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Experiment No.

02
Aim: Experimental study of time response characteristics of R-L-C second
order system: Validation using simulation.

Apparatus:
Theory:

Function generator, Resistor, Inductor, Capacitor, voltmeters and ammeters.

Standard form of second order closed loop transfer function is

For R-L-C series circuit, by comparing with standard form of second order closed loop transfer
function
= Natural frequency in rad/sec and
The Characteristic equation is

= damping factor.

Roots are

For step input, the output is given by

Depending on the value of the system response changes.

OVERDAMPED SYSTEM
Roots are real, unequal and ve. As the value of increases, output will take more time
to reach steady state value and hence become slow. The sytem is known as
overdamped
CRITICALLY DAMPED SYSTEM

Response is exponential.

Under damped system


Response is oscillatory with decreasing amplitude due to
damped oscillations.
Damped frequency of Oscillations is given by

Such oscillations are called

Undamped system
System response is Purely Oscillatory with Constant frequency and amplitude.
It is the maximum frequency with which output can oscillate.
As =0, system oscillates freely and naturally.
This frequency is called Natural frequency n rad/sec

Procedure:
1)
2)
3)
4)

Connect R, L and C in series.


Give step signal by using function generator.
Observe the output on CRO
Verify the results with simulation on Matlab

Results: Attach print out of output.


Conclusion: