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United States History 10th Grade

The Ranney School
2015-2016
Instructor: Mr. Christopher Payne
Classroom: Annex 202
Email: cpayne@ranneyschool.org
Required Textbook: A People and a Nation: Brief Ninth Edition, By Mary Beth Norton; The DBQ Project - Document
Based Questions in American History
Required Software: Students will be instructed to install “Safe Exam Browser” on their computer on the first day of
school.
Course:
This study of U.S. History traces the course of American culture from Reconstruction to the end of the Cold War.
Students acquire knowledge of the basic chronology, as well as an understanding of the various political, social,
intellectual and economic trends that produced and illustrate American achievement through the centuries. The specific
skills of the historian are taught and emphasized; students analyze and interpret primary source documents, conduct
historical research and write critical essays and research papers throughout the year. The program utilizes a basic text and
supplementary readings, as well as primary source documents. Students may contract with their teacher for honors credit.
Class Objectives and Activities:










Document Analysis: Analysis of primary source documents
Critical Reading: Text and supplemental readings, which may include companion questions, assigned for class
and/or homework
Notebook and Organization: Student produced outlines, summaries and notes for assigned readings
Class discussions: Students will be expected to discuss primary source readings and other homework reading
assignments. In some situations students will be asked to prepare their own discussion questions based on the
reading to share with the class.
Simulations: Class activities which place the student in the role of decision makers, historic personalities, and
historians.
Seminar Days: Some class days will be devoted specifically to the discussion of primary sources or certain
events in history. Students should prepare as instructed in previous days.
Presentations: Print and oral presentations including speeches, debates and research projects.
Expository Essays and Research: Essays developed independently and or through a guided research process.
Reading Quizzes: Regular announced and unannounced quizzes based on homework and class notes
Essay Assessments: will often cover multiple chapters of topical information from class and will be based on
assigned reading, class discussions and class lectures and notes.
Current Events: Students will also be analyzing and remaining current on national and international current
events. Essays, discussions and presentations may accompany these assignments and activities.

Grading:
Assignments will be weighted as follows
Essay Assessments/Projects/Large at Home Essays: 50%
Multiple Choice Assessments/Small Essays/Some Map Quizzes: 35%
Homework/Classwork/Reading Quizzes/Most Map Quizzes: 10%
Classroom Engagement: 5%
Note: Please be sure to include your name on an assignment. Many times I cannot figure out who an assignment belongs
to based on writing. In this case, I will hold on to all assignment without a name until the end of the quarter. If
assignments are passed back and you did not receive yours it is your responsibility to check with me and claim your
paper.

Note: If students are able to successfully answer and complete coursework as we have covered it in class, this
represents “B” work. “A” work involves being able to make extensive applications of the course material and
complete knowledge of course material beyond basic class work (this will require extra study and effort on your
part), i.e. mastery of the course material. Answers must include critical thought, independent research, analysis,
citations, and discussion above and beyond the basic requirements of the class. “A” level work also indicates your
ability to handle an AP classroom setting. In order to qualify for an AP level history class next year you must
achieve above a 90% for a final average. I DO NOT curve 89% to 90%, you must earn this on your own.
Online Gradebook:
In the 2014-2015 school year, Ranney introduced an online gradebook. As a result, the history department has set internal
standards to post grades in a timely manner. Please understand that in order to effectively grade your work, more time
may occasionally be required due to unforeseen circumstances and other mitigating factors. If the situation occurs, I will
announce to the class that your grades have been delayed.
I will target posting grades with the following timeframes in mind:

Major assignments, including but not limited to: written assessments / essays / papers / projects / short answer
questions / multiple choice assessments that include short answer sections: 1-2 weeks.
Small assignments and minor assessments including, but not limited to: homework / classwork / pop reading
quizzes / multiple choice assessments that do not include written portions: 72 hours.

Please remember that not every collected assignment is graded. Sometimes I am simply checking for basic understanding
and evaluating student progress in an informal manner.
Classroom Engagement:
Students will be expected to be on task in class daily. This means making at least a good faith attempt to answer
questions posed to them by the instructor and following instructions when given. You do not always have to volunteer to
answer questions but it is encouraged. Learning comes by doing and I never expect everyone to know everything. I will
be happy to come back to you for your answer so that you may reference your notes.
While it is okay to disagree with a classmate or even me showing outward disrespect including, but not limited to,
making fun of another classmate for an incorrect answer or calling people’s answers or opinions “stupid” is not
acceptable. Doing so will vastly and negatively impact your task grade.
Every student begins a quarter with 30/30 task points. If you disrupt class, aren’t paying attention, are distracted by your
computer, talking to friends or all around not doing what has been asked of you, you will be told you are “off task” If you
are told you are “off task” you can expect that you will lose between 1 and 5 of your task points depending on the
severity of the offence. Distracting yourself hurts you directly and your classmates indirectly and continually being off
task will result in harsher deductions. However, students who are off task and are also, by their actions or words,
distracting others, are directly hurting other student’s ability to learn. As such off task actions that distract others may
receive the maximum five point deduction.
Beyond simply being on task daily, attendance in class is also mandatory. Missing class, in either an excused or
unexcused manor, hurts the dynamic of the class and prevents your opinions from being heard by classmates. It also
actively stifles your growth as a students and a member of our classroom and community. Being part of a community
means being responsible for supporting that community, as such, unexcused absences and consistent / repetitive excused
absences will adversely impact your task grade.
Extra Help / Office Hours:
If you require extra help you MUST schedule an appointment at least ONE DAY prior. I am available before school at
8:00am by appointment. I have also set aside Wednesdays for small need, walk in questions. I will make every effort to
accommodate your needs. However, I am a three season coach so scheduling can sometimes be a challenge. Please be
assured that if you require extra help prior to an assessment and I cannot see you before your scheduled assessment date I
will be happy to postpone your assessment date until we have a chance to meet.

Please understand that many students may require extra help. I will make every effort to ensure that I schedule students
separately. However, on occasion extra help sessions may include more than one student.
In order to be eligible for extra help you must have taken notes in class and made a good faith attempt to learn on your
own. If you can’t show me your notes, you cannot get extra help.
Midterm and Final Exams:
There will be no traditional midterm exam during a traditional midterm exam week. However, there will be a cumulative,
one to two period, written test that will cover ‘big picture’ items and themes covered from the first through the second
quarter. This test will count as 20% of your first semester grade. There will be no traditional review week and no
traditional two hour exam.
At this point you will have a traditional, final exam that will be focused on the second half of the year.
Behavior and Technology Expectations:
Students will be expected to follow all school rules without exception.
Computer use in the classroom will be for general note taking and day to day class activities. Computer use is at my
discretion. If at any point I instruct the class to stop using their laptops you are expected to comply immediately. Failure
to do so will lead to an assumption that you are doing something that you shouldn’t and you will be subject to a zero for
the day as well as a CSV. The use of instant messaging programs, electronic note passing, or games of any kind is not
allowed. If caught, your computer will be taken from you, your computer use will be restricted for the remainder of the
year and you will be referred to the dean of students for disciplinary action. You are expected to be using your computer
for academic purposes only. I reserve the right to restrict or prohibit your use of a computer in my class. If you abuse
your privileges they will be rescinded.
E-mail Communication:
All students enrolled are obligated to check their Ranney School e-mail on a regular basis and at least twice per day for
announcements and information from Mr. Payne. Not checking your e-mail is not an excuse for not receiving important
updates to assignments or scheduling changes for class / assessments etc. This will be my primary means of
communication with you outside of class.
Emails sent to Mr. Payne by both parents and students will be answered within 24 hours, between 8:00am and 4:00pm As
a result, e-mailing questions regarding homework assignments after school hours will not be seen until the next morning.
Attendance:
Attendance in class is mandatory. Students will be expected to report to class on time. If you miss class due to an absence
it is your responsibility to ask for any work you have missed and to get any class notes from another student upon your
return. Please see Google Docs for any particular material you may require. If you require physical handouts (unlikely as
nearly everything is electronic) or other items to complete from a missed day please ask me for these items the day you
return.
Please reference the participation section of this syllabus for information regarding the impact of both excused and
unexcused absences on your grade.
Assessment Absences:
If you are absent from class during an assessment or any other assessment and return to school later that same day, you
will be completing your that day on your own time. If you fail to complete your assessment the same day it may be
subject to a zero. If you are absent on an assessment day and report to school the next day you will be required to take
your assessment that day. Failure to do so will result in a zero for the assessment. Sports and extracurricular activities are
not a valid excuse for postponing the completion of a late assessment.

Medical excuses will always be accepted and extensions will be granted.
If you know you will be absent on an assessment day for an excused reason you must make up your assessment when
you return. It is history department policy to not give assessments early.
If you are absent during an assessment for any unexcused reason you will lose 10% on your assessment or graded
assignment.
Submission of Work:
The submission criteria of particular assignments will be specified when the project is assigned. Assignments will be
posted on Google Docs and you will be able to access documents and assignments from there.
Essays will be submitted through turnitin.com
Typed essays must be double spaced, Times New Roman font, size 12, 1 inch margins. Your name should appear in the
header of each page left justified with a page number, on the same line, right justified. If you include a title it may not be
larger than size 14 font. You will lose up to 10 points for each of these requirements you do not adhere to. See me if
you are unsure how to accomplish any of these requirements in MSWord. All writing assignments require a citation of
sources.
Late Work:
Late work is subject to a 20% deduction in credit if the assignment is late. Late work will be considered late if you do not
possess the assignment at the time it is collected in class. If the work is not submitted the next class day before 3:25 it
will become a zero.
If you require extra time to complete an assignment please present me with a valid reason for an extension and if your
need is genuine it will be granted. Extensions will not be granted on the due date of the assignment except in extreme
circumstances.
Nightly homework is not accepted late as we go over the answers in class.
Reading Assessments:
Throughout this class students will be expected to maintain a current awareness and knowledge of class material and
reading assignments. Students may be presented with announced and unannounced reading assessments on various topics
and reading homework. Furthermore, certain in class work may be counted as a in the 30% category at my discretion.
Reading assessments will count as part of your homework grade.
Homework:
Our class is assigned homework every day. In order to participate fully in class discussions it is very important for
students to complete nightly homework.
Homework will be checked roughly ten times per quarter for completeness and full effort and will be graded on a 10/10
scale. On occasion, I will also collect homework and grade it for accuracy, effort and completeness. You may have one
free homework pass per quarter as your lowest homework grade will be dropped.
Students who complete homework simply as instructed with basic answers to questions that come solely from the
textbook can expect a grade between 8/10. In order to achieve a grade above an 8/10, you must do more than
simply copying your answers from the text. You must make a full and distinct effort to improve your knowledge
through showing independent thought, analysis, discussion and critical thinking where appropriate.

We will review the answers to homework questions each day. Therefore, it is not always possible to accept late work.
However, due to emergencies or unforeseen circumstances late work may be acceptable.
Homework is weighted at 10% and generally, a single missing homework (beyond your pass) will have very little impact
on a quarter grades.
Also included in your homework requirements are weekly discussion board posts and two replies on the class forum.
This forum is accessible through the class website http://mrpaynehistory.weebly.com. Your responses on this site will be
graded as homework assignments.
Map Knowledge:
Part of being an informed citizen is having a complete knowledge the geopolitical landscape of our country. All US 2
students are required to know the location of every state in the country. You will have at least one complete map quiz per
quarter on every state in the country. A map is provided for you in this syllabus.
Academic Integrity:
Cheating and/or plagiarizing are serious offenses. Cheating includes but is not limited to the actual giving or receiving of
any unauthorized assistance or the actual giving or receiving of an unfair advantage on any form of academic work (this
includes homework and other small assignments). Plagiarizing includes but is not limited to the copying of the language,
structure, idea and/or thought of another and representing it as one’s own original work. If a student is to have been
found cheating or plagiarizing they will receive a zero on the assignment/assessment and will be referred to the Upper
School’s Judicial Review Board. Furthermore, any violation of the school’s honor code will be disciplined according to
the school’s required process. UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED ALL WORK IS INDEPENDENT WORK. YOU
MAY NOT WORK WITH ANY OTHER CLASSMATE OR SCHOOLMATE… EVER! You may work with
independent tutors and other teachers.
Required Resources:
All students will be required to possess and bring to class
 Text: A People and a Nation: Brief Ninth Edition, By Mary Beth Norton
 Your Laptop with access to Google Docs
o All written assignments must be uploaded in a google docs or word format.
o Essay assignments will be submitted on turnitin.com
 Pocket folders are suggested for returned, non-digital assignments.
 A pencil will be required on midterms and finals test questions.
 Electronic Notebooks – you may use any program you wish so long as items can be saved or exported in a Word
or Google Docs Format

