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Chapter 11: Noli Me Tangere: A Diagnosis of Filipino Society

Guerrero 1998
Indios Bravos

January 2, 1889

Costumbres Filipinas
(Philippine Customs)
Ideas on Writing Noli Me

Writing of Noli Me
Tangere (Touch Me Not)

Biblical Basis of Noli Me

Dedication of his novel

Filipinos were practically an unknown nation.
A sense of national identity for Rizal and his fellow expatriates
during Paris Exposition of 1889.
Where Rizal proposed on writing a novel about the Philippines
Did not materialize because those who were expected to
collaborate with Rizal did not write anything on the subject.
His fellow expatriates were more interested to write about
A novel written by Pedro Paterno
Subtitle of Pedro Paterno’s novel Ninay
Luna’s Spolarium
o Conveyed the plight of the vanquished and the pathetic
suffering of the human race.
o Perceived by Rizal as a reflection of the spirit of the
social, moral and political life of his time because it
clearly showed mankind under severe ordeal, mankind
unredeemed and reason and aspiration in an open
struggle with fanaticism and injustice.
o Rizal wrote a novel depicting the country to be redeemed
from bondage and repression.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe
o Portrayed the brutalities committed by American slaveowner against their Negro slaves.
o Provided Rizal the springbroad to write a novel
portraying vividly the miseries of the Filipinos under the
oppressive rule of the Spanish tyrants.
The Wandering Dew (Jew?) by Eugene Sue
o Anti-clerical novel, which made a great impression on
o Used as model to arouse the feeling against the existing
Philippine situation and at the same time, communicate
to the Filipinos the ideals he wanted them to embrace.
Started: 1884 in Europe
Complete ½ : Madrid
Complete ¼ : Paris
Remaining ¼: Germany in February 21,1887
Published in: March 21, 1887
Financial Assistance: Maximo Viola
Touch Me Not were the words uttered by Jesus Christ to Mary
Magdalene when the latter visited His tomb before the sunrise
of Easter Sunday.
Deemed it appropriate because the novel contained delicate
things nobody wanted to talk about or touch during his time.
He trod where angels feared to tread by exposing the evils of
the Church and the State, which were hazardous to touch.
Read Page 139.

liberty-minded and patriotic. He extended help to Crisostomo in many occasions despite the suffering he had brought to his family.Ferdinand Blumentritt Marcelo del Pilar Reasons Plot of the novel Juan Crisostomo Ibarra            Elias           Maria Clara      Don Rafael Ibarra       Three people he wrote to after writing Noli Me Tangere and stated his reasons for writing it. He was pictured as a bandit or an outlaw. His family suffered numerous tragedies for more than three generations. Like Ibarra. A boat pilot who was saved by Ibarra during an excursion of the lake. he desired the education of the people. Symbolizes the Filipino womanhood in their fidelity. Symbolize an affluent landlord with a social conscience. To reply to the insults heaped on the Filipinos and their country. Was shot by the Spaniards who thought he was Ibarra. . Represented the Filipino masses. Represented the affluent and liberal European-educated Filipino. He was incarcerated and detained in prison for alleged reasons till he died. Read pages 141-144 Characters Main character. Father of Juan Crisostomo Ibarra. Did everything to vindicate them from the injustices suffered from the Spaniards. Despite being shot. Was considered a heretic and a filibustero by Padre Damaso. Believed that the redemption of the country will depend on the ilustrados. Died without seeing his country free. His plan of building a school. which was based on a German model. Daughter of Capitan Tiago. Civic-minded. To picture the past and the realities in the Philippines. Represented Filipino womanhood trained in a convent and immersed in education basically religious in orientation. was opposed by Padre Damaso. To unmask the hypocrisy that have improvised and brutalized the Filipino people. Was jailed for the accidental death of a Spanish tax collector in his defense of a young boy being brutalized. She was Leonor Rivera in Noli Object of Ibarra’s love and affection. he reached the shore and helped Basilio prepare a funeral pyre for his mother. To stir the patriotism of the Filipino people. he is a mouthpiece of Rizal’s contradictory thoughts and purposes. Son of an affluent creole in San Diego. coyness and modesty.

Despised anything Filipino and imitated anything Spanish.Sisa    Capitan Tiago         Dona Victorina      Dona Patrocinio      Pilosopo Tasyo   School Master of San Diego   Padre Damaso     Mother of Basilio and Crispin. vulgar. Only competitor of Capitan Tiago in godliness. A social climber She is based from Dona Agustina Medel. Don Santiago de los Santos or Don Anastacio delos Santos He was based from Capitan Hilario Sunico of San Nicholas His wealth was derived from his involvement in illegal opium trade. He did not pray to God and used his money to solve all of his problems. The parish priest of San Diego that denied Ibarra’s father a proper Christian burial and ordered his corpse exhumed from the cemetery where he was buried. Represented Rizal’s epitome of philiosopher. He is the symbol of the cacique. Symbolizes colonial mentality among some Filipinos during that time. Mistress of the Alferez Imprudent. he did not receive disciplined instead he was transferred to another pueblo by his superior Real father of Maria Clara He was based from a typical abusive typical friar during Rizal’s . He represents the subservient Filipino to the authorities to protect his personal and business interest. Was perceived to be a sage of educated and a weird or lunatic by those who did not know him. Although the governor-general wanted him punished. cruel and quarrelsome Symbolized the mentality of the Guardia Civil. He dreamed of changing the methods of teaching to facilitate greater learning on the part of the pupils then. The father of Maria Clara. Married Don Tiburcio de Espadana to support her claim of being a Spaniard. She did everything to pretend that she really religious by showing off to the public what she could contribute to the church. Inhibited Maria Clara from seeing Ibarra after he was excommunicated for hitting Padre Damaso. Lost her mental balance after learning what had happened to Crispin and Basilio. Rizal illustrated lack of concern in facing and resolving problems confronting Filipino society and typical characteristics of Filipino mothers (fully cognizant of their sons and daughters and willing to defend them from all forms of injustice or accusations). Symbolized intellectual dissatisfaction in Filipino society during Rizal’s time. Through her.

A young Spaniard chosen by Father Damaso to marry Maria Clara The government was administered by self-seekers by enriching themselves at the expense of the people. passion for gambling. o Rizal’s over-all assessment of the Philippine political situation in 1886 and in 1872. He also highlighted the virtues and good qualities of the Filipino people. o Influence of the Spanish anti-clericalism. Friars were the enemies of reform. Corruption became so rampant. subservience of the wealthy Filipinos toward the friars and government officials and their ridiculous efforts to distance themselves from the common people. Chaplain of the nunnery of Santa Clara where Maria Clara told Padre Damaso her intentions of joining the convent. school inspector. the friar in each town can be described as a sword of Damocles hanging over the head of authority (town . corruption. Rizal also criticized his fellow countrymen for their blind. Mother of Maria Clara. He was based from Fr. Three Reasons: o The agrarian problem in Calamba between the tenants and the Dominicans. Friar who was in love with Maria Clara. progress and justice in the country. The friars were the real authority in different pueblos. tax collector. o Modesty and devotion of the Filipino woman o The open-handed hospitality of the Filipino family o The devotion of the parents to their children and children to their parents o The deep sense of gratitude of the Filipino peasants. an intelligence officer and the president of all local boards. they were the parish priest. superintendent of public works by forced labor. Banditry became a way of life. The sons of Sisa Based from the Crisostomo brothers of Hagonoy. religious fanaticism. Antonio Piernavieja of the Augustinian Order Organized a rebellion among the poor. discontented people of San Diego and those who were victimized by the Guardia Civil and told the Ibarra was the leader and financier. Honest and sincere official were quite few. According to Jaena. Friars used the church to amass wealth and to perpetuate themselves into power and they controlled the government and opposed all progress.Padre Salvi     Basilio and Crispin Dona Pia Linares Filipino Society as Pictured in Noli:            Rizal’s Diagnosis of Filipino Society     time. Bulacan.

and the administration of justice o More respect for human dignity o Greater security for the individual o Less strength in the constabulary o Less privileges for organizations prone to abuses and Paterno that was published in Madrid in 1885 La Soberania Monacal . unpatriotic.1887  Emilio Terreo  Permanent Commission on Censorship Father Salvador Font     Senator Fernando Vida  Deputy Luis M. recommending the prohibition of the importation. clergy. which include: o Radical reforms in the armed forces. It calls on the Filipino to: o Regain his self-confidence o Appreciate his self-worth o Return to the heritage of his ancestors o Assert himself as a co-equal of the Spaniards It outlines the reforms needed in Filipino society. your Noli Me Tangere will bring you equal glory ” Sent a copy of the book to the rector of UST for examination on August 18. He made no concrete action about the novel Asked by the archbishop so they can decide on the fate of the novel. He said. When the report was submitted to the archbishop of Manila and was found heretical. 1829. A Filipino exile for his alleged complicity in the 1872 Uprising. An Augustinian that submitted a report on December Antonio Luna that was published in Madrid in 1893 Congratulated Rizal for his writing and publishing of Noli Me del Pilar Discursos y Articulos Varios . “the book is superior” and “If Don Quixote has made its author immortal because he exposed to the world the suffering of Spain. Asked Rizal for a copy of his novel. Impresiones . 1887. Unjustly lambasted and criticized Rizal and his Noli in the two chambers of the Spanish Cortes in 1888 and 1889 in Madrid Fernando Vida o Described Rizal as a native. Governor Simon de Anda o Emphasized in his report that only the parish priest rules the colony. impious and scandalous in its religious aspect. reproduction and circulation of the books in the Philippines. Noli Me Tangere as a Charter of Filipino Nationalism   Number of works by Filipino writers from 1882 to 1896     Antonio Regidor    Archbishop Payo  August 30. subversive of public order and offensive to the government of Graciano Lopez Jaena that was published in Barcelona in 1889 and 1891. The governor-general during those times. de Pando  mayor) and said that the elected municipal officials served as blind instruments to the friars. with a doctor of medicine . summoned Rizal to Malacanang Palace. Ninay .

Rodriguez’s pamphlet entitled Caiigat Cayo (Beware) Defended Rizal by stressing his Catholic orientation and the point that the Spanish nationals have to accept these . who was reprimanded by his superior for accepting a hacienda for the Augustinians. Filipino priest that gave Noli the greatest defense.Prime Minister Praxedes Mateo Sagasta Vincente Barrantes   First attack from the Philippines Fr. the Superior told him to return to Spain and never come back to the Philippines. the government employees and the courts o Attack on the Civil guards o Attacks on the territorial integrity of the Spanish Kingdom Attacked Noli by issuing a series of pamphlets under the title Cuestiones de Sumo Interes Judged the novel on a doctrinal level. Wrote a pamphlet entitled Caiigat Cayo (Be Slippery as an Eel) in reponse to Fr. Tried to prevent the circulation of the novel by publishing a few copies of his report. A satirical pamphlet. Consisted of four parts: o Attacks of the religion of the state o Attacks on the administration. Salvador Font    Father Jose Rodriguez   La Vision del Fray Rodriguez   Por Telefono   Fr. Writing under the pen name Desiderio Magalang Said that the book was a work of literature and should be judged that way and not on a doctrinal level. An anonymous letter signed by a friar. Francisco Sanchez Father Vincente Garcia       Marcelo H. He narrated a long-distance telephone conversation between Salvadorcito Tont. Attacked Rizal I the newspaper La Espana Moderna in 1889 as a man of contradiction whose criticisms of the friars and the Spanish Regime were actually an insult to the Filipinos themselves. del Pilar  Ferdinand Blumentritt  degree from the University of Madrid. an intimate friend of Bismarck and have obtained a professional chair of medicine in a German University. pride and lust. when he said that it should not be read by devot Christians. where St. which compromised the Augustinian struggle against the vows of wealth. One of those who defended Noli. A satirical essay that Rizal made to reply to Father Font’s critique in Noli. A Spanish academician who spent many years in high posts of Philippine Administration. He was Rizal’s teacher in rhetoric at Ateneo. Translated into tagalong the famous Imitation of Christ. Rizal reply to the attacks of Father Jose Rodriguez. Augustine was made by Rizal to appear to Father Rodriguez while the latter was in deep slumber and scolded him for becoming a butt of all the jokes to all angels in heaven by his foolish articles.

