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Part-147

Fundamentals

M1 MATHEMATICS

EASA Part-66 Cat-B1

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Copyright Notice

For training purposes only.

This document is property of MCAST Aircraft Maintenance Training Centre.

Any reproduction or copying of training documents and extracts thereof in any

manner is strictly prohibited.

MCAST Part-147 Aircraft Maintenance Training Centre

Institute of Mechanical Engineering

MCAST Main Campus

Triq Kordin

Paola PLA 9032

Tel:

+356 2398 7450

Fax:

+356 2398 7490

E-mail: ime@mcast.edu.mt

http://www.mcast.edu.mt/institutes_mechanicalengineering.asp

Category B1 Mathematics M1 Notes; May 2009

Version 1.0

Author:

Mr Nicholas Grech, B.Eng. (Hons), M.Sc. (Cran)

Email: nickgrech@gmail.com

Pg 1

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.

1.8.2.

Inverse Proportion ..............................................................................13

1.8.3.

Proportional Parts ...............................................................................13

1.8.4.

Constant of Proportionality .................................................................14

Exercises...........................................................................................................14

Arithmetic............................................................................... 1

1.1. Arithmetical Terms and Signs ................................................................... 1

1.1.1.

Addition ................................................................................................ 1

1.1.2.

Subtraction ........................................................................................... 1

1.9.1.

Mean ...................................................................................................15

1.9.2.

Median ................................................................................................15

1.9.3.

Mode ...................................................................................................15

1.9.4.

Percentages........................................................................................15

Exercises...........................................................................................................16

1.2.1.

Multiplication......................................................................................... 2

1.2.2.

Division ................................................................................................. 2

Arithmetic Law of Precedence ..................................................................................... 2

Exercises ............................................................................................................ 3

1.3. Fractions ...................................................................................................... 4

1.3.1.

Converting between improper fractions and mixed numbers............... 4

1.3.2.

Multiplication of Fractions..................................................................... 4

1.3.3.

Division of Fractions ............................................................................. 4

1.3.4.

Addition of Fractions............................................................................. 5

1.3.5.

Subtraction of Fractions ....................................................................... 5

1.4. Decimal Numbers........................................................................................ 7

Number of Decimal Places .......................................................................................... 7

Significant Figures ....................................................................................................... 7

1.4.1.

1.4.2.

1.4.3.

Multiplication of Decimal Numbers....................................................... 8

Division of Decimal Numbers ............................................................... 8

1.10.1. Areas ..................................................................................................17

1.10.2. Volumes..............................................................................................17

Exercises...........................................................................................................18

2.

Algebra..................................................................................19

2.1. Introduction ...............................................................................................19

2.1.1.

Addition and Subtraction ....................................................................19

2.1.2.

Multiplication and Division ..................................................................19

2.1.3.

Brackets..............................................................................................19

Exercises...........................................................................................................20

2.2.1.

Transposition of Formulae..................................................................21

Laws of Indices............................................................................................................ 9

Exercises .......................................................................................................... 10

Standard Form........................................................................................................... 10

Exercises .......................................................................................................... 12

1.8. Ratio and Proportion ................................................................................ 13

1.8.1.

Direct Proportion ................................................................................ 13

Solving simultaneous equations by substitution.........................................................22

2.4.1.

Solving by using the formula ..............................................................23

2.4.2.

Solving by factorisation.......................................................................23

2.4.3.

Factorising quadratic equations..........................................................23

Pg 2

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Exercises .......................................................................................................... 25

2.6. Logarithms................................................................................................. 26

2.7. Number Systems....................................................................................... 27

2.7.1.

The Binary System ............................................................................. 27

2.7.2.

The Hexadecimal System .................................................................. 27

Exercises .......................................................................................................... 28

3.

Geometry.............................................................................. 29

3.1. Graphs........................................................................................................ 29

3.1.1.

Graphical Representation .................................................................. 29

3.1.2.

Graphs of Linear equations ................................................................ 29

Equation of a straight line .......................................................................................... 30

3.1.3.

Graphs of Quadratic equations .......................................................... 31

3.1.4.

Graphical solution of Simultaneous Equations .................................. 32

Exercises .......................................................................................................... 32

3.2. Trigonometry ............................................................................................. 33

3.2.1.

Pythagoras Theorem.......................................................................... 33

3.2.2.

Trigonometrical Ratios ....................................................................... 33

3.2.3.

Use of Tables ..................................................................................... 36

3.2.4.

Rectangular (Cartesian) Co-ordinates ............................................... 36

3.2.5.

Polar Co-ordinates ............................................................................. 36

Converting between Polar and Cartesian .................................................................. 37

Exercises .......................................................................................................... 37

3.3. Geometrical Constructions...................................................................... 38

3.3.1.

The Circle ........................................................................................... 38

Elements and Properties of the circle ........................................................................ 38

Important circle theorems .......................................................................................... 38

3.3.2.

Angles ................................................................................................ 40

Length of Arc ............................................................................................................. 40

3.3.3.

Construction ....................................................................................... 41

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1. ARITHMETIC

It is important for students to realise that the use of calculators during examinations

is not permitted. Therefore, the mathematics taught is aimed towards using mental

calculations and it is therefore strongly recommended that students practise these

problems without the aid of a calculator.

Example:

hundreds

tens

ones

6

5

5

5

1

______________________

6

1

6

The most common numbers we use are called the natural numbers and these are

the simple 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. These whole numbers are also known as positive

integers. However, we also often use positive fractions, such as 15 . These two

groups together form the positive rational numbers. A rational number is in fact

any number that can be expressed in the form a/b, where a and b represent

integers.

The natural numbers are positive integers, but sometimes we need to quote

negative quantities (numbers less than zero), so in this case we use negative

integers. The number zero is unique and does not fall in any category; in fact, it

has a category of its own.

There are numbers (e.g. 2 ) which are not rational numbers because cannot be

represented by the quotient of two integers. These are called irrational or nonrational numbers. All the above-mentioned categories together form what are

known as real numbers.

These are distinguished from the so-called complex numbers, which will not be

considered in this course.

1.1.1.

Addition

The process of finding the total of two or more numbers is called addition. The

resulting answer is called the sum. When the result is larger than nine, it is

necessary to arrange the numbers in columns so that the last digit of each number

is in the same column.

65 + 511

In the example above, we start first with the ones column. So 5 + 1 gives 6. Same

with the tens column, but in this case the answer is 11. We cannot write down 11 so

we take the ten out of the answer and convert it to a one in the hundreds column.

The remaining 1 from the 11 is written down in the tens column. In this manner, in

the hundreds column we have 5 plus 1 which was added. So the result in the

hundreds column is 6, giving the final answer as 616.

1.1.2.

Subtraction

subtraction. The number, which is being subtracted, is the subtrahend and the

number from which the subtrahend is subtracted is the minuend.

In order to simplify the process of subtraction, the numbers are arranged in

columns, similar to the addition process (i.e. hundreds under hundreds, tens under

tens, etc). Then starting from the right, the subtrahend is subtracted from the

minuend.

Example:

783 - 592

hundreds

tens

ones

7

8

3

5

9

2

_______________________

1

9

1

minuend

subtrahend

becomes 18 by taking 1 from the hundreds column so that 7 becomes 6. (18 9)

gives 9. Now 7 has become 6 so (6 5) gives 1.

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1.2.1.

Multiplication

1.2.2.

+ 5 + 5) or (3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3). In this example, 5 and 3 are also called the factors

and 15 is the product. The number to be multiplied (i.e. 5) is the multiplicand and

the number of times the multiplicand is to be added to itself (i.e. 3) is the multiplier.

The order in which numbers are multiplies does not change the product (i.e. 5 x 3 =

3 x 5).

Simple multiplication involves only two numbers and one needs to know the

numerical tables properly in order to work them out easily.