Category
Historical Content
and Analysis

General Paper
Organization

Answers all the
Questions / Thesis
Presentation

Writing Style

Written Assignment / Test / Essay Evaluation Rubric
Specifics
Paper shows a complete and nearly perfect analysis of all appropriate points, quotations and information. Historical information
from outside sources is cited and used in abundance. All Historical Facts are Accurate.
Paper shows an attempt at use of historical content and is missing very few points. Analysis is attempted, but may be incomplete.
Historical facts are accurate but may have some slight errors.
Paper lacks historical evidence and analysis nearly completely, some effort may be present. More than two historical facts are
inaccurate.
The paper is nearly perfectly organized into properly formatted paragraphs. The ideas of the paper flow in a logical order and
information in each paragraph is limited to the information identified in the topic sentence. The paper has a formal introduction and
conclusion as well as appropriate body paragraphs that are defined by specific topic sentences. Introduction and conclusion
properly introduce and conclude entire paper and are missing no points. (When Required: Citations are done perfectly and there are
no errors.)
The paper shows decent organizational qualities. Some minor problems may be present but for the most part paragraphs flow in
order. Some sentences may be out of place. Either the introduction or conclusion is missing and / or body paragraphs are not limited
to the topic sentence. New information is presented and discussed in introductory or conclusion paragraphs but it is not
overabundant. Introduction and conclusion neglect to introduce or conclude minor portions of your paper. (When Required:
Citations are attempted and show some errors. They may not be in ideal Chicago style.)
The paper shows a lack of organization. Sentences in paragraphs don’t fit well with the topic sentence and the flow of ideas is
incomplete or difficult to follow. The paper doesn’t possess a formal organization strategy lacking formalized paragraphs and
introductions as well as conclusions. New information is constantly presented and discussed in the introduction or conclusion.
Introduction and conclusion neglect to introduce or conclude major portions of your paper. (When Required: Citations show
significant errors or are not present. Citations are not in Chicago style: Note: a lack of citations may indicate plagiarism and can
be referred to the dean of students.)
The paper answers every question posed in the directions. There are no missed points and all questions are answered thoroughly.
Questions are expanded upon in some limited situations and a conscious attempt was made to do so in most situations. Your thesis
is complete and contains specific indications as to what your paper will be discussing.
The paper does a decent job in answering the questions. One question may be neglected and answers may, occasionally be mildly
incomplete. Questions are not expanded upon in any situations. Your thesis is present but is either incomplete, insufficient, and or
lacks appropriate indications as to the details of your paper.
The paper does not answer a number of questions or the directions of the paper were not followed. The questions posed are not
evident in the topic of the paper. Your thesis is ether not present or indiscernible from your introduction. If a thesis is present it
doesn’t answer the question and is exceedingly generalized.
The style is clear, concise and flows without question. There are few to no awkward sentences, spelling is not an issue, vocabulary
is well used, word choice is perfect and there are NO spelling / grammatical errors (if submitted electronically). The paper follows
all of the formal rules of writing and expectations of any history paper. The paper shows a careful regard for quality
The style shows problems with awkward sentences and structure and contains a number of grammatical / structural errors and
contains 1 to 2 spelling / grammatical errors (if submitted electronically). The paper may have incomplete and run on sentences or
unclear sentence logic. The paper is constructed carefully and is of high quality; however, some small careless mistakes may have
been made.
The paper shows pervasive inconsistency in sentence structure and writing style. The paper is difficult to read and follow in the
flow of ideas. More than two spelling / grammatical errors are present (if submitted electronically) and the paper shows a lack of
attentiveness to detail. You clearly neglected to run spellcheck and grammar check. The paper shows a careless regard for quality.
Total

4/4 = 95-98(A); 3/4 = 85(B); 2/4 = 75(C); 1/4 = (68); 0/4 = F (Requires Full Re-Write for max grade of 65)
.5 = (Letter) +
.75 = (-) from letter grade above (ex. 3.75 = A-)
Name ______________________________________________________

_________________________________

RUBRIC FOR EVALUATING A DBQ ESSAY ON A 9-POINT SCALE
Adapted from AP US History guidelines

Score
(Grade)

Thesis

Analysis (tends
to be the most
diffi- cult
component)

Outside Info
Entire Prompt

Documents

Organization
&
Writing Skill

4

3

Contains a welldeveloped thesis
which clearly addresses all
aspects of the
prompt and
shows organizational roadmap

Effective analysis
which shows &
proves relationships; fully
answers the “so
what?” questions;
more analytical
than nar- rative.

