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WwW.MihanDownload.

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.1

.2

10

.3

11

.4 ) (

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)(
The

must have to
.5 ) (

23

.6

26

.7

30

.8

33

To Do .9

36

.10

38

.11 :

Simple future tense

42

.12

44

.13 tell & say

47

.14

48

.15

50

.16

53
3

.17 :

54

.18

55

.19 Future Continuous Tense

58

.20 Sequence of tenses :

61

Used to .21
.22 Question tag

62
66
Avoid Repatition

.23

The additions

.24

.25
.26
.27

CAN

69
71
73

MUST

73

WANT

74

Some &any .28

76

.29

78

.30

82

.31 :

84

possesive forms

.32 Putting two sentences together :

85

.33

86

Reflexive pronouns (self ) .34

87

Here & There .35


it
.36

89
92

.37 16

94

.38

95

.39 ) ( :

100

.40 ) (

106

.41

108

.42

109

.43 adjective

111

The same as .44


.45 adverb

115
118

.46 intensifiers (very, too, enough) :

123

Such .47
.48 too enough

127
129

.49 Other

130

.50 Relative Pronouns

136

.51

141

.52

145
Conditionals

.53
Otherwise .54
Wish .55

146
149
150

.56 if

151

.57 It is time

151

.58

152

IF

Unless .59
Would rather .60
as if as though .61
in Case
) .62 (

153
154
156
157

Both .63
.64 active & passive voice :

158
159








:
.
.

.65 :

170

.66

171

.67 reported speach

172

.68 Indirect speech

173

.


:
.
:

:
:
.69 ) ( gerund

181

.70 to

184

:


.
.
.
.
.


.

.


.
.

.


.

.

.

.
.


.

:
:



1383

enayatpour@ce.uta.edu
. .
http://www-ce.uta.edu/~enayatpour/hmpg/mynotes.htm


.
,MCHE TOEFL
,IELTS
.

10

:
:


IELTS TOEFL

IELTS TOEFL .

. .

:

.

:

.
.

11

+ + + +
:
. .
:

we

you

you

they

he

she

it

: . )(
. )( , to .
to
see

to see I

You see
They see

12

: .
at home

in the class

here at school

there

: .
every other day
on odd days

yesterday

every day

today

on even days

: .
.
:
1
2
3 this that
:
PL
this book
these books

this these

PL
that car
those cars

that those

: .
:

Hassan saw Ali .


Hassan saw him .

13

us

me

You

you

him

)(

her

them

it

our

your

their

my
your

his

her

its

)( : to
ought to .used to
: may

must

should

14

can

:
-1
-2
) (

do does .


?Can you go
I can go

?Can you

?You can

: I we you you ? :

am are

-3 )(
(not) .
: am not may not .
Can not Can ' t
not won' t

will

not mustn' t

must

not Shan' t

Shall

is not isn' t
are not aren' t

15

am not am not
may not may not

4 :
: .
: not not
.

?You cant go cant you go

?You can not go can you not go

was-were
Has-had
Does-did


)To be(am-is-are
Have
Do

can

could

Should

Shall

Would

Will

Might

May

Had to

Must

ought to

16

Used to

need

Dare
Would rather

Had better

:The
) (
I eat apple.
I eat the apple.
I eat the apple which is red.
" " . " "
. . "
" .

:

am-is-are be to have
.

17

must be

am I

can have

have I

You are You can be

you have you can have

He is he must be

They have They can have


We have we can have
She has she can have

Am
Be

Have
to have

Is

Has

are

:
.
1
2 2
3
4
5
6
7 .
8 .
9 .
10 .
11 .

