UTILIZATION OF ORANGE (Citrus Reticulata) PEELINGS INTO HANDMADE PAPER

By: JEAN Siangco TOLENTINO CHEYENNE CHRISTINE Maglinte VILLAMOR

B a ck g ro u n d o f th e S tu d y

Paper is a sheet of interlaced fibers, usually cellulose fibers from plants that are formed by pulping the fibers and causing them to felt to form solid surface. It is a necessity in modern civilization and the development of machinery for its high-speed production has been largely responsible for the increase in literacy and the raising of educational levels of people throughout the world (Redmond, 2007).

Reticulata) has become the most commonly grown fruit in the world. This study attempts to use orange peelings as another source of cellulose fibers for paper production. Since peelings are discarded materials, the paper will not incur big expenses and will also help lessen the garbage which is one of the major problems in the country.
Orange

(Citrus

Statement of the Problem

Main Problem : This study aims to produce paper by utilizing orange peelings. Specific Problems : 1. What are the characteristics of orange peeling paper in terms of: a) color b) texture c) odor d) breaking strength 2. What is the acceptability of orange peeling paper? 3. Is there a significant difference among the different samples in terms of: a) color b) texture c) odor d) acceptability e) breaking strength

Hypotheses

A paper can be developed from orange peelings. There is no significant difference among the different samples of orange peelings in terms of their characteristics and acceptability.

Scope and Delimitations of the Study

This study is limited to the use of orange peelings in the production of paper with different proportion of orange peelings and waste paper. It utilizes alum, starch and also caustic soda. Thirty 4th year students of the Integrated Developmental School that were randomly selected evaluated the products with the use of a Score Card and Hedonic Scale. This study was conducted from June 2009 to March 2010, at the researcher’s residence. Breaking strength was also identified by standard procedure in the laboratory of IDS. The data gathered were interpreted using Sign-test for the over-all acceptability and t-test for the breaking strength.

Methodology

Preparation of Sample & Materials

Product Development

For Sample A, 2 cups of Orange Peelings only

For Sample B, 1 cup of orange peelings and 1 cup waste paper

For Sample C, 2 cups waste paper

Product Evaluation & Testing (Sensory Evaluation: Color, Odor, Texture, Overall Acceptability & Breaking Strength)

Data Gathering & Organization (Mean/Table)

Interpretation of Results (Mean/Sign Test/t -test)
Figure 1. Summarized Diagram for the Procedures Done in the Experiment

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Sample A, which is made from orange peelings without waste paper, was not evaluated since it was a failure and the product produced was not paper; it was chalk- like and brittle.

Table 1 .

Characteristics Color Texture Odor

Characteristics of Paper from Orange Peelings

Sample B 3.33 (greenish) 2.27 (rough) 2.47 (unpleasant)

Sample C 4.77 (white) 2.40 (rough) 2.47 (unpleasant)

Table 1 shows the physical characteristics of the different samples of paper from orange peelings in terms of color, odor and texture. Sample B has a greenish color. Its texture is rough because some of the peelings were not thoroughly blended. It has an unpleasant smell because of the scent of orange peelings and also because it was boiled in the clay pot. Sample C has a white color because it was purely made from waste paper and no orange peelings are added. It has a rough texture because it was not thoroughly blended and it has an unpleasant smell because it was also boiled in the clay pot.

Table 2 . General Acceptability of the Orange Peelings Paper

Over-all Acceptability Characteristics

5.90 Sample B (Like Slightly)

6.70 Sample C (Like Moderately)

Table 2 shows the overall acceptability of the paper based on the evaluation of the respondents. In Sample B, the respondents like it slightly because of its greenish color even though it has an unpleasant smell and it was rough. In Sample C, the respondents like it moderately because of its white color. Overall, Sample C is the most accepted product.

Table 3. Breaking Samples ( N / m2 )

Strength

of

Different

Mean 3 2 1 Trials

734.37 740.87 731.12 Sample B

705.61 649.88 740.87 Sample C 726.08

Table 3 shows the breaking strength of the two samples in three trials. Weights were used in doing the experiment and then the breaking strength of the paper was calculated. It is shown that sample B has greater breaking strength from Sample C since it had the raw material (orange peelings) and Sample C only had waste paper.

Table 4 . Values Needed in Obtaining the Significant Difference ( Sign Test )

n

rcritical 9

r

Remarks

Color

30

4

4<9 (Ho is rejected) 8>3 ( Ho is not rejected) 3>2 (Ho is not rejected) 1<6 ( Ho is rejected)

Odor

16

3

8

Texture

13

2

3

Acceptability

23

6

1

α = 0.05 The significant differences of the characteristics between the two samples were also obtained using the sign-test. In Table 4, it is shown that there is a significant difference in color and acceptability since Ho is rejected. There is no significant difference in the odor and texture of the two samples.

0.05 α

Table 10 . Values Needed in Obtaining the Significant Difference ( t - test )

4 d.f

2.132 tcritical

1.01 t

1.01 < 2.132 Remarks (Ho is not rejected)

The significant difference of the breaking strength between the two samples was obtained using the t-test. It was concluded that there is no significant difference between the two samples in terms of breaking strength.

SUMMARY , CONCLUSION and RECOMMENDATIONS

A) Summary
This study aims to produce paper from orange peelings. There were three samples produced and each has its own proportion of orange peelings and waste paper. The samples made have good characteristics in terms of color, texture and odor except for Sample A. Sample A has two cups of orange peelings, Sample B has 1 cup of orange peelings and 1 cup waste paper and Sample C has no orange peelings but instead 2 cups of waste paper.

In the experiment, the researchers used constant amount of starch, caustic soda and alum while varying the proportions of orange peelings for each sample. The peelings were boiled and soaked in caustic soda so that it is soft and easy to blend. Additive solutions were added after it was washed with running water to make the slurry and now ready for the final process which is placing it on the mold and deckle. It was spread out using a sponge so that it would be even and is dried until it turns into paper. The Score Card and Hedonic Scale were used by the thirty evaluators to rate the characteristics and acceptability of the paper and breaking strength was also calculated.

B) Conclusion
The researchers conclude that orange peelings could be a source of raw material in making paper provided that it will be mixed with waste paper. The paper produced was more of a decorative paper because of its rough texture and color. The products showed different characteristics. Sample A, from 1oo% orange peelings, did not have the characteristics of a paper. The characteristics of Sample B are greenish, rough and unpleasant odor. The characteristics of Sample C are white, rough, and unpleasant odor. Both samples were made into paper but more of a decorative paper. Sample C was the most accepted sample among the products .

The breaking strength of products was also obtained by doing three trials. Sample B has an average breaking strength of 734.37 N/m2 and Sample C has an average breaking strength of 705.61 N/m2. This shows that Sample B has greater breaking strength than Sample C. This means that paper from orange peelings with waste paper is stronger than paper from waste paper alone. Using sign-test, the researchers conclude that there is a significant difference between the two samples in terms of color and acceptability. There is no significant difference between the two samples in terms of its odor and texture. Using t-test, it is concluded that there is no significant difference between the two samples in terms of breaking strength.

C) Recommendations
The researchers recommend using raw materials which are rich in fiber. If future researchers will conduct this experiment, the researchers recommend to use more orange peelings and to use bleach and also to improve the amount of additives used. Improvements in the proportion of the raw material are also recommended to have a better product.

-end-

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