RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY Boni Avenue, Mandaluyong City College of Education

Abstracts for Quantitative Research Methods

In partial fulfillment of the course requirements for Introduction to Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to Research Prof. Ed. 08

Submitted by: Capistrano, Kristine Joyce Dg. Third year/ CED-02-501P BSE-English

First semester 2009

Submitted to: Prof. Julius Meneses

Abstracts using the Descriptive Method

Abstract Scholarly appraisals of China’s post-1949 foreign policy have been largely shaped by qualitative research, using techniques such as “Beijingology” and the selective citations of primary and secondary sources. While helpful in conducting inquiries into certain historical trends and policy issues, qualitative methodologies are susceptible to researcher bias, and can lead to disagreement over the relative importance of different factors in shaping Chinese policy. This thesis asks whether a rigorous quantitative methodology can more effectively highlight trends and answer questions relating to modern Chinese history and government policy. Specifically, can a computer content analysis (CCA) based on news published by the state-run New China News Agency (NCNA) provide an accurate gauge of the international outlook of the Chinese leadership? This study establishes the reliability and effectiveness of quantitative, computer-driven historical research by undertaking a three-stage CCA of NCNA content concerning a specific topic: Beijing’s official views of Vietnam during the Deng Xiaoping era. The data from the CCA also answers an academic question framed by the qualitative research of Robert S. Ross and Charles McGregor: During the 1980s was China’s central leadership primarily concerned with Hanoi’s military and economic alliance with Moscow, and the potential for Soviet encirclement of China? Or was Beijing more worried about Vietnam’s regional ambitions in Southeast Asia? The CCA results clearly support the regionally themed thesis outlined by McGregor, while casting doubt upon the Soviet-focused findings of Ross. Not only was NCNA coverage of Vietnam overwhelmingly oriented toward issues touching Kampuchea and the brutal war there, but also NCNA reports about Vietnam’s interactions with other counties in Southeast Asia were far more negative than NCNA articles about Hanoi and Moscow, even when sampled news reports excluded references to the dire situation in Kampuchea. The CCA methodology, which counted the frequency of country references in NCNA articles and gauged the positive and negative tone of NCNA coverage throughout the Deng era, serves as a template for further inquiry into China’s views of the world. It also establishes the

advantages of using quantitative research to explore certain issues relating to modern Chinese history and foreign policy.

ABSTRACT Most will agree with the statement that Organization Development implies change, and we accepted that improvement in organizational functioning means that change has occurred, then broadly defined, Organization Development means organization change. Not everyone agrees with this statement, and the researcher does not. Improvement in an organization’s way of operation may mean change from one procedure to a better one – such as putting an organization’s payroll procedure onto a computer rather processing checks by hand – but the fundamentals of how problems are solved, how decisions are made, and how people are treated may not have changed at all. This more fundamental aspect of change in the organization and how social power and organizational politics are affecting it was the domain of this research study. There are four primary social-psychological concepts for diagnosing an organization to be effective and efficient; they are norms, values, and rewards. The fourth concept is power, and herein lies the center stage of my study. And the reason for choosing power is both significant and straightforward. Organization Development signifies change, and for change to occur in an organization, power must be exercised. The research study is to understand the nature of power, from both the personal and organizational perspective, and be able to determine, within an organization, specifically Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa, who has power, how power is exercised, and where the leverages for change are likely to be, specifically on how to attain organization development in terms of human resource management functions such as; recruitment, placement and involvement, staff development, and motivation. The initial concern of the study was power itself – individual need for power and the consequences of this need on management, sources of power for an individual in a social context, and organizational sources of power. The study considers management, which was define as the exercise of power, and then, who addresses the implications of what power and politics can do in affecting management effectiveness and efficiency at Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa in the attainment of its organizational objectives. The general problem of this study is to determine the effects of social power and organizational politics in organization development in terms of human resource management functions such as: recruitment and selection, placement and involvement, staff development, and motivation. This study focuses its attention on the kind of social power and the indicators of organizational politics being exercised by the administrative and academic personnel, in the furtherance of the educational philosophy and objectives of the