18

:
1. Cant you help me here every day?
2. Mustnt you teach us here every other day at 2 oclock?
3. Am I not bad tempered?
4. Dont they study here every day?
5. Dont you listen to the teacher every day?
6. Can I be polite in class?
7. My father must be kind at home.
8. My sisters may be lazy.
9. Their parents can be here.
10. My father can have lunch.
11. He may have a car


:""
( to) -1
used : )ought to to -2
have has To have ( am-is-are) To be .(to
( have-has am-is-are )
.( have , be)

:
want

pretend

like

refuse

would like

plan

hope

decide

wish

intend

19

be going to

try

hate

promise

dislike

prefer

must : have to
) (

I must go
I have to go


must

) ( have to
has to

: had to must.
: has , have .
I will have my lunch.

She has a book.

have

+
has

: (to) has , have .

have
+ to
has

20

:
(
. 1
. 2
. 3
. 4
. 5

:
1. They want to listen to the teacher every day.
Do they want to listen to the teacher every day?
They dont want to listen to teacher every day.
Dont they want to listen to teacher every day?
2. I must speak English every day.
3. You want to be polite here.
4. He likes to have a car.
5. We decide to be clever this year.
.(
1. They Study engineering ( Plan:)
2. Most students succeed (want)
3. We understand the lesson. (Pretend: )
4. I work hard. (Promise )
5. Most of the people fact/tell the truth. (refuse)
6. You are very successful. (can)
7. They practice sentence patterns (must)
8. Many students ask questions (may)
9. We are polite. (Ought to)
10. I dine with you. (would like)
11. We play football. (prefer)

21

:
1. They Plan to Study engineering
2. Most students want to succeed.
3. We pretend to understand the lesson.
4. I promise to work hard.
5. Most of the people refuse to fact/tell the truth.
6. You can be very successful.
7. They must practice sentence patterns.
8. Many students may ask questions.
May they not ask questions?
May not they ask questions?

9. We ought to be polite.
Ought you to be polite? Are you ought to polite?
You ought not to be polite. You arent ought to polite.
Ought you not to be polite? aren't you ought to polite?
10. I would like to dine with you.
11. We prefer to play football.

22

) (

Simple Present Tense

: .
: to
. ) (it-she-he ) (ies-es-s .

:
-1 s :
He works/she eats/it runs
-2 es

: z,o,x,ch,sh,s es :
Washes/buzzes/watches/fixes/misses/mixes

-3 y y a,e,I,o,u s

.
Plays play
y y y
i es .
Carry carries
Study studies

23

-4 :

every +

each +

) ( during the day during +


) ( every other week every other +

-5 :
ever never always usually often sometimes
They never play golf.
.
-6
The sun sets in the west.

: does ,do .
s ) does : es - ies - doesnt (
: .
He goes to school every day.

24

:
.
-1
-2 2
-3
-4

:
He goes to school every day.
The teacher helps us in the class at 2 oclock on odd days.
My father studies at home on even days.
His father wants to help them here every day

25

1.
2.
3.
4.

Question Words.

.
-1 :

who

-2 :

whom

-3 :

what

-4 :

where

-5

when -

-6

how many

-7

how much

-8

how

-9 what time
-10

how long

-11

how often

-12

whose +

-13 an, a .
-14 + the that ,this ,those ,these +
which.
-15

why

-16

how old

-17

how far

-18

how tall

-19

how fast

-20

what color

26

(wh questions):
-1 . :
Where
When
?do you work

How
Why

What time
How often
How fast

?Can you answer

I can answer

?can you answer

Why

?can you answer

When

?How fast can you answer


-2
.
Where do you go? I know where you go

Why dont they study I know why they dont study



I am sure why he is happy

-3
s es ies .
He works

?Who works

?Whose brother works

27

?Which teacher works

?What kind of student works

:
.
-1 : 2
-2
-3
-4
-5 .

I know where you play football every day at 2 oclock.


I dont know why the students dont study at school.
I am sure why they are tired.
?Do you know whose brother wants to speak English
I am not sure why they are lazy in class.

