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Small Schools Charleston WV.
classrooms. Energized by developmental theories of learning, a large influx in federal money, and student-centered models of instruction, open education became a major educational innovation. As a result, multigrade classrooms received new attention. Numerous studies compared the effectiveness of "open" classrooms (multigrade organization with student-centered ethos and methods) and "regular" classrooms (single-grade organization with traditional ethos and methods). We have learned a great deal from these innovative efforts. Working in an open, multigrade school requires serious, ongoing teacher training and a commitment to hard work. Most teachers have been trained to work in single-grade classrooms. Their knowledge of teaching method is based on whole-class instruction and smallgroup instruction (with groups often formed on the basis of ability or achievement level). When placed in a multigrade setting, teachers of the 60s and 70s discovered that the time requirements and skills needed to be effective were simply not part of their prior training and experience. Although the premises of "open" and "regular" (traditional) education can differ sharply, this finding still applies to multigrade classrooms in traditional schools. THE NORM OF THE GRADED SCHOOL The large-scale innovations of the 60s and 70s have virtually ended. But the multigrade classroom persists, especially in small, rural schools. Yet, here, as elsewhere, most people view graded schools as the natural way to organize education. This norm can be a handicap for anyone (whether out of necessity or by theoretical design) who wants to--or who must--work with multigrade classrooms or schools. Teachers of multigraded classrooms who face the biggest challenge may be those working in school systems in which singlegrade classrooms are the norm. For many rural educators, multigrade instruction is not an experiment or a new educational trend, but a necessity imposed, in part, by economic and geographic conditions. In an environment dominated by graded schools, the decision to combine grades can be quite difficult--especially if constituents feel
Teaching and Learning in the Multigrade Classroom: Student Performance and Instructional Routines. ERIC Digest.
The multigrade classroom is an organizational pattern widely used in schools in the United States. Typically a feature of small-scale schooling, multigrade classrooms are today getting a closer look. This Digest, written for practitioners, parents, and policymakers, brings together recent information on the topic. It considers the history of the multigrade classroom, its effects on achievement and attitude, and the requirements of teaching and learning in multigrade classrooms. HISTORY AND BACKGROUND In 1918, there were 196,037 one-room schools, representing 70.8 percent of all public schools in the United States. By 1980, less than 1,000 of these schools remained (Muse, Smith, & Barker, 1987). But the multigrade classroom persists. For example, in a study consisting of multigrade classrooms of only two grades, Rule (1983) used a sample from a suburban district outside Phoenix, Arizona. Of the 21,000 elementary students in the district, approximately 17 percent were in classrooms that combined grades. In rural, small elementary schools the incidence of students served in multigrade classrooms may well be much higher. Although rural, small schools may combine grades to save money, in the guise of the "ungraded classroom," multigrade organization has also been a feature of urban and suburban districts. In the 1960s and 1970s, "open education" and individualized instruction became influential curriculum and instructional models. Such models were commonly implemented with multigrade
shortchanged by the decision. Nonetheless, recent proposals for school restructuring reflect renewed interest in multigrade organization (Cohen, 1989) and in small-scale organization generally. Such work may eventually contest the norm of the graded school. EFFECTS ON STUDENT PERFORMANCE Many teachers, administrators, and parents continue to wonder whether or not multigrade organization has negative effects on student performance. Research evidence indicates that being a student in a multigrade classroom does not negatively affect academic performance, social relationships, or attitudes. Miller (1990) reviewed 13 experimental studies assessing academic achievement in single-grade and multigrade classrooms and found there to be no significant differences between them. The data clearly support the multigrade classroom as a viable and equally effective organizational alternative to single-grade instruction. The limited evidence suggests there may be significant differences depending on subject or grade level. Primarily, these studies reflect the complex and variable nature of school life. Moreover, there are not enough such studies to make safe generalizations about which subjects or grade levels are best for multigrade instruction. When it comes to student affect, however, the case for multigrade organization appears much stronger. Of the 21 separate measures used to assess student affect in the studies reviewed, 81 percent favored the multigrade classroom (Miller, 1990). If this is the case, why then do we not have more schools organized into multigrade classrooms? One response is that history and convention dictate the prevalence of graded classrooms. However, there is a related, but more compelling, answer to be found in the classrooms themselves and in information drawn from classroom practitioners. INSTRUCTIONAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL ROUTINES
The multigrade classroom can be more of a challenge than the single-grade classroom. Skills and behavior required of the teacher may be different, and coordinating activities can be more difficult. In fact, such a realization is one reason graded schools came into being in the first place (Callahan, 1962). At first look, the skills needed to teach well in the multigrade and the singlegrade (multilevel) classroom appear to be quite similar. The differences between the two sorts of classrooms may be more a product of socialization and expectation than of fact. Clearly, if a teacher in either sort of classroom fails to address differences among students, the effectiveness of instruction suffers. Likewise, teachers are harmed when they have not been adequately prepared to teach students with varying ages and abilities--no matter what sort of classroom they work in. But what does the research tell us regarding the skills required of the multigrade teacher? When student diversity increases, whether it be in a multigrade or single-grade classroom, greater demand is placed on teacher resources, both cognitive and emotional. Six key instructional dimensions affecting successful multigrade teaching have been identified from multigrade classroom research (Miller, 1991). Note that each of these points has some bearing on the related issues of independence and interdependence. It is important to cultivate among students the habits of responsibility for their own learning, but also their willingness to help one another learn. 1. Classroom organization: Instructional resources and the physical environment to facilitate learning. 2. Classroom management and discipline: Classroom schedules and routines that promote clear, predictable instructional patterns, especially those that enhance student responsibility for their own learning. 3. Instructional organization and curriculum: Instructional strategies and routines for a maximum of cooperative and self-directed student learning based on diagnosed student needs. Also includes the effective use of time.
4. Instructional delivery and grouping: Methods that improve the quality of instruction, including strategies for organizing group learning activities across and within grade levels. 5. Self-directed learning: Students' skills and strategies for a high level of independence and efficiency in learning individually or in combination with other students. 6. Peer tutoring: Classroom routines and students' skills in serving as "teachers" to other students within and across differing grade levels. In the multigrade classroom, more time must be spent in organizing and planning for instruction. Extra materials and strategies must be developed so that students will be meaningfully engaged. This additional coordination lets the teacher meet with small groups or individuals, while other work continues. Since the teacher cannot be everywhere or with each student simultaneously, the teacher shares instructional responsibilities with students. A context of clear rules and routines makes such shared responsibility productive. Students know what the teacher expects. They know what assignments to work on, when they are due, how to get them graded, how to get extra help, and where to turn assignments in. Students learn how to help one another and themselves. At an early age, students are expected to develop independence. The effective multigrade teacher establishes a climate to promote and develop this independence. For example, when young students enter the classroom for the first time, they receive help and guidance not only from the teacher, but from older students. In this way, they also learn that the teacher is not the only source of knowledge. Instructional grouping practices also play an important role in a good multigrade classroom. The teacher emphasizes the similarities among the different grades and teaches to them, thus conserving valuable teacher time. For example, whole-class (cross-grade) instruction is often used since the teacher can have contact with more students. However, whole-class instruction
in the effective multigrade classroom differs from what one generally finds in a single-grade class. Multigrade teachers recognize that whole-class instruction must revolve around open task activities if all students are to be engaged. For example, a teacher can introduce a writing assignment through topic development where all students "brainstorm" ideas. In this context, students from all grades can discuss different perspectives. They can learn to consider and respect the opinions of others (Miller, 1989). Cooperation is a necessary condition of life in the multigrade classroom. All ages become classmates, and this closeness extends beyond the walls of the school to include the community. REWARDS AND CHALLENGES There are many rewards for teaching in the multigrade classroom, but there are challenges, too. Instruction, classroom organization, and management are complex and demanding. A teacher cannot ignore developmental differences in students nor be ill-prepared for a day's instruction. Demands on teacher time require well-developed organizational skills. The multigrade classroom is not for the timid, inexperienced, or untrained teacher. Clearly, the implications for teacher educators, rural school board members, administrators, and parents are far-reaching.
Multi-grade Schools and Technology
Laurence Wolff and Norma Garcia
Multi-grade schools are very common in isolated, rural areas throughout the developing world and are not likely to disappear. Yet, national curriculum contents, teaching and learning materials and teacher training are for the most part geared towards the functioning of a monograde education system. Thus,
children attending multi-grade schools often spend their most of their time either relearning material or sitting idle in classrooms. Technology can serve as a powerful tool to enhance multigrade learning, yet it is surprisingly underutilized. Some cost-effective uses include one-way, two-way, low power and digital radio. The Internet can increasingly become a powerful medium as well. The Current Status of Multi-Grade Schools in the Deve loping World Multi-grade schools, defined as schools where one teacher teaches two or more grades simultaneously, are common in rural areas throughout the world. In Peru, for example, there are approximately 21,500 primary multi-grade schools, 95 percent of which are located in rural areas. Eighty-nine percent of the rural schools are multi-grade schools, and 41,000 teachers, or 69 percent of the total rural teaching force, teach in rural primary schools with multi-grade classrooms. In Sri Lanka, around 1,250 schools out of the 10,120 schools in the country have less than three teachers. Vietnam has 2,162 multigrade schools that combine 2, 3, 4, or 5 different levels in a single classroom.1 The unfortunate reality is that these schools form the most neglected part of the education system. For the most part, they are located in isolated, low-income rural areas, and generally have untrained teachers. The few trained teachers usually understand and use only “monograde” pedagogy. National curriculum contents, teaching and learning materials and activities taught at schools are frequently geared for monograde classes. The result of untrained and inappropriately trained teachers, as well as lack of appropriate teaching learning materials, is that children in multi-grade classrooms spend much of their time relearning material they already know or sit idle and boxed. While the world is becoming increasingly urbanized, multi-grade schools will remain a reality for many years to come. Adequately meeting the needs of children in multi-grade classrooms will be essential for the achievement of quality education for all. Proven Models for Multi-Grade Teaching
There are now proven models for multi-grade teaching in both the developed and the developing world. The Escuela Nueva in Colombia is a well-documented, highly successful example of an integrated approach to learning in a rural multi-grade setting. Escuela Nueva began operating in 1976 and its methodology is fully followed in over 10,000 schools and partially used in many more schools, and is also being replicated in countries as diverse as Guatemala, Dominican Republic and Egypt. Research has shown that children learn more and drop out less in Escuela Nueva schools than in traditional rural schools. The approach in all successful multi-grade programs, including Escuela Nueva, emphasizes the changed role of the teacher. Since the teacher has to impart knowledge to a diverse group of students, he/she has to develop a wide variety of teaching learning strategies. The teacher has to find ways of encouraging selflearning and of older children helping younger ones. The teacher increasingly becomes someone who guides and supports students’ learning processes rather than simply imparting knowledge. To make the
39 system work requires strong and focussed training programs and regular follow-up and feedback from supervisors and trainers. Detailed, practical, and proven guidebooks are essential. In the Escuela Nueva, particular attention is paid to the role that the teacher plays in the community. Escuela Nueva also promotes democratic processes within the classroom through active and participatory methodologies and community participation. Teachers in multi-grade schools need to get together regularly to discuss, share and evaluate results, problems, success stories, and to plan ways to solve any problems that are commonly present in multigrade classes. In developed countries, strong training and outreach programs, often very costly, have evolved to support
the relatively small number of rural and isolated schools. Interestingly, some progressive schools in the United States and Europe have combined grades one and two and sometimes three and four as a means of recognizing children’s different rates of maturity. The Potential for Technology and Multi-Grade Teaching Technology can be a powerful tool to provide access to adequate education to students attending multigrade schools because it is able to provide training to teachers in multi-grade methodologies and allow students to engage in innovative, participatory multi-grade learning activities. Surprisingly, with one or two exceptions, multi-grade programs usually do not use technologies other than workbooks and face-toface training. Below are the potential uses of technology for multi-grade teaching, some of which are surely cost effective now, others of which could have low enough costs to be feasible within the next five to ten years. One-Way Radio Radio can, and should be, utilized now to support multi-grade teaching. Building on the experience of interactive mathematics,2 “multi-grade” radio can strongly reinforce the print and face-toface training approaches used to date. Examples include the following: (a) multi-grade radio teaches one group of children while the in-school teacher guides or assists another group; (b) multi-grade radio teaches hard-toteach subjects such as a second language (e.g., French or English in Africa); (c) multi-grade radio provides a set of learning experiences which are appropriate to several or all grades, such as music and art as well as democratic processes and community awareness; and (d) multi-grade radio directed at teachers can provide guidelines and methods which bring to life the recommendations of print materials. Multigrade radio can also be directed at parents. In particular, the radio can help to explain to parents that multi-grades are not something to be ashamed of as second rate but rather are an opportunity for modern