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa. The study only included as respondents the faculty who in one way are the major component of how social power and politics affects them personally and professionally. Through this study, the faculty will be learning with information on organization development that will serve as a way in providing quality education. For the present Administrators, for this study will be very useful and can be a source of information to evaluate their existing systems and practices and come up with another that is more responsive and effective. Lastly for future researchers, may this study be a source of information in making a future study in organization development. The research paradigm is to show the concept on how social powers namely: rewards, coercive, legitimate, referent, and expert power can affect the effectiveness of organization development in terms of human resource functions of recruitment, placement and involvement of employees, staff development and motivation in an organization. Organizational politics; such as the Palakasan System, the Padrino System and Political Affiliation will also be a major variable that will be significant in the study of organization development plus the fact that all these indicators can be moderated by the person- related variables of the respondents such as gender and age and the professional-related factors such as status of employment, highest educational attainment, and length of years in teaching at the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa. Hypothesis Ho There is no significant relation between social powers and organizational politics in the attainment of effective organization development at Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa. Ho There is no significant difference between the respondent’s

assessments of the effects social power and organizational politics in organization development. The study made use of the descriptive method of research. A Descriptive study is an inquiry into the nature of an unknown phenomenon or the occurrence of an event. It does not explain relationship but seeks knowledge for better understanding of the nature of the subject of the study to serve as basis for some future actions including formulation of hypothesis of relationship. The aim of the descriptive study is to infer to the reference population the findings from a sample. The research design describes what the study has done to answer the research questions. The study used the descriptive correlation survey. This is a study that shows the difference between two or more variables, that is, how a variable varies with

another. Since the present research is a status study, the correlation survey was the most appropriate method to use in gathering data. This research study was conducted within the confines of Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa that is located at National Bilibid Reservation, Poblacion, Muntinlupa City. The respondents of the study were the faculty members of the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa. Muntinlupa City. The data collection was purposive sampling, a method that involved all the members of the population. Since there are only 0ne hundred and twenty faculty members of our institution that were served with the survey questionnaires, and only one hundred were retrieved or 83.33% of the faculty force were considered as respondent of this study. The study used the survey questionnaire as a research instrument. A questionnaire gathers data faster than other methods which when answered honestly and properly by selected respondents, will supply the necessary information to complete a research study. The questionnaires were distributed to all faculty members of Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa, and One hundred filled questionnaires were retrieved. The content of the questionnaires was focus on how social power and organizational politics that could affect the organization development of Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa as a basis for policy direction. After presenting the analysis and interpreting the data gathered through the use of statistical tools, the following findings were arrived at: a. Among the Social organizational outcomes. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Reward Power Coercive Power Legitimate Power Referent Power Expert Power Powers which has the great capacity to affect

Based on the results, it can be perceived that power administrators do not use the reward power bestowed on them. Especially with a weighted mean of 2.41, the administrators never complemented their work in terms of their effectiveness and efficiency. On coercive Power there is a strong argument that the administrators uses coercive power in the organization especially when they are forced to participate actively in any civic affairs sponsored by the city hall and at sometimes at their own discretion.

On referent power, the respondents gathered a weighted mean of 3.35, thus they all agree the referent power is being used in our organization especially the appointments of teachers due to political referrals. On expert power, the respondents are neutral on how the administrators/deans exercises their rights in leading the institution to academic standards. b. Among the indicators of organizational politics, which one is an effective instrument in acquiring preferred outcome: 2.1 Palakasan System 2.2 Padrino System 2.3 Political System On the Palakasan System, the respondents agree that the majority of the members of the faculty are admitted because they know somebody influential from the organization. While on the Padrino System, the respondents are neutral on the use of “ninong” and “ninang” in the facilitation of their regularization. On political affiliation, the general weighted mean of 3.11 agrees that loadings of subjects per semester depend of how close you are to the administrators/deans. c. And lastly, between social power and organizational politics, which has the great capacity to influence organization development, the one that can greatly influence changes in the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa are social powers wherein it garnered 70% of the respondents who totally agree. In the light of the findings arrived, the following conclusions were formulated. The target dimensions of organizational development in Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa that gives an outline, which are not mutually exclusive and distinct from each other. Complicated and high falluting department objectives can be restructured that will help in the realization of organizational goals. It should involve as many groups as possible through their representatives including the studentry. The involvement of these representatives by management in the goaling process helps insure its members identify themselves with the organization. Thus, they would cooperate in the achievement of the objectives, which they help formulate. The organigram or table of organizations is usually the most visible written output of the organizing or re-organizing the structure. Span of control, height and width of the organization, centralization of decision making are some symbols

depicting to a great extent the presence or absence of authority in the organization. Change in individuals’ duties, responsibilities, roles functions due to change in structure is evidenced from their behavior. Although structure includes three components; authority, abilities and skills, and rewards, the last two are better placed under the category of people in terms of how organizational development can be used in changing them and the facility and difficulty by which they can be changed. Duties, responsibilities, roles and functions are important components of positions, which are structured under authority. Content includes the material dimensions used by the organization to achieve its goals. In the business setting these consist of funds, facilities, equipment, markets, products, services. In schools, the curriculum is a good example. Technology, another component for organizational development, answers how jobs are better done. Developing and refining new ways, means, procedure of producing goods, products, services, are a continuous process. The most difficult target for organizational development is people. Due to their very nature of complexity and intricacy, this dimension is most elusive and challenging to deal with. It takes more time, effort and competence to know and understand people and more so to develop them in the image for which they can be useful to the organization. The latter has its own role, which can be accomplished by people who share with it the same values, interests and aspirations. By the same token, people would want the organization to share with them its joys, worries and commitments. Because of the symbiotic role of people development, the dimension of people comes most problematic in organizational development. Based on the conclusion, the following recommendations are being presented by the researcher.