28

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

have to

: ( have to )
.
-6
-7
-8
-9
-10

:
6. They have to speak English in class.
7. The boy has to be polite in class every day.
Does the boy have to be polite in class every day?
The boy doesnt have to be polite in class every day.
8. The girls have to be here on even days.
Do the girls have to be here on even days?
9. He has to play football every other day.

Does he have to play football every other day?

He doesnt have to play football every other day.

Doesnt he have to play football every other day?

10. Ali has to be happy in class


Does Ali have to be happy in class?

29


: .
: - ----
be +ing

.
subject + to be + verb + ing

be : are,is,am ing
.
: are , is , am .

:
: are,is,am
: ing
:

now
at present
for the time being
at the moment
This morning

30

This year
This week
: :

!hush up
stop

keep

look

listen
be careful

Listen! Someones knocking the door

Look! Someone is coming.


Be careful he is eavesdropping.

:
-1 ing -like-know-understand-want .
-2 y ing y ing .
Playplaying
Studystudying
Carrycarrying
-3 e ing e ing
be e .
Come coming
Take taking
Have having

31

Be being
-4
) (a,e,i,o,u ing ing .
Sit sitting
Put putting
Read reading
-5 ie ing ie y ing .

tie tying

die dying

32

lie lying


: .
: ed ied .
:

:
-1 :

-2 :

see saw

) (:

work worked

)( ed-ied

do did
am , is was
are were
have had
go went
come came
see saw

: did .
: did didnt ed ied

33

-1 ed ied .
-2 :
yesterday last day
the other day

two days ago

in +

)( in 1920
: .

: y y ed
.
play played
stay stayed
say said
pay paid
y y y

i ed ied .
carry carried
study studied
try tried

34

:
.
-1 2
-2 5
-3
-4 1367
-5
-6

:
1-They helped us in the class at 2 oclock yesterday.
2-We saw you in the park at 5 oclock last week.
3- We wanted to go to school the other day.
4-We liked to be polite in the class in 1367 year.
5- We were tired yesterday.
6- The boy was lazy last year.

35

:
To Do
You

did.

Did you do?

He does.

Does he do?

Did he do?

Yes he did.

. -1

You had to go.


Did you have to go?
You didnt have to go

. -2
He has to go.
Does he have to go?

. -3
He had to teach.
Did he have to teach?

. -4
My father was here yesterday.

. -5
Their parents were kind last year.

. -6
36

I was teacher last year.


-7
They were studying when my father came in.
-8
My brother was playing the piano when his teacher rang.

-9 .
Their parents were watching the news when it was raining.
: when

37

:
) (to you
. :
please

will you ( please)

) (

would you

could you

:
ing would you mind +
ing +

do you mind

you you .
to be you arent dont be again .
) ( ) dont go again ( you dont go
) (

) dont be again ( you arent


) (

38

dont (you) ever go (again).

:
.
-1 .
-2 .
-3 .
-4 .
-5 .
-6 .
-7 .

-8 .
-9 .
-10 .
-11 .
-12 .
:

1-Please study here every day.


2-Please write a letter.
3-Would you please speak English.
4-Would you mind listening to the teacher.
5-Please be polite here.
39

6-Please be happy.
7-Dont play football here again.
8-Dont open the door again.
9-Dont write on the black board again.
10-Dont be lazy again.
11-Dont be bad temper again.
12-Dont be rude again.

:
. -1
I work here every day.
I am working here now.

I worked here yesterday.

I was working here yesterday.

Work here every day.

. -2
My father will buy a car tomorrow.
. -3
I will pass in the next year.
. -4

40

They will be here in three weeks.


. -5
We will win soon.
. -6
You will be clever sooner or later.
-7
Ali will study later.

41

Simple future tense :


: .
+ + will / shall +

) (will shall .

:
( will shall
)( tomorrow

tomorrow
soon
sooner or later

three weeks

next +

( a week/ a year/ a month in+

: will shall not


wont shant .
: will shall .