Example:

3 x 5 = 15

9 x 3 = 18

7 x 6 = 42

Division

Division is the reverse of multiplication, finding out how many times a number is

contained in another number. The number divided is called the dividend, the one

dividing with is the divisor and the result is the quotient.

In some problems, the quotient may include a remainder, which represents a

portion of the dividend that cannot be divided by the divisor.

Division can also be represented with a fraction, e.g. 3 4 = 3 4

To divide large quantities, the problem is broken down into a series of operations.

Examples:

12

3 36

Commutative Law of Multiplication: The product of two real numbers is the same no

matter in what order they are multiplied. This means that (a x b) = (b x a).

Associative Law of Multiplication: The product of three or more numbers is the

same no matter in what manner they are grouped, hence a(b x c) = (a x b)c.

573 x

21

573 +

11460

12033

432 x

32

864 +

12960

13824

1471 x

121

1471+

29420

147100

177991

432 x

132

864 +

12960

43200

57024

18

16

10

9

26

24

20

20

When multiplying large numbers, it is important they are aligned vertically, similar to

the addition and subtraction process.

Examples:

33.33

3 100 .0

9

146 .5

4 586 .0

10

9

10

It is often confusing, when having different operations to do in the same equation,

which operation goes first. In this case, it is convenient to use the BODMAS rule.

BODMAS stands for Brackets Of Division, Multiplication, Addition, Subtraction.

Hence, the first to be worked out are the brackets of the equation, starting from the

division, then multiplication etc.

Pg 2

Part-147 Aircraft Maintenance Training Centre

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Exercises

Addition:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

123 + 4294

2342 + 3939

233.65 + 9483.12

5830.766 + 13339.144

45.34 + 232.5 + 11.89

4

2

23.4 x 10 + 11.8 x 10

Subtraction:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

545 232

9833 2334

983.3 843.2

2938 23345

893.45 78.9

7583.5 89921

Multiplication:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

54 x 3

345 x 45

234 x 23

2498 x 345

123 x 4592

4592 x 129

Division:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

2464 / 4

3486 / 2

8323 / 5

4782 / 9

2922 / 18

4234 / 21

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Lowest Terms

1.3. Fractions

A fraction is a division of one number by another. For example, means one

divided by two. The number above the line is called the numerator and the number

below the line is called the denominator.

Fractions written in this form (e.g. 2/5, 3/8, , etc) are called vulgar fractions.

Those written in decimal form (e.g. 0.5, 3.56, 0.333, etc.) are called decimal

fractions.

When the denominator of a fraction is numerically larger than the numerator (e.g.

4/5), the fraction is said to be a proper fraction. If however the numerator is larger

than the denominator, the fraction is said to be improper. Improper fractions (e.g.

9/4) can be also expressed as what is known as a mixed number. In this case, 9/4

would be expressed as 2 where 2 is whole number and has to be a proper

fraction.

1.3.1.

A fraction is said to be in its lowest terms if its same value cannot be represented by

a fraction with smaller numbers. For example 3 5 cannot be represented with smaller

numbers. But 6 12 can also be written as

denominator by 6.

1.3.2.

The answer of the division process becomes the whole number of the mixed

number while the remainder is the new numerator.

Convert

22

Multiplication of Fractions

2 4 2 4

8

=

=

5 7 5 7 35

11 1 11 1 11

=

=

12 2 12 2 24

3

7 22 Therefore the

21

1

1.3.3.

22

can be written as 3 17 .

multiplied by the denominator and the result is added to the numerator. This answer

will be the new numerator whilst the old denominator remains unchanged.

Example:

numerator of one fraction with the numerator of the other fraction and the

denominator of the first fraction with the denominator of the second one. These

results will be the numerator and denominator of the answer.

Example:

Example:

31 =

4

(3 4) + 1 12 + 1 13

=

=

4

4

4

52 =

3

(5 3) + 2 15 + 2 17

=

=

3

3

3

Division of Fractions

are dividing with), needs to be inverted. The resulting fractions are then multiplied

normally.

3 1 3 3 33 9

Example:

= =

=

4 3 4 1 4 1 4

2 4 2 7 2 7 14

= =

=

5 7 5 4 5 4 20

Note that this last answer is not in its lowest terms.

Therefore, we can re-write 14 20 as 7 10 .

Pg 4

Part-147 Aircraft Maintenance Training Centre

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1.3.4.

Addition of Fractions

In order to add fractions, we need to determine the least common multiple (LCM).

This means we need to find the smallest possible number, which is a common

multiple of the denominators. For example if we have 3 4 and 1 5 , the LCM would

be 20. Often in order to find the LCM, sometimes it is easier to simply multiply the

denominators, as in the previous example. However, there are cases in which a

smaller number being a multiple of both denominators can be found by intuition,

making the problem easier to solve.

Example:

5 3

+ , the least common multiple would be 28.

7 4

11 5

+ , the least common multiple would be 24, not 96.

12 8

The next step after determining the LCM, is to place the LCM below the

denominators of the fractions we wish to add.

11 5

+

12 8

So we using the second example, we get

24

1.3.5.

Subtraction of Fractions

Subtraction of fractions is carried out similarly to addition of fractions. The LCM still

needs to be determined. However, in the last step, we simply subtract the

numerators instead of adding them.

Examples:

3 1

3 1 4 2 32 1

=

=

=

4 2

4

4

4

1 1

1 1 3 2 23

1

=

=

=

3 2

6

6

6

11 5

11 5 4 3 33 20 13

=

=

=

4 3

12

12

12

numerator i.e. 11, which gives us 22. Again we divide 24 by 8 which gives 3 and

multiply it by its corresponding numerator i.e. 5, which gives 15.

Thus the new fraction will be

Examples:

22 + 15 37

=

24

24

3 1

3 1 4 2 32 1

=

=

=

4 2

4

4

4

3 1

3 1 4 2 32 1

=

=

=

4 2

4

4

4

Pg 5

Part-147 Aircraft Maintenance Training Centre

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Exercises

Mixed: (Remember Arithmetic Law of Precedence)

i) 4

ii) 7

iii) 9

iv) 11

iv) 11 15 3

3

6

4

i) 3 1

3

ii) 112

i) 1 5 + 7 1

3

6

5

iii) 3 1

2

iv) 7 3

ii) 2 4

5 3

2

v)

15 3

3

9 1

iii) 10

7

16

8

6

5

vi)

3

5

6

4

ii) 2 4

5

3

15

2

v)

3

3

9 1

iii) 7

ii) 3 2 4 + 5 2

5

3

6

3

iii) 10

v) 2 15 3

3

9

1

vi) 6 + 5 3 11

5

6

4

3

16

7 + 95

8

7

Multiplication:

i) 1 5

3 6

11

iv)

15 3

3

6

4

Division:

i) 2 5

3

6

11

iv)

1

3

6

7

16

8

6

5

vi)

3

5

6

4

Addition:

i) 1 + 5

3

6

iv) 11 + 7 + 3

3

6

2

iii) 10

ii) 2 + 4

5

3

v) 2 + 1 + 3

5

9

1

+7

16

8

vi) 1 + 11 + 3

5

6

8

ii) 6 1

5

3

v) 1 5 3

5

6

4

iii) 15

Subtraction:

i) 5 1

3

6

iv) 11 15 3

3

6

4

1

16

8

vi) 17 5 1

5

6

4

Pg 6

Part-147 Aircraft Maintenance Training Centre

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Decimal numbers are another way to represent fractions. If we write down 0.1, this

can be written in fraction form as 1/10. Similarly, 0.01 is equivalent to 1/100.

Example:

45,200

235,674

1,485

In many cases, the use of a large numbers of decimal places is unnecessary. For

example a number like 7.3422411343 is too impractical to handle and more often

than not, not required. Therefore, one may choose to what degree of accuracy the

answer is required by specifying the number of decimal places to be used. If for the

previous number, an accuracy of 3 decimal places is required, we only write down

7.342 and forget the rest.

