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DEFINITION OF VALUES

Robert Part and EW Burgess
 “Anything capable of being appreciated (wish for) is a
value”
Howard Becker
 “Values are any object of any need”
Punsalan and Badayos
 Values is coined from “valere” which means firm or
strong.
 It is an essential human characteristic that requires
strength in order to attain a particular end goal
Dr. Alex Tiempo
 “Valera” – Latin word means to measure
 Three sub-concepts, the one who measures, the
thing that one measures and standard of
measurement
 Standard of measurement:
o Subjectivity of values – based on feelings or
opinions
o Objectivity of values – facts rather than
feelings
Esther Esteban
 Objective value – absolute moral value
o Source of these values is believed to be from
the absolute truth – God
o E.g. Ten Commandments, All kinds of evil
actions
o Characteristics: External, Objective,
Universal
 Subjective value – behavioural/cultural value
o Emanate from within
o Either the personal values of an individual
mans or collective concepts of a cultural
group
o Characteristics: Situational, Subjective,
Societal
ECONOMIC VALUE
 Based on the material and measurable entities such
as the value of currency, stocks, inflation and
deflation
Milton Rokeach
 Professor of social psychology at Michigan
University and Washington State University
 Value - refers to the desire, happiness, interest, moral
responsibility and main purpose of an individual.
Edgar Sheffield Brightman
 Person and Reality: An Introduction to Metaphysics
 Claims that values can be considered as the ultimate
realization of one’s desire

NATURE OF VALUES
 Values affect one’s personal and social behavior
 Values have both affective and cognitive aspects
 Though there are these so-called absolute values
which are generally shared by each individual, there
are unique to every man
 Values also determine the whole identity of a nation
 Value as good
Aristotle
 “Nichomachean Ethics” – book
 Goodness and happiness are not identical
 Good life is not only focused on enjoyment but on a
successful and fulfilled life as well.
 Goodness can be associated with the end (real
purpose)
St. Thomas Aquinas
 Goodness in every – existing entity
 Church doctrine on hating the sin instead of the
sinner.
CLASSIFICATIONS – F. Landa Jocano
 Three general concepts: As object, as ideas, as an
action.
CLASSIFICATION – Ancient Philosophers
 Values as Utilitarian good
 Values as a Delectable/Pleasurable Good
 Values as becoming Good
SOURCES OF VALUES
 Family – Primary source of values
 Peer Group – “No man is an island” – John Donne
 Media/Technology – Tree possible analysis;
Structural- functional analysis, Social - conflict
analysis, Symbolic – interaction analysis
 Teachers (School)
 Catholic church (Religious sectors)
HIERARCHY OF VALUES
 Sensory < Vital < Spiritual < Holy
CHARACTERISTIC OF VALUES – Max Scheler
 They are always given in pairs, the positive value
has its corresponding counter value
 They are pure valuable essences or qualities.
 They are objective and transcend the sentimental
perception to which they appeal
 They are hierarchically given, dependent and
relative among themselves and with the perceiver.
VALUES SKILLS AND DEVELOPMENT
 Meaning system – values originated from within,
manifested through human behaviour.
 System skills
 Interpersonal skills

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Instrumental skills
Imagination skills

PROPERTIES OF VALUES – Tomas Andres
 “Understanding Values”
 Value is relative, subjective, objective, bipolar and
hierarchical.
CONFLICT VALUES THEORY
 The idea manifest that conflict exists within the
perception, interpretation and application of values
 Conflict of values does not necessarily connote the
character of contradictions since these opposition
between values need not be primary conflict existing
in the ideal realm.
 Whether there is a clash/struggle between the two
opposing/same values, conflict will still exist.
Nicolai Hartmann (Ethics)
 Three antitheses of values Kinds of conflict values)
 Qualitative and quantitative opposition
o Subjectivity of values, however it also
creates an objective validity which leads into
the singularity of values
 Relational oppositions
o This attachment is also synonymous to
relationship of individual subject and object.
 The Modal Conflict of values
o Opposition between the necessity and
freedom
o Necessity – no restriction, no laws
o Freedom – with restriction, consolidated
community rights and interest that are
based on the protection of the community’s
consolidated rights and interest.
o According to Andres, actions are to be based
on hierarchy of general moral values
VALUES CLARIFICATION PROCESS – Dr. Sidney Simon
 The one who enhance this concept in his academic
literatures entitled “Values & Teaching” and “Values
Clarification”
 This theory was principally based on the
behavioural approach as perceived by Dr. Louis
Raths; somehow similar to John Dewey’s doctrine of
instrumentalism
 Doctrine of Intrumentalism
o Clear distinction between Philosophy and
Man.
o Philosophy serves as an essential tool for
realization of action

