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KATHMANDU UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL AND GEOMATICS
ENGINEERING

FINAL REPORT ON
RUM OF SUNDARIJAL HYDOPOWER PLANT
A fourth year mini project for the partial fulfillment of requirement of Bachelors Degree in
Civil Engineering (CIEG 406)

PROJECT MEMBERS:
GROUP: 6
Biplav Acharya (Roll No. 01)
Ashish Dangal (Roll No. 12)
Mingma Lama (Roll No. 31)
Radheshyam Mandal (Roll No. 32)
Rishab Nakarmi (Roll No. 33)
Pratik Shahi (Roll No. 47)
Sagun Shrestha (Roll No. 53)

SUBMITTED TO:
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL AND GEOMATICS ENGINEERING
Prof. Dr. Ing. Ramesh Kumar Maskey
Project In-charge

January 4, 2014

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Ramesh Kumar Maskey, for providing us an opportunity to
work on this project and helping in various aspects during consultation. We would also like to
thank the staffs of DOCGE and friends for their unending support and encouragement.

ABSTRACT
Sundarijal Hydropower Plant, although being an old plant is generating 640kW, its installed capacity. The
plant is already in the process of RUM by NEA which is on its way for increase in power generation. The
RUM project carried out by us, a team of 7 students of Fourth Year Civil Engineering program has
detected some components that have degraded and has given suitable design, drawings and suggestions.
The hydropower plant is found to be optimistic in terms of further development and more hydropower
generation.

Table of Contents
ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................................................. 3
ACRONYMS ........................................................................................................................................................... 7
1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................. 8
2. PROJECT AREA................................................................................................................................................... 9
2.1 History ......................................................................................................................................................... 9
2.2 Geography................................................................................................................................................. 10
2.3 Climate ...................................................................................................................................................... 10
3. THEORY ........................................................................................................................................................... 11
3.1 Rehabilitation ............................................................................................................................................ 11
3.2 The Bathtub Curve .................................................................................................................................... 12
3.3 Levelling: ................................................................................................................................................... 12
3.4 Bowditch Rule: .......................................................................................................................................... 13
3.5 Penstocks: ................................................................................................................................................. 14
3.6 Penstock Alignment .................................................................................................................................. 14
3.7 Gross Head (H) and Net Head (h): ............................................................................................................ 15
3.8 Firm Power and Secondary Power: ........................................................................................................... 15
3.9 Flow Duration Curve: ................................................................................................................................ 15
3.10 Mass Flow Curve ..................................................................................................................................... 16
3.11 Support Piers........................................................................................................................................... 16
3.12 Energy and Hydraulic Grade Lines: ......................................................................................................... 16
The Bernoulli Equation ............................................................................................................................... 17
4. RATIONALE ...................................................................................................................................................... 17
5. SCOPE OF THE PROJECT .................................................................................................................................. 18
6. OBJECTIVES ..................................................................................................................................................... 18
7. METHODOLOGY .............................................................................................................................................. 18
8. Field Measurement Of Head Of Sundarijal HPP.......................................................................................... 19
8.1 Height Difference From Powerhouse To Dam Site ................................................................................... 19
8.2 Height Difference From Dam Site To Powerhouse ................................................................................... 22
8.3 Correction By Bowditchs Method ............................................................................................................ 25
9. FIELD MEASUREMENT OF DISCHARGE............................................................................................................ 30

9.1 Determination of Cross Section ................................................................................................................ 30


9.2 Determination of Velocity......................................................................................................................... 32
9.3 Discharge .................................................................................................................................................. 32
9.4 Measurement of discharge from canal ..................................................................................................... 32
9.5 Flow Duration Curve ................................................................................................................................. 33
9.5.1 MIP Method ....................................................................................................................................... 33
9.5.2 Flow Duration Curve .......................................................................................................................... 34
9.6 Total Discharge ......................................................................................................................................... 35
10. FINDING HYDROPOWER POTENTIAL USING OBTAINED FIELD INFORMATION............................................. 36
10.1 Design of penstock for that hydropower potential ................................................................................ 36
10.2 Penstock Alignment ................................................................................................................................ 37
10.3 Calculation of major and minor losses.................................................................................................... 38
10.3.1 Calculation of friction factor ............................................................................................................ 38
10.3.1 Calculation of head loss ................................................................................................................... 39
10.4 Remarks .............................................................................................................................................. 39
11 CALCULATION OF FIRM POWER AND SECONDARY POWER .......................................................................... 40
12. CALCULATION OF FLOW MASS CURVE ......................................................................................................... 42
13 .DESIGN OF SUPPORT PIER ............................................................................................................................ 43
13.1 Design ..................................................................................................................................................... 43
13.2 Stability Analysis ..................................................................................................................................... 47
13.3 Cost Estimation ....................................................................................................................................... 48
14. INSPECTION WORKS...................................................................................................................................... 49
15. PUBLIC CONSULTATION ................................................................................................................................ 50
16. PROJECT SCHEDULE ...................................................................................................................................... 51
17. OUTCOMES ................................................................................................................................................... 52
18. LIMITATIONS OF THE PROJECT ..................................................................................................................... 52
19. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS..................................................................................................... 52
20. REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................................. 53
PICTORIAL HIGHLIGHTS....................................................................................................................................... 54

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 Location of Sundarijal in Nepal ............................................................................................................... 9
Figure 2 View of Bagmati from Sundarijal Source: Wikipedia.org ...................................................................... 10
Figure 3 The figure illustrates how energy production is lost over time. The Upgrade vs Life extension .......... 11
Figure 4 Bathtub Curve ....................................................................................................................................... 12
Figure 5 Differential Levelling ............................................................................................................................. 13
Figure 6 Cross Section A-A of river...................................................................................................................... 30
Figure 7 Cross Section B-B of River ..................................................................................................................... 31
Figure 8 Flow Duration Curve ............................................................................................................................. 34
Figure 9 Penstock Alignment .............................................................................................................................. 37
Figure 10 Moody Diagram .................................................................................................................................. 38
Figure 11 Flow Mass Curve ................................................................................................................................. 42
Figure 12 Cross Section of Penstock ................................................................................................................... 44
Figure 13 Support pier elevation with saddle and penstock .............................................................................. 45
Figure 14 Cross section of penstock resting on support pier ............................................................................. 46

ACRONYMS
ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers
BM Bench Mark
HPP Hydropower Power Plant
JNN Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
MIP Medium Irrigation Project
RUM Rehabilitation Upgradation and Modernization
USBR The United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR)
VDC Village Development Committee

1. INTRODUCTION
Sundarijal HPP is the second oldest hydropower established in Nepal which lies in Sundarijal VDC named
after Hindu goddess Sundarimai. The VDC touches Nuwakot and Sindhupalchowk district and is located
in Shivapuri National Park at the north of Kathmandu Valley. It is 15 km northeast from the centre of
Kathmandu. The climate is of Temperate type. During summer, the temperature is 25.5 C in average and
temperature drops down to 0 C during winter. Tamangs, Chheteris and Brahmins are the major ethnic
group of this region. The major religion here is Buddhism.
With installed capacity of 640 kW and annual design generation of 4.77 GWh was commissioned in 1934
AD in a grant from British government.The powerhouse lies near Sundarijal Buspark. Initially, there were
three units of turbines; one of 600kW and two of 320kW. Due to mechanical failure, the larger one was
shut down.
The salient features of Sundarijal HPP is listed below:

Type
Location
Installed capacity
Annual average energy
Maximum net head
Penstock
Turbine
Number and Type
Rated output
Rated Speed
Generator
Rated output
Rated voltage
Rated frequency
Power factor
Power transformer
Transmission line

Run of River
Sundarijal, Kathmandu
640 kW
4.77 GWh
750 ft. (228.6m)
1700 m long, 0.61 m dia.
2, Horizontal Pelton
485 kW
900 rpm
377 kVA
3.3 kV
50 Hz
0.85
3.3/11 kVA, 2 Nos.
11 kV

Table 1: SAILENT FEATURES OF SUNDARIJAL HYDROPOWER STATION

2. PROJECT AREA

Figure 1 Location of Sundarijal in Nepal

Country: Nepal
Zone Bagmati Zone
District: Kathmandu District
Area
Total: 5.18 km2 (2.00 sq mi)
Population (2001)
Total: 2,586
Density: 500/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
Time zone: Nepal Time (UTC+5:45)
Postal code: 44603
Area code(s): 01
Sundarijal is a village development committee in Kathmandu District in the Bagmati Zone of central
Nepal.

2.1 History
The VDC was named after the Hindu goddess, Sundarimai. A temple is dedicated to the deity in
Sundarijal. In 1960, the Sundarijal Military Detention Camp was the location of Nepali Congress leaders
B.P. Koirala (the Prime Minister), Ganesh Man Singh, Krishna Prasad Bhattarai, Diwan Singh Rai, Ram
Narayan Mishra, Yogendra Man Sherchan, and Jaman Singh Gurung. They were held without trial for
eight years due to their participation in a 1960 coup.