learning to take place. As costs go down, there are more possibilities for the use of other technologies to reinforce multi-grade teaching. The two most important ones, described below are “enhanced” radio and the Internet. Two-Way Radio, Low Power, and Digital Radio In the above examples, radio programs are national or regional in scope. Technologies are now becoming available to have low power radio stations covering 10 to 40 kilometers as well as to have two-way radio. The Australian Radio School of the Air already uses two-way radio to reach scattered indigenous groups of children living in the Australian desert. In this case, the children meet in small groups at, say, the home of a parent and then communicate with their teacher located in a town many kilometers away. A parent acts as the “classroom” monitor. A “school” could consist of 15 to 20 small dispersed groups of 5 to 10 children making for a total of 120 to 200 students. This approach is not strictly “multigrade” since there
the note Interactive Mathematics for Basic Education: The Venezuelan Experience with IRI.
40 is one teacher for each grade. Nonetheless it could be appropriate in other highly scattered populations. Similar to this approach is the possible use of low power radio stations. In these cases, teaching can be more closely tailored to local conditions. Finally, digital radio can add an on-line print element to the multi-grade process.3 Internet via Phone or Satellite While the infrastructure is either not yet available, or the costs are still too high, sometime in the future Internet, especially via satellite, will be at a low enough cost to become a powerful teaching medium. Satellite-based Internet will be especially important for isolated rural schools without access to telephone lines. The beauty of the Internet for multi-grade teaching is that children could work at their own pace. Through on-line testing, the teacher would have a powerful tool for identifying strengths and weaknesses
and deciding when children can proceed to the next grade or graduate. Furthermore, the Internet approach would provide all the advantages of radio based instruction described above but with far more flexibility. In short, ? Multi-grade schools will not disappear. ? There are proven methodologies for making the multi-grade school a modern progressive and effective approach to learning. ? Existing technologies ought to be exploited now to implement these approaches. ? Emerging technologies offer even more powerful tools for effective education in multigrade schools.
requires enthusiasm, creative thinking and special skills to manage multigrade instruction and learning. Since the 1920s, multigrade education was the only way to provide education to children in far-flung areas including the islands, in the most cost effective manner. For school year 2007-2008, the Department of Education Bureau of Elementary Education reported that there are currently 25,000 multigrade classes in the country. Hence, multigrade teachers need to be regularly trained and provided with the necessary support to enhance teaching and learning in the classroom. An additional reality of multigrade teaching in the ARMM are the challenges faced by multigrade classes due to the skirmishes in the region as more and more families are forced to flee their homes for safety, which results in interruption of the education of many children. Aside from the insufficient classrooms and teaching and learning materials, language also is a major barrier for multigrade teachers. For example, most of the students in ARMM speak different dialects – T’duray, Maguindanaon and Maranao in the mainland and Tausog or Sama in the islands. In the island divisions, lack of teachers is still a major concern especially in far-flung areas. Hamsira, a principal from ARMM explains, “we lack teachers as a result of the pull-out of Christian multigrade teachers due to kidnappings. We cannot blame them if they request to be transferred to town schools. Those who were left were locals teaching there and the number is not enough. These teachers are forced to handle multigrade classes without proper training. They are left on their own to experiment and learn by trial and error. Some are successful and some are not. There is a big clamor then for a training that suits their needs. I know this because I was once a multigrade teacher myself and I experienced all the sacrifices and hardships of being one.” Jocelyn Jaih, one of the trainers from Tawi-Tawi shared her story – she has been a teacher for five years and married to a Sama. She is a multigrade teacher from Magsaggaw Elementary School in Panglimasugala District. From Bonggao, the capital of Tawi-tawi, she has to travel for an hour in a “lantsa” (small motorized boat) then take a 15-minute ride in a tricycle to get to Magsaggaw, a poor agricultural community which was considered a critical area because this used to be one of the bandits’ hiding places. At first her husband escorts her to school to ensure her safety. “When I started teaching, I