Where they visited: o Tomb of Nicolaus Copernicus.criticisms. They arrived via Brunn in May 20. 1887      Prague  Dr. a famous polish astronomer. Rizal was amazed by the scenario and charmed by the lovely waltzes. museums. Chapter 12: The First Homecoming Maximo Viola Potsdam     May 11. They met him while viewing the floral exposition. Day they left Leitmeritz by train bound for Prague. Rizal gave him tagalong lessons. Klutschack Pencil Sketch May 17. Impressed that they were able to maintain monuments and landmarks of aesthetic and historical significance. the capital of Czechoslovakia. Where Rizal and Viola stayed during their stay in Leitmeritz. Day they left Berlin by train bound to Dresden. but the greatest man the Malayan race has ever produced. Two well-known doctors Rizal met during his time in Europe. Czechoslovakia to meet Blumentritt. Where they took a boat in the Danube River. art galleries. Welkomm  Vienna     Accompanied Rizal in his trip to Europe. City where Rizal visited Dr. Gift he gave to Blumentritt as a sign of friendship. History professor at the Univeristy of Prague. Invited Rizal and Viola to a meeting of the Tourists Club of Leitmeritz with Blumentritt as secretary. 1887. o Museum of Natural History o Bacteriological laboratories o Celebrated cave where San Juan Nepomuceno was jailed. public parks and recreation centers. 1887 Dresden     Dr. . Where Rizal finally met Blumentritt in person. whose coming into this world can be likened to a comet. A city near Berlin Where they saw the imposing mausoleum enclosing the statue of Federick the Great. Jagor   Leitmeritz      Hotel Krebs Rosa Blumentritt  Dr. Spent four days visiting beautiful buildings and examining holy images and statues. Rizal told him he planned to visit Leitmeritz. Blumentritt wrote to facilitate their visit into the different historic spots in Prague. Meyer. 1887. Where they arrived in May 13. Czepelak and Dr. whose rare brilliance appears only every other century. Where their trip to Europe began. Visited botanical gardens for viewing and specific study. Adolph B. Wife of Blumentritt Described Rizal as the greatest product of the Philippines. Rizal was not only the most outstanding man of the Filipino people.

the state of the Vatican (the seat of authority of the Roman Catholic Church) and the capital of the Ancient Roman Empire were his favorite sites. o St Peter’s Basilica = first known Christian Church dedicated during the time of Emperor Constantine. 1887. Where they saw the horrible torture machines used during the Inquisition against the enemies of the Catholic Church. Where they enter the Swiss broader from Rheinfall. Peter’s Basilica. Hotel where they stayed during their visit in Vienna. 1887. and Rome. progressive and prosperous. While in Vatican. Rizal rested twice until they reached the top. The city of Rome (the Eternal City). Hotel Metropole Linz Salzburg    Nuremberg  Ulm    Rheinfall Schaffhausen Basel Bern Lausanne Geneva           Rizal Viola Italy        Germany and Blumentritt      He was most impressed were the archaic villages on the riversides which were serene and peaceful. Known for having the largest and the tallest cathedral in Germany. Impressed by the fine example of Renaissance architecture. he attended the feast day of St. Rizal was infuriated and resented the degradation of his fellowmen from Northern Luzon. Lausanne = where they took a boat to Geneva. Where he celebrated his 26th birthday Where he and Maximo Viola separated after spending 15 days together on the day June 23. earnest. Where they saw the Bin Waterfall. Peter’s Dome by Michaelangelo and Giacomo dela Porta and St. 1887. Amazed by the Coliseum and the Roman Forum. Igorots died and their weapons became objects of mockery and laughter by the Spanish press and the Spaniards. Where their voyage of the Danube River ended. the most beautiful waterfall in the continent of Europe. Where he had the opportunity to see St. Florence. Milan. Germany was his link to Europe and Blumentritt was his link to . Where they made brief stops. industrious. This protest was communicated by Rizal to Blumentritt on June 6. The country he appreciated the most. Toured Italy Returned to Barcelona Visited Turin. Paul. Peter and St. Where he prepared for his homecoming to the Philippines. The birthplace of Mozart and re-entered Germany upon arrival at Munich on May 27. Where he received news from his friends in Madrid of the deplorable conditions of the primitive Igorots who exhibited in the Exposition on the Philippines. Spent afternoon boating in Leman Lake where Rizal demonstrated his skillfulness in rowing and steering a boat. the most beautiful and frequented city of Switzerland. Qualities he appreciated: Sober.