2.2 Geography
Sundarijal is located 15 kilometres (9 mi) northeast of Nepal's capital, Kathmandu. It is west of
Gagalphedi, east of Nayapati and Baluwa, and north of Aalapot. The VDC touches Nuwakot and
Sindhulpalchok Districts to the north.
Sundarijal covers an area of 5.18 square kilometres (2 sq mi). The Bagmati River flows through the VDC,
where it is joined by the Shyalmati and Nagmati Rivers. Largely hilly in its terrain with few flat areas, the
VDC is covered by forests. Shivapuri National Park covers large amounts of the Sundarijal.

Figure 2 View of Bagmati from Sundarijal


Source: Wikipedia.org

2.3 Climate
The climate of Sundarijal is temperate. The average for the summer is 25.5C while that for the winter is
0C.

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3. THEORY
3.1 Rehabilitation
Hydroelectric station rehabilitation covers a broad set of activities, including repairing/replacing
components, upgrading generating capability and availability, realigning services to meet market
opportunities and new market requirements and modifying the management of water resources to enhance
ecosystems. In the current study, rehabilitation is focused on the major electrical and mechanical
equipment associated with power generation, namely the turbine and generator. Other components would
be included in most rehabilitation projects and would contribute to the overall cost but major civil works
changes (with the possible exception of
draft tube modifications) are excluded.
Rehabilitation can start with the
replacement of equipment on a like for
like basis where there is minimum effort
to enhance the overall output of the station.
The primary objective of this is to provide
life extension to the existing facilities
and restore their initial performances. In
contrast it can often be justified to include
an upgrade of the equipment (efficiency,
output) which yields greater output but at
increased costs which is justified by the
additional revenue over service life of the Figure 3 The figure illustrates how energy production is lost
over time. The Upgrade vs Life extension
equipment. This study examines both of
these investment scenarios. Non-structural
optimization, such as improved operation rules based on improved hydrology, timing of releases in
cascades etc has not been considered.
Project Expansion
Hydroelectric generating stations have been known to have service lives of up to 100 years and in some
instances even longer. Where the service life is long then it is quite likely that the station may not be
developed to its economic potential based on todays energy and capacity values and equipment cost and
performance. In such instances an increase in station capacity (Project Expansion) by installing
additional generating units can be justified. In most cases significant increases in station capacity will
require installation of additional units, which if not foreseen and prepared for in the original
design/construction will likely require major civil works. Such cases of project expansion are not
covered (except in passing) in this report.
Project Redevelopment
In projects where the residual service life is too short to justify Rehabilitation or Project Expansion,
Project Redevelopment can be considered. In this scenario the civil works (potentially a dam and power
facilities) is redeveloped with completely new generating equipment. This scenario is not considered in
this study since it, in most cases, requires extensive site-specific engineering studies including
environmental and sustainability assessments which cannot be treated in a broad based manner as is being
done for the current study.
(Goldberg & Lier)
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3.2 The Bathtub Curve

Figure 4 Bathtub Curve

The bathtub curve is widely used in reliability engineering. It describes a particular form of the hazard
function which comprises three parts. The first part is a decreasing failure rate, known as early failures. The
second part is a constant failure rate, known as random failures. The third part is an increasing failure rate,
known as wear-out failures. In less technical terms, in the early life of a product adhering to the bathtub
curve, the failure rate is high but rapidly decreasing as defective products are identified and discarded, and
early sources of potential failure such as handling and installation error are surmounted. In the mid-life of
a productgenerally, once it reaches consumersthe failure rate is low and constant. In the late life of the
product, the failure rate increases, as age and wear take their toll on the product. Many consumer product
life cycles strongly exhibit the bathtub curve, such as computer processors.
(Bathtub curve, 2014)

3.3 Levelling:
Direct leveling
This method of leveling uses the measuredvertical distance to carry elevation from a knownpoint to an
unknown point. Direct leveling is themost precise method of determining elevation andyields accuracies
of third or higher orders. Whenthis method is specified for lower accuracysurveys, direct leveling is
sometimes referred toas spirit or fly levels. Fly levels are levelingoperations used to rerun original
levels to makesure that no mistake has been made. Fly levelsuse a shorter route and smaller number of
turningpoints than the original survey. Lets take a lookat some of the processes involving direct leveling.

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Differential Leveling
Differential leveling (also called direct leveling) is generally used in determining elevations of points to
establish a chain or network of BMs for future use. It requires a series of instrument setups along the
survey route; and for setup, a horizontal line of sight is established, using a sensitive level.

Figure 5 Differential Levelling

Some terminology used in Levelling:


Set: The location of the level. (where it is set-up)
Bench Mark (BM): A permanent point of known elevation.
Temporary Bench Mark (TBM): A point of known elevation.
Turning Point (TP): An intervening point between BMs or TBMs upon which a backsight and a foresight
are taken.
Backsight (BS): A rod reading taken by "looking back" at a point of known elevation such as a BM or TP.
Foresight (FS): A rod reading taken when "looking ahead" at a point where you want to determine its
elevation, such as a TP, TBM or BM.
Height of Instrument (HI): The elevation of the line of sight in the telescope of the level.
Balancing of Sights: The rod person keeps track of the distance of each FS and BS taken and tries to keep
them equal.
Closed Circuit: A complete trace of the line of sight of the instrument back to the beginning point.
Closure: The difference between beginning and ending elevations.

3.4 Bowditch Rule:


The Bowditch's method is used when both the linear and angular measurements are compatible to each
other, i.e., they are of equal precision. The corrections may be applied either analytically or may be
carried out graphically. This method of balancing of traverse is widely prevalent and most commonly
used. It is based on the assumption that angles (bearings) are observed to the same degree of precision
that distances can be measured.

CorrLat

L
Where, l=length of the current time,

l=sum of the traverse line lengths


L=latitude of the current line

CorrDep

Where, D=departure of the current line


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3.5 Penstocks:
A penstock is a pipe that conveys the flow from the forebay or surge tank to the turbine. Penstocks are
designed to carry water to the turbines with the least possible loss of head consistent with the overall
economy of the project. These are pressurized water conduits which convey water to the turbines from
free surfaces.
Design of penstock pipe:
Using USBR formula,
Veco=0.1252gH
D=(4Q/v)
Sarkaria Formula,
D = 0.62 P0.35
H0.65
From JNN Guideline, D=(5.2Q3/H)1/7
For thickness of penstock pipe:
Pressure inside Penstock (p) = g (H+H0) = kg/cm2
Where, H = static head ; H0= dynamic head = v2/2g
t= pD/2a +
As per ASME code:
t= pR/(a-0.6 p) + 0.15
tmin= D/ 288
tmin= (D+200)/400

3.6 Penstock Alignment


For the most economical alignment of pipeline, investigation of site must be done and make various
layouts on topographic maps. Estimate materials quantities for each layout and evaluation of its
constructability must be done.
When making the layouts, the penstock should e located on stale foundation sites such as along a ridge or
a bench that has been cut into the mountainside, avoiding of troublesome sites such as underground water
courses, landfill, fault zones and potential slide area is quite important. To minimize costly anchors and
costly pipe transitions sections, vertical bends, horizontal ends, and changes in diameter should be
combined in a way to have them at the same location.
Selection of the alignment at site should be based on the following criteria:

Forebay/ surge tank location


Ground slope
Minimum number of bends
Space for powerhouse area
Stability
Other site specific conditions

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3.7 Gross Head (H) and Net Head (h):


The gross head is the difference between the water level in the headrace and the water level in the tailrace.
For storage plant, gross head (H) is the difference in water level in the reservoir and the water level in the
tailrace. For run-of river plant, it is a difference in water level in the point of diversion of water and water
level at the point where the water is returned back to river.
Net head is the head available for the turbine. It is equal to the difference of total head at the point of
entry and at the point of exit of the turbine. This includes the respective pressure and velocity pressure
and velocity head at both places.
For impulse turbine, Net head, h=H-Z-hf ; where, hf is headloss

3.8 Firm Power and Secondary Power:


The power, which is insured to a consumer at any time of the day, is known as firm power. Firm power is
completely dependable and available 100% of time. Such power corresponds to minimum stream flow.
Such power can e increased by the use of pondage so that greater minimum flow is available for 100% of
time.
The secondary power is the amount of power, which is excess of the firm power. It is also called surplus
or non-firm power. The plant can deliver the secondary power only for a part of a year. It is
comparatively less valuable and useful in an interconnected system of power plants.

3.9 Flow Duration Curve:


A graphical representation of runoff is the flow duration curve. It has discharge plotted on the Y-axis and
the percentage of time duration for which that magnitude (or move) is available on X-axis.
Flow duration curve are used in assessing the dependability of the discharge and also used in assessing
dependable power in runoff river plant with or without pondage.
Flow duration curves find considerable use in water resources planning and development activities.
Some of the important uses are:

In evaluating various dependable flows in the planning of water resources engineering projects.
Evaluating the characteristics of the hydro power potential of a river
Designing of the drainage system.
In flood-control studies.
Computing the sediment load and dissolved solid load od stream.
Comparing the adjacent catchment with the view to extend the stream flow data.

