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EXPERIMENT 6

DATE: Jan 26, 2015


Topic: Thermochemistry
Purpose: To determine the heat of reaction
Material: Approx. 100 ml hydrochloric acid (KA1),
1 spatula Na2CO3 (KA2) &
1 spatula NaHCO3 (KA3)

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Switch off all the fans.
2. In step 3, pour KA2 @ KA3 into
KA1carefully and swiftly. Avoid
splashing.
Avoid pouring KA2 @ KA3 on the
thermometer or the wall of the polysteryne
cup.

Procedure:
1.

KA1

Let KA1 stand


for a few min

Thermometer

plastic cup
30.00 ml KA1
plastic cup

Record T1 in table

Run 30.00 ml KA1


into plastic cup

2.

3.

KA2

KA2

KA1

M1
4.

Pour KA2 quickly at one go,


avoid splashing
5.

Thermometer

empty tube
plastic cup
30.00 ml KA1
Stir,
Record highest temperature, T2
6. Repeat experiment with KA1 and KA3.
T2 = Minimum temperature

M2

Results:
(b)
Weigh of test-tube + solid/ g
Weigh of empty test-tube / g
Weigh of solid / g
Initial temperature of acid/ C
Final temperature of mixture/ C
Temperature change/ C
Discussion:
(c)
(i)

KA2
M1
M2
M1 M2
T1
T2
T2 T1

KA3

Formula: Heat change , Q = mc


With m = mass of solution, in g
c = specific heat capacity of solution = 4.2 J g1 K1
= Temperature change
The amount of heat @ energy released for the reaction of KA2 with hydrochloric acid
= (30.00)(4.2)( T2 T1) J
= a kJ
The amount of heat @ energy released for the reaction of KA3 with hydrochloric acid
=
= b kJ

(c)

(ii)

The number of moles of anhydrous sodium carbonate in KA2


M 1M 2
=
2 ( 23.0 ) +14.0+3 (16.0)
= y mole
The number of moles of anhydrous sodium hydrogencarbonate in KA3

=
23.0+ 1.0+14.0+3(16.0)
= z mole

(c)

(iii)

The entalphy change for the reaction of KA2 with hydrochloric acid
a
=
kJ mol1
y
The entalphy change for the reaction of KA3 with hydrochloric acid
b
=
kJ mol1
z

(d)

Reaction of KA2 with hydrochloric acid:


Na2CO3 + 2HCl

2NaCl + H2O + CO2

Reaction of KA3 with hydrochloric acid:


NaHCO3 + HCl

NaCl + H2O + CO2

(e)

Energy level diagram for the reaction of KA2 and KA3 with hydrochloric acid:

Na2CO3 + 2HCl + H2O + CO2

2NaCl + 2H2O + 2CO2

2NaHCO3 + 2HCl

(f)

The conversion reaction of sodium hydrogen carbonate to sodium carbonate is represented by:
2NaHCO3

Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2

H3

Hence, entalphy change for the conversion reaction of sodium hydrogen carbonate to sodium
carbonate, H3
= ( 2H2 ) H1 kJ mol1
=

kJ mol1