Arrived in Calamba. France Same vessel that ferried him to the continent five years ago. 1887 Djemnah               Haiphong  Isabelo de los Reyes Jesuits   Father Faura   August 8. Ordered him to go to Malacanang. where he found his family in the best of health. Rizal visited and called him twice. They stopped at Aden and continued till the vessel reached Saigon. He was a German spy An agent of Bismarck A mason A soul halfway to damnation. Where Rizal bid Europe goodbye. To operate his mother’s eyes Serve the people oppressed by the Spaniards. Three factors that gave rise to Rizal and Blumentritt’s friendship: o Common Interests o Shared love for the Philippines and the Filipinos o Affinity of temperaments and affections. Vessel he rode in Saigon. Rizal left Rome by train headed for Marseilles. which reached Manila on August 5. Headed to the Orient via the Suez Canal. Showed him the Image of the Sacred Heart of Jesus he craved during his student days.    Leitmeritz Reason for his desire to return to the Philippines Paciano and his fellow expatriates Reasons why he was motivated to go home July 3. 1887  Rumors upon his return       Calamba Doctor Uliman   Governor General Terrero   Germany. Informed him that his novel had caused much pandemonium . but was unable to find him. He became Rizal’s dearest confidente and most trusted counselor. He came to be called by the old folks of Calamba as he was mistaken for a German. Did not favor his decision because of the publication of Noli Me Tangere. fencing and shooting to discourage sabong and panggingue. 1887 where he stayed for three days. but Rizal responded by saying that he wrote was the truth. Tried to win back to the fold of his old faith during his visit in Ateneo. Blumentritt had written 250 essays and articles on Philippine ethnography. To find out for himself the effects of his novel to the Filipinos and Spaniards To find out the cause of Leonor Rivera’s silence. Rizal was 25 and Blumentritt was 33. Opened a medical clinic and started his profession. His belief that the Spanish Regime will not punish the innocent. He never fail to communicating to Blumentritt. Told him what was wrong with the Noli. Financial difficulties at Calamba Dissatisfaction with his studies in Madrid Desire to prove that there was no fear going home. Where he gave lessons in gymnastics.

Don Jose Taviel de Andrade Calamba Agrarian Problem Rizal’s findings about the Agrarian problem           Two Reasons for leaving Calamba   Lt. Rizal witnessed the effect of the Noli and had caused me so much despair because his family was suffering because of what he did. His exposure angered the friars and wanted him to be eliminated. Were exiled after Rizal had left the country for the second time. The Church refused to give him a Christian burial because he was married to Rizal’s sister. His presence was endangering the safety and happiness of his family and friends He could be able to fight better his detractors and serve his country cause in a foreign land. Started when Terrero ordered an investigation of the friar estates in order to remendy the agrarian problems relating to land taxes and tenant relations. which was evicting all the tenants from the Dominican haciendas. Organized a public demonstration in Manila after the mass eviction by the Domincans. Rizal’s sister. Bodyguard assigned by Terrero to protect Rizal. The hacienda owner never contributed a single centavo for the celebration of the town fiesta. tools and farm implements of the tenants. but the whole town of Calamba. The tenants of the Dominican Hacienda presented a petition to Queen Regent asking for the expulsion of the friars from the Philippines. High rates of interest were arbitrarily charged the tenants for delayed payment of rentals When rentals are not paid. the management takes the work animals. for the education of the children and for the improvement of argriculture. The profits of the Dominican Order continually increased because of the arbitrary increase of the rentals paid by the tenants. Husband of Lucia. Tenants who spent much labor in clearing the lands were dispossessed of the said lands for flimsy reasons. A poem to commemorate the conversion of Lipa from a pueblo to a . Everyone who participated was arrested. A poem he wrote request by a friend from Lipa. Did not find anything wrong with it. Replaced Terrero Approved the counter attack by the Dominicans. Died of Cholera Essay he wrote that attacked the denial of Christian burial to his brother in law who died of cholera. General Valeriano Weyler   Doroteo Cortes  March Demonstration  Mariano Herbosa    A Profanation (Una Profanacion) Don Francisco Paciano Saturnina Narcisa Lucia Hymn al Trabajo Or       among the government and the clergy and that he wanted to have a copy of the novel to know if the novel was really subversive and inciting the people to rise up in arms against the government. The hacienda of the Dominican Order comprised not only the lands around Calamba.