15

3.10 Mass Flow Curve


The flow mass curve is a plot of the cumulative discharge volume against time plotted in chronological
order. The ordinate of the mass curve, V at any time t is thus

V=0
Where t0 is the time at the beginning of the curve and Q is the discharge rate. The slope of the mass curve
at any point represents

=Q=rate

of flow at that instant.

3.11 Support Piers


Support piers are required along the straight sections of exposed penstock between anchor blocks.
The maximum spacing of support piers to avoid overstressing the pipe is generally 5m. Thin-wall plain
pipe can buckle at the support piers with relatively short spans. In this case the permissile span can be
increased by welding a wear plate to the pipe at each support. This may be economical for pipes larger
than 300 mm diameter. Corners of wear plates should e cut with a radius, to avoid stress concentrations.
Note that a wear plates is also required where the pipe leaves an anchor lock, if the span to the first
support pier exceeds that allowed for plain pipe. It is usually not economical to increase the pipe wall
thickness in order to increase the support pier spacing, but this should be considered where the cost of
support piers is significant.
A 1400 bearing area from the centre of the penstock diameter should be provided to support the penstock
pipe. Placing a steel saddle plate above the support pier where the penstock pipe rests along with a 3mm
thick tar paper minimizes frictional effect and increases the useful life of the pipe. C- clamps may also be
provided to protect the pipe from vandalism and a sideways movement, but there must be a gap between
the surface of the pipe and the C- clamp, so that axial forces are not transferred to the support pier.

3.12 Energy and Hydraulic Grade Lines:


The energy grade line (EGL) and the hydraulic grade line (HGL) provide a graphical interpretation of
Bernoulli's equation. The EGL represents the total head available with respect to a chosen datum.
The EGL is a constant for frictionless flow where no work or heat is associated with the process. On the
other hand, the HGL is the sum of static pressure and elevation head.
Sometimes, this is also referred as the piezometric head and is the height a fluid column would rise in a
piezometer.

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The Bernoulli Equation


For steady, inviscid, incompressible flow the total energy remains constant along a stream line as
expressed through the Bernoulli Equation:
p + 1/2 v2 + h = constant along a streamline
where:
p = static pressure (relative to the moving fluid)
= density
= specific weight
v = flow velocity
g = acceleration of gravity
h = elevation height
Each term of this equation has the dimension force per unit area - psi, lb/ft2 or N/m2.
For a fluid flowing without any losses due to friction (major losses) or components (minor losses) - the
energy line would be at a constant level. In a practical world the energy line decreases along the flow due
to losses.

4. RATIONALE
The efficiency of all structures and machines decrease after theyve been used for a long time. Ignoring
this aspect will not only decrease the performance of the power plant but the risk of the plant will start to
increase exponentially at a certain time and the plant may shut down due to uncontrollable problems in
the future. Therefore, rehabilitation of the components of the power plant has to be done while the risk
doesnt escalate.
Sundarijal Hydropower Plant has been in operation since 1934 AD and has had minor upgrades to some
electrical and mechanical components during its operational life. The penstock and station flows are part
of the water supply system to Kathmandu Valley and are looked after by Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepai
Limited (KUKL). Therefore, it is a good idea to examine the civil components if they need rehabilitation
or upgrades before the risks escalate.

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5. SCOPE OF THE PROJECT


The scope of this project is to study Sundarijal HPP under the constraints of hydrology, engineering
survey and civil engineering under hydropower engineering. However, the study of catchment area and
the its basin isnt studied. Similarly, the study of rocks, mines, minerals and other geological aspects are
out of the scope.

6. OBJECTIVES
1. To study the hydropower systems of Sundarijal HPP
2. To identify the components of Sundarijal Hydropower Plant this needs Rehabilitation, Maintenance
and Up gradation (RUM)
3. Recommend RUM measures and design/redesign necessary structures
4. To check the hydropower potential of the HPP

7. METHODOLOGY

Desk Study
Desk study covers various literature reviews, project planning etc. Required information was
gathered via various sources and results from it were implemented at various steps of our
project implementation.

Consultation and field visits


After consultation with faculties, friends, local people and information gathered from the
desk study and the site we planned the project.

Design
Based on our survey and requirements, we made calculations of head of the hydropower,
discharge, flow duration curve and designed alternate alignment of penstock. Support pier
was designed which can be used to construct in place of the displaced piers at the site.

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8. Field Measurement of Head of Sundarijal HPP