Addresses all
aspects of the
prompt, though
coverage may
be slightly
uneven

Supports thesis
with substantial
and relevant
out- side
information.

“The angels
are starting to
sing!”

Contains a
thesis which
addresses the
prompt

Limited analysis;
mostly
descriptive;;
knowledge &
com- prehension
level in use of
facts

Slights or
neglects some
parts of the
prompt

2

Presents a
limited, confused
and/or poorly
developed thesis

1

Contains no
thesis or a thesis
which does not
address the
prompt

Simplistic
explana- tions
that do not
indicate mastery
of the content;
may list facts
without analysis
Shows
inadequate or
inaccurate understanding of
the prompt

Deals with one
as- pect of the
prompt in a
general way
or with
additional parts
in a superfi- cial
Ignores part of
the question

--

Effectively and
ap- propriately
uses
all —(or almost
all)
documents

Uses some documents effectively

Quotes or
briefly cites
some documents, but
does not use
them as tools
to support
Contains little or
no understanding
of the documents
or ignores them
com- pletely

Supports thesis
with some
outside
information

Contains little
out- side
information

Includes inappropriate, off-target,
or no outside
informa- tion

Clearly
organized
& well-written—
evi- dent on first
read- ing, but
we’ll read it
again just for
pleasure.
“Call the
President;; he
Acceptable organization;
language errors
do not interfere
with comprehension and
do not indicate
misunderstanding of
Demonstrates
weak
organization- al
and/or writing
skills which interfere with
compre- hension
Is so poorly organized or written
that it is difficult
to understand

Response is completely off-target. Examples: “I didn’t have to pay for this exam and I’m not wasting my time on it”
about the prompt,
but let me tell you about snow-boarding…”; “My former boyfriend is the world’s biggest jerk and
Grading: 0-7pts = 50-69%, 8-14pts = 70%-79% 15-21pts = 80-89%, 22-27pts = 90-98%
Each Point on Rubric is roughly equal to 1.5 points in each range

Honors Course Description
Ranney School
UNITED STATES HISTORY
HONORS ASSIGNMENT Part 1
GOAL:

The overall purpose of this assignment is to provide you with an opportunity to enrich your appreciation for the
daunting challenges that have faced many Americans. Ultimately you will use your own reading to generate a
report on the life and accomplishments of a president of the United States or some other MAJOR prominent
American (examples may include: Martin Luther King Jr. / Benjamin Franklin / Wright Brothers / Henry Ford /
John D. Rockefeller / Andrew Carnegie / Rosa Parks / Harriet Tubman / Amelia Earhart / Martha ‘Calamity’ Jane
Canary / Andy Warhol / Barbara Walters / Oprah Winfrey … etc.)

PRODUCT:

You will write a 7-10 page essay as a culminating reflection about the biography or autobiography of two
prominent Americans. One biography will be due at the conclusion of each semester.

BOOK CRITERIA: The book you select must be a scholarly written biography or an autobiography (autobiographies are an
account of a person’s life by that person). The book you select must be at least 300 pages not including notes,
forwards, introductions, pictures, title pages and bibliographies. For biographies the book must contain a detailed
notes or bibliography section and must be based on scholarly research.
The book must also contain information regarding the life of a person, or at least, their life when they were
influential. For example: a book about the assassination of Abraham Lincoln would be inappropriate. However, a
book about his presidency or political career would be appropriate.
ACTIVITIES: Research and choose two biographies or autobiographies that you would like to report on. I must approve all
book choices prior to you beginning your report. You must send me an Amazon link to your book for approval or
bring the physical copy to class. DO NOT CONDUCT OUTSIDE RESEARCH UNLESS ABSOLUTLY
NECESSARY. If you do utilize other sources they must be cited appropriately.
In your essay you must:
 (1/3 of your paper) Provide a summary of your person’s life. If you book only discusses a
portion of their life you must provide an accurate summary of the potions that are discussed in
the book.

