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You are on page 1of 6

(Reference: Chapter 5 in Silberberg 5th edition)

The Model: Charles Law

Charles Law: The relationship between the volume and temperature of an ideal gas. Condition: the

pressure and the number of moles of the gas are constants.

Place balloon in

refrigerator.

room temperature.

of gas in a refrigerator.

An ideal gas is a hypothetical gas consisting of identical particles with zero volume, with no intermolecular

forces. Additionally, the constituent atoms or molecules undergo perfectly elastic collisions with the walls of

the container. An ideal gas can consist of molecules (e.g. carbon dioxide molecules, CO2) or atoms (e.g. neon

atoms, Ne). Real gases do not exhibit these exact properties, although many gases behave as ideal gases at

high temperatures and low pressure. A good way of remembering the four properties that constitute an ideal

gas is the acronym 'PRIE', which stands for:

Point masses (the volume of a gas particle essentially zeroif infinitely compressed, all the

molecules of an ideal gas would occupy a single point of insignificant volume.

Random motion (constant random motion of gas particles)

Intermolecular forces (there are NO intermolecular forces)

Elastic collisions (all collisions are totally elastic)

Key Questions

1. When the pressure and the number of moles of a gas are constants, is the relationship between volume

and temperature a direct relationship or an inverse relationship?

Page 1 of 6

different ideally-behaving

gases (A, B, and C)

are monitored as a

function of their

temperatures. Use a

straightedge to determine

the temperature at which

each gas would have a

volume of 0 L. (Confirm

this temperature with

your instructor or your

textbook.)

3. Gas A, gas B, and gas C all share a common point (ordered pair of T and V coordinates) in the plot in

Question 2. What is this point, and what is the relevance of that point?

Whenever the temperature of a gas is needed, it ought to be expressed on the absolute

temperature scale. The absolute temperature is defined so that the gas has a volume of zero when the

absolute temperature is 0 K. (The unit of temperature in the absolute scale is called Kelvin, K.) You convert

between the temperature in C and K using the formula:

Key Questions

4. A mathematical way to represent Charles Law is

V V

T T

1

where the subscript 1 identifies the initial volume and temperature of the gas and the subscript 2

identifies the final volume and temperature of the gas.

a. On a mathematical basis, explain why the temperatures in the above equation must be expressed in

Kelvin and not in Celsius. (Hint: What if the temperature was 0 oC or -22 oC?.)

b. Under what conditions may the above equation be used? (Hint: You may need to refer back to The

Model: Charles Lawwhat two factors must not change?)

Page 2 of 6

Exercise

A. An ideally-behaving gas has a volume of 18.25 L at a temperature of 15.9 C. The temperature of the gas

is raised to 40.7 C while the number of moles and the pressure of the gas are kept constant. What is the

new volume of the gas (in L)? Show work using units and sig figs. Circle your answer!

Recall from ALE 20

F

A

Where

P is pressure (in kPa, kilopascal)

F is force (in N, Newton)

A is the area to which the force is applied (in m2).

Common Units of Pressure: 1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr = 101.325 kPa = 14.70 lb/in2

Boyles Law: The relationship between the pressure and the volume of an ideal gas. Conditions: the

temperature and the number of moles of the gas are constants.

100

kg

movable wall (piston) at a temperature of

25.0 C under a pressure of 1 atm

possesses a volume of 24.466 L.

ALE 21. Ideal Gases and the Gas Laws

200

kg

same temperature possesses a volume of 12.233 L.

Page 3 of 6

Key Questions

5. Does Boyles Law describe a direct relationship or an inverse relationship between the pressure and the

volume of an ideal gas? Explain.

P1 V1 = P2 V2

where the subscript 1 identifies the initial volume and pressure of the gas and the subscript 2

identifies the final volume and pressure of the gas. When would it be inappropriate to use the above

equation to relate an ideal gass pressure to its volumei.e. what two factors must not change?

Exercise

B. An ideal gas has a volume of 10.8 L at a temperature of 25.0 C and a pressure of 1.60 atm. The pressure

of the gas is reduced to 370.0 mmHg, but the temperature and number of moles of the gas are kept

constant. What is the new volume of the gas (in L)? Show work using units and sig figs. Circle your

answer!

Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP): T = 0 C = 273.15 K

P = 1 atm

At STP, 1 mole of an ideal gas has a volume of 22.41 L.

When there is a change in more than just two of the variables (P, V, T ), it is appropriate to use the combined

gas law:

P1 V1

P V

T1

T2

2 2

=

Page 4 of 6

Key Questions

7a. Draw a line from Charles Law and from Boyles Law to the correct description of each

gas law:

direct relationship between V and P

Charles Law

direct relationship between V and T

inverse relationship between V and P

Boyles Law

inverse relationship between V and T

b. Explain in a couple of sentences that the combined gas law is consistent with both Charles

Law and Boyles Law.

8. Prove that when the temperature remains constant, the combined gas law becomes Boyles Law.

9. Prove that when the pressure remains constant, the combined gas law becomes Charless Law.

Exercises

You have discovered several new mathematical relationships among gases. Now is your chance to practice

using these equations! Show work using units and sig figs. Circle your answers!

C. Determine the temperature (in C) at which 1.00 mole of an ideal gas will have a pressure of 870.0

mmHg when its volume is 14.5 L. Hint: the molar volume of a gas at S.T.P might be useful!

D. At constant temperature, the volume of a gas expands from 4.0 L to 8.0 L. If the initial pressure was 120.

kPa, what is the final pressure?

Page 5 of 6

E. At constant pressure, a gas is heated from 250. K to 500. K. After heating, the volume of the gas was

12.0 L. What was the initial volume of the gas? Notice: as the temperature doubled, what happened to

the volume?

F. The volume of a gas was originally 2.5 L; its pressure was 104 kPa and its temperature was 270. K. The

volume of the gas expanded to 5.3 L and its pressure decreased to 95 kPa. What is the temperature of the

gas?

G. At constant temperature, if you increase the volume by a factor of two (doubling the volume), the

pressure _______________ by a factor of ______________.

increases or decreases

what number

H. What is the effect of the following on the volume of 1.00 mol of an ideal gas? The pressure changes from

760. torr to 202 kPa and the temperature changes from 37.0 oC to 155 K (moles of gas remain constant)

Does the volume of the gas change? If it does, by what factor does the volume of the gas increase or

decrease? Show work using units and sig figs. Circle your answer!

Page 6 of 6

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