42

unless

if

when

as long as

while

suppose

before

as soon as

after

till
until

to pass

( I ) + before +
( II ) before +
You will pass if you study.
If you study you will pass.
I will call you as soon as I get home.
As soon as I get home , I will call you.

43


) (
that .
)(1

+ + + that + + +
2.

1.

that

2.

1.

I know that you come.

) :(2
that to .
1. 2. 3 to 2. 3

1. 2. 3 that 1. 2. 3

I want you that you go I want you to go

) : (3
that not to .
I want you that you dont go.
I want you not to go.
: not .
)(to go not to go
)(to be or not to be
)(

Not to go
Not to come

44

not to write
) :(4 that to
.
let


I let you go.

I let you that you go. I let you to go


make

I make you that you be. I make you to be I make you be.
see

It helps to prevent

help

hear

watch
observe
feel

have

know

notice

) :(5 that
ing .
go. I see you that you go. I see you going
go. I saw you that you go. I saw you going

45

:
.

-1 .
-2 .
-3 .
-4 .
-5 .
-6 .

1. want you not to play football here.


2. I am happy that you are lazy.
3. They like to speak English.
4. I let you laugh here every day.
5. I saw you studying.
6. I see you listening to the teacher.

46

tell & say

) ( say
said.
) ( ) (
tell told .
)( )( mean meant.

I mean you

: tell say to tell


.

to tell a lie

to tell a story /tale

to tell a fact

to tell a joke

to tell the time

to tell ones name

to tell the fortune

47

to tell the difference


to tell the news
to tell the secret


:
-2

-1

-1 : :

every day

-1 : :
usually

hardly

some times

frequently

rarely

often

always

seldom

generally
scarely

: ever never .
4 .
-1 .
I always go there.

-2 .
.
They are always late.

They can always play.

48

-3
.
?Do you often go there
.
Yes I often do. - I often go there.
-4 .
) 2 )(. do (.

I always do go.
I never did go.

49

:
The ) - ( :

a-an

some

any
She has a pen.

She has some pens


?Dose she have any pen
?Doesnt she have any pen

an , a :
-1 u ) ( ) (a ) (u )(
) (an .

) (a u (an)

50

a university

a used car

an umbrella

an uncle

-2 ) (one ) (a :
A one story building.
A one eyed man.
A one celled animal.
-3 ) (h ) (a ) (h an .
)(

an hour

an honest man

an honor man
a hand

a hen

a hat

) :(1 the - - - .
) :(2 the .
The god, The sun, The earth, The moon, The sky

The :

51

The north

The south

The east

The west

The north pole

The south pole

The .
The bible

The koran

The torah

: made of .
Butter is made of the milk.

) (s The .

The .

The .

The United States of America


The Soviet Union

The Nether land

52

ours

mine

yours

yours

theirs

)(

his

)(

hers

)(

its

it is mine book.

53

book

It is my

:

)(of

the door of the class

the legs of the table


)(s

Alis mother

Alis book

s es ies ) (s ) (, )(s
.

the students parents

) (s .

the childrens parents

) (s .

todays news

tomorrows news

54


. : ( )of -1
One of the students
Five of the chairs
Ten of the cars
: : from -2
Take the knife from the child.
Take the book from the desk.
I work here from morning to / till night.
I walk from here to/till my house.
from here to my house is 2 kilometers.

to be from

to come from


: . : out of -3

I go out of the class.


I pulled him out of the pool.
out of sight , out of mind

my car is out of order

out of the work

out of the practice

55

: through -4 .
.
The river passes through this village.
.
I can see through the glass.
.
Dont look through the pipe.
.
The water passes through the pipe.
: than -5 er
more .
) (

old elder eldest


old older oldest

) ( beautiful more beautiful the most beautiful


My brother is older than me.
: since -6 .
Since you are my friend I want to help you.
.
Since he is a good worker, I want to employ him.
.
: how -7 - .
?How do you know my name
56

How do you know my address?