o Picturesque dress and simple charm of the Japanese women o Existence of few thieves in Japan. Dominican Order. One of the exiles Terrero’s secretary. He was 27 years old. health and life. and dedicated himself to the study of Japanese art and culture. 1888 Jose Maria Basa Balbino Mauricio And other exiles Barranda Observation About Hong Kong               SS Oceania February 28. Steamer he rode when he left Manila for Hong Kong. Learned from the gardener of the Spanish Legation. the she lives . family and the home. 1888 Japan      Kuruma   O-Sei-San    Day he left the Philippines for the second time. Rizal’s way of commending man’s labor and industry and extolling the country’s wealth and vigor. politeness and industry of the people. Day he arrived in the British colony. Seiko Usui Rizal was charmed by her beauty. Lauriat party shows lavishness and hospitality among the Chinese. the richest religious order in Hong Kong. Left the Philippines. Considered labor as the country’s blood. Graveyards for Catholics. had millions of dollars deposited in various banks earning very high interests. Chinese theaters are usually animated due to the different percussion instruments used by the participants. Learned Nippongo. He was disgusted seeing Japanese men pulling the kuruma or rickshaw like horses. the motherland. a medical practitioner and a recognized man of letters. Chapter 13: From Calamba to Europe for the Second Time February 3. Rizal was depressedby the colony of Filipinos in the island because they do not want to return to the Manila. 1888. Day he arrived in Japan Entered through Yokohama and stayed at Tokyo Hotel for a few days.Hymn to Labor   February 1888    villa. Day he wrote to Blumentritt about what had happened to him Exiles he met in Hong Kong. Labor plays a vital role in keeping up the dignity of man for it is work that sustains the man. Popular mode of transportation in Japan during that time. 1888 Zafiro February 8. Vessel he rode leaving Hong Kong in February 22. Favorable Impressions of Japan: o Scenic beauty of the country o Cleanliness. Protestants and Muslims were well maintained. Chinese New Year was noisy because of the firecrackers. Accompanied Rizal in his visit to Macao. 1888 February 16. o Beggars rarely seen in the streets of the city.

Antonio Ma. Cha-no-yu (tea ceremony) o A social tradition of the Japanese people signifying harmony. where he was able to spend time reading Morga’s Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas. 1888 San Francisco Palace Hotel Good Impressions Negative Impressions he wrote to Mariano Ponce City of Rome May 24. charm. Japanese and Negroes. Hidalgo to Bohol. He lived as a boarder of the Beckett Family at No. Persecution of Calamba Tenants Exile of Manuel T. Who recommended that Rizal be allowed to undertake research at the British Museum. To her. Where he stayed as a guest at his residence upon his arrival in London on May 25. They spent joyful and unforgettable days visiting temples. Existence of racial prejudice as shown in their hatred of the Chineses. Left New York for Liverpool on May 16. Where he stayed for the night before moving to London. tranquility and reverence Because of her Rizal was tempted to stay in Japan for good. Reinhold Rost   Good and Bad News from Home    with her parents and usually passes the legation every afternoon. Arrived in the United States English steamer he rode to the United States. 1888 on board this vessel. purity. The librarian of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Loved Rizal sincerely and Rizal responded by his sincere affection. The natural beauty of the land The high standard of living The opportunities for better life offered to poor immigrants. Persecution of the Filipino patriots who signed the Anti-friar Petition of 1888 addressed to the Queen Regent requesting the expulsion of the friars including Archbishop Pedro Payo.     April 28. a man of gallantry and a man of courtesy. Rizal’s entry point in the US. 37 Chalcot Crescent Primrose Hill. the husband of his sister . 1888. The valuing of money over human life. To improve his knowledge of the English language. Regidor                        Dr. intelligence and modesty. 1888 Belgic May 4. 1888 Adelphi Hotel Three Reasons for staying in London Dr. Rizal saw in her the ideals of womanhood: beauty. Non-existence of true civil liberty as a Negro cannot marry an American and vice versa. A practicing lawyer in London and an exile of 1872. shrines and castles and even watched Kabuki plays. Arrived in Liverpool. Rizal was a man of versatile talents. He and the other passengers were not allowed to disembark because they were quarantined because the ship carried 600 Chinese and the elections were being held. Where he stayed in San Francisco. To study and annotate Morga’s Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas To carry on his flight against Spanish tyranny safely. The material progress of the country The drive and energy of the American people.