a discussion on the use of radio for education, see “Basic Education for All: The Mass Media Formula” in the May/June 2000 Issue of TechKnowLogia found at www.techknowlogia.org
Multigrade teaching: A testament of teachers’ commitment
It was with great anticipation and excitement that the last two batches of multigrade Training of Trainers (ToT) for ARMM were finally completed in March 2009 in Zamboanga and Cotabato Cities. The trainings, which were supposed to be completed in the last quarter of 2008 were postponed due to the peace and order issues at that time. A total of 224 multigrade trainers across Regions XI, XII and ARMM are now equipped with the knowledge and skills to cascade the multigrade training using the Training Resource Package (TRP). To date, almost 1,200 multigrade teachers in Regions XI and XII have been trained with a further 962 teachers from ARMM completing the same training this summer. Multigrade teaching is a challenging, multi-dimensional role for teachers. A multigrade class has two or more grade levels in one classroom, with one teacher for the entire school year or longer. This is also called a “combination class” (if there are only two grade levels) in the Philippines. It therefore
handled grades 3-6 pupils. It was really difficult because 90% of my students are Tausog and my ability to speak their dialect was next to nil! I have to use Tausog in explaining concepts to the class because if I use Filipino or English, not everyone in class will understand the lesson.” When she finds herself stumped with a word or phrase, she draws it on the board and asks her pupils to give the word. Her game of charade and her determination to learn to speak Tausog eventually paid off. The school then had one concrete, three-classroom building and an enrolment of 70 pupils when Jocelyn was first appointed and she became the lone teacher after the provisional teacher was terminated. Without any training on how to handle a multigrade class, she felt like a spinning top because she had to cater to three grade levels. “I handled all the subjects. I was worried how to teach the same topic to three grade levels. When I discussed a lesson with, say for example, grade 3, I give the higher grades seatwork and vice versa. What I noticed was that even though I was handling grades 3 to 6, their reading ability and comprehension was very poor. Aside from that, we lacked books and other teaching materials. Mahirap talaga. (It was really difficult).” When asked about why there are plenty of children who were not able to go to school, Jocelyn explained, “Parents are willing to send their children to school, according to them they don’t want their children to have less opportunities in life because they didn’t have education. Some of the parents cannot even write their own names. But because of the distance of the nearest school before Magsaggaw was built, the pupils had difficulty going to school. They had to walk for an hour to get to school. When it rains, they go to class in their soaked clothes. Some pupils were deported from Malaysia. These are the children of illegal migrants who worked and had families in that country. When they were rounded up, they were sent back to Jolo or Tawi-Tawi.” In 2004, Jocelyn was able to attend the BEAM summer teacher In-service training in Bonggao. She was particularly excited because the topics were more on teaching strategies for grade 3. The following school year, she applied these strategies in her multigrade class and discovered how effective the activities were. She also approached the Barangay Chairman for assistance to build another classroom. With the help of other development projects, Magsaggaw Elementary School had another concrete building for its now 200 pupils. A
teacher-in-charge has also been assigned with four volunteer teachers from the Local Government Unit. Jocelyn is still handling multigrade class for grades 5 and 6 and still uses the strategies from the BEAM In-service trainings that she found useful and effective when she was teaching lower grades. Just recently, Jocelyn attended the multigrade training of trainers in Zamboanga City. Although she knew of the responsibilities of being a trainer, she accepted the challenge because she knew the difficulties and realities in the field. Armed with the knowledge, experience and BEAM multigrade training resource package, Jocelyn hopes to help other multigrade teachers in TawiTawi by cascading to them what she learned in the summer training. “I will definitely encourage my colleagues to use cooperative learning with the teacher as facilitator. There are a lot of teaching-learning materials they can make to help them manage their multigrade classes. They also need to be aware of the provisions of the Multigrade Program in Philippine Education (MPPE).” Jocelyn believes that in the five years that she has been a multigrade teacher in her school, she has seen a lot of improvement. Enrolment has increased and there is a higher retention rate of students. The community is also becoming more involved with the school programs and they have a good attendance every time they call for a PTCA meeting. “I see my pupils are gaining confidence, especially when we have classroom discussions. They participate, they speak up and they are interested in our activities. That I think is a very good indication that there is really development!”