How do you know my telephone number?
. to buy at -8
. to buy from

I bought the book from Ali.


I bought the book from my father.
I bought the book from my teacher.
I bought the bread at the bakers.
I buy the meat at the butchers

57

Future Continuous Tense

will shall
.

Subject + shall /will + be + V.ing


I shall be working
I will be working
He/she/it will be working
You will be working
We shall be working
We will be working
They will be working
. will shall :
. I, We
I shant be studying. you wont be going swinming.
Shall I be seeing you tomorrow?
Will you be coming here tomorrow?
Shant I be working all day?
Wont they be watching TV tonight ?

: :
: -
.
We will be sitting in the class and studying tomorrow morning.

: -
I will be seeing you tomorrow

.
58

We will be having a test next week

:
all + all day tomorrow
+ This time next session
At 7 oclock next session
At 9 oclock tomorrow/ tonight

:
.
. -1
. -2
. -3
. -4
. -5
1- I had to be sure that that book didnt belong to you.
2- I had to do every thing that he told me.
3- He said that he couldnt help me in this time.
4- I didnt know that you wanted to bother me.
5-He thought that you might not come here.

59

:
.
-1 .
-2 8 .
-3 3 . .
-4 .
-5 .

?1- Will you be working all the day tomorrow


2- What will you be doing at 8 oclock tonight? I am watching TV.
3- I will come at three oclock good!/well! I will be waiting for you.
4- We had better go out because Reza will be playing the piano.
5- Do you think when we get there, they will be waiting for us.

60

Sequence of tenses


. .:
:
-1 .
He said that he had to do whatever his elder brother said.
-2 .
He knew well that he didnt have the right to fire me.

61

Used to

) - -( did
:
He used to smoke a lot.

?Did you use to study here

I didnt use to see him very often.

else where :

someone else :

: Used to .
:

He used to be the dean of high school but he isnt now ,again.
: used to would .
-

62

used to/would
used to

else where :

someone else :

:
-1 .
Whenever I needed some money, I used to/would go to my mother.

-2 .
He used to work else where.


-3
?Did your father use to have a car

.
-4
I used to sleep late, but I get up early now.

-5 .
We used to live another the city.
-6 .
Some one else used to be our teacher.

/ ing / +

To be used to

to get used toto be used to

) ( .

To get used to ) ( .

63

to take a nap :
to do exercises :
or else :

She is used to cats.


She is used to her mother.
She is used to taking a nap after lunch.
ing used
accustomed .
:
.
Some of you arent used to standing in front of the class but dont worry, gradually
you will get used to it.

:
.

-1 .
.
-2
-3 .

64

. -4
. -5
. -6
. -7

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

I Dont smoke so much, or else you will get used to it.


Im not tired at all. Im used to working for hours.
He is used to doing exercises every morning.
At first, we werent used to this teacher but , at last we got used to him.
He is used to take a nap after lunch.
Are you used to living in this area. No I am not (used to living here)
Dont worry, at last you get used to it.
He is used to reading book before sleeping.

65

Question tag

) -
- ( :
-1 not
:
-1
?We must obey the regulations , mustnt we
-2
?He can trust us , cant he
-3
?I believed what you said , didnt I

-2



?She isnt afraid of the dog, is she


?They didnt accuse him of stealing, did they

-
?You dont like to be called stupid, do you
: 1 am not arent I am I not
:
66


?I am faithful to ypu ,arent I
?I am faitful to you, am I not

?I am kind to the children, arent I
: 2
there :

?Money doesnt bring luck, does it

.
?The students are willing to stay more, arent they
.
?Ali reza is waiting outside, isnt he

.
?There is no class today, is there

.
?That book doesnt belong to you, does it

: 3 .
Hardly / Never / Barely / No / Seldom/ None/ Rarely/ Little / Scarcely / Few

:
.

67

Money goes nowhere nowadays, does it?