8.1 HEIGHT DIFFERENCE FROM POWERHOUSE TO DAM SITE
WL-M
SN

FS

BS
T

RISE
M

FALL

RL

HD

0.885
CD

999.015

1.155

1.105

1.055

1.165

0.94

0.715

2.29

2.19

2.09

1.435

1.395

1.355

1.895

1.675

1.69

1.61

1.53

1.22

1.105

3.99

3.91

3.83

1.15

3.18

3.15

3.12

2.67

2.645

3.235

1000.000

30

30

1.085

998.915

89

119

1.455

0.735

998.180

31

150

0.99

0.29

998.470

25

175

1.105

1.06

0.505

998.975

21

196

0.87

0.845

0.82

3.065

1002.040

205

2.62

0.525

0.51

0.495

2.64

1004.680

213

3.205

3.175

0.25

0.235

0.22

2.41

1007.090

222

3.94

3.905

3.87

0.33

0.315

0.3

2.89

1009.980

11

233

10

3.41

3.375

3.34

0.245

0.225

0.205

3.68

1013.660

10

243

11

3.855

3.82

3.785

0.305

0.29

0.275

3.085

1016.745

11

254

12

3.55

3.435

3.32

0.61

0.59

0.57

3.23

1019.975

59

313

13

3.37

3.31

3.25

1.7

1.52

1.34

1.915

1021.890

14

327

14

3.6

3.56

3.52

0.75

0.74

0.73

2.57

1024.460

11

338

15

3.485

3.445

3.405

0.585

0.57

0.555

2.99

1027.450

12

350

16

3.63

3.59

3.55

0.23

0.21

0.19

3.235

1030.685

12

362

17

3.62

3.58

3.54

0.24

0.22

0.2

3.37

1034.055

11

373

18

3.545

3.505

3.465

0.24

0.225

0.21

3.355

1037.410

14

387

19

3.32

3.275

3.23

0.47

0.44

0.41

3.065

1040.475

14

401

20

3.235

3.195

3.155

0.22

0.195

0.17

3.08

1043.555

14

415

21

3.455

3.405

3.355

0.27

0.24

0.21

2.955

1046.510

14

429

22

3.26

3.21

3.16

0.53

0.51

0.49

2.895

1049.405

15

444

23

3.37

3.315

3.26

0.32

0.295

0.27

2.915

1052.320

20

464

24

3.81

3.735

3.66

0.46

0.415

0.37

2.9

1055.220

22

486

25

3.02

2.97

2.92

0.31

0.275

0.24

3.46

1058.680

17

503

26

3.565

3.505

3.445

0.665

0.63

0.595

2.34

1061.020

24

527

27

2.915

2.775

2.635

0.395

0.335

0.275

3.17

1064.190

37

564

28

3.88

3.805

3.73

0.16

0.115

0.07

2.66

1066.850

23

587

29

3.33

3.25

3.18

0.13

0.09

0.05

3.715

1070.565

22

609

30

2.8

2.75

2.7

0.52

0.49

0.45

2.76

1073.325

17

626

31

2.84

2.82

2.8

0.575

0.54

0.505

2.21

1075.535

635

32

2.56

2.495

2.43

0.275

0.25

0.225

2.57

1078.105

16

651

33

2.78

2.73

2.68

0.235

0.22

0.205

2.275

1080.380

18

669

34

3.335

3.305

3.275

0.28

0.24

0.2

2.49

1082.870

678

35

3.755

3.675

3.595

0.11

0.095

0.08

3.21

1086.080

27

705

19

36

3.145

3.075

3.005

0.2

0.145

0.09

3.53

1089.610

26

731

37

1.955

1.855

1.755

0.265

0.205

0.145

2.87

1092.480

28

759

38

2.84

2.8

2.76

0.44

0.4

0.36

1.455

1093.935

15

774

39

2.95

2.92

2.89

0.325

0.29

0.255

2.51

1096.445

10

784

40

2.92

2.89

2.86

0.365

0.345

0.325

2.575

1099.020

12

796

41

2.97

2.94

2.91

0.23

0.2

0.17

2.69

1101.710

12

808

42

3.185

3.15

3.115

0.1

0.07

0.04

2.87

1104.580

13

821

43

3.665

3.615

3.565

0.17

0.14

0.11

3.01

1107.590

15

836

44

2.54

2.49

2.44

0.06

0.035

0.01

3.58

1111.170

20

856

45

3.42

3.37

3.32

0.46

0.41

0.36

2.08

1113.250

14

870

46

3.66

3.63

3.6

0.3

0.28

0.26

3.09

1116.340

56

926

47

3.615

3.58

3.545

0.75

0.5

0.25

3.13

1119.470

935

48

3.38

3.355

3.33

0.23

0.22

0.21

3.36

1122.830

12

947

49

3.16

3.115

3.08

0.145

0.11

0.075

3.245

1126.075

11

958

50

2.685

2.645

2.605

1.2

1.185

1.17

1.93

1128.005

12

970

51

2.89

2.865

2.84

0.22

0.2

0.18

2.445

1130.450

978

52

2.86

2.845

2.83

0.16

0.145

0.13

2.72

1133.170

5.5

983.5

53

3.76

3.705

3.65

0.155

0.145

0.13

2.7

1135.870

15

998.5

54

3.99

3.945

3.9

0.31

0.29

0.27

3.415

1139.285

14

1012.5

55

3.735

3.69

3.645

0.15

0.125

0.1

3.82

1143.105

12

1024.5

56

3.735

3.695

3.655

0.42

0.405

0.39

3.285

1146.390

10

1034.5

57

3.9

3.865

3.83

0.455

0.445

0.435

3.25

1149.640

10

1044.5

58

3.025

2.975

0.37

0.355

0.34

3.51

1153.150

10

1054.5

59

3.795

3.77

3.745

0.165

0.14

0.115

2.86

1156.010

1063.5

60

2.63

2.615

2.6

0.14

0.12

0.1

3.65

1159.660

1069.5

61

3.95

3.915

3.88

0.11

0.095

0.08

2.52

1162.180

11

1080.5

62

3.37

3.34

3.31

0.24

0.22

0.2

3.695

1165.875

1089.5

63

3.625

3.59

3.555

0.19

0.175

0.16

3.165

1169.040

12

1101.5

64

3.985

3.935

3.885

0.24

0.215

0.19

3.375

1172.415

15

1116.5

65

3.615

3.53

3.445

0.085

0.06

0.035

3.875

1176.290

22

1138.5

66

3.83

3.795

3.76

0.09

0.065

0.04

3.465

1179.755

10

1148.5

67

3.41

3.38

3.35

0.2

0.185

0.17

3.61

1183.365

10

1158.5

68

3.465

3.43

3.395

0.1

0.08

0.06

3.3

1186.665

10

1168.5

69

3.835

3.795

3.755

0.23

0.215

0.2

3.215

1189.880

11

1179.5

70

3.36

3.335

3.31

0.11

0.095

0.08

3.7

1193.580

10

1189.5

71

3.39

3.345

3.3

0.075

0.05

0.025

3.285

1196.865

15

1204.5

72

3.715

3.675

3.635

0.11

0.08

0.05

3.265

1200.130

12

1216.5

73

3.815

3.77

3.725

0.205

0.185

0.165

3.49

1203.620

14

1230.5

74

3.3

3.255

3.21

0.195

0.17

0.145

3.6

1207.220

18

1248.5

75

3.055

2.96

2.865

0.285

0.24

0.195

3.015

1210.235

25

1273.5

76

3.665

3.64

3.615

0.25

0.22

0.19

2.74

1212.975

1282.5

20

77

3.57

3.54

3.51

0.255

0.235

0.215

3.405

1216.380

20

1302.5

78

0.31

0.24

0.17

0.53

0.46

0.39

3.08

1219.460

47

1349.5

79

1.525

1.405

1.285

2.165

1.835

1.76

1217.700

45

1394.5

80

2.995

2.93

2.865

0.3

0.195

0.09

1.21

1218.910

34

1428.5

81

3.04

2.93

2.82

0.68

0.575

0.47

2.355

1221.265

28

1456.5

82

3.655

3.62

3.585

0.215

0.185

0.155

2.745

1224.010

12

1468.5

83

3.625

3.585

3.545

0.15

0.125

0.1

3.495

1227.505

24

1492.5

84

1.865

1.73

1.165

1.085

1.005

2.5

1230.005

45

1537.5

85

2.82

2.685

2.55

0.39

0.3

0.21

1.565

1231.570

53

1590.5

86

0.495

0.435

0.375

0.97

0.84

0.71

1.845

1233.415

29

1619.5

87

0.46

0.385

0.31

3.55

3.465

3.38

3.03

1230.385

23

1642.5

88

0.36

0.34

0.32

3.85

3.81

3.77

3.425

1226.960

10

1652.5

89

0.34

0.32

0.3

2.73

2.7

2.67

2.36

1224.600

19

1671.5

90

0.66

0.625

0.59

3.775

3.7

3.625

3.38

1221.220

17

1688.5

3.39

3.34

3.29

2.715

1218.505

236.995

18.49

91
TOT

268.72
WL

4.155

50.215
4.105

4.055

19.255

1688.5
1689

1217.735

218.7

Gross

ARITHMETIC CHECK
BM
B.S.-F.S

218.51

RISE -FALL

218.505

218.505

21

8.2 HEIGHT DIFFERENCE FROM DAM SITE TO POWERHOUSE