1.

Assume a customer or beneficiary orientation

2. Integrate the three critical elements of effective performance in the organization: strategy, structures, and spirit of service 3. Enable the individual human worker or manager to be productive in work and achieving in his personal life as a worker or professional by taking total responsibility for results. 4. Translate the task of self-responsible performance into organizational structures that promote a responsible work behavior. 5. Use co-creation (participative approach) for peak performance and work commitment.

6. Promote the development of enabling skills as well as make the enabling leader, the model or ideal of leadership. 7. Use developmental tools appropriate to our Filipino culture.

ABSTRACT

Studies on job satisfaction have grown in recent years because of their basic importance to the understanding of a worker’s behavior and the continuous effective operations of organizations. Stordeur et al. (2001) contend that the higher an employee’s job satisfaction and work commitment, the lower is his intention to leave the workplace. In the Philippines, nurses have been constantly exposed to considerable internal and external organizational issues which could have negative effects on their level of job satisfaction. Several literature on nursing have raised the issues on heavy workload, poor working conditions, meager compensation packages, poor interpersonal relationships, weak leadership, non-recognition of exemplary work, and lack of opportunities for career growth as possible major factors of work stress and dissatisfaction. These issues may serve as possible causes for nurses to reconsider their long-range work options and seek opportunities outside their chosen career.

It is based on the above mentioned scenario that the researcher developed the interest to examine the prospects of a nursing career at the DepEd by looking into the demographic profile and the level of job satisfaction among public school nurses, and their perceptions towards sufficiency in remuneration and other monetary benefits, non-monetary benefits, budget allocation and career advancement. Using the Descriptive Method, the research was conducted at the School Health and Nutrition Section (SHNS) of DepEd, Southern Leyte Division where the thirty (30) respondents are working. Three (3) questionnaires were used in the gathering of data, namely: 1.) Respondent’s Profile Questionnaire, a 9-item instrument developed to gather information regarding work life variables which might affect the DepEd nurses’ job satisfaction; 2.) Level of Sufficiency on Benefits, Budget Allocation and Career Advancement Questionnaire; and 3.) the Short-Form Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) which represents the twenty dimensions of the job. The statistical tools used in the analysis of data were frequencies and percentages, and mean. Findings of the study revealed that majority of the DepEd nurses have only been working with the agency from 2 to 10 years. 23.3% of them has attended masteral programs, but no one has finished Master of Arts nor has reached the doctoral level. Already holding permanent positions, the respondents are dominantly married and young, with age bracket ranging from 31 to 40 years of age. Most of them are assigned to workstations 4 to 30 kilometers away from their residences. In terms of remuneration and other monetary benefits, majority of the DepEd nurses find their transportation and field work allowances, and medical and hospitalization to be very insufficient; and their monthly salary, PERA and ADCOM, and step increment to be insufficient. They however find their hazard pay, year-end bonus and cash gift, productivity incentive, and clothing allowance to be sufficient. On the other hand, in terms of non-monetary benefits, the DepEd nurses reported them to be very insufficient, so are the budget allocated for their department, and the opportunities provided by management for career advancement. Over all, the DepEd nurses are satisfied with their job. However, they are dissatisfied in the aspect of human relations supervision, technical supervision, company policies and practices, compensation, and advancement. The researcher was able to conclude and generalize that only a small percentage of the total population of nurses would stay with DepEd beyond ten years. They either transfer to other organization, or change other career paths. The dominance of young nurses indicates that majority of them do not stay with DepEd until retirement, but only until they gain enough experience or find better opportunities. As perceived by the DepEd nurses, there is a level of insuffiency given to them by the organization in terms of remuneration and other benefits, non-monetary

benefits, budget allocation, and career advancement. They appeared to have been satisfied with their job, except in the aspect of supervision, company policies and practices, compensation, and advancement. Based on the conclusion and generalization, the researcher has recommended the DepEd management to revisit and effect changes in their human resource policies and programs particularly on the compensation packages. The budget allocations for nurses must be directed towards the increase of salary and other monetary benefit increases, purchase of office supplies, fixtures and furnitures, and improvement of laboratory equipment and facilities. Career advancement programs such as career relevant trainings, scholarships and job promotions must also be regularly implemented as well as constant reorientation on the company policies and best practices to inculcate positive culture among the employees. And, lastly, supervisory trainings for supervisors must also be regularly conducted to improve and develop their human relations and technical skills.