.
Leyla never tells lise, dose she?

shall we ) ( lets : 4
:

Lets go to tell him every thing , shall we?
Lets study together, shall we?

: tag : 5
Will you- would you- can you- could you
Do me a favor, will you?
Come and see us, will you?
Dont be so stingy, will you?

68

Avoid Repatition

a an
one Any & some . no
none

. ) (

too either .

I want to buy a car.

a/an

)(1
one, too
I want to buy one, too.

I like some cold drink.

Some

)(2
I like some, too.

I dont have any change.

some, too

any

)(3
I dont have any, either.

We have no class today.


)(4
We have none, either.
69

any, either

no

none, either

to know of:
to be willing:
party :

. . -1

I want to buy some fruit , I want to buy some too.

. -2
He has a lot of good friends in this class, I have some too

. -3
I have no time to answer the telephone , he doesnt have any either.

. . -4
I know of a good doctor, I know of one too

. -5
They arent willing to go to that party , either.

70

The additions

_
:

+ so +
+too +
+ neither +
+ either +

:
-1 .
He is in a good mood today, so am I/ I am too.

-2 .
He used to study here, so did his brother/ his brother did too.

-3 .
He doesnt have to work with you, neither do the workers/ the workers dont either.
-4 .
He wont attend the class tomorrow, his friend wont either/ neither will his friend.
-5 .
I thanked him, so did ali.
71

. -6
He didnt say hello to me, neither did his brother.

. -7
He is one of my old friends , so is ali .

. -8
We will have a test next week , so will they.

. -9
I cant understand your words well , neither can he.

72

CAN

can

will be able to .
) ( can will be able to
) ( can can

-1 .
You can come with me tomorrow, provided you ask your fathers permission.

-2 .
My foot hurts painfully, I wont be able to play on the team tomorrow.

MUST


must .
will have to .
) (

must Will have to

) (

73

must Must

-1 ) ( .
You must do what I say, or else I will fire you.

-2 .
If you want to pass in the university enterance examination , you will have to study
hard.

WANT

will want
.
to be going to
.

+ want +

expect

to be going to +

intend

will want +

need

+ Want +

:
.

74

want

I will want my money next week - Im going to buy a car- I want you to pay my
money back.

75

Some &any
some -1 ) ( )
( any .
:
I want to buy some books.

some people say that he is crazy.

.
.

There is some cold water in the jar.

?why didnt you eat any fruit

.
I dont want any of you to fail.

: 1 some.
?You look thirsty , do you want some water

: 2 some any .:
?would you like some more tea

: 3 some .
You should have a good command of english because some day , some student may
ask you some question that you cant answer.
) ( ) (
.

any : 4 .

76

.
What would you like for lunch? Any thing you like.

77

some body

some one

some thing

some where

some place

some every any :


every body

every one

every thing

every where

every place

no some .

no body

no one

no thing

no where

no place

.
some body / every body / nobody / any body works

78

s else
s .
Some body
+ s +
+ elses +

every body
no body
any body

some no
no any .
Somebody knows him.

Nobody knows him.

He knows somebody.

He knows nobody.

He doesnt know anybody.

-1

-2

-3

-4

?Is anybody going to say anything

Nobody told me anything yesterday.

I want every body to understand this matter.

Some bodys brother said some thing else.

79

Some body elses brother said some thing else.


.

-5

We are going to visit some where else.


: some

some body/some one

some people

some thing

some things

some where/some place

some places

: . other : Else

some body else

some other people

some one else

some other people

some thing else

some other things

some where else

some other places

some place else

some other places

. what some
what other people?

80

what other things?

what other places?

:
some body else / some one else

who else?

some thing else

what else?

where else?

some where else/ some place else

: . who elses whose else who else whom else :

-1

What other people are you going to invite for dinner?

-2

-3

-4

-5

Who elses car is outside?

What other things does he know?

Who else liked to come here with you?

Who elses brother knows this matter?