WL BM
SN

FS

BS
T

RISE

FALL

RL

0.77
HD

CD

999.23

3.39

3.34

3.29

1000

14

2.89

2.81

2.73

0.585

0.565

0.545

2.775

1002.775

19

14

3.25

3.2

3.15

0.19

0.175

0.16

2.635

1005.41

14

3.805

3.765

3.725

0.2

0.18

0.16

3.02

1008.43

23

70

0.375

0.245

0.115

0.28

0.205

0.13

3.56

1011.99

32

102

2.59

2.525

2.46

0.485

0.455

0.425

0.21

1011.78

36

138

0.9

0.785

0.67

2.87

2.755

2.64

0.23

1011.55

49

187

1.31

1.22

1.13

2.97

2.84

2.71

2.055

1009.495

39

226

0.475

0.45

0.425

3.755

3.65

3.545

2.43

1007.065

13

239

10

0.24

0.22

0.2

3.755

3.715

3.675

3.265

1003.8

24

263

11

0.95

0.87

0.79

3.34

3.24

3.14

3.02

1000.78

28

291

12

0.35

0.3

0.25

2.38

2.32

2.26

1.45

999.33

33

324

13

1.44

1.36

1.28

2.675

2.56

2.445

2.26

997.07

40

364

14

2.9

2.775

2.65

1.34

1.22

1.1

0.14

997.21

47

411

15

0.55

0.53

0.51

3.98

3.87

3.76

1.095

996.115

8.5

419.5

16

0.56

0.545

0.53

3.745

3.725

3.7

3.195

992.92

19

438.5

17

0.845

0.805

0.765

2.945

2.865

2.785

2.32

990.6

21

459.5

18

0.95

0.93

0.91

1.13

1.115

0.31

990.29

14

473.5

19

0.4

0.205

0.17

2.84

2.79

2.74

1.86

988.43

30

503.5

20

0.895

0.875

0.855

3.665

3.63

3.595

3.425

985.005

15

518.5

21

0.085

0.055

0.025

3.76

3.705

3.65

2.83

982.175

15

533.5

22

0.455

0.435

0.415

3.54

3.435

3.45

3.38

978.795

13

546.5

23

0.43

0.41

0.39

3.87

3.825

3.78

3.39

975.405

9.001

555.5

24

0.3

0.28

0.26

3.575

3.55

3.525

3.14

972.265

12

567.5

25

0.26

0.245

0.23

3.765

3.75

3.685

3.47

968.795

10

577.5

26

0.49

0.47

0.45

3.56

3.525

3.49

3.28

965.515

11

588.5

27

0.205

0.18

0.155

3.795

3.76

3.725

3.29

962.225

12

600.5

28

0.31

0.29

0.27

2.805

2.77

2.735

2.59

959.635

11

611.5

29

1.04

0.96

3.54

3.505

3.47

3.215

956.42

18

629.5

30

0.44

0.425

0.41

3.31

3.26

3.21

2.26

954.16

11

640.5

31

0.09

0.065

0.04

3.51

3.47

3.43

3.045

951.115

12

652.5

32

0.5

0.485

0.47

3.955

3.92

3.885

3.855

947.26

10

662.5

33

0.135

0.115

0.095

3.655

3.62

3.585

3.135

944.125

671.5

34

0.22

0.2

0.18

3.73

3.705

3.68

3.59

940.535

10

681.5

35

0.39

0.37

0.35

3.41

3.38

3.35

3.18

937.355

9.001

690.5

36

0.17

0.15

0.13

3.14

3.115

3.09

2.745

934.61

11

701.5

37

0.31

0.29

0.27

3.82

3.785

3.75

3.635

930.975

9.001

710.5

33
47

22

38

0.365

0.345

0.325

3.62

3.595

3.57

3.305

927.67

12

722.5

39

0.36

0.345

0.33

3.5

3.46

3.42

3.115

924.555

12

734.5

40

0.64

0.625

0.61

3.43

3.385

3.34

3.04

921.515

11

745.5

41

0.24

0.23

0.22

3.72

3.68

3.64

3.055

918.46

9.001

754.5

42

0.75

0.735

0.72

3.93

3.895

3.86

3.665

914.795

7.001

761.5

43

0.54

0.525

0.51

3.5

3.48

3.46

2.745

912.05

11

772.5

44

0.52

0.485

0.45

3.75

3.71

3.67

3.185

908.865

17

789.5

45

0.35

0.305

0.26

2.49

2.44

2.39

1.955

906.91

15

804.5

46

0.405

0.395

0.385

3.83

3.8

3.77

3.495

903.415

9.001

813.5

47

0.52

0.51

0.5

3.66

3.625

3.59

3.23

900.185

10

823.5

48

0.66

0.65

0.64

3.65

3.61

3.57

3.1

897.085

832.5

49

0.6

0.575

0.55

3.435

3.4

3.365

2.75

894.335

22

854.5

50

0.48

0.455

0.43

3.515

3.43

3.345

2.855

891.48

14

868.5

51

0.57

0.545

0.52

3.605

3.56

3.515

3.105

888.375

14

882.5

52

0.78

0.745

0.71

3.55

3.505

3.46

2.96

885.415

16

898.5

53

0.755

0.735

0.715

3.64

3.595

3.55

2.85

882.565

12

910.5

54

0.45

0.43

0.41

3.67

3.63

3.59

2.895

879.67

12

922.5

55

0.48

0.44

0.44

3.95

3.91

3.87

3.48

876.19

17

939.5

56

1.195

1.105

1.015

3.64

3.575

3.51

3.135

873.055

32

971.5

57

0.65

0.6

0.55

2.885

2.815

2.745

1.71

871.345

24

995.5

58

0.36

0.325

0.29

3.09

3.02

2.95

2.42

868.925

21

1017

59

0.125

0.105

0.085

3.83

3.76

3.69

3.435

865.49

14

1031

60

0.765

0.745

0.725

3.795

3.745

3.695

3.64

861.85

21.5

1052

61

0.565

0.55

0.535

3.7

3.615

3.525

2.87

858.98

8.001

1060

62

0.585

0.555

0.525

2.785

2.76

2.735

2.21

856.77

22

1082

63

0.565

0.535

0.505

3.96

3.88

3.8

3.325

853.445

15

1097

64

0.7

0.68

0.66

2.945

2.9

2.855

2.365

851.08

18

1115

65

0.955

0.93

0.905

3.42

3.35

3.28

2.67

848.41

17

1132

66

0.91

0.87

0.83

3.67

3.61

3.55

2.68

845.73

32

1164

67

0.82

0.78

0.74

2.76

2.64

2.52

1.77

843.96

22

1186

68

0.555

0.51

0.465

3.83

3.76

3.69

2.98

840.98

23

1209

69

0.21

0.165

0.12

0.905

0.835

0.765

0.325

840.655

26

1235

70

0.56

0.535

0.51

3.775

3.695

3.605

3.53

837.125

18

1253

71

0.48

0.46

0.44

3.9

3.835

3.77

3.3

833.825

12

1265

72

0.325

0.295

0.265

3.24

3.2

3.16

2.74

831.085

14

1279

73

0.53

0.51

0.49

3.465

3.425

3.385

3.13

827.955

13

1292

74

0.525

0.505

0.485

3.48

3.435

3.39

2.925

825.03

15

1307

75

0.36

0.34

0.32

3.72

3.665

3.61

3.16

821.87

13

1320

76

0.56

0.54

0.52

3.99

3.945

3.9

3.605

818.265

1329

77

0.3

0.28

0.26

2.885

2.86

2.835

2.32

815.945

13

1342

78

0.5

0.485

0.47

3.81

3.765

3.72

3.485

812.46

13

1355

23

79

0.645

0.625

0.605

3.98

3.93

3.88

3.445

809.015

12

1367

80

0.57

0.54

0.51

3.37

3.33

3.29

2.705

806.31

29

1396

81

0.85

0.735

0.62

1.35

1.235

1.12

0.695

805.615

39

1435

82

0.62

0.6

0.58

3.45

3.37

3.29

2.635

802.98

12

1447

83

0.4

0.385

0.37

3.76

3.72

3.68

3.12

799.86

12

1459

84

0.53

0.52

0.51

3.855

3.81

3.765

3.425

796.435

1467

85

0.42

0.4

0.38

3.8

3.77

3.74

3.25

793.185

12

1479

86

0.735

0.73

0.725

3.795

3.755

3.715

3.355

789.83

2.001

1481

87

0.4

0.39

0.38

3.665

3.625

3.655

2.895

786.935

17

1498

88

0.285

0.255

0.225

3.655

3.58

3.505

3.19

783.745

34

1532

89

1.21

1.1

0.99

3.3

3.16

3.02

2.905

780.84

42

1574

90

1.69

1.405

1.12

1.26

1.16

1.06

0.06

780.78

76

1650

91

2.53

2.42

2.316

1.175

1.08

0.985

0.325

781.105

41.4

1691

1.25

1.15

1.05

1.27

782.375

13.725

231.35

92
TOTAL

64.805

282.43
WL

2.26

2.16

2.06

1691

0.26
12.715

781.49

217.7

ARITHMETIC CHECK
B.S.-F.S

217.625

RISE -FALL

217.625

24

8.3 CORRECTION BY BOWDITCHS METHOD


RISE(m)

FALL(m)

RL(m)

correction

adjusted
RL

distance(m)

C.D.