Idea act as an instrument of man to deliver
needed social reforms
o Intelligence is a purposive act in which it can
only be attained through experience.
o Value clarification is vital to fulfil the end
goal of man that is to become human.
o Holds that individual have tendency to
become thoughtful and wise provided that
the appropriate values are being used
according to their respective intelligence.
o Values should penetrate the life of a person
in order for these values to be personal and
significant.
 Choosing Values
o One must have the freedom /will to perform
the process of choosing values.
 Prizing Values
o Actualization of the first persons.
 Acting on Values
o Clarified/identified pattern of values is to
be repetitively performed.
7 ELEMENTS OF VALUING PROCESS
 Values are chosen from among alternative
 Values are chosen freely
 Examine the consequences
 Value are prized and cherished
 Affirm it publicly
 Act on it
 Act repeatedly and consistently
THREE- DIMENSIONAL PROCESS IN VALUING
 Dr. Harold Lasswell (Prof. of Yale University) develop
the value theory
 Also used by Dr. Ray Rucker as the theory in field
of education.
 8 value categories
o Rectitude – refers to the rightness of
principle of conduct
o Well-being – desirable status of existence.
o Wealth – “an abundance of valuable
material or possession
o Power (influence) – ability to perform acts
which can affect the social/behavioural
condition of another individual.
o Enlightenment – a status which involves
deep understanding
o Skill – refers to the ability of a person to
accomplish a task.
o Respect – involves stick observation of
rights and established privileges.
o

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Affection – state of being emotionally
attached.
Cited by Berth K. Simpson in the book entitled
“Becoming Aware of Values”
o Dimension #1 – “to develop within man
each one these basic need areas.”
o Dimension #2 – “to participate in the
sharing and shaping the eight basic needs of
man in the lives of others.”
o Dimension #3 – “to recognize the ways in
which other influence the shaping and
sharing of values within man.”
FIVE PRINCIPLES OF VALUING
o Enhancement and Deprivation - It is
natural for a man to head towards
development of ones’ in order to fulfil his
goals.
o Base and Scope – base value are means in
acquiring the scope value
o Balanced Life – value needs should
properly attained in order to have a balance
life.
o Democratic Goal – known for liberal. “less
evil” principle.
o Shaping and Sharing – values are dynamic,
thus these re continuously undergoing the
process of shaping, reshaping, correcting
and adjust
Identifying the scope value:
o What can man do to help himself be
enhanced?
o What can others do to help and be
enhanced?
o How can man reorganized the ways in
which other are enhanced or become more
enhance?
SIX PROCESSES IN VALUING
o Berth K. Simpson in his “becoming Aware of
Value” published in San Diego California
(1973)
Goal-Setting – (1) Goals that are coming from
individual, (2) Goals that are set by the teacher or
parents.
Problem Solving – 5 components operation involved
in the process of problem solving, as enumerated by
Arnsperger, Rucker, and Press
o (1) Definition of the goal
o (2) Review of the past trends used in
problem solving
o

(3) Examination of the present condition
(4) Establishment of future development of
there is an uncertain chance of correcting
each condition
o (5) The discovery of appropriate two or
more alternative which their scientific
appraisal in terms of value.
Modeling
o Primarily involves positive and enhancing
comments instead of destructive and
untruthful criticism
Active listening
o In order to do this one must have
positiveness, open-mindedness, honest,
empathic listening, sincerity, truthfulness,
and eye contact.
Decision-making
o Application of the chosen alternative values
Memory appraisal
o Approach that can be employed on an
individual basis to gain a better perception
of the long range of balance or imbalance in
the value categories (Andres 190)
THE PHASE THEORY OF VALUES
 4 phase of values/ phase of consciousness in
value development
Phase one : SELF
 Stage 1: Satisfaction
 Stage 2: individual has geared towards
emotional needs that are also physically
related
Phase two : s/he tends to come out his/her
respective
 Stage 1: Values – marked by the need to
belong
 Stage 2: Personal Values – these are
institutionalized which reflects the need to
be capable and successful in the world
Phase three
 Stage 1: Highly dependent and even selfseeking
 Stage 2: There is an compelling atmosphere
of mandatory legal responsibilities
Phase Four : s/he tends to think globally
 Stage 1: Individual perception of the world –
changes drastically
 Stage 2: Changes – experienced; actions are
based on “we” than “I”
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