81

this that these those


.

/ s + of + this,that,these,those +
This book of Alis.
This book of mine.
-1

-2

I already know this brother of yours.

?May I borrow those two english books of yours

-3

.
This son of Alis always bothers us.

-4 .
These students of ours like to write more persian sentences.

-5 .
One student of mine wants to know the fact.
-6 .
This teacher of ours sometimes doesnt listen to our words.

-7 .
82

Some of your classmates decide to come here next Friday.


. -8
This elder brother of yours can make friends with that good student or friend of mine.

83

possesive forms

-1
-2
of -3 s
: own -4 .
His father owns a factory.

- .

I used to own a bicycle.

: own .
that is my own car.

?whose car is it

: belong to : .
This fountain pen belongs to me.

?Whom does this fountain pen belong to

84

Putting two sentences together

keep )( ) (
if whether .
.

) ( or not whether ) ( or not
whether .
I want to know if you will come here tomorrow on Friday.
I want to know whether you will come here tomorrow on Friday.
I want to know whether or not you will come here tomorrow on Friday.
I want to know whether you will come here tomorrow on Friday or not.

85


(
) - - ( did
you say . did you say
.
:
?Where are you going

?Where did you say, you are going

? How much money do you have on you

?How much money did you say you have on you

(
do you think
.
:
? Who is he

?Who do you think he is

? How old are you

86

?How old do you think I am

self

-1
.

Reflexive pronouns

ourselves

myself

yourselves

yourself

:

?Why didnt you introduce yourself

.
I think she is crazy, she is talking to herself.

-2 self .

87

:

You told it to me, yourself.
You, yourself told it to me.
.
They invited us themselves.
They themselves invited us.
-3 self by all by
.
: .
My son is old enough to go to school by himself.
: .
He is sitting at the door all by himself and crying.
-4 self ) (
to for .
I take the books with me/ myself
she has some money on her/ herself
close the window behind you/ yourself
she made address for herself
I read the text to myself

88

Here & There


here there .
.

Here
+ +
There

Here
+ +
There
:
) (
) (

Here I am.
Here you are.
Here it is .

) (

There they are.

) (

There are the children

) (

Here comes the bus.

) (

There goes your fathre.

) (

89

Help your self:

) (

you first:

) (

after you:

ladies first:

please be seated:

go on:/ go ahead

who is speaking:

there is there are


.:

.
There is a pen in my pocket , come and take it.

.
When I came in, there were two pens on my desk.
.
There is some cold water in the refrigerator.

90

:
.
-1
-2
-3
-4 .
-5 .
1- I want to know whether you are going to buy or rent the house.
2- Ask him if he can lend you some money.
3- Im not sure whether he will come to the meetting with me or not.
4- He lives in this small home by him self.
5- I wish I could see my self as others see me.

91

it

it
:

-1 :
:
It is hot today.
It is cold today.
.

It was raining.

It is sunny.

-2 :
:
Hurry up ! it is getting late .

.
? 5 2

What time is it ? it is five to two.

What time is it ? it is five to two.


-3 :
:
it is far.

?How far is it from here

it is about 5 miles.

5 .

92

: : -4
.
Who is it at the door? It must be Ali.
: -5

it + is / was / will be + + ( for + ) +

.
It is easy.
It is easy to speak English.
It is easy for you to speak English.
: it -6
That is it

It is a pity :

It pays well/ it is worth it:

Be it so :

take it easy:

it is time:

it makes no difference :
it is no Use/ Good


+ + ing

It isnt up to you

It is none of your business

93

16

1 I take.

2. I am taking.

3. I have taken.

) (
) (

4. I have been taking .

1. I will take.

2. I will be taking.

3. I will have taken.

4. I will have been taking.

1. I would take.

2. I would be taking.

3. I would have been taking.

4. I would have taken.

1. I took.

2. I was taking.

3. I had taken.

4. I had been taking.

94


= along -1 .
= across .