Also known as Tottie and Sissie. Vicente Garcia’s defense of the Noli against the attacks of the friars. To awaken the consciousness of the Filipinos of their glorious or dignified ways of the past. Arrest and Incarceration of Laureano Vida. but she was not beautiful. Two things that attracted her to Rizal: Propinquity and happy family. That the people of the Philippines had a culture of their own before . o Chapter 8: Focused on customs and usages of the Filipinos His notes were of three categories: o Anti-clerical o Sociological o Historical He hoped with this he could equal Blumentritt. 8 Chapters o Chapter 1-7: events during the time of the first 11 governorgenerals in the Philippines from Legazpi to Acuna. Went to the Bibliotheque National in Paris. Wrote the preface of the annotation Emphasized: o Spaniards have to correct their erroneous conception of the Filipinos as the children of limited intelligence o That Rizal’s comments on the Spanish government were unique as they were given from the point of view of the victims of colonialism. Rev.  Filipinos were not ready for parliamentary representation and other reforms  The denial of equal rights can be compensated by the strict dispensation of justice. Smaller than Rizal and chubby like Segundina Katigbak or Orang. Read historical material written by Pigafetta. To correct what has been distorted and falsified about the Philippines prior to Spanish conquest To prove that the Filipinos were civilized even before the coming of the Spaniards. a medical student of UST for finding copies of Noli in his residence. the Philippines will be lost through their own fault. o The Spanish had three delusions about the Philippines. Published in Mexico in 1605 to provide European readers information about the Philippines. First history book of the Philippines written for the Filipino. Chirino and other Spanish chroniclers and historians.  Filipinos were an inferior race. o Spanish had to learn Philippine realities from Rizal’s new edition of Morga’s Sucesos o That if the Spanish authorities will not listen to the Filipinos.  Gertrude Beckett    Morga’s Sucesos of Historical Events of the Philippine Islands Three Purposes for Rizal’s Annotation of the Sucesos     Researches  Blumentritt    Rizal’s Annotation   Three Main    Saturnina on the order of Weyler without due process.

Returned to London on December 24. Created by the Filipino expatriates in Barcelona to establish a patriotic society that shall work for reforms from the Spanish government. Library in Paris where he searched for historical materials and returned to London after intensive research. del Pilar and Mariano Ponce       Blumentritt Dr. Where Rizal could express his innermost thoughts and feelings fearlessly. La Vision del Fray Rodriguez . Maria o Treasurer: Mariano Ponce o Accountant: Jose Ma. Rizal got acquainted with them with whom he vowed cooperation for the struggle for reforms. Rizal went to Madrid and Barcelona for a short visit on December 11. which had brought about its backwardness. Rizal’s first article published in La Solidaridad where he described the deplorable conditions in the country. Panganiban Rizal was unanimously chosen as the honorary president which implies that Rizal was already recognized as a leader of the Filipino colony in Barcelona. Rizal sent him a bust of Julius Caesar as a gift for Christmas. To oppose the evil forces of the reaction and medievalism. 1888. Rizal was informed about the founding of the organ of the Propaganda Movement by Graciano Lopez-Jaena in February 15. Officers: o President: Galiciano Apacible o Vice President: Graciano Lopez-Jaena o Secretary: Manuel Sta. The present state of the Philippines were not necessarily superior to its past.Propositions in Rizal’s New Edition of Morga’s Sucesos Asosciacion La Solidaridad        La Solidaridad    Aims of La Solidaridad      Los Agricultores Filipinos  Bibliotheque Natioanale Juan Luna Paz Pedro de Tavera Marcelo H. 1889. Rizal sent him a bust of Emperor Augustus as a gift for Christmas. exploited and ruined by the Spanish colonization. 1888 where he spent Christmas and New Year with the Beckett family. Czepelak Other Writings in    the coming of the Spaniards. He was happy for the recognition and responded through a letter dated January 28. Acted as his host in Paris Was with Rizal and Luna during Rizal’s time in Paris. To advocate liberal ideas and progress To champion the legitimate aspirations of the Filipinos people to life. demoralized. To work peacefully for political and social reforms. 1881. Establish on December 31. Filipinos were decimated. 1889 Organ of Philippine opinion. To portray the deplorable conditions of the Philippines for Spain to remedy them. democracy and happiness.