1000

1000.000

1.085

998.915

0.000355

998.915

30

30

0.735

998.18

0.001408

998.179

89

119

0.29

998.47

0.001775

998.468

31

150

0.505

998.975

0.002071

998.973

25

175

3.065

1002.04

0.00232

1002.038

21

196

2.64

1004.68

0.002426

1004.678

205

2.41

1007.09

0.002521

1007.087

213

2.89

1009.98

0.002627

1009.977

222

3.68

1013.66

0.002757

1013.657

11

233

3.085

1016.745

0.002876

1016.742

10

243

3.23

1019.975

0.003006

1019.972

11

254

1.915

1021.89

0.003704

1021.886

59

313

2.57

1024.46

0.00387

1024.456

14

327

2.99

1027.45

0.004

1027.446

11

338

3.235

1030.685

0.004142

1030.681

12

350

3.37

1034.055

0.004284

1034.051

12

362

3.355

1037.41

0.004414

1037.406

11

373

3.065

1040.475

0.00458

1040.470

14

387

3.08

1043.555

0.004746

1043.550

14

401

2.955

1046.51

0.004911

1046.505

14

415

2.895

1049.405

0.005077

1049.400

14

429

2.915

1052.32

0.005255

1052.315

15

444

2.9

1055.22

0.005491

1055.215

20

464

3.46

1058.68

0.005752

1058.674

22

486

2.34

1061.02

0.005953

1061.014

17

503

3.17

1064.19

0.006237

1064.184

24

527

2.66

1066.85

0.006675

1066.843

37

564

3.715

1070.565

0.006947

1070.558

23

587

2.76

1073.325

0.007207

1073.318

22

609

2.21

1075.535

0.007408

1075.528

17

626

2.57

1078.105

0.007515

1078.097

635

2.275

1080.38

0.007704

1080.372

16

651

2.49

1082.87

0.007917

1082.862

18

669

3.21

1086.08

0.008024

1086.072

678

3.53

1089.61

0.008343

1089.602

27

705

2.87

1092.48

0.008651

1092.471

26

731

1.455

1093.935

0.008982

1093.926

28

759

25

2.51

1096.445

0.00916

1096.436

15

774

2.575

1099.02

0.009278

1099.011

10

784

2.69

1101.71

0.00942

1101.701

12

796

2.87

1104.58

0.009562

1104.570

12

808

3.01

1107.59

0.009716

1107.580

13

821

3.58

1111.17

0.009894

1111.160

15

836

2.08

1113.25

0.01013

1113.240

20

856

3.09

1116.34

0.010296

1116.330

14

870

3.13

1119.47

0.010959

1119.459

56

926

3.36

1122.83

0.011065

1122.819

935

3.245

1126.075

0.011207

1126.064

12

947

1.93

1128.005

0.011338

1127.994

11

958

2.445

1130.45

0.01148

1130.439

12

970

2.72

1133.17

0.011574

1133.158

978

2.7

1135.87

0.011639

1135.858

5.5

983.5

3.415

1139.285

0.011817

1139.273

15

998.5

3.82

1143.105

0.011983

1143.093

14

1012.5

3.285

1146.39

0.012125

1146.378

12

1024.5

3.25

1149.64

0.012243

1149.628

10

1034.5

3.51

1153.15

0.012361

1153.138

10

1044.5

2.86

1156.01

0.01248

1155.998

10

1054.5

3.65

1159.66

0.012586

1159.647

1063.5

2.52

1162.18

0.012657

1162.167

1069.5

3.695

1165.875

0.012787

1165.862

11

1080.5

3.165

1169.04

0.012894

1169.027

1089.5

3.375

1172.415

0.013036

1172.402

12

1101.5

3.875

1176.29

0.013213

1176.277

15

1116.5

3.465

1179.755

0.013474

1179.742

22

1138.5

3.61

1183.365

0.013592

1183.351

10

1148.5

3.3

1186.665

0.01371

1186.651

10

1158.5

3.215

1189.88

0.013829

1189.866

10

1168.5

3.7

1193.58

0.013959

1193.566

11

1179.5

3.285

1196.865

0.014077

1196.851

10

1189.5

3.265

1200.13

0.014255

1200.116

15

1204.5

3.49

1203.62

0.014397

1203.606

12

1216.5

3.6

1207.22

0.014563

1207.205

14

1230.5

3.015

1210.235

0.014776

1210.220

18

1248.5

2.74

1212.975

0.015071

1212.960

25

1273.5

3.405

1216.38

0.015178

1216.365

1282.5

3.08

1219.46

0.015415

1219.445

20

1302.5

1.76

1217.7

0.015971

1217.684

47

1349.5

26

1.21

1218.91

0.016503

1218.893

45

1394.5

2.355

1221.265

0.016906

1221.248

34

1428.5

2.745

1224.01

0.017237

1223.993

28

1456.5

3.495

1227.505

0.017379

1227.488

12

1468.5

2.5

1230.005

0.017663

1229.987

24

1492.5

1.565

1231.57

0.018196

1231.552

45

1537.5

1.845

1233.415

0.018823

1233.396

53

1590.5

3.03

1230.385

0.019166

1230.366

29

1619.5

3.425

1226.96

0.019438

1226.941

23

1642.5

2.36

1224.6

0.019557

1224.580

10

1652.5

3.38

1221.22

0.019782

1221.200

19

1671.5

2.715

1218.505

0.019983

1218.485

17

1688.5

2.775

1221.28

0.020148

1221.260

14

1702.5

2.635

1223.915

0.020373

1223.895

19

1721.5

3.02

1226.935

0.020539

1226.914

14

1735.5

3.56

1230.495

0.020811

1230.474

23

1758.5

0.21

1230.285

0.02119

1230.264

32

1790.5

0.23

1230.055

0.021616

1230.033

36

1826.5

2.055

1228

0.022196

1227.978

49

1875.5

2.43

1225.57

0.022657

1225.547

39

1914.5

3.265

1222.305

0.022811

1222.282

13

1927.5

3.02

1219.285

0.023095

1219.262

24

1951.5

1.45

1217.835

0.023427

1217.812

28

1979.5

2.26

1215.575

0.023817

1215.551

33

2012.5

0.14

1215.715

0.024291

1215.691

40

2052.5

1.095

1214.62

0.024847

1214.595

47

2099.5

3.195

1211.425

0.024947

1211.400

8.5

2108

2.32

1209.105

0.025172

1209.080

19

2127

0.31

1208.795

0.025421

1208.770

21

2148

1.86

1206.935

0.025586

1206.909

14

2162

3.425

1203.51

0.025942

1203.484

30

2192

2.83

1200.68

0.026119

1200.654

15

2207

3.38

1197.3

0.026297

1197.274

15

2222

3.39

1193.91

0.02645

1193.884

13

2235

3.14

1190.77

0.026557

1190.743

9.001

2244.001

3.47

1187.3

0.026699

1187.273

12

2256.001

3.28

1184.02

0.026817

1183.993

10

2266.001

3.29

1180.73

0.026947

1180.703

11

2277.001

2.59

1178.14

0.02709

1178.113

12

2289.001

3.215

1174.925

0.02722

1174.898

11

2300.001

2.26

1172.665

0.027433

1172.638

18

2318.001

27

3.045

1169.62

0.027563

1169.592

11

2329.001

3.855

1165.765

0.027705

1165.737

12

2341.001

3.135

1162.63

0.027823

1162.602

10

2351.001

3.59

1159.04

0.02793

1159.012

2360.001

3.18

1155.86

0.028048

1155.832

10

2370.001

2.745

1153.115

0.028155

1153.087

9.001

2379.002

3.635

1149.48

0.028285

1149.452

11

2390.002

3.305

1146.175

0.028391

1146.147

9.001

2399.003

3.115

1143.06

0.028533

1143.031

12

2411.003

3.04

1140.02

0.028675

1139.991

12

2423.003

3.055

1136.965

0.028806

1136.936

11

2434.003

3.665

1133.3

0.028912

1133.271

9.001

2443.004

2.745

1130.555

0.028995

1130.526

7.001

2450.005

3.185

1127.37

0.029125

1127.341

11

2461.005

1.955

1125.415

0.029326

1125.386

17

2478.005

3.495

1121.92

0.029504

1121.890

15

2493.005

3.23

1118.69

0.02961

1118.660

9.001

2502.006

3.1

1115.59

0.029729

1115.560

10

2512.006

2.75

1112.84

0.029835

1112.810

2521.006

2.855

1109.985

0.030096

1109.955

22

2543.006

3.105

1106.88

0.030261

1106.850

14

2557.006

2.96

1103.92

0.030427

1103.890

14

2571.006

2.85

1101.07

0.030616

1101.039

16

2587.006

2.895

1098.175

0.030758

1098.144

12

2599.006

3.48

1094.695

0.0309

1094.664

12

2611.006

3.135

1091.56

0.031102

1091.529

17

2628.006

1.71

1089.85

0.03148

1089.819

32

2660.006

2.42

1087.43

0.031764

1087.398

24

2684.006

3.435

1083.995

0.032013

1083.963

21

2705.006

3.64

1080.355

0.032178

1080.323

14

2719.006

2.87

1077.485

0.032433

1077.453

21.5

2740.506

2.21

1075.275

0.032528

1075.242

8.001

2748.507

3.325

1071.95

0.032788

1071.917

22

2770.507

2.365

1069.585

0.032965

1069.552

15

2785.507

2.67

1066.915

0.033179

1066.882

18

2803.507

2.68

1064.235

0.03338

1064.202

17

2820.507

1.77

1062.465

0.033758

1062.431

32

2852.507

2.98

1059.485

0.034019

1059.451

22

2874.507

0.325

1059.16

0.034291

1059.126

23

2897.507

3.53

1055.63

0.034599

1055.595

26

2923.507

3.3

1052.33

0.034812

1052.295

18

2941.507

28

2.74

1049.59

0.034954

1049.555

12

2953.507

3.13

1046.46

0.035119

1046.425

14

2967.507

2.925

1043.535

0.035273

1043.500

13

2980.507

3.16

1040.375

0.035451

1040.340

15

2995.507

3.605

1036.77

0.035605

1036.734

13

3008.507

2.32

1034.45

0.035711

1034.414

3017.507

3.485

1030.965

0.035865

1030.929

13

3030.507

3.445

1027.52

0.036019

1027.484

13

3043.507

2.705

1024.815

0.036161

1024.779

12

3055.507

0.695

1024.12

0.036504

1024.083

29

3084.507

2.635

1021.485

0.036966

1021.448

39

3123.507

3.12

1018.365

0.037108

1018.328

12

3135.507

3.465

1014.9

0.03725

1014.863

12

3147.507

3.25

1011.65

0.037344

1011.613

3155.507

3.555

1008.095

0.037486

1008.058

12

3167.507

2.895

1005.2

0.03751

1005.162

2.001

3169.508

3.19

1002.01

0.037711

1001.972

17

3186.508

3.505

998.505

0.038114

998.467

34

3220.508

0.06

998.445

0.038611

998.406

42

3262.508

0.325

998.77

0.03951

998.730

76

3338.508

1.27

1000.0400

0.04

1000.000

41.4

3379.908

difference

0.0400
40

M
Mm

3379.908
k
permissable error

3.3799
45.96

Mm

Therefore, the head was found to be 218.635 meters.

29

9. FIELD MEASUREMENT OF DISCHARGE


9.1 Determination of Cross Section
Two Cross sections of the river were taken. Breadth of the river (length perpendicular to the span of river)
and depth at every 1m gap were taken.
Section A-A
depth
Distance X
Distance(m) RL
(m)
Depth
0 100.596
-0.049
0.0965
1 100.501
-0.144
0.164
2 100.461
-0.184
0.2545
3 100.320
-0.325
0.37
4 100.230
-0.415
0.4095
5 100.241
-0.404
0.231
6 100.587
-0.058
0.029
7 100.645
0.000
0.09106
8.256 100.500
-0.145

1.64556

Figure 6 Cross Section A-A of river

30

Section B-B
Distance(m) RL(m)

Depth(m)

Distance X
Depth

99.960

0.000

0.041

99.878

-0.082

0.127

99.788

-0.172

0.182

99.768

-0.192

0.212

99.728

-0.232

0.356

99.480

-0.480

0.3295

99.781

-0.179

0.19764

7.22

99.815

-0.145

1.44514

Figure 7 Cross Section B-B of River

9.2 Determination of Velocity


Current meter could not be used to measure velocity of the river since the depth was too less. Therefore,
float method was applied.
Distance(m) Time taken (sec) Velocity(m/s)
2.9
2.59
1.120
Section A-A

