where S = 0.19

AA = 15 km 2 = 1.5 10 7 m 2

AB = 7.5 km 2 = 7.5 10 6 m 2

AC = 18.3 km 2 = 1.83 10 7 m 2

AD = 22.5 km 2 = 2.25 10 7 m 2

AE = 9.44 km 2 = 9.44 10 6 m 2

AF = 22.7 km 2 = 2.27 10 7 m 2

and

h A = 2.34 m

hB = 1.22 m

hC = 0.76 m

hD = 3.44 m

hE = 1.89 m

hF = 0.35 m

-4-

Homework 1 Solution

2006 Hydrogeology

Due 3/14/2006

VWA = 6.67 10 6 m 3

VWB = 1.74 10 6 m 3

VWC = 2.64 10 6 m 3

VWD = 1.47 10 7 m 3

VWE = 3.39 10 6 m 3

VWF = 1.51 10 6 m 3

Total volume of water the decline of head in the aquifer is 3.07107 m3

5. A confined aquifer has a specific storage of 7.239103 m1 and a porosity of

0.274. The compressibility of water is 4.61010 m 2 / N . What is the

compressibility of the aquifer skeleton?

Solution:

S s = g ( + n ) = 7.239 103 m1

= 1000 kg / m 3 9.81 m / s 2 ( + 0.274 4.6 1010 m 2 / N )

= 7.380 107 m 2 / N

6.

and a hydraulic conductivity of 17.0 ft/d. Formation B has a thickness of 3.5 ft

and a conductivity of 99 ft/d. Formation C has a thickness of 26 ft and a

conductivity of 22 ft/d. Assume that each formation is isotropic and

homogeneous. Compute both the overall horizontal and vertical conductivities.

Solution:

Fm

K ( ft / d )

bm ( ft )

A

B

17.0

99

22

3.5

22

26

-5-

Homework 1 Solution

K haverage =

2006 Hydrogeology

Due 3/14/2006

khm bm

m=1

=

K vaverage =

+

+

= 25 ft d

51.5 ft

51.5 ft

51.5 ft

b

n

Kb

m=1

7.

vm

51.5 ft

= 21 ft d

22 ft

3.5 ft

26 ft

+

+

17.0 ft d 99 ft d 22 ft d

Use the Hazen method to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of the sediments

graphed in Figure 3.33.

Solution:

K = C (d10 ) 2

d10 = 0.16mm

1cm

= 0.016cm

10mm

C 100

K = 100 (0.016) 2 = 2.6102 cm / s

-6-

Homework 1 Solution

8.

2006 Hydrogeology

Due 3/14/2006

Given the following set of data representing the hydraulic conductivity of core

samples from the same formation, perform the following:

Sample #

K (m/s)

4.3104

1

2

6.1103

3

2.5105

4

1.2104

5

1.0106

6

7.1103

7

9.1106

8

2.2103

9

4.2105

10

8.7104

11

3.5105

(A) Find the arithmetic mean of the data set.

(B) Find the geometric mean of the data set.

(C) Make a histogram of the data set.

(D) Make a histogram of the log transformed data.

-7-

Homework 1 Solution

Solution:

Sample #

2006 Hydrogeology

Due 3/14/2006

K (m/s)

ln (K)

K bin

ln (K) bin

4.30E-04

1.00E-03

6.10E-03

7.75

5.10

5.00E-04

2.50E-05

1.00E-04

1.20E-04

1.00E-06

10.60

9.03

13.82

6

7

8

7.10E-03

5.00E-06

9.10E-06

2.20E-03

4.95

11.61

6.12

4.20E-05

10

8.70E-04

11

3.50E-05

10.08

7.05

10.26

1.69E-02

96.35

sum

5.00E-05

1.00E-05

9

10

1.00E-06

11

12

Geometric mean = 1.57E - 04 m s

histogram data for K

Bin

Frequency

Bin

Frequency

1.E-06

12

5.E-06

11

1.E-05

5.E-05

1.E-04

10

9

8

5.E-04

1.E-03

> 5.E - 3

7

6

5

4

1

0

1

1

-8-

Frequency

Homework 1 Solution

2006 Hydrogeology

Due 3/14/2006

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

1.00E-06 5.00E-06 1.00E-05 5.00E-05 1.00E-04 5.00E-04 1.00E-03 >0.005

Frequency

K (cm/s)

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

-12

-11

-10

-9

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

ln(K)

-9-

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