.
I went across the street.
.
I saw him walking along the street yesterday.

.
There is a sandwich shop across the street.

: against -2 .

They voted against us.

It is against regulations.

-3 by
in on
on .
By bus , By taxi , By car , By subway , By plane
) By land , By sea , By air , By train ( rail road
in/on a bus
in the car , in my car
on a bicycle , on a horse

95

inside : outside # inside -4 out side


.

.
It is hotter inside the class than outside.

.
The door is locked from inside.

in # out , into # out of -5


in ) (
into . out # in out of # into
.
:
the student are in class.

come in.

go out.

come into the class.

go out of the class.

.
He jumped into the pool with his clothes on and pulled the drowning boy out of the
pool.

: in .
96

in the room , in the office

in the yard , in the gardan

in the river , in the sea

. in there , here :
Come in here.
Dont smoke in there .

to eat in.
to eat out.
to be in.
to be out.

to let in.

to let out.

to breathe in.
to breathe out.

97

: at -6 ) ( table , desk . :
.
He is sitting at the window and watching out.

.
Sit at your desk and teach.
: in : at
The plane will land in Tehran at Mehrabad airport.

: at : in -
He works at the oil company in accounting department.
: office :
.
Mr Jones is somewhere at the office but not in his office.
: on -7 .
:
.
Dont sit on the floor ! sit on the chair.

: over & above -8


over
above .
under # over below # above .

98

: 1
Where should I write my name? over the line or under it .
. : 2
There are four lights above our heads.
: 3
What is it under your foot

99

) ( :
:
.

:
: A .
For
.

+ +

:
I have known him for two years.

.
5 .

He has had this car for five years.

: B
. ) ( since
.

+ + +

: 2 .
He has been here since two oclock.
100

: .
He hasnt gone to school since last week.

C ) ( .
:
I havent notified them.


:for -1

for +
for two weeks.

for the last/ past +


for the last two weeks.

: since .2

since +
since yesterday

101

since + last +
since last week

: since / since then/ever since -3


.
He left for England two weeks ago and I havent heard from him since/ since then/
ever since.

.4

+ since + ( I )
it is + + since + ( II )

.( II) since ( I)

. :
It has been three months since we started this term.
It is three months since we started this term.

102

:
.
-1 .
-2 .
-3 .
-4 .
-5 .

1- He has been very upset since his friend died.


2- We have studied English for two terms but we cant speak.
3- He hasnt eaten anything since morning.
4- He has taught mathematics in this school for three years.
5- He has been here for an hour and a half.
: recently- lately .5 p.p .
:
.
He has recently / lately bought a new car.

- - - p.p
: ever-never .6 -
ever never .

103

: .
? Have you ever been to England
No, I havent ever been to England.
No, I have never been to England.

.7
.
So far
by now
up to now
up till now
up to the present time.

I have reviewed this lesson twice so far.

: already .8 p.p
.
: .
We are late , the bell has already gone/ rung.

: just .9 - - p.p .
:
.
I have just finished my work.

104

: yet .10
not not .
:

? Have you notified them yet
.
No, I havent notified them yet.
No, I have not yet notified them.
- :
: yet .11
dont do that yet.

dont tell them anything yet.

: still .12 - - -
.

: still anymore/ any longer .


:
I used to study English.
Do you still study English.
No , I dont study English anymore/any longer.

105

) (
: .
:
: A
for
.

:A

+ +

+ For +

: 1 .
I had known him for two years.
: 2 / .
He hadnt eaten anything for three days when we took him to the doctor.

: B ) (
.
.
: 1/
He said ( that ) he had notified you before.
: 2/ .
I thought ( that ) you had understood every thing.

106

: .
:

Subject + had + past participle

+ when/before +

I had gone when/ before you came in

+ after +

I come in after you had gone.

+ since +

You had gone since I had arrived. .


.
I had taken no examination since I had failed.

107