2.9
2.9

3.81
4.5

5
5

10
6.29

0.761
0.644
0.842
0.500
0.795

6.6

0.758

AVG
Section B-B
AVG

0.684

31

9.3 Discharge
Discharge = Cross Section Area X Velocity
Discharge at Section A-A = 1.64556 X 0.684 = 1.1256 m3/s
Discharge at Section B-B = 1.44514 X 0.842 = 1.2168 m3/s
Average = 1.171 m3/s

9.4 Measurement of discharge from canal


Width = 0.6 m
Wetted depth = 0.3 m
Wetted area = 0.18
Distance(m) Time taken (sec) Velocity(m/s)
13

7.84

1.658

13
13
13

7.66
8.57
7.83

1.697
1.517
1.660

8.87

1.466
1.600

13
AVG

32

9.5 Flow Duration Curve


9.5.1 MIP METHOD
Using MIP method to get discharge values for Flow Duration Curve

Month of Field observation of discharge = November = 1.171 m3/s


Converting this into discharge at April 15 = 0.234 m3/s

Months

Factor

Discharge(m /s)

January

2.71

0.635

February

1.88

0.440

March

1.38

0.323

April

0.234

May

1.88

0.440

June

3.13

0.733

July

13.54

3.172

25

5.856

September

20.83

4.879

October

10.42

2.441

November

1.171

December

3.75

0.878

August

33

9.5.2 Flow Duration Curve


Probality of
Rank exceedence %
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Discharge (m /s)
8.333
5.856
16.667
4.879
25.000
3.172
33.333
2.441
41.667
1.171
50.000
0.878
58.333
0.733
66.667
0.635
75.000
0.440
83.333
0.440
91.667
0.323
100.000
0.234

Figure 8 Flow Duration Curve

By interpolation, Q65 =0.654 m3/s

34

9.6 TOTAL DISCHARGE


Total Discharge that can be utilized
= Discharge from river + 2 canals
= 0.654 + 0.216 + 0.216 m3/s
=1.086 m3/s

35

10. FINDING HYDROPOWER POTENTIAL USING OBTAINED FIELD


INFORMATION
10.1 Design of penstock for that hydropower potential
Using USBR formula,
Veco=0.1252gH = 8.187 m/sec
D=(4Q/v) = 0.411 m
Using Sarkaria Formula,
Power (P) = QH = 1980.6 kW = 2654.96 HP
D = 0.62 P0.35= 0.295 m
H0.65
From JNN Guidelines,
7

D=

5.2Q3
H

= 0.61 m

Pressure inside Penstock (p) = g (H+H0) where, Dynamic head (H0)= v2/2g
Therefore, g (H+H0) = 22.2051 kg/cm2
t= pD/2a + (: Corrosion allowance 0.2 cm)
= 0.861 cm
As per ASME code:
t= pR/(a-0.6 p) + 0.15 = 0.82 cm
tmin= D/ 288 = 0.211 cm
tmin= (D+200)/400 = 0.652 cm

36

10.2 Penstock Alignment


Due to lack of topographic map of the exact location and scale of Sundarijal HPP available to us, we used a
Google Maps service provided by Google Inc. as it readily provides satellite images and elevation contours.
The aim of taking this image is to get an idea of the length of the penstock that can be put so as to check the
hydropower potential of the river. The accuracy of this method can be in doubt however, the scope is to find
the length only so it is preferable.

Figure 9 Penstock Alignment

The alignment is shown by the straight lines enclosed within small square boxes. The total length of the
alignment was found to be 1.41 km.

37

10.3 Calculation of major and minor losses


10.3.1 Calculation of friction factor
Relative roughness = 0.00004167
Reynolds number (Re) = vD/ = 2.263x106
From Moody Chart, friction factor (f) = 0.0116

Figure 10 Moody Diagram

38

10.3.1 Calculation of head loss

Major loss (Darcy Wiesbach Formula)


fLv2/2gD
= 19.149 m

Minor loss
(v2/2g) (kentrance+kbend+kexit)
= 1.268 m

Total loss (HL) = 19.149+1.268 = 20.417 m

10.4 REMARKS
Taking losses into account, Power = Q(H-HL) = 1795.65 kW ~1.8 MW
(taking overall efficiency of turbine and generator 85%)
This power is calculated using Q65
Whereas Q40 is used in the original design and it produced 1.24 MW
REMARKS: The HPP still has more potential.

39

11 CALCULATION OF FIRM POWER AND SECONDARY POWER


Table 1

Calculation of power and


energy

Calculate the wet firm and secondary power and


energy
Wet period

Calculate the dry firm and secondary


power and energy
Dry period

Power [kW]

Firm

Sec

Firm

Sec

Firm

Sec

Firm

Sec

Pow. [kW]

Pow. [kW]

Ener [kWh].

Ener.
[kWh]
9

Pow.
[kW]
10

Pow.
[kW]
11

Ener.
[kWh]
12

Ener.
[kWh]
13

1060
.17
1060
.17
1060
.17

660.58

788769.0
1
712436.5
2
788769.0
1

491474.11

1060
.17
4240
.69

692.28

515054.2
0
2805028.
74

788769.01

Design
QD at
Q65%
M No. of
days

Flow
m3/s

m3/s

Energy
[kWh]

31

0.63

1.04

1720.76

1280243.12

28

0.44

0.85

1400.12

940882.51

M 31

0.32

0.73

1206.97

897985.46

30

0.23

0.64

1060.17

763324.82

1060.17

0.00

763324.85

0.00

M 31

0.44

0.85

1400.12

1041691.35

1060.17

339.95

788769.01

252922.34

30

0.65

1.06

1752.45

1261764.39

1060.17

692.28

763324.85

498439.55

31

0.65

1.06

1752.45

1303823.21

1060.17

692.28

788769.01

515054.20

31

0.65

1.06

1752.45

1303823.21

1060.17

692.28

788769.01

515054.20

30

0.65

1.06

1752.45

1261764.39

1060.17

692.28

763324.85

498439.55

31

0.65

1.06

1752.45

1303823.21

1060.17

692.28

788769.01

515054.20

30

0.65

1.06

1752.45

1261764.39

1060.17

692.28

763324.85

498439.55

31

0.65

1.06

1752.45

1303823.21

365

13924713.2
5

8481.39

4493.61

6208375.43

3293403.5
6

339.95
146.80

1839.61

228445.98
109216.45

1617905.5
5

40

REMARKS:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Installed Capacity Pinst, kW


Firm Capacity, Pfirm, kW
Total Wet Energy [kWh]
Total Dry Energy [kWh]
Annual Energy Consumed [kWh]
Total Annual Energy Could be Produced [kWh]
Annual Plant Factor
Annual Load Factor
Annual Utilization Factor
Total cost of Hydropower
Total annual benefit from hydropower
Total annual cost of hydropower installation and operat. for 30 years
Benefit -cost ratio
Your candid conclusion

1933.36
1169.62
9501778.99
4422934.29
13924713.28
16936224.31
0.8222
0.8222
1
290003841
82761187.2
30740407.14
2.6923
Economically
Feasible

(Taking the cost of hydropower into annuity taking interest is equal to 10)

41

12. CALCULATION OF FLOW MASS CURVE


Volume
(m3/day)

S.N.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Months
Factor
Discharge(m /s) Days
January
2.71
0.635
February
1.88
0.440
March
1.38
0.323
April
1
0.234
May
1.88
0.440
June
3.13
0.733
July
13.54
3.172
August
25
5.856
September
20.83
4.879
October
10.42
2.441
November
5
1.171
December
3.75
0.878

31
28
31
30
31
30
31
31
30
31
30
31

Cumulative volume (m3day)

19.678
12.330
10.021
7.027
13.651
21.995
98.319
181.534
146.375
75.663
35.136
27.230

19.678
32.008
42.029
49.056
62.708
84.702
183.021
364.555
510.930
586.593
621.728
648.959

Figure 11 Flow Mass Curve

From the curve plotted, it is assumed that the reservoir is full at the beginning of a dry period i.e. when
the inflow rate is less than the demand rate, the maximum amount of water drawn from the storage is the
cumulative difference between supply and demand volumes from the beginning of the dry season.
Therefore the storage required, S = Maximum of Vd - Vs where, Vd is Demand Volume and Vs is
supply volume.
The estimated capacity for which the reservoir is to be designed is 84 cumec-day
i.e 84 X 24 X 60 X60 = 7.256 million cubic meter per second.

13 .DESIGN OF SUPPORT PIER


13.1 Design
Support piers are required along the straight sections of exposed penstock between anchor blocks. The
maximum spacing of support piers to avoid overstressing the pipe is generally 5.