(2/3 of your paper) Separate from the summary but still flowing in the idea / connection of your
paper – paragraphs and organization does not have to be in this order.
o Explain what makes this person so influential or special in American history. Not simply
what they did, but what their historical influence and their impact is / was on American
society / thought or culture.
o Discuss any changes you noticed in the ideals or morals of your selected person
throughout their lives. Determine, by thinking of their lives and their experiences, what
might have influenced that change.
o Discuss any continuities you noticed in the ideals or morals of your selected person
throughout their lives. Determine, by thinking of their lives and their experiences, what
might have made such an ideal everlasting.
o What does it mean to be courageous in the context of your selected person? Was this
person a courageous leader? What does it take to have courage; did your person have
that?

o
o

What challenges did your person face throughout their lives that may have influenced
either who they are or who they became. Think critically about the influence others have
had on their lives. Who did they aspire to be? Who did they see themselves as?
Fully discuss who this person ‘was’ in your eyes. What made them special, what made
you interested in choosing them as someone to learn about? Be honest about your choice
and really think critically about what it is about this person that you admire or you aspire
to be like. What made them special to you?

DUE DATE:
1. Your first book choice will be due September 30th
2. Your rough draft will be due by November 30th
a. This does not have to be a complete paper. I want to see that you’ve been reading your book
and you’ve started to write about what you have read so far. You’ll need to provide at least an
introduction / a few body paragraphs and a detailed and in depth outline of what you expect
the remainder of your paper to contain (you may need to skim the remainder of your book to
get an idea as to the contents of what you haven’t read yet).
b. We will review your outline individually and it will be graded.
3. Your final draft will be due on January 6th
4. Your second book selection is due on February 9th
5. Your second rough draft is due on April 30th.
6. Your second final draft is due on May 26th
GRADING:
1. Your book selections will count as a homework assignment
2. Your rough drafts will each count as a quiz grade
3. Your final draft will count as TWO test grades

Ranney School
UNITED STATES HISTORY
HONORS ASSIGNMENT Part 2
Throughout the year you will be periodically assigned extra 2-3 page written assignments. These assignments can take
the form of extra Document Based Questions, Research Questions or overall essay and critical thinking essay questions.
Please be prepared to write up to three extra papers per quarter.

Ranney School
UNITED STATES HISTORY
HONORS ASSIGNMENT Part 3
Throughout the year students in both standard and honors classes will be assigned Document Based Questions
from “The DBQ Project – Document Based Questions in American History” Workbook. Honors students will always
utilize the long version of these DBQ’s and incorporate ALL documents, from the long version, into their work. For

this continual assignment students will be required to use between 15 and 17 documents at times when a college prep
student is utilizing 9 to 10.

Ranney School
History Department
HONORS CREDIT CONTRACT
Student Name: ___________________________________________________________
Course Name: ____________________________________________________________
Teacher: _____________________________
I am taking this class for Honors Credit for the 2014-2015 academic year and will receive honors credit from the
History Department.
I have received and understand the requirements for taking this course at the honors level, and I commit to fulfill those
requirements and meet all respective due dates. I also understand that this agreement cannot be rescinded in any
manner by either the student or parent.
I understand that the honors course requires two major, 7-10 page papers that count as two test grades in the second
and fourth quarters and accompanying outlines and compliance due dates that count as quizzes and homework
assignments (full details are contained in the Honors Course Description).
I also understand that I will be periodically assigned up to three extra papers each quarter for completion and these
papers will be counted and graded based on the paper standards of the individual teacher, as outlined in their syllabus.
I further understand that assignments assigned to the general class may be enhanced due to my honors status,
consistent with the Information outlined in the Honors Course Description.
I understand that it is not recommended that I take this class for honors credit if my grade in United States History I
was below an 85%.