Abstracts using the Survey Research Method

ABSTRACT

The study investigated the impact of Typhoon Reming among college students of Aquinas University of Legazpi. It looked into the experiences, psychological reactions, post-disaster stressors, and coping mechanisms of the respondents, and the support services availed of. Results showed that majority of the respondents experienced witnessing flooding and destruction to property; experienced psychological reactions which resemble symptoms of post-traumatic-stress disorder, depression and anxiety; reported financial difficulties at home and problems in adjusting to the school environment; and coped by resuming of normal routines, and by the support of family and friends. Most of the respondents availed of the individual counseling service, and perceived it as being the most effective. Limitations and implications of the study were discussed.

ABSTRACT The main objective of the study was to develop and evaluate a module in reading for first year students to upgrade their level of reading comprehension skills. Specifically, the study hoped to develop a module in Reading and to evaluate its effectiveness. The study tested the hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the result of the pre-test and post-test of the students. The study utilized a pre-test-post-test experimental design to attain the objectives indicated. Data were gathered from two groups of respondents: three English specialists for the validation of the module using a Likert-type rating scale and 226 first year students enrolled at San Guillermo National High School using an adapted Achievement Test. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics like frequency distribution, percentage, mean and analysis of variance to test the hypotheses.

Summary of Findings

1. As rated by the three experts, the module obtained an overall rating of 4.43 described as very satisfactory. 2. The results of the pre-test and post-test are as follows: In the pre-test, the students obtained the highest rating of 14.88 in making inferences and obtained the lowest rating of 2.36 in identifying word meaning. The students overall rating is 32.55 indicating a satisfactory performance. In the post-test, the students obtained the highest rating of 16.89 in making inferences and obtained the lowest rating of 2.72 in identifying word meaning. The students also obtained a very satisfactory rating in distinguishing facts from opinion. The overall rating in the post-test is 35.76 indicating a satisfactory performance. 3. The obtained –value of the scores of the students in the pre-test and post-test in all the areas of the reading skills are significant at .05 level of significance. Conclusions From the findings identified, the following conclusions are formulated: 1. The module in reading was found appropriate for first year students, well constructed and acceptable. 2. Since the p-value of the scores were all found significant at .05 level of significance, the hypothesis that there is no significant difference in the result of the pre-test and post-test is rejected. Recommendations From the findings identified and the conclusions formulated, the following recommendations are given:

1. Since the module was found effective in upgrading the reading comprehension skills of the students, it is recommended that all English teachers of San Guillermo High School who are teaching in First Year must utilize the module as an additional instructional tool in reading. 2. The school principal of San Guillermo High School must see to it that the reproduction of the module be given financial assistance and that the use of the module be given time allotment in the school program.

3. For further research, it is recommended that the same study will be conducted to all first year students in the Division of Zambales to find out the effectiveness of the module to other first year students.

Abstracts using the Correlational Research

ABSTRACT Organizational climate is indeed a substantial tool that determines the area of effectiveness, productivity and efficiency of an organization. School effectiveness is a measure of quality and transcendental changes that govern the improvement process. Organizational climate and school effectiveness are two constructs that should receive equal importance. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the organizational climate and school effectiveness in public, private and private sectarian Colleges of Nursing. Descriptive – comparative and descriptive – correlational research designs were used in the study. A modified questionnaire of Leadership Orientation Instrument for organizational climate and a self – reported survey on school effectiveness served as the principal instruments in data gathering. Expertise of professionals was sought for construct validity. A test retest reliability method was employed and results revealed of reliability coefficient of 0.99. Thus, the instrument was highly reliable. Respondents include faculty members who have no administrative title and hold a full-time position as an instructor in a baccalaureate nursing program with one year teaching and at least one year clinical experience were purposively selected from public, private and private sectarian Colleges of Nursing. Statistical treatment of data was processed through weighted mean, ranking, one – way analysis of variance and Pearson r moment correlation of coefficient. The findings pointed out a significant difference in organizational climate and school effectiveness among public, private and private sectarian Colleges of Nursing. Findings revealed of positive, high correlation between organizational climate, faculty and physical plant and a negative correlation on instruction and student outcome. Recommendations were provided for further study, organizational climate assessment and review on specific school characteristics on faculty, instruction and physical plant and other indices of school effectiveness.

Abstracts using the Experimenta l Research

Abstract This chapter reviews experimental economics research relevant to law and economics. The introduction includes a brief discussion of experimental methodology and a survey of the categories of economics experiments relevant to law and economics, with citations to other reviews and compilations. The bulk of the chapter reviews two series of economics experiments designed to test theoretical claims of law and economics: those relating to the Coase theorem and those relating to pre-trial bargaining and settlement.

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