Attention! Had the number been 7.3425, the result to 3 decimal places would have

been 7.343 because the number 5 is too large to ignore. Thus if the number behind

the number of specified decimal places is either 5 or larger, we add 1 to the last

digit of our answer.

Example:

5.34211

67.8755

34.5625

2.452345

=

=

=

=

5.342

67.876

34.563

2.452

Significant Figures

When asked to write a number down to a certain number of significant figures, we

are (in similar way to the number of decimal points), ignoring the last figures of a

particular number to make it simpler while we lose only little accuracy. For example

if we have 8,432,311, and asked to write it down to 2 significant figures, we take the

first two integers and replace the rest with zeros, thus becoming 8,400,000.

=

=

=

45,000

240,000

1,500

0.004523

0.0000345

0.0783

1.4.1.

=

=

=

0.0045

0.000035

0.078

Addition and subtraction of decimal numbers is no different from that for whole

numbers. However, in order to avoid confusion because of the decimal, one should

place the numbers under each other with the decimal points beneath each other.

This helps put the powers under each other i.e. tens with tens and hundreds with

hundreds, etc

Example:

1345.65

133.4

1212.25

7823.88 +

1455.31

9279.19

4534

133.4

4400.6

2342.56 +

33.22

2375.78

236.56

184.7

51.86

8356.55 +

452.86

8809.41

Pg 7

Part-147 Aircraft Maintenance Training Centre

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1.4.2.

Example:

254.362 / 12.2

The presence of the decimal point makes multiplication of decimal numbers more

complicated than for whole numbers. Therefore, the decimal point is removed by

shifting it until we have a whole number. The number of times the decimal point is

shifted has to be recorded. This is done for both the multiplicand and the multiplier.

Example:

234.56

8462.768

0.736

0.4664

23456

8462768

736

4664

correct, without the need to shift decimal points.

(2dp)

(2dp)

(-3dp)

(-3dp)

Once the decimal point is removed, multiplication is done normally. However, since

we have changed the original multiplicand and multiplier (by moving the decimal

point), the answer needs to have its decimal point moved back. The number of

times the decimal point is shifted is equal to the total number of times it was shifted

before multiplication.

Example:

254.362 is also shifted by 1dp, becoming 2543.62

Exercises

Calculate:

1.

2.

3.

4.

23.76 x 1.5

56.87 x 3.7

46.36 x 45.89

123.78 x 1.83

5.

6.

7.

8.

234.5 / 7.2

786.783 / 8.4

923.67 / 11.3

7362.677 / 20.5

233 x 112 = 26096, but the final answer needs to have its decimal

point shifted by 2dp. Hence, final answer is 260.96.

If we have 132.5 x 87.67, this becomes 1325 x 8767 (1 + 2 = 3dp)

1325 x 8767 = 11616275, but the final answer needs to have its

decimal point shifted by 3dp. Hence, final answer is 11616.275.

1.4.3.

The problem in the case of division is the decimal point within the divisor. Again, the

solution is to move the decimal point, but unlike the multiplication case, we move

only the decimal point of the divisor. Then the number of decimal points shifted in

the divisor, is shifted also for the dividend. In this manner, the operation is not

modified and we do not need to move the decimal point of the final answer.

Pg 8

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When we multiply 4 x 6, we get 24. In this case, 4 and 6 are factors of 24. But 24

has other factors apart from 4 and 6. For example, 2 and 12 can be multiplied to

give 24 as well. Thus, 2 and 12 are also factors of 24 as are also 3 and 7.

Since any number multiplied by 1 will remain the same, 1 is a factor of all numbers.

In this case, it is called a trivial factor and usually not used since it has little

importance.

Multiples are the resulting numbers when the factors are multiplied. For example if

we have 4 x 6, 4 and 6 are the factors and 24 is the multiple of both 4 and 6.

When a number has an index with no sign ( + or -), it is assumed that it is positive.

Laws of Indices

2.

a m a n = a m+n

a m a n = a m n

3.

(a )

1.

4.

5.

6.

When a number is multiplied by itself, it is raised to a certain power. For example, 5

2

x 5 can be written as 25 or as 5 , where the 2 represents how many times the

3

number is multiplied by itself. So if we have 6 x 6 x 6, this can be written as 6 .

Taking this example, the number 6 is called the base number, and the 3 is called

the index. When written in this form, the number is expressed as an exponent.

2+4

2 x2 =2

4

4-2

=3 =9

2 3

2x3

= 2 = 64

3 /3 = 3

m n

= 2 = 64

= a mn

a0 = 1

(2 ) = 2

am n = n am

a n = 1 n

a

24 2 = 2 24

The root of a number is that value which when multiplied by itself a certain number

of times, produces that number. If 4 x 4 gives 16, then 4 is the root of 16. We often

represent this with the symbol (

), so than

2

We can also say that if for example, we have 2 x 2 x 2 x 2, which can be written as

4

4

2 , 2 is called the fourth power of the base 2.

Example:

64 .

3 is 3 x 3 = 9

6

5 is 5 x 5 x 5 x 5 x 5 x 5 = 15625

Note that for square root, we dont need to write down the 2 next to the root sign. It

is implied that it is the square root of the number. But for cube root and higher

values, the index needs to be clearly written down.

A negative exponent implies a fraction and indicates the inverse (or reciprocal) of

the number.

Example:

by itself only once. We therefore call 4 the square root of 16 since 4 gives 16. If

3

we had 4 x 4 x 4, we get 64, and since 4 gives 64, 4 is called the cube root of 64

1 1 1 1

= 3 = =

2

2 2 8

2

-3

Examples:

27 = 9

since 9 = 27

625 = 5

since 5 = 625

729 = 3

since 3 = 729

4

6

Any number to power zero, is equal to one.

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Exercises

Standard Form

in standard form as shown below, to make calculations easier, and reduce the

possibility of mistakes.

1.

32 35

2.

55 52

3.

(7 )

4.

5.

67 4

4 1

6.

7.

8.

2 3

(3

3 2 3

3

1

2

1

2

1

23

1,000,000

100,000

10,000

1,000

100

10

0

1/10 = 0.1

1/100 = 0.01

1/1,000 = 0.001

1/10,000 = 0.0001

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

1 x 10

5

1 x 10

4

1 x 10

3

1 x 10

2

1 x 10

1

1 x 10

0

-1

1 x 10

-2

1 x 10

-3

1 x 10

-4

1 x 10

67 4 62 5

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Length

1in

=

1m

=

1ft

=

12in

=

3ft

=

1yd

=

1km

=

1mile =

2.54cm

39.37in or 3.281ft

0.3048m

1ft

1yd

0.9144m

0.621miles

1.61km or 5,280ft

Area

2

1m

2

1m

2

1ft

2

1in

10.76ft

2

10,000cm

2

2

0.0929m or 144in

2

6.452cm

=

=

=

=

Volume

3

1m

=

3

1ft

=

1lt

=

3

1ft

=

1gal

=

1gal

=

Mass

1amu

1000kg

1000g

1slug

=

=

=

=

1,000,000cm

3

3

1728in = 0.0283m

3

1000cm = 1.0576qt

7.481gal

8pints

4.546ltrs (3.785ltrs if American gal)

-27

1.66 x 10 kg

1 metric tonne = 0.984tons

1kg

14.59kg

1N

=

0.2248lb

1lb

=

4.448N

1lb

=

16oz

Velocity

1mph =

1.47ft/sec

1m/s

1knot

1knot

1knot

1knot

1mph

=

=

=

=

=

=

3.281ft/sec

1 nautical mile per hour

1.688ft/sec

1.151mph

1.852km/hr

1.61km/hr

Energy

1J

=

1cal

=

1Btu

=

0.738ft.lb

4.186J

252cal

Time

1year

1day

=

=

365days

24hr = 1,440min

Power

1HP

1HP

1W

1W

1Btu/hr

=

=

=

=

=

550ft.lb/sec

746W

1J/sec

0.738ft.lb/sec

0.293W

Pressure

1atm =

1atm =

1atm =

1atm =

1Pa

=

1bar

=

1bar

=

76.0cmHg

760mmHg

29.92inHg

2

14.7lb/in

2

0.000145lb/in

2

14.5lb/in

100,000Pa

Fundamental Constants

g

=

32lb/slug or 9.81N/kg

Other Useful Data

1 litre water

=

1 pint water

=

1kg

1lb

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Exercises

1. How many centimetres are there in 3.5ft?

2. How many yards are 1.5km?

3. If a table is 3ft wide and 1.6m long, how many square inches is its area?

4. How many pints are there in 5 cubic feet of water?

5. How many litres are there in 4.5 US gallons?

6. If an aircraft travels at 100knots, what is its speed in km/hr?

7. How much will 4.3 cubic feet of water weigh?

8. If a machine produces 670 ft.lb/s, how much is this in horsepower?

9. How many mm of Mercury are 1.7atm?

10. How many slugs are 25kg?

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A ratio is a comparison between two similar quantities. For example if we are

comparing a model aircraft to the real thing, we say that their dimensions have a

ratio of 1:25. This means that every centimetre of the model represents 25cm on

the real aircraft. It is important when using ratios that the numbers quoted have all

the same units (e.g. cm to cm, km to km, etc).

Often ratios are used in gearboxes. In this case can represent the ratio of teeth

between gears, the speed ratio of the gearbox, or the torque ratio.

Example: A turboprop gas turbine is attached to the propeller via a gearbox whose

speed ratio is 1:5 so that the propeller rotates slower than the gas turbine. If the

turbine rotates at 20,000rpm, what will be the propeller speed?

The ratios can be written in this form:

( 1 : 5 ) = ( prop rpm : 20,000)

Gas Turbine

20,000rpm

This is a clear case of direct proportion since the more fuel is carried, the farther the

aircraft will travel. Therefore by cross-multiplication:

1 tonne of fuel = 50 nautical miles

4 tonnes of fuel = 200 nautical miles

1.8.2.

In inverse proportion, two quantities are related in a manner that if one increases,

the other has to decrease. Using the car example again, if a car has to travel a fixed

distance, the speed is inversely proportional to the time taken i.e. the faster the

speed, the less time taken to cover the distance.

Example:

20,000) are called the extremes, while the

second and third numbers are called the

means.

Therefore, (1 x 20,000) = (5 x prop rpm). So the propeller rpm can be calculated by

using {(1 x 20,000) / 5} = 4,000 rpm.

A car travels at 10mph, for 100 miles. How long will it take the car

to cover the same distance if travelling at 20mph?

10 mph for 100 miles = 10 hours

20 mph for 100 miles = 5 hours

inverse proportion. One has to rely on understanding the question properly and

reasoning on it.

1.8.3.

1.8.1.

Inverse Proportion

Proportional Parts

Direct Proportion

Direct proportion means that two quantities are directly related in a manner that if

one increases, the other quantity will increase as well. For example if a car is

travelling at constant speed, the time and distance covered are directly proportional

i.e. if the distance is large, the time taken will also be large, and vice-versa.

Example: A long-range bomber consumes 1 tonne of fuel every 50 nautical miles. If

before the mission it uploads 4 tonnes of fuel, what is the maximum distance it can

travel?

Say that for a particular flight, the aircraft requires 24 tonnes of Jet-A fuel. However

to distribute the weight properly, the captain needs to fill the three available fuel

tanks with a weight ratio of 3 : 4 : 5. How many tonnes will have to be loaded in

each tank?

The first step is to add the ratios i.e. 3 + 4 + 5 = 12 parts. The total tonnage is then

divided by this sum, so 24/12 = 2. This result is then multiplied to each tanks

corresponding ratio number (i.e. 3 x 2 = 6, 4 x 2 = 8 and 5 x 2 = 10). Thus, the

resulting tonnage will be divided into 6 tonnes, 8 tonnes and 10 tonnes.

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1.8.4.

Constant of Proportionality

Exercises

One can write the expression for direct proportion as (y x); meaning y is directly

proportional to x. In cases of inverse proportion, this can be written down as (y

1/x). It is possible to convert this proportional expression to a proper equation by

introducing the constant of proportionality, usually represented by the letter (k).

Hence the direct proportion expression can be written as (y = kx) and inverse

proportion as (y = k/x).

Example:

the fuel flow (m). It is also inversely proportional to the square of

the bleed air (b) and the bearing friction (f).

Therefore, this can be written as w m

f b

proportionality: w = k m

.

f b

a.

25cm, what is the wingspan on the real aircraft in metres?

b.

25,000rpm, how fast is the slower side rotating?

c.

What is the ratio between the length and the width of a wing if it is 25m

long and 1.25m wide?

d.

maintenance personnel. How long will it take if the number of personnel

is increased to 7?

e.

engines. How much time would it take if there were eight men on the

job?

f.

requirement ratio is 3:5:7 and the first component needs 5 litres. How

much oil is required in total?

g.

inversely proportional to the altitude, what is the constant of

proportionality if the fuel consumption is 15kg/s when the thrust is

15,000N and altitude is 20,000 feet?

h.

An electrical resistance of a wire (R) varies directly with the length (L)

and inversely with the square of the radius (r). How can this be

represented?

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1.9.1.

Mean

1.9.4.

This is the most common average used. To find the mean of a set of values, the

sum of the values has to be divided by the number of values.

Example:

The sum of these values is [3+5+14+4+13+27] = 66

The number of values we have is 6.

Therefore the mean is 66/6 = 11.

1.9.2.

denominator. For example can also be expressed as 25/100. When fractions

have 100 as denominator, they are called percentages.

Example:

Median

Note:

To find the median of a set of values, first the numbers must be placed in

descending (or ascending) order. The median will be the number in the middle.

Example:

Percentages

45

0.45 =

= 45%

100

52.5

52.5% =

= 0.525

100

10 is

by 100. To convert a percentage into a fraction, divide it by 100.

In ascending order, these will become [1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 12, 15, 16, 21]

The median is the middle number i.e. 7.

1.9.3.

Mode

The mode (or modal value) is the value, which appears the most within a set of

values.

Example:

Find the mode of {13, 20, 23, 39, 23, 40, 23, 14, 12, 56, 23, 29}

Putting them in order {12, 13, 14, 20, 23, 23, 23, 23, 29, 39, 40, 56}

It is therefore easy to find that the most common number is 23.

Thus, the mode is 23.

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Exercises

a. Find the mean, mode and median of:

i)

ii)

iii)

{45, 23, 76, 23, 77, 90, 72, 16}

{34.5, 11.5, 56.2, 8.1, 9.65}

b. Convert to percentage:

i)

ii)

iii)

iv)

v)

4/5

3/7

4/9

13/7.5

7/5

i)

ii)

iii)

iv)

v)

50%

75%

35%

23.5%

54.87%

e. A fighter jet consumes 1.2 tonnes of fuel in 2.7 hours. What is the average fuel

consumption per hour?

e. Find 22% of 160.

f. How much oil is required if 20ltrs satisfy only 35% of the required volume.

g. A cargo aircraft is carrying 165 cases. 20% of these weigh 35kg, 30% weigh

45kg, and 25% weigh 50kg. The rest weigh 55kg. How much weight is the

aircraft carrying?

h. How long far would have an aircraft travelled in 3 hours, if for 20% of the time its

average speed was 130km/hr, 25% at 100km/hr and the rest at 150km/hr?

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Triangle:

Area = b x h

1.10.1. Areas

When we measure the area of something, we are measuring how many square

2

units it contains. This means that if we have an area of 5.5m , then this space

would contain 5 squares, each being 1m in width and 1m in breath.

1 square metre

1 square centimetre

1 square millimetre

1m

2

1cm

2

1mm

1 square inch

1 square foot

1 square yard

1in

2

1ft

2

1yd

or

Area = sqrt s (s-a)(s-b)(s-c)

where s = (a+b+c)

2

Perimeter = a + b + c

Circle:

Rectangle:

Area = r

Area = l x b

Perimeter = 2l x 2b

Perimeter = 2r

1.10.2. Volumes

1 cubic metre

1 cubic centimetre

1 cubic millimetre

Parallelogram:

1m

3

1cm

3

1mm

1 cubic inch

1 cubic foot

1 cubic yard

1in

3

1ft

3

1yd

Cylinder:

Area = b x h

Perimeter = Sum of all 4

sides.

Volume: r h

r

h

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Exercises

Cone:

2

Volume: 1/3 r h

i)

centre aisle, 1m wide is installed and the remaining area is to be

carpeted. How many square metres of carpet are required?

ii)

Calculate the surface area of the cockpit having the shape of a cone,

5m side length (i.e. not the vertical height) and base diameter 3m.

iii)

has an outer radius of 2m and internal radius if 1m.

iv)

The front and rear ends are shaped as a cone 3m long.

v)

outer dimensions are 7cm x 7cm and each side is to be 1cm thick.

What volume of aluminium is required if the beam is to be 6m long?

Surface Area: rl

h

r

Sphere:

Volume: 4/3 r

Surface Area: 4r

Volume = Cross-sectional area x length of shape

Surface area = sum of all areas enclosing the shape.

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2. ALGEBRA

2.1.2.

2.1. Introduction

In algebra, symbols or letters are used to represent a variable number. So the letter

(a) can represent any number. Coefficients are used in front of the letters and

these show by how much the variable number is to be multiplied. For example (7a)

means any value given to (a) is to be multiplied by 7.

We already mentioned factors in arithmetic. The same principles apply to algebraic

terms. If we have the expression (ab), then a and b are the factors. Again, the

factors 1 and ab are trivial factors and are not used.

Examples:

i)

ii)

iii)

8

xy

12

=

=

=

2 and 4

x and y

2, 3, 4, 6

In order to multiply two simple algebraic terms, e.g. (a x b), we only need to write

them down as (ab) and similarly if we have an algebraic term and an integer (e.g. 2

x a = 2a).

Examples:

Commutative Law of Addition: The sum of numbers is always the same, regardless

the order in which they are written i.e. a + b + c = a + c + b.

Associative Law of Addition: The sum of numbers is always the same, regardless in

which manner they are grouped i.e. (a + b) + c = a + (b + c).

In order to be able to add or subtract algebraic expressions, they need to have the

same terms i.e. have like terms. For example, (7a + 3b) cannot be simplified

further because we have unlike terms. However, (7a + 2a) can be worked out and

gives 9a.

Examples:

5a + 3c -2a = 3a + 3c = 3(a + c)

11b 3c = 11b 3c

8z + 5a z 2a = 7z + 3a

-1

5 x a = 5a

2a x b = 2ab

2

2a x a = 2a

5ab x 2t = 10abt

b xb =b

2

sb x bytu = b styu

Note: The order in which the terms are written down is not important but by

convention, they are usually written down in alphabetical order.

The same rules apply for division of algebraic terms.

Examples:

2.1.3.

2.1.1.

x /2x = x/2

4

2

2

3x /2x = 3x /2

Brackets

When a term is written in the form 5(a + b), the brackets can be opened and each

term inside the brackets has to be multiplied by the outside term.

Example:

7(a + c) = 7a + 7c

2

5a(a + c) = 5a + 5ac

Suppose we are required to multiply (1 + a) and (1 + b). The first step is to multiply

(1 + a) by the first character of the second bracket (i.e. 1). Then, (1 + a) has to be

multiplied by the second character (i.e. b). Hence (1 + a).b gives (b + ab). The two

results are then summed together to obtain (1+a) + (b + ab).

The final answer is thus (1 + a + b + ab)

Example:

2

2

= 3a + 4ac + c

2

2

2

= 2a + ab b

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Exercises

Find:

i)

3x + 5x 7b

ii)

12b 3a + 4x -13b

iii)

-5c 23a + c

iv)

7m n + 5m + 11n

v)

3m(n + z)

vi)

2a(a b )

vii)

6d(2a + c)(c)

viii)

2c (2a c)(5a)

ix)

x)

(-2a + 3)(a b)

xi)

xii)

(4a + 3c a)(2b + c)

xiii)

(x + 3)(x 2)

xiv)

(x + 5)(x 9)

xv)

(2x + 3)(x 5)

xvi)

(x 3)(3x + 3)

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Linear equations with one unknown contain just one letter to the power one, e.g.

2x 5 = 7 .

had one unknown and solutions were quite straightforward. There cases however

were linear equations have more than one unknown. In such a case, one needs

another equation in order to obtain a solution.

For example:

x x 1

=

is an equation.

3

2

Example:

The solution of an equation is the number, or set of numbers, which the letters

represent in that equation. A problem can be solved if we can use algebra to relate

the given information to form an equation and then solve it.

2.2.1.

Simultaneous can be solved by elimination, meaning eliminating one of the

unknowns. One easy way to do this is to subtract one equation from the other.

Transposition of Formulae

Often it is required to rearrange the formula to change the subject of the formula.

Example:

same to the other side, or when we take any term over the equals sign, we change

sign.

Examples:

2 x + y = 8 and x + y = 5

These two linear equations form a set of simultaneous equations.

We have to find a value of x and y which satisfies both equations.

(2 x + y ) (x + y ) = 8 5

x=3

Substituting 3 for x, in any equation gives y = 2.

a+c =b

becomes

c=ba

c =b

a

becomes

c = ab

becomes

c=

cx 3

a

=b

bx 3

a

Example:

or c = bx 3 a 2

(4 x + y ) = 8

2x y = 6

Hence x = 7 = 2 1

3

3

Substituting this value in any equation, we get:

28 + y = 8

3

y = 4

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Solving simultaneous equations by substitution

Another common method in solving simultaneous equations is by substituting one

of the unknowns.

Example:

3 x + 4 y = 7 and 2 x + y = 4

nd

Substituting this for y in the first equation we get:

3 x + 4(4 2 x ) = 7

3 x + 16 8 x = 7

3 x 8 x = 7 16

5 x = 9

x=9

Using the first equation, we get:

( 5 )+ 4 y = 7

39

27 + 4 y = 7

5

4 y = 7 27

4y = 8

y=2

5

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2.4.2.

Quadratic equations are similar to linear ones, but the highest power found in the

equation is 2, (e.g. 5 x 2 + 3 x + 5 = 0 )

example; x 2 3 x + 2 = 0 can also be expressed as ( x 1)( x 2) = 0 .

There are various methods how to solve such equations. These include by

factorisation, graphically and by completing the square. However, the most

straightforward method is by using the formula.

The values of x that satisfy the equation are called the roots of the equation (i.e. 1

and 2). In general, a quadratic equation has two roots, but sometimes these may be

identical.

2.4.1.

Example:

b b 2 4ac

2a

x 7x 3 = 0

x=

( 7 )

( 7 )2 4(1)(3 )

2 .1

7 49 + 12 7 61

=

2

2

x = 7.405 or -0.405

x 2 + 5 x + 5 = 7 becomes x 2 + 5 x 2 = 0

x=

(5 )

(5 )2 4(1)( 2)

2 .1

4 x 2 + 12 x + 9 = 0 can be expressed as (2 x + 3 )2 = 0

So there is only one root, i.e.

represent numbers.

Examples:

Solving by factorisation

5 25 + 8 5 33

=

2

2

You probably noticed that most times, the square root part of the formula is not

easy to work out, and sometimes may even be negative and so cannot be solved.

Hence it is sometimes convenient to use the factorisation method.

2.4.3.

between what is inside the brackets and the resulting quadratic.

a. The product of the number terms in the two brackets gives the number term

in the expansion.

b. Collecting the number terms gives the coefficient of x.

c. A positive sign throughout the quadratic comes from positive signs in the

both brackets.

d. A positive number term and a negative coefficient of x come from negative

signs in both brackets.

e. A negative number term in the quadratic comes from a positive sign in one

bracket and a negative sign in the other bracket.

Example:

x 2 + 5x + 6

The x term in each bracket is x , as x 2 can only be x x x .

The sign in each bracket is + so (x + )(x + )

The number terms in the brackets can be 6 and 1 or 2 and 3.

The middle term in the quadratic shows that the sum of the number

is 5.

Therefore the factors are:

(x + 2)(x +3 )

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3

We have to be able to divide them first.

2

+ a 2b b 4

the remainder. Therefore, a 2 b + b 3 is divided

by a , giving ab . Again, ab is multiplied by

+ a 2b b 4

a 2b + b 3

a 2 ab

a + b a3 + b3

0

3x + 1

3x + 2

2x + 1 6x2 + 7x + 6

x 4 3 x 11x 4

a 3 + a 2b

a2 + b2

a4 b4

a 4 a 2b 2

a 3 + a 2b

3

a2 b2

a2

a + b a3 + b3

Examples:

a 2b + b 3

ab 2 + b 3 .

a 2b

ab 2

+ ab 2 + b 3

3 x 2 12 x

x4

6x2 + 3x

4x + 6

x4

4x + 2

a 2 ab + b 2

a+b

a3 + b3

a 3 + a 2b

a 2b + b 3

a 2b

ab 2

+ ab 2 + b 3

+ ab 2 + b 3

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Exercises

Solve these linear equations:

1.

3.

5.

7.

9.

3x + 5 = 9

x + 5 = 2x 3

2x + x = 4x + 1

12 x + 5 = 4 x

1x + 3 x = 9 x 5

2.

4.

6.

8.

10.

2x 1 = 7

3x + 5 = 9x

6x + 5 = 9x 5

x + 5x = 9 + 3x

9x + 5 = 4

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

3x + 6

2a + 4b

8q 18 p

x 2 + 3x

x 2 + 2 x 15

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

x 2 3 x 10

x 2 + 6x 7

x 2 2x 3

2x 2 4x 6

3 x 2 + 16 x + 5

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

3x + y = 9

x + 5 y = 2x 3

2x + y = 4 y + 1

x + 5 y = 4x

1y + 3 x = 9

2 x 1 = y

3x + 5 y = 9

6x + 5 y = 9

x + 5y = 9y + 3

9x + 5 y = 4

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6x 2 + 4x 2 = 0

4x 2 4x + 5 = 4

10 x 2 x 3 = 0

2x 2 2x 4 = 8

6 x 2 + 11x = 3

1.

3.

5.

(x 1)(x 3) = 0

3 x (x 7 ) = 0

(2 x 1)(2 x + 3) = 0

2.

4.

6.

(x 3 )(x + 1) = 0

(3 x 2)(x + 2) = 0

(x 1)(3 x 3 ) = 0

Work out:

1.

2.

3.

(3 x

(8 x

(9 x

2

2

2

)

+ 7 x + 2) (2 x + 7 )

+ 2 x + 1) (3 x + 1)

+ 6 x + 3 (x + 4 )

1.

3.

7x 2 + 9x + 2 = 0

2x 2 + 3x 2 = 0

2.

4.

x 2 + 6x + 5 = 0

7x 2 + 8x + 9 = 8

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2.6. Logarithms

Any positive number can be expressed as a power of 10. Thus as 1000 can be

3

1.9138

expressed as 10 , 82 can be written as 10

. These powers of 10 are called

logarithms to the base 10.

This means that the logarithm to base 10 of 1000 is 3. This can be written as

log101000 = 3. Manipulation of numbers, expressions and formulae, which are in

index form, may be simplified by using logarithms. Another use for logarithms is to

be able to reduce sometimes the more difficult arithmetic operations of

multiplication and division to those of addition and subtraction. There are a number

of laws that govern logarithms:

Example:

An equation relates the final velocity v of a machine with the machines variables,

w , p and z .

w

pz

20 .

This is given by v =

Transpose the formula and find the numerical value of

w when v = 15, p = 1.24 and z = 34.65.

Thus

For example, if we are asked to find x when 750 = 10x, it is convenient to use this

laws so that x = log 10 750 , so that x gives 2.8751 correct to 2 SF.

w

pz

20

w

log 10 v = log10 20 .

pz

w

log 10 v = 1.30103

pz

form into that of addition.

so w =

M

= log a M log a N

N

This law allows conversion from division of a number in index form into that of

subtraction. These laws are helpful when doing transposition of formulae.

Law 3: log a

w=

or

log 10 v

w

=

1.30103 pz

( pz ) log10 v

1.30103

=

1.30103

1.30103

= 38.84

( )

Law 5: log b M =

log a M

log a b

This law enables us to change the base of a logarithm. This is useful when we have

to deal with logarithms that have a base that is not found on the calculator.

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2.7.1.

To convert to denary, the numbers are laid out in successive powers.

Example:

Up till now we have been using the decimal system i.e. numbers from 0 to 9 and its

is called the decimal system because we have a total of 10 numbers.

Using this system any number can be represented as follows:

3

3

1101 = (1 x 2 ) + (1 x 2 ) + (0 x 2 ) + (1 x 2 )

= (1 x 8) + (1 x 4) + (0 x 2) + (1 x 1)

=8+4+0+1

= 1310

7892 = (7 x 10 ) + (8 x 10 ) + (9 x 10 ) + (2 x 10 )

This arrangement consists of number from 0 to 9, multiplied by the base (10) which

has a particular power (3, 2, 1 and 0). This is called the denary system because it

is based on the number 10.

2.7.2.

In the binary system, instead of 10, we use 2 as our base number. Therefore, all

numbers are represented in powers of 2.

In a hexadecimal system, the base number is 16. However, since in the decimal

numbering system, we have only 10 numbers (0-9). We make up for this by

introducing capital letters A, B, C, D, E and F which represent 10, 11, 12, 13, 14

and 15 respectively.

Example:

4310 = 2 + 2 + 2 + 2

_____________________________________________________________

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

Binary2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

Denary10

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

Converting Denary to Binary

To convert from denary to binary, we repeatedly divide by 2 and note the remainder

at each stage.

Example:

Converting 25 to binary:

25/2

12/2

6/2

3/2

1/2

=

=

=

=

=

12 remainder 1

6 remainder 0

3 remainder 0

1 remainder 1

0 remainder 1

Thus, the binary equivalent of 2510 is 110012. The order, in which the binary number

is written, is from the MSD (Most significant digit) to LSD (Least significant digit).

Denary

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

Binary

0000

0001

0010

0011

0100

0101

0110

0111

1000

1001

1010

1011

1100

1101

1110

1111

Hexadecimal

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

A

B

C

D

E

F

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Part-147 Aircraft Maintenance Training Centre

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Converting denary to hexadecimal

Exercises

The process is similar to that of the binary system. We divide the denary number by

16 and use the remainder.

Logarithms

Example:

Evaluate:

5136/16

321/16

20/16

1/16

=

=

=

=

321 remainder 0

20 remainder 1

1 remainder 4

0 remainder 1

=

=

a. log464

b. log93

c. log12525

d. log12111

MSD

a. log ab

b. log a/b

c. log a b

d. log a /b

c. 4 2 x +1 = 2

d. 5 x 5 x 1 = 10

94/16

5/16

LSD

a. 3 x = 6

b. 2 2 x = 5

( )( )

5 remainder 14 (= E16)

0 remainder 5

Number Systems

i) 45

Example:

i) 10110

iv) EA

2

ii) 7

iii) 56

iv) 89

ii) 0110010

v) 8A

v) 120

iii) 0100101

vi) 2C

BA4 = (B x 16 ) + (A x 16 ) + (4 x 16 )

= (11 x 256) + (10 x 16) + (4 X 1)

= 2980

Thus the denary equivalent to BA416 is 298010.

Pg 28

Part-147 Aircraft Maintenance Training Centre

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3. GEOMETRY

4

2

3.1. Graphs

0

3.1.1.

Graphical Representation

these equations graphically. Sometimes transposition and manipulation of the

equation is required. It is important that the equality sign must always be present.

y-axis

-3

-2

-1

-2

-4

-6

In order to plot a graph, two axes are required which intersect at the point zero

called the origin. It is important that a suitable scale for these axes is chosen and it

need not be the same for both axes. To plot points on the graph, we use coordinates. For example, (2,4) represents 2 units on the x-axis and 4 units on the yaxis. The x-ordinate is always quoted first. The x-ordinate is an independent

variable and is plotted on the horizontal axis. The y-ordinate is a dependent

variable and is plotted on the vertical axis.

3.1.2.

Example:

-1

-2

-4

-6

0

0

-4

-4

x-axis

line. The c part represents the y-intercept, i.e. at which point the line crosses the

y-axis.

Plot y = 2x 4

-2

-4

-4

-8

-10

x

2x

-4

y

-8

1

2

-4

-2

2

4

-4

0

3

6

-4

2

These types of equations, where the highest power of x is 1, are known as equation

of the first degree or a linear equation. These produce always straight-line graphs.

Pg 29

Part-147 Aircraft Maintenance Training Centre

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Equation of a straight line

It was already mentioned that a linear equation can be written in the form of

y = mx + c . It was also shown how a graph can be plotted if the equation of the line

is known. However, it is also important to know how to determine the equation of

the line starting from two co-ordinates on the graph. The example below shows

exactly this.

Example:

Find the equation of the line having coordinates (5,4) and (3,2).

m=

y y 2 y1 4 2 2

=

=

= =1

x x 2 x1 5 3 2

The y-intercept is found by putting one of the co-ordinates into the

general equation and using the value of the gradient found, i.e. 1

In this case, we can use 4 = 5(1) + c . This gives c = -1

Therefore the final general equation is y = 1x 1

It is also possible to find the values of the slope and the y-intercept by using

simultaneous equations. This is done by putting the co-ordinates into the general

equation. For the previous example, we would get 4 = 5m + c and 2 = 3m + c .

Solving these simultaneously, we get the values of m and c for the general equation

of the line.

Example:

The y-intercept is easy to find since the graph crosses the y-axis at

y = -4. Thus, c = -4.

m=

y y 2 y1 B C

=

=

x x 2 x1 D 0

m=

y y2 y1

=

x x2 x1

The gradient can be found by taking any two points and using the

equation shown earlier.

Say we take (2,6) and (5,21) as co-ordinates.

m=

y y 2 y1 21 6 15

=

=

=

=5

x x 2 x1

52

3

Pg 30

Part-147 Aircraft Maintenance Training Centre

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3.1.3.

Alternatively, using simultaneous equations and using the same

two co-ordinates:

6 = 2m + c

and

21 = 5m + c

Hence the straight-line law would be y = 5 x 4 as before.

45

40

e.g. x 2 + 5 x + 2 = y . There are various methods that can be used to solve these

equations and the formula and factorization method were already mentioned in the

algebra section. Quadratic equations can also be solved graphically.

When a quadratic function of the form ax 2 + bx + c is plotted against x, the resulting

curve is known as a parabola and the sign of the coefficient of a, will determine

which way the curve points.

To plot these curves, a table of values needs to be set up in terms of the values of

the independent and dependent variables.

Example:

35

30

x

2

x

-3x

2

y

25

y - axis

Find x if y = x 2 3 x + 2 .

20

15

0

0

0

2

2

1

1

-3

2

0

2

4

-6

2

0

3

9

-9

2

2

4

16

-12

2

6

10

25

5

0

-5 0

10

20

-10

15

Note: Gradients or slopes are not always positive. It is possible to have negative

gradients so m is a negative number, e.g. y = 5 x + 2

y - axis

x - axis

10

0

0

-5

x - axis

Pg 31

Part-147 Aircraft Maintenance Training Centre

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The points on the curve where the it crosses the x-axis are x = 1 and x = 2. These

are the points on the curve for which y = 0 or x 2 3 x + 2 = 0 . Therefore x = 1 and x

= 2 are the solutions of the quadratic equation.

From this graph, it is also possible to solve any equation of the type x 2 3 x = k ,

where k is a constant. If for example, we wish to solve x 2 3 x + 1 = 0 , then

comparing this equation with the one plotted, one just needs to add 1 to both sides

to acquire the equation y = x 2 3 x + 2 = 1 . So instead of taking the points crossing

the line y = 0 ( x axis), we take points on the line y = 1.

At these points, x = 0.4 or 2.6 which are the solutions to the equation

x 2 3x + 1 = 0 .

3.1.4.

Exercises

Plot the graph of:

a) y = 4x 3

b) 2y = 6x + 8

c) 3x = 6y 9

(try using both methods)

both equations on the same graph. The solution lies where the plots intersect.

Example:

The graph clearly shows 2 points where the functions intersect. These are the

solutions to the simultaneous equations. Thus x = 2, y = 3 and x = 6 and y = 23 are

solutions.

y = 5 x 7 and y = x 2 3 x + 5

Solve

25

2

a) y = 3x + 2x 1

b) y = 6x -3x +5

20

Solve these simultaneous equations graphically (plot for 0 < x < 5):

15

A

y - axis

10

a) y = 3x - 7

b) y = 5x 10

and

and

y = 2x 5x - 1

2

y = 3x 10x + 5

5

0

-2

-1

-5

-10

-15

x - axis

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3.2. Trigonometry

3.2.1.

3.2.2.

Pythagoras Theorem

In a right angled triangle, the area of the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the

sum of the area of the squares on the other two sides.

2

Sin =

Trigonometrical Ratios

Opposite

Hypotenuse

Cos =

Opposite

Hypotenuse

Tan =

Opposite

Adjacent

SOHCAHTOA.

B

Hypotenuse

A

Example:

Side

opposite

to angle A

Example:

B

opp 3

Sin B =

= = 0 .6

hyp 5

adj 4

Cos B =

= = 0.8

hyp 5

opp 3

Tan B =

= = 0.75

adj 4

2

By Pythagoras: c = b + a

2

2

2

Therefore c = 5 + 12 = 144 + 25 = 169

c=

169 = 13cm

Pg 33

Part-147 Aircraft Maintenance Training Centre

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B

30

30

3

2

60

2

60

1

Sin 60 o =

opp

3

=

= 0.866

hyp

2

Sin 30 o =

opp 1

= = 0.5

hyp 2

Cos 60 o =

adj 1

= = 0 .5

hyp 2

Cos 30 o =

adj

3

=

= 0.866

hyp

2

Tan 60 o =

opp

3

=

= 1.732

adj

1

Tan 30 o =

opp

1

=

= 0.5774

adj

3

Pg 34

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1.5

40

30

20

10

0

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Tan X

Sin X

0.5

-0.5

-10

-1

-20

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

-30

-1.5

-40

degrees

degrees

1.5

1

Cos X

0.5

0

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

-0.5

-1

-1.5

degrees

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3.2.3.

Use of Tables

3.2.4.