Alberta Ui Tangcoy 2. Paz Tiongson 8.Leoncia Reyes 12. Eugenia Tangchangco 10. o Specimens of Tagal Folklore  First article which is but a collection of 14 proverbs. Natia Tontoco 4. where they can learn Spanish despite the opposition Fr. Merced Tiongson 5.Maria de los Reyes  They were granted permission to start a school under the condition that she will be their teacher. o Where he demonstrate his profound knowledge of religion and his biting satire. Left London for Paris on March 19. Pilar to commend the young women of Malolos for their courage to establish a school. Teresa Tontoco 3. Rost inspired Rizal to contribute two articles to this journal devoted to the literature of the East. Trubner’s Record o Dr. . o Two Eastern Fables  Compared a Japanese with that o a Filipino fable. Felipe Garcia The Women of Malolos Senorita Guadalupe Reyes  A group of twenty women of Malolos petitioned for the permission to open a night school so they can study Spanish.  The parish priest of Malolos who objected resulting into the turning down of the petition by Weyler.  The women of Malolos wanted him to be the teacher of their night school. Agapita Tiongson 6. but the young women courageously sustained their agitation for the establishment of the school. Rodriguez on the Noli Me Tangere. 1888 Weyler Teodoro Sandiko Fr.  Governor-general during that time.Aurea Tangchangco 11. Letter to the Young Women of Malolos o Written under the request of Marcelo H. 1.Olympia Reyes 13. o    Chapter 14: Rizal’s Legacy to Young Filipino Women December 12.London   Leaving London Essay he wrote in reply to the attacks made by Fr. Basilia Tiongson 7. Felipe Garcia. He curved fine and realistic sculptural works before leaving o Prometheus Bound o Triumph of Death over Life o Triumph of Science over Death o Composite carving of the heads of the Beckett sisters. 8 puzzles and 2 verses. 1889. the parish priest of Malolos. Some say he left London for Gertrude to forget him. Feliciana Tiongson 9.

they should not consider physical beauty nor the sweetness of disposition of a woman but rather give priority to firmness of character and lofty . Three things a wife must instill in the mind of her husband: o Activity and industry o Noble behavior o Worthy sentiments Wife is the partner of her husband’s heart and misfortune.Marcelo del Pilar  Letter of Rizal focused on the Following Salient Points:       Rizal’s Ultimate Desire for Women   Youth  Responsibilities of Filipino Mothers to their Children     Qualities Mothers have to Possess     Rizal’s advice to married women Rizal’s advice to Unmarried men and women       Praised the women and requested Rizal to write a letter commending them for their extraordinary courage. Mothers who can teach nothing else but kneeling and kissing the hand of the friars should expect children who are not only stupid but also exploited education that will liberate women. A flower-bed that is to bear rich fruit and must accumulate wealth for its descendants Whatever the mother is. He emphasized the need for maintaining the independence of mind and reason with the attendant strengthening the will. A wife has to set the standards of behavior for men around her. Young men that in choosing their life partner. so would her son become. The rejection of the spiritual authority of the friars The defense of private judgment Qualities Filipino mothers need to possess Duties and responsibilities of a wife to her husband Counsel to young women on their choice of a lifetime partner To afford Filipino women with the same opportunities enjoyed by men in education . Their duties are: o To rise children close to the image of God. Aid her husband Share the perils Refrain from causing him worry Sweeten his moments of affliction. o To awaken and prepare the mind of the child for every good and desirable idea o To teach children to prefer death with honor to life with dishonor. He urged women to be vigilant over their rights and not be docile and passive in their attitude towards the many injustices forced upon them. Educate them with the following values: o Love for honor o Sincere and firm character o Clear mind o Clear conduct o Noble action o Love for one’s fellowmen o Respect for God Has to be a noble wife Has to rear her children in the service of the state like Sparta mother.

Tyranny of some is possible only through cowardice and negligence on the part of others. Filipino women should educate themselves aside from retaining their good racial values. Three things a woman must look for a man she is going to marry Rizal’s Reminders on Equality. let her rear no more children. Faith is not merely reciting prayers and wearing religious pictures. otherwise she will unconsciously betray husband. Consider well what kind of religion they are teaching you. God did not create man to be a slave. o See whether it is the will of God or according to the teaching of Christ that the poor be succored and those who suffer alleviated. o She must cease to be the mistress of the home. Young women should not surrender their womanhood to a weak and timid heart. native land and all. A noble and honored name A manly heart A high spirit incapable of being satisfied with engendering slaves. child. Self-Respect and True Spirit of Religion           Five Major Points of Rizal’s Letter to the Young Women of Malolos      ideas. . He who loves his independence must first aid his fellowman because he who refuses protection to other will find himself without it. let her merely give birth to them. It is living the real Christian way with good morals and manners. Filipino women should know how to protect their dignity and honor. If the Filipina will not change her mode of being. naked without bonds. Ignorance in servitude because as a man thinks so he is a man who does not think for himself and allows himself to be guided by the thought of another is like a beast led by a halter. nor did he endow him intelligence to have him hoodwinked or adorn him with reason to have him deceived by others. All men are born equal. Filipino mothers should be glad and honored like Spartan mothers to offer their sons in defense of their country. country and fellowmen. What makes one contemptible is lack of dignity and abject fear of one who holds one in contempt. Filipino mothers should teach their children love of God.

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