Design considerations:
1. Component of the weight of pipe and enclosed water
2. Frictional force of pipe on support piers
3. Force on the anchor blocks on support piers due to the soil pressure acting on the upstream face
Factors not included in the design:
1. Since there is only one minor bend, the hydrostatic pressure within the bend was neglected.
2. Thermal expansion and contraction effects.
42

3. Pipe diameter reduction


To find total force acting on support piers:
Span of penstock supported by support pier = 5m
Internal Diameter of penstock = 0.6m
Thickness of penstock = 9.00mm
Thickness of saddle plate = 18.00mm
Density of steel taken = 8050 kg/m3
Density of water = 1000 kg/m3
Span of steel saddle plate resting on pier = 1.12m + 0.5d + 0.5d = 2.12 m
Weight in kilograms = Density X Volume
Wpenstock= 8050 X 5 X (2 r X t) =683.1 kg
Wsaddle= 8050 X (1.25 X r X 2t) = 235.17 kg
Wwater enclosed = 5 X r2 X 1000 = 1414.286 kg
Total Force due to weight of penstock, saddle and water enclosed, F1=2332.56kg
Friction co-efficient, f = 0.57
Frictional force, F2=fXF1=1329.557706
Unit weight of soil = 16 kN/m3
Friction angle, = 22
Thrust acting on the face of pier, F4= 153.34 kg
Weight of pier, F3= 19224.99 kg
This weight is calculated after determining the dimension of the pier.

43

Figure 12 Cross Section of Penstock

44

Figure 13 Support pier elevation with saddle and penstock

45

Figure 14 Cross section of penstock resting on support pier

46

After several iteration, the following dimension yield safe remarks on all three checks.
L = 2.2m, B = 2.0 m, H = 2m,
Sum of moments about bottom right end of the pier, M = 23595.33 kg m
Sum of vertical forces,V =21299.30 kg
Sum of horizontal forces, H = 1150.90 kg

13.2 Stability Analysis


Checking of conditions of stability is required and an iterative process was done to determine the safe
dimension of support pier.

SAFETY ON OVERTURNING
The forces acting on the structure should not overturn the block. For structures that have rectangular
bases, this condition is met if the resultant acts within the middle third of the base.
Distance at which the resultant acts, d= M / V = 1.11 m
where,
M = sum of moments acting about the chosen point of the block
Eccentricity, e = 0.5 L - d < allowable eccentricity = L/6 i.e 0.0078 < 0.3667
SAFE ON BEARING
The load transmitted to the foundation must be within the safe bearing capacity limit of the foundation
material. If the transmitted load exceeds the bearing capacity limit of the foundation, the structure will
sink. The bearing pressure at the base is checked using the following equations:
Pbase= V/Abase(1+ 6e/L) = 4943.7 kg/m2
where Pbase= maximum pressure transmitted to the foundation
V = the sum of vertical forces acting on the block
L = length of the base
A = base area of the block
The allowable bearing pressure of soft clays and silts = 5000 kg/m2> Pbase
SAFE AGAINST SLIDING
The structure should not slide over its foundation which is checked as:
V / H 1.5
7.48 1.5
= Friction co-efficient between the block and the foundation = tan
The dimension taken was taken so that they satisfy safety on all three cases which can be built to replace
the degraded ones at the site.

47

13.3 Cost Estimation


Total Volume = 3.125 m3
This is the volume of PCC used to construct the support pier.

Analysis of Rates of PCC (1:2:4) in foundation and super-structure


Particulars
Excavation
Materials
Cement
Sand
Aggregate
Manpower
Skilled
Unskilled
Total

Quantity or Nos.
2.42 m3

Rate
NRs. 180 per cu.m

Cost
NRs. 435.60

13.5 bags
9.75 cu.ft
17.7 cu.ft

NRs. 800 per bag


NRs. 90 per cu.ft
NRs. 81 per cu.ft

NRs. 10,800.00
NRs. 900.00
NRs. 1,430.00

1 for 2 days
4 for 2 days

NRs. 530 per Manday


NRs. 320 per Manday

NRs.1,060.00
NRs.2,560.00
NRs.17,185.60

Add 1.5% for water charges = NRs. 257.78


Add 10% Contractors profit = NRs. 1,718.56
Total = NRs. 19,161.34
Three such piers need to be constructed, hence Grand Total = NRs. 57,484.02

48

14. INSPECTION WORKS

The power house has a 5 ton lifting crane working properly and staffs are positioned which take
required data at regular intervals.

The turbines which were kept for repair had large eroded parts. So, a valuable decision will be
cleaning the reservoir so that the silts can settle down and prevented from getting into the penstock.

There are also possibilities of bringing more water from rivers to the reservoir; that is mainly from
Nagmati as very less water is diverted. Using this extra amount of collected water new set of
equipments can be set up in the powerhouse.

The canal of Shayalmati has also to be rennovated as at many places the walls have been collapsed.

There are some leakages in penstock but these can be sealed off.

The anchor blocks along the penstock have deteriorated and are at the verge of collapse (See pictoral
highlights fig.2 and fig.3) which need to be repaired.

Huge amounts of sediments were found at the reservoir. As a temporary solution, some lumps of silt
were manually taken out to the bank of the reservoir. Necessary flushing mechanism need to be put
into operation.

The rehabilitation of this power station is underway under the joint assistance from ADB, GON and
NEA. NEA has received loan from ADB towards the cost of Power Efficiency Improvement as part of
Electricity Transmission Expansion and Supply Improvement Project. NEA intends to apply a portion
of the proceeds of this loan for Rehabilitation of Sundarijal HPP. The proposed rehabilitation works
largely consists of electro-mechanical rehabilitation and recruitment of international individual
consultant in intermittent assignment for design and implementation support for Part C: Rehabilitation
of small HPP.

Mechanical Works:
a.

Repair and maintenance of runner buckets in both units.

b. Penstock repair and maintenance works.


c.

Repair oil cooler of turbines

Electrical works:
a.

Rewinding of excitor of turbines

b. Replacement of 3.3 kV XPLE cable from generator to step-up transformer and 11 kV cable
from switchyard to pole with cable termination kit.

Civil Maintenance Works:


a.

Repair of canal from Nagmati to Bagmati Forebay.

b. Cleaning of Balancing Reservoir.


c.

Construction of four numbers of penstock support pillars near Bhatte Danda.

d. Construction of single storey new staff quarter.

49

15. PUBLIC CONSULTATION


The dam site of Sundarijal HPP lies at Shivapuri National park which makes it a very busy domestic and
tourist site especially at weekends. The natural beauty, picnic spots, rivers and pond to swim makes it a
very important place to be with family and friends. This had led to an increase the value of this place in
commercial terms as well. Sundarijal HHP adds an intake, reservoir and dam sites which makes the place
beautiful in aesthetic sense.
Local people are conscious about the maintenance of the civil structures, i.e. penstock and support piers
mainly. They face the normal loadshedding schedule although 1 hour less each day.
The people in the locality whose houses are nearby along the penstock length have stated their
dissatisfaction regarding the regular maintenance. The public showed interest in the upgradation as well,
i.e. upgradation from 640kW to 1.2 MW.
In the past, tenders for maintenance and operation were given to the local by NEA which accumulated a
budget enough to employ certain manpower of the society. |However, currently, the tender has been given
to others besides the local; this change in procurement of services had upset the local. Their claim is that
the lack of rehabilitation detected at the site was due to this conflict.

50

16. PROJECT SCHEDULE

51

17. OUTCOMES
The outcomes of this project are as follows:
i. Head of the hydropower was determined by field work which was then compared with the recent
measurement done by NEA and was found to be nearly equal.
ii. Degraded civil components were detected.
iii. Data collection and calculation of various hydropower parameters can be utilized in development
works
iv. Design and suggestions made in this report can be a motivation for rehabilitation of this HPP in future.

18. LIMITATIONS OF THE PROJECT

The whole span of the penstock alignment could not be inspected since some part were
inaccessible.
Inspection of the total quantity of silt deposited in the reservoir was not determined.

19. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS


This mini-project was successful to achieve its objectives. Regarding RUM, several degradations have
been put into highlights in this report and suitable suggestions have been provided. With the regular RUM
works done by NEA, Sundarijal HPP has more potential to develop and increase its power generation.
This report can be very useful as a reference whenever head, discharge, flow duration curve, flow mass
curve, check for power potential, design of support piers, etc. will be of need to be referred to in the
future.

52

20. REFERENCES
Bathtub curve. (2014, March 3). Retrieved from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bathtub_curve
Authority, N. E. (n.d.). TERMS OF REFERENCE. Nepal: Electricity Transmission Expansion and Supply
Improvement Project. Kathmandu University, Nepal: Nepal Electricity Authority.
Dutts, B. N. (2013). Estimating and Costing in Civil Engineering. New Delhi: UBS Publishers' Distributors Pvt.
Ltd.
Goldberg, J., & Lier, O. E. (n.d.). REHABILITATION OF HYDROPOWER - An introduction to economic and
technical issues. worldbank.org.
Subramanya, K. (n.d.). Engineering Hydrology. Tata McGraw Hill.

53

PICTORIAL HIGHLIGHTS

Photo: 1 Penstock resting on support pier

Photo: 2 Displaced Anchor Block

Photo: 3 Dam

54

Photo: 4 Reservoir

Photo: 5 River Stretch

55

Photo: 6 Canal Section

Photo: 7 Trash Rack at Canal

56

Photo: 8 Source of Canal

Photo: 9 Team performing Fly Levelling

57