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- Direct instruction is highly teacher-directed and commonly used. It is effective for providing information or developing step-by-step skills. This strategy also works well for introducing other teaching methods or actively involving students in knowledge construction.
Didactic Questions - tend to be convergent, factual and often begin with “what,” “where,” “when,” and “how.” These may also include “why” and “what if” questions. Demonstrations - teacher shows and tells how to do something. Guides for Reading, Listening, and Viewing - providing leading questions, diagrams, or statements to assist students in focusing on the important ideas within text, lecture, media, or other presentations. A follow-up discussion may assist in summarizing the activity.
Structured Overview - organizing concepts and materials in a manner that is easily understood by students. Explicit Teaching - explicit teaching involves six teaching functions: · daily review · presenting new material · conducting guided practice · providing feedback and correctives · conducting independent practice · weekly and monthly review
Mastery Lecture - a method to deliver significant amounts of information in a relatively short period of time. The quality of a lecture may be improved by incorporating audio and visual aids and encouraging interaction between the teacher and the students. Drill and Practice - structured, repetitive review of previously learned concepts in order to increase level of mastery. Compare and Contrast - students look for similarities and differences.
INDIRECT INSTRUCTIONIndirect instruction is mainly student-centred, although direct and indirect instruction can complement each other. Indirect instruction seeks a high level of student involvement in observing, investigating, drawing inferences from data, or forming hypotheses. It takes advantage of students' interest and curiosity, often encouraging them to generate alternatives or solve problems. It is flexible in that it frees students to explore diverse possibilities and reduces the fear associated with the possibility of giving incorrect answers. Indirect instruction also fosters creativity and the development of interpersonal skills and abilities. In indirect instruction, the role of the teacher shifts from lecturer/director to that of facilitator, supporter, and resource person. The teacher arranges the learning environment, provides opportunity for student
involvement, and, when appropriate, provides feedback to students while they conduct the inquiry (Martin, 1983). The indirect instruction strategy can be used by teachers in almost every lesson. This strategy is most appropriate when: • thinking outcomes are desired • attitudes, values, or interpersonal outcomes are desired • process is as important as product • students need to investigate or discover something in order to benefit from later instruction • there is more than one appropriate answer • the focus is personalized understanding and long term retention of concepts or generalizations • ego involvement and intrinsic motivation are desirable • decisions need to be made or problems need to be solved
Reflective Discussion - discussion occurs in order for students to understand a concept in more depth. Concept Formation - students are given data about a particular concept. The data is classified or grouped and descriptive labels are given to the groupings. By linking their examples to the labels and explaining their reasoning, students are able to form their own understanding of the concept. Concept Mapping - a word or topic is used to generate other related words. These may be organized in web form. Concept Attainment - examples and non-examples are given to develop an understanding of a concept. Cloze Procedure - students need to supply key words which have been omitted from a passage.
life-long learning capability is desired
Problem Solving - students work through a situation or problem in order to arrive at a solution. Case Studies - real life scenarios are presented for analyzing, comparing and contrasting, summarizing, and making recommendations. Inquiry - as topics are explored, thinking is emphasized as students ask relevant questions and develop ways to search for answers and generate explanations. Reading for Meaning - information and insight are obtained from written material.
EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING Experiential learning is inductive, learner centred, and activity oriented. Personalized reflection about an experience and the formulation of plans to apply learnings to other contexts are critical factors in effective experiential learning. Experiential learning occurs when learners: • participate in an activity • critically look back on the activity to clarify learnings and feelings • draw useful insights from such analysis put learnings to work in new situations (Pfeiffer & Jones, 1979) Experiential learning can be viewed as a cycle consisting of five phases, all of which are necessary: • experiencing (an activity occurs) • sharing or publishing (reactions and observations are shared) • analyzing or processing (patterns and dynamics are determined)
inferring or generalizing (principles are derived)
Independent study refers to the range of instructional methods which are purposefully provided to foster the development of individual student initiative, self-reliance, and self-improvement. While independent study may be initiated by student or teacher, the focus here will be on planned independent study by students under the guidance or supervision of a classroom teacher. In addition, independent study can include learning in partnership with another individual or as part of a small group. Independent study encourages students to take responsibility for planning and pacing their own learning. Independent study can be used in conjunction with other methods, or it can be used as the single instructional strategy for an entire unit. The factors of student maturity and independence are obviously important to the teacher's planning.
applying (plans are made to use learnings in new situations) The emphasis in experiential learning is on the process of learning and not on the product. Field Trips - students are given an opportunity to learn by taking part in educational activities that take place outside of the classroom. Conducting Experiments - students are given a hypothesis to test under specific conditions. Simulations - the students are presented with an artificial problem, situation, or event which has some aspect of reality. Games - these are structured learning activities which have rules and methods of establishing who wins or how the activity ends. Focused Imaging - students visualize an object, event, or situation. Field Observations - students make observations of naturally occurring events found outside of the classroom. Role Playing - students are presented with a real problem situation and given individual parts or roles to play. Synectics - analogies are used to help students compare and contrast topics which appear to be unrelated. Model Building - students design and construct an object. Surveys - are research tools that involve asking questions to a specific group of individuals. The responses are then analyzed.
Essays - writing that students do that involves some level of research. Research may be used to support their opinions on a specific topic. Computer Assisted Instruction - programs which are available to be used on the computer to assist student learning. Reports - enable students to express their knowledge or ideas related to a given topic. These reports may be presented in written or oral form.
Learning Activity Package - a planned series of activities for the students to complete.
Correspondence Lessons - lessons that are administered through an outside agency other than the school. Typically this was in print form, but now may involve audio, video, or computer elements. Learning Contracts - these allow for instruction to be individualized and encourages student responsibility. When students are new to this method, teachers may have to provide a more structured format that includes the learning objectives, some choice of resources, as well as time constraints. As students become more familiar with this method and more independent, increased responsibility can be given to the students. omework - assignments and activities that are to be completed away from the school. Research Projects - these projects contain some elements of research and may be conducted individually, with a partner, or in small groups. Assigned Questions - questions that are given to the students to complete individually or in small groups. Learning Centres - stations are set up in the classroom which include tasks or activities that may need to be completed individually or in a group.
of observation, listening, interpersonal, and intervention skills and abilities by both teacher and students.
Debates - students are divided into two groups. Each group is assigned a side of an issue to defend. After developing arguments for their side, students present new information or introduce rebuttals for information presented by their opposition. Role Playing - a topic or theme is chosen and relevant concepts are identified. A concept is selected which involves a compelling issue and adequate roles for everyone. A key question from the concept is chosen and possible viewpoints are discussed. Situations and viewpoints are chosen and students are assigned roles to play. Panels - students are divided into small groups. Each student individually presents information to the rest of the class. The panel is run by a moderator. Brainstorming - as many ideas as possible are suggested. All ideas are recorded with no criticism or evaluation permitted. Peer Practice - students practice what they have learned with a peer. Discussion - familiar material is used for discussions. The problem or issue can be one that does not require a particular answer or one where it is important for students to discover an answer. Opinions must be supported. Discussion should conclude with consensus, a solution, clarification of insights gained, or a summary. Laboratory Groups - groups of students in a laboratory setting. Co-operative Learning Groups - small groups of students, usually two to six members, share the various roles and are interdependent in achieving the group learning goal.