____________________________
Student Signature

_________________________
Parent Signature

Directions for Proper Citations
In college history classes you will most likely be asked to use citations in accordance with the Chicago Manual of
style. Therefore, it is highly suggested to begin to use this style in history class today. Chicago style uses a system of
footnotes (what you’ll be using) and end notes (don’t use these) to identify sources of information and give credit to
your resources. This citation style uses the same information as other citation styles you are used to. But, it gives a
much cleaner look to your paper and makes it far easier to read.
Creating a footnote
You will always use a footnote option in your word processor to create a footnote. DO NOT try to do this manually. It
will not work and it will look funny. In Microsoft Word 2003: Click “Insert: Reference: Footnote” Identify and specify
your format (Arabic numerals only) and click okay. In Microsoft Word 2007 and 2010: Click the “References” Tab
and “Insert Footnote.” Your footnote will appear like this.1 Once the note is inserted you may continue writing.
Placement of footnote
Where the number appears in the text is important. It should appear at the end of a sentence or at the end of a clause. It
appears after punctuation and if in the middle of a sentence a dash separates the cited portion of text from the
remainder.
This is a sentence.1

This1 – is a sentence.

This is a (sentence.) 1

Duplicate footnotes and the Short Form
Once you create one footnote containing full citation information you DO NOT recreate that same full footnote.
Instead you create a shortened version of the same footnote and depending on its location the style of this shortened
footnote changes (See footnote for example). 2
If an author being cited has written more than one resource you are using your footnote should include a shortened
version of the title of the particular work. (See Footnote for Example)3
Two or more sources in the same footnote
If you are writing a sentence and you’d like to give credit to two separate sources for the same idea you may also
include multiple citations in the same footnote. You DO NOT use multiple footnotes at the end of a sentence. As in,
your sentence should not appear like this.1,2,3 Instead, create one footnote and put both citations in that same note
separated by a colon.
If you have any odd styles or citations needs using footnotes and have questions please ask me. I will be happy
to help.
Citation Format
You may want to use noodle tools to help you do this. If you do be sure that you are using Chicago Style:
Footnote Format and are not using endnote or Bibliographical Format.
Books
Salam Rushdie, The Ground Beneath Her Feet (New York: Henry Holt, 1999), 1.
Author’s First Name Author’s Last Name, Title (Publishing Location: Publisher, Year Published), Page Number.
1 Samual A Morley, Poverty and Inequality in Latin America: The Impact of Adjustment and Recovery (Baltimore:
Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995), 241.
2 Morley, 251.
3 Morley, Poverty and Inequality…, 260

(Note) If the book has two authors simply place the word “and” between the two authors and continue as normal. If the book has an editor
rather than an author include “ed.” After the name if multiple editors are listed include “eds.” after the final name. If there is no author listed
just begin with the title of the book.

Scholarly Journals or Articles
Judith Lewis, “Maternal Mortality in the British Aristocracy, 1558-1959,” Journal of British Studies 37, no. 3 (1998):
26-53.
Author’s First Name Author’s Last Name, “Title,” Journal Name Volume Number, Issue Number (Date) Page
Numbers.
Newspapers
Mike Royko, “Next Time, Dan, Take Aim at Arnold,” Chicago Tribune, September 23, 1992.
Author’s First Name Author’s Last Name, “Title of Article,” Newspaper, Date Published.
Web Sites
Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees, “Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan, 2000 – 2010: A decade of
Outreach.” Evanston Public Library. http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html (accessed June 1, 2005).
Author’s First Name Author’s Last Name, “Title of the page,” title or owner of the site, URL (access date).
(Note) Websites are tricky because they do not always include all of the same information. These are considered informally published
electronic sources and still require citation. Be sure to include as much of the following information as possible:

Bibliography:
In some larger research papers a Bibliography may be required. If so, the format of your footnotes is NOT the same
footnote for the Bibliography. A bibliography should include all of the works you looked at while researching or
writing your paper. You do not have to cite from these sources to include them in your Bibliography. In the case you
do use a bibliography please cite in the manner listed below:
Books
Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. Title of the book. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Date of
Publication.
Journal Articles
Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. “Title of the Article.” Title of the Journal Volume Number (Date of
Publication): Page Number – Page Number
Web Sites
Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name, “Title of the page,” title or owner of the site, URL (access date).
Newspapers
Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name, “Title of Article,” Newspaper, Date Published.