It is possible to find the Sine, Cosine and Tangent of the most common angles, i.e.

90, 30, 45 etc using the relative curves. However, the Sine, Cosine and Tangent

functions of other angles are not so simply calculated, and without the aid of a

calculator, the use of tables is required.

Example:

The most common way of giving the position of a point in a plane is based on using

two fixed perpendicular lines called the axes of coordinates, (x and y axis). The

Cartesian co-ordinates represent the horizontal distance from the y-axis (in direction

Ox) and the vertical distance from the x-axis (in direction Oy).

Sin 32, Sin 3124, Sin 3228

can be represented by the Cartesian

co-ordinates (3, -2).

3

2

0'

6'

12'

18'

24'

30'

36'

42'

48'

Mean Differences

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

1'

2'

3'

4'

5'

30

5000

5015

5030

5045

5060

5075

5090

5105

5120

10

13

31

5150

5165

5180

5195

5210

5225

5240

5255

5270

10

12

32

5299

5314

5329

5344

5358

5373

5388

5402

5417

10

12

-3

-2

-1

-1

-2

-3

Sin 32 = 0.5299

3.2.5.

Polar Co-ordinates

If the number of minutes is not exactly a multiple of 6, we use the tables of

differences. Since Sin 3224 = 0.5358 and 28 is 4 more than 24, looking in the

difference table, we find the value of 10. This is added to the Sine of 3224.

So Sin 3228 = 0.5368

Polar co-ordinates are expressed in terms of the direct distance from the fixed point

O, together with the angle between Ox and OP. The position of the point P in the

diagram is given as (6, 60). Anti-clockwise

P

rotation is taken as positive, whilst clockwise is

6

taken as negative.

5

4

3

2

60

1

0

Pg 36

Part-147 Aircraft Maintenance Training Centre

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Converting between Polar and Cartesian

a. Sin 33

e. Cos 4013

b. Cos 25

f. Tan 1520

c. Cos 1524

g. Tan 3012

d. Sin 1232

h. Sin 3520

Exercises

Write down the Cartesian coordinates of the following points:

a. (5,7)

e. (4, 60)

b. (-4,2)

f. (-2, 45)

c. (3,-5)

g. (5, -60)

d. (-2,-4)

h. (-4, -50)

Pg 37

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3.3.1.

The Circle

Theorem 1:

Theorem 2:

The angle that an arc of a circle subtends at its centre is twice the

angle, which the arc subtends at the circumference.

Angles in the same segment of a circle are equal.

Theorem 3:

Theorem 4:

The opposite angles of any cyclic quadrilateral are equal to 180.

The most important elements of the circle can be seen in the below diagram. A

chord is a straight line, which joins two points on the circumference of a circle. The

diameter is a chord drawn through the centre of the circle.

The constant distance between the centre of the circle and the circumference is

the radius.

A tangent is a line, which just touches the circumference of a circle, at one point

and always has a radius that is perpendicular to it. Where this radius meets the

tangent is called the point of tangency.

A chord line cuts a circle into a minor segment and a major segment. A sector of

a circle is an area enclosed between two radii, and a length of the circumference is

the arc length.

D

C

Pg 38

Part-147 Aircraft Maintenance Training Centre

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Theorem 5:

point of tangency.

Theorem 6:

The angle between a tangent and a chord drawn from the point of

tangency equals half of the angle at the centre subtended by the

chord.

Theorem 8:

If two circles touch either internally or externally, then the line that

passes through their centres also passes through the point of

tangency.

Theorem 7:

tangent and a chord that is

drawn from the point of

tangency is equal to the

angle at the circumference

subtended by the chord.

B

Pg 39

Part-147 Aircraft Maintenance Training Centre

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3.3.2.

Angles

There are two ways of measuring angles. The most common way is by using the

degrees scale but one may also use the radians scale.

There are 2 radians in 360.

The significance of the is that the radius of the circle fits around the

circumference 2 times.

n

To convert from degrees to radians use:

2

360

50

Example:

Convert 50 into radians.

2 = 0.8727 radians

360

intersect, will produce 4 angles. As in

the diagram below, AOB and COD are

called vertical angles and have the

same degree measurement. Angles

AOC and BOD are also vertical angles.

D

C

lines that are intersected by a third line produce

angles, such that A and D are equal, as are

angles C and B.

Length of Arc

C

n

2r

360

angles, any pair of parallel lines crossed by a

third line will produce angles such that A is

equal to D and angle C is equal to angle B.

C

Right Angles: angles measuring exactly 90. Two lines that meet at right angles

are said to be perpendicular. Any two right angles are supplementary angles.

90. One of the complementary angles is said to be the complement of the other.

Supplementary Angles: angles whose sum of their degree measures equal to

180. One of the supplementary angles is said to be the supplementary of the other.

lines intersected by a third line produce an

angle such that angle D is equal to B and angle

A is equal to C.

Pg 40

Part-147 Aircraft Maintenance Training Centre

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3.3.3.

Construction

From the centre O, two equal arcs must

be produced to cut the arms at A and B.

With centres A and B, two equal length

arcs then meet at C. The line OC

bisects the angle.

AB becomes 100 units with AC at right angles to AB. BC are joined so than angle

ABC is now 2330.

Similarly for the second figure which shows the sine method for angle = 2836.

Sine of 2836 is 0.4787 which when multiplied by 100 becomes 47.87 units long.

This is our arc length from A and AB as before is 100 units. A line is then drawn

from B that just touches the arc. Angle ABC will be 2836.

In order to have a common point, two lines parallel to the given arms need to be

drawn far enough to make them meet at a point and then use the above technique

normally.

The figure shows the circle with three

well-spaced points A, B and C on its

circumference. Two chords can be

produced ( A and B, B and C). When

these are bisected, the lines will

intersect at the centre of the circle.

For this method, a good knowledge of the trigonometric ratios is important. For the

example, a scale factor of 100 will be used. The figure shows how to set an angle

using the tangent ratio. In this case, the angle is 2330 which gives a value of

0.4348. Using a multiplier of 100 units, the line AC = 43.48 units. The horizontal line

Pg 41

Part-147 Aircraft Maintenance Training Centre

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

The first figure shows two circles with radii R and r. With centre O1, draw a circle of

radius R r. Join O1 O2 and bisect to obtain centre C. With C as centre, draw a

semi-circle of radius CO1 to cut the inner circle at T. Draw a line from O1 through T

to locate T1 on the outer circle.

A straight line AF is drawn equal to the given length of the side. With centres A and

F, arcs of radius AF intersect at O. With the centre O, a circle of radius OA cuts the

arcs at B and D. With centres B and E, arcs of radius AF cut the circle at C and D

respectively. The points on the circle are finally joined to obtain the hexagon.

The second figure shows the line O2 parallel to O1T1, drawn to cut the smaller circle

at T2. A line is then drawn through T1 and T2 to obtain the external tangent to the

two circles as shown. This construction is very useful to portray a belt drive around

two pulleys.

To draw the inscribed circle for a given triangle.

The figure shows the given triangle ABC with angles A and B both having been

bisected and the bisectors extended to meet at O. In the second figure, a

perpendicular is constructed from O to cut AB at D. Then with centre O and radius

OD the inscribed circle of triangle ABC is drawn.

Initially, intersecting lines at right angles need to be drawn. From corner A, set out

AB and AD equal to the required radius. From B and D, arcs of the required radius

are drawn which intersect at O. From O, the arc can be drawn to blend with the

straight lines.

Pg 42

Part-147 Aircraft Maintenance Training Centre

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Set out a radius R from P and radius R + r from O to meet at C. From C, draw an

arc radius R to touch the circle and point P.

Pg 43

Part-147 Aircraft Maintenance Training Centre

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Natural Sines

Natural Cosines

Pg 44

Part-147 Aircraft Maintenance Training Centre

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Natural Tangents

Pg 45

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