Interactive instruction relies heavily on discussion and sharing among participants. Students can learn from peers and teachers to develop social skills and abilities, to organize their thoughts, and to develop rational arguments. The interactive instruction strategy allows for a range of groupings and interactive methods. It is important for the teacher to outline the topic, the amount of discussion time, the composition and size of the groups, and reporting or sharing techniques. Interactive instruction requires the refinement
Problem Solving - real life problems are presented to the students to solve. The teacher, acting as a facilitator, encourages the students to use an "If . . ., then . . ., because . . ." method of solving the problem. Circle of Knowledge - small groups of students sit in a circle to think and discuss information. The ideas from each small circle are then shared with the rest of the class. Tutorial Groups - groups set up to offer remediation. This remediation may be done by the teacher or a peer. Interviewing - students familiarize themselves with the topic of the interview and create questions to ask the interviewee. Interviews usually take place face-to-face.
When planning your day, provide as much detail as possible. The following plan provides a detailed look at a middle years English language arts lesson for a 45 minute period.
9:00 a.m. Greet the students at the door. Have the students read a variety of news articles. 9:15 a.m. Teach mini-lesson on writing a news article – see student handouts. 9:20 a.m. Give each student a news article and have him/her circle the sentences that answer the questions: who, what, where, when, why, and how. 9:30 a.m. Have the students begin to write a news article. Circulate around the classroom and offer help to those needed. The above type of day plan is much more effective than writing: 9:00 a.m. – 9:45 a.m. Talk about news articles and have the students create one of their own.
A literature review conducted by Wang, Haertel, and Walberg (1993) found that classroom management had the largest effect on student achievement (Marzano, 2003). There seem to be a few sound classroom management strategies that can be followed to help create an effectively managed classroom.
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If you are getting a new class of students, try to learn their names and a little bit about them before school starts. Establish three or four classroom rules with the students. They are more apt to follow them if they have helped develop them. Establish procedures – (example: leaving the room to use the washroom, sharpening pencils, being dismissed for recess, etc.) Be consistent when enforcing rules and procedures. Explain to the students what is expected of them.
Ensure that you have enough work and activities planned for the day. Begin teaching at the beginning of the class and stop when the class is finished. Down time at the beginning and end of class often adds to discipline problems. Vary the activities throughout the lesson. Allow some time for teacher instruction followed by activity time.
Assign each student a number at the beginning of the year to help keep track of books and assignments. Have a large envelope on the bulletin board to place extra copies of assignments. If any students are absent, missed assignments can be easily accessed. Have a specific spot for students to hand in and get back assignments. Paper trays or decorated paper box lids work well. Labeling them as “In Box” and “Out Box” often works well. Keep important information and papers in a binder that can be easily accessed. Mark and return student work promptly.
certified by the monitor. Winners in the division, regional and national levels shall be determined based on the computation of the overall percentage points in the following areas: Assessment of Supporting Documents – 60percent; Classroom Observation/Interview – 25percent and Community support – 15percent. Six national finalists will be selected from the regional level winners by the National Selection Committee at the Central Office composed of the Assistant Director of BEE, Chief and Assistant Chief of the Staff Development Division, BEE, one Senior Education Program Specialist and a Project anchorperson. The National multigrade teacher achiever shall receive a cash prize of P30,000 plus trophy and plaque of appreciation for the school. The first and second runners up will be given cash prizes of P20,000, P10,000, trophy and a plaque of recognition for the school, respectively. While the third to fifth runners up shall be awarded P3,000 cash, plaque of recognition and a certificate of recognition for the school.
National search for multigrade teacher achiever To recognize the exemplary performance of multigrade teachers in the development of children and their contribution to the improvement of the community, the Department of Education’s Bureau of Elementary Education (DepED-BEE) conducts the National Search for Multigrade Teacher Achiever this year. According to the bureau, the tilt is open to all multigrade teachers who have been teaching multigrade classes in public elementary schools for at least three years. Starting this year the biennial search will seek to motivate mentors to teach in multigrade schools enhance school-community partnership and document best teaching practices in multigrade classes, community projects and initiatives to support schools. To qualify as nominee, the multigrade teacher should be nominated by his or her school principal or district supervisor; must be a professional Filipino teacher; must have been actively involved in school-community based activities geared for the benefit of multigrade school; must have good image in the school and community; and must have very satisfactory performance for the last two consecutive years as
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