IMPERFECT = was/were…-ing (Je parlais = I was talking) Nous form +: -ais -ions -ais -iez -ait -aient

etre (et-) aller (all-) ______________________________ CONDITIONAL = would (Je parlerais = I would talk) Infinitive +: -ais -ais -ait -ions -iez -aient

2. ending in –eler and –eter (appeler, jeter) = double ‘l’ and ‘t’ (j’appellerai, j’appellerais ; je jetterai, je jetterais) 3. ending in –yer (employer, essayer, essuyer, payer) = change ‘y’ to ‘i’ (j’emploierai, j’emploierais ; je paierai, je paierais) ______________________________ FUTURE PERFECT (futur anterieur) = will have… -ed (J’aurai parlé = I will have talked) Future avoir/être + past verb PAST CONDITIONAL = would have…-ed (J’aurais parlé = I would have talked) Conditional avoir/être + past verb PLUPERFECT (plus-que-parfait) = had…-ed (J’avais parlé = I had talked) Imperfect avoir/être + past verb ______________________________ 1. Si + present tense > present, imperative, or future Si je suis fatiguée, je me repose. If I'm tired, I rest. Repose-toi si tu es fatigué. Rest if you're tired. Si je suis fatigué demain, je me reposerai. If I am tired tomorrow, I will rest. 2. Si + imperfect > present conditional Si j'étais riche, je pourrais acheter un château. If I were rich, I would buy a castle. Il deviendrait roi s'il avait plus de courage. He would become king if he had more courage. 3. Si + pluperfect > past conditional Si j'avais su, j'aurais compris. If I had known, I would have understood. ______________________________ SUBJUNCTIVE = mood/uncertainty

aller (ir-) to go avoir (aur-) to have devoir (devr-) have to être (ser-) to be faire (fer-) to do falloir (faudr-) should pouvoir (pourr-) be able to savoir (saur-) to know venir (viendr-) to come voir (verr-) to see vouloir (voudr-) to want SIMPLE FUTURE (Je parlerai = I will talk) Infinitive + : -ai -ons -as -ez -a -ont For Future and Conditional : 1. Verbs ending in ‘e/er’ (mener, lever, peser) = change ‘e’ to ‘è’ (je mènerai, je mènerais)

Ils/Elles form + : -e -ions -es -iez -e -ent aller (aille, ailles, aille – allions, alliez, aillent) avoir (aie, aies, ait – ayons, ayez, aient) être (sois, sois, soit – soyons, soyez, soient) faire (fass-) falloir (faill-) pouvoir (puiss-) to be able to pleuvoir (pleuv-) to rain savoir (sach-) 1. Verbs ending in –ier (crier, étudier) = double’i’ (nous criions, nous étudiions) PAST SUBJUNCTIVE (Je doute que j’aie parlé = I doubt that I talked) Subjunctive avoir/être + past verb ______________________________ PRESENT PARTICIPLE = …-ing (J’attend, parlant quand il est calme = I wait, talking when it is quiet) Nous form + -ant 1. En + present participle = simultaneous actions (Je chantais en jouant de la guitare = I was singing while playing the guitar) ______________________________ DEVOIR: Necessity or Moral Obligation PRESENT = must, have to (Je dois parler = I must talk) - can mean ‘to owe’ with object (Je dois d’argent = I owe money)

FUTURE = will have to (Je devrai parler = I will have to talk) IMPERFECT = had to, used to have to (Je devais parler = I had to talk) PASSÉ COMPOSÉ = had to (J’ai dû parler = I had to talk) CONDITONAL = should, ought to (Je devrais parler = I should talk) PAST CONDITIONAL = should have, ought to have (J’aurais dû parler = I